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Table of Contents i. Units of Measure ii. Introduction iii. A Brief History of Drill Bits 1.

Basic types of bits Overview basic description, usage, advantages and disadvantages A. Roller Cone oil & gas drilling a. Insert bits b. Tooth bits c. IADC Nomenclature Code B. Fixed Cutter a. PDC b. Natural Diamond c. TSP d. Impregnated e. IADC Nomenclature Code C. Other bits a. BiCenter b. Coring c. Mining d. Hammer bits e. Coring bits Applications A. Key factors related to bit selection a. Formation (i) Types (ii) Strengths (iii) Consistency (iv) Regional differences in drilling b. Hydraulics calculations and optimization (i) ROP (ii) Cost per foot calculations (iii) Breakeven calculations c. Well Profile (i) Vertical (ii) Directional (iii) Horizontal B. Factors effecting bit performance a. RPM b. Weight on bit c. Types of drilling fluids (i) Air or mist drilling (ii) Oil base mud (iii) Water base mud d. BHA design e. Vibrations (i) Axial

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(ii) Lateral (iii) Torsional (iv) Slip stick & Bit whirl C. Environmental factors/Government regulations

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Roller Cone Bit Design A. Bit Frame a. Journal angle b. Skew or Offset c. Cone profile d. Unique bit frames one cone and two cone bits, etc. B. Bearing Systems a. Roller Bearing b. Journal Bearing c. Retention systems d. Lubricants e. Pressure compensation systems f. WOB and RPM factors g. Unique bearing systems C. Hydraulics a. Nozzles b. Center jets c. Hydraulic horsepower d. Jet impact force e. Flow rate f. Optimization D. Tooth Bits a. Hardmetal systems b. Tooth design c. Gauge features d. Unique technology E. Insert Bits a. Insert material b. Insert shapes c. Insert placement d. Cone profile and design e. Gauge features f. Unique technology Fixed Cutter Bit Design A. Tip Profile B. Cutters a. Manufacturing process b. Non-planar interface C. Cutting Structure a. Number of blades b. Number of cutters c. Rake angle d. Body material e. Stability

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f. Steerability g. Gauge designs D. Hydraulics a. Nozzles b. Ports E. Unique technology 5. BiCenter Bit Design A. Applications and Benefits B. Nomenclature C. Design Concepts a. 3 circles of concern (i) Pass-through (ii) Drill size (iii) Max tool size D. Hydraulics a. Nozzles b. Ports c. Optimization E. Drilling out Emerging Technologies and Impact on Bit Selection A. Rotary Steerable Drilling B. Motor Steerable Systems C. Hole opening a. On-demand b. Mechanical c. Eccentric Dull Bit Grading A. Importance of dull bit grading B. IADC Dull Bit Code a. Explanation of codes b. How to dull grade bits C. Keys to successful dull bit grading a. Know what the sharp bit looks like b. Know what is considered normal dull conditions for the application c. Sequence of events d. Paint a mental picture of the dull e. Consistency D. References IADC/SPE Paper numbers Dull Bit Analysis A. Importance of dull bit analysis B. Understanding failure mechanism C. Describing dull characteristics D. Identifying possible causes E. Establish failure sequenceSelect preventative measures

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Optimizing Bit Performance

A. Applying dull analysis B. Proper bit selection selecting the next bit a. Offset bit records b. Benchmarking C. Analytical tools available to monitor bit performance D. Mitigating vibration E. Proper bit break-in F. Unique technologies G. Troubleshooting 10. Field Operating Procedures A. Break-in procedures and running of Fixed Cutter Bits B. Break-in procedures and running of Roller Cone Bits C. Break-in procedures and running of Bi-Center Bits D. Break-in procedures and running of Coring Bits E. Drilling out procedures F. Special applications 11. Illustrations and Figures 12. Index

P.Neal Revised 9/19/06