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Version 1: December 2008




BUILDING MAINTENANCE TERMINOLOGIES 1.1 Building Maintenance Terms 1.1 Types of Maintenance 1.2 Nature of Maintenance 1.2 Maintenance Needs


CAUSES AND AGENTS OF DETERIORATION OF BUILDINGS 1.2 Common Factors of Deterioration 1.3 Causes and Agents of deterioration


DIAGNOSIS AND INVESTIGATION 1.1 Diagnosis Terminology 1.2 Need for Building Diagnosis 1.3 Process of Investigation. 1.2 Remedial Measures Recommendation.


FOUNDATIONS DEFECTS 2.1 Causes of Foundation Defects.


FOUDATIONS (ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIAL MEASURES) 2.3 Assessment of Foundation Defects. 2.3 Procedure for Reporting Damage 2.3 Damage classification. 2.4 Remedial Measures.


UNDERPINNING AND SHORING 2.4 Underpinning. 2.4 Underpinning Procedure. 2.4 Shoring.


WALLS 3.1 Brickwall/Blockwall 3.2 Causes of Defects in Brickwall/Blockwall.


WALLS (Contd.) 3.3 Remedial Actions for Wall Defects. 3.3 Repairs to Brickwall/blockwall. 3.3 Repair to Cracks.


CONCRETE DEFECTS 3.1 Factors Affecting Concrete Durability 3.2 Types and Causes of Concrete Defects. 3.3 Repairs of Concrete Structures.


STONE WORK. 3.1 Requirement of Building Stones. 3.2 Causes and Defects in Stonework. 3.3 Repairs of Stonework. 3.3 Clearing of Stonework.


TIMBER AND TIMBER ROOF DEFECTS 4.1 Defects in Timber 4.2 Defects in Timber Roofs. 4.3 Timber Roof Remedial Measures.


PAINTING DEFECTS 4.0 Defects in Paintwork.


DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS 4.4 Causes of Dampness. 4.4 Remedial Measures.


SITE VISIT Students Report.


TECHNOLOGY OF MAINTENANCE 4.6 Technology of Maintenance 4.6 Terotechnology 4.6 Role of Maintenance.


INTRODUCTION Building maintenance technology essentially deals with the study of the occurrence of building defects and the remedies which such defects would require. The maintenance of the built environment affects everyone continually, for it is on the state of our homes, offices and factories that we depend not only for our comfort, but for our economic survival. Maintenance starts the day the Builder leaves the site. Design, materials, workmanship, function, use and their interrelationship, will determine the amount of maintenance required during the lifetime of the building. Effective building maintenance requires the correct diagnosis of defects, and implementation of the correct remedial measures, all based on sound technical knowledge. It is highly desirable but hardly feasible to produce buildings that are maintenance free, although much can be done at design stage to reduce the amount of subsequent maintenance work. Understanding some basic terms and concepts used in maintenance is necessary in order to learn maintenance technology. BS3811 defines maintenance as work undertaken in order to keep or restore every facility i.e. every part of the site, building and contents to an acceptable standard. It went further to define it as the combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.

(1.1)Building Maintenance Terms In order that maintenance activities are carried out efficiently, various forms of management have developed:Property management is an economic service designed to create the greatest possible net return from a land and its buildings, taken over their remaining economic life. Maintenance management involves the organising of resources to deal with the problems of maintenance: Building maintenance technology essentially deals with the study of occurrence of building defects and remedies which defects would require. It involves the application of the principles of physical sciences to the process of determining the effects on building performance. Building maintenance management involves describing how a system of maintenance effort could be organised to deal with the problems of building maintenance as a whole. Aside from

locating and rectifying defects, an effective programme to curb maintenance costs must start with the design of the building itself. This must justify itself, not only in terms of minimising cost of maintenance, but also in maximizing the benefit of the investment. This means that financial consideration and techniques play a vital role.

(1.1)Types of maintenance

BS3811 subdivides maintenance into planned and unplanned. Planned Maintenance: Planned preventive maintenance is work directed to the prevention of failure of facility carried out within the expected life of the facility to ensure its continued operation. Planned corrective maintenance is work performed to restore a facility to operation or to an acceptable standard. Predictable maintenance is regular periodic work that may be necessary to retain the performance characteristics of a product as well as that required to replace or repair the product after it has achieved a useful life span. Unplanned Maintenance: Unpredictable maintenance is work resulting from unforeseen breakdowns or damage due to external causes Avoidable maintenance is work required to rectify failures caused by incorrect design, incorrect installation or the use of faulty materials.

(1.2)Nature of Maintenance

Proper maintenance of buildings covers many aspects of work which may be divided into four categories. Servicing This is essentially a cleaning operation. The frequency of cleaning varies and is sometimes called day day maintenance e.g. floors are swept daily, windows washed monthly and painting done every 3-5 years. As more sophisticated equipment is introduced so more complicated service schedules become necessary. Rectification work Usually occurs fairly early in life of the building because of design shortcomings, inherent fault in use of materials or faulty construction. These short comings often affect the performance of the component. Rectification represents a point at which to reduce the

cost of maintenance, because it is avoidable. All that is necessary is to ensure that components and materials are suitable for their purpose and are correctly installed. Replacement Service conditions cause materials to decay and there is need to consider replacement. Much replacement work stems not so much from physical breakdown of the materials or element as from deterioration of appearance. The frequency of replacement could often be reduced by the use of better quality materials and components. Renovation or Modernisation This is concerned with alteration, addition and enhancement to existing buildings, on both small and large scale. It also includes all work designed either to expand the capacity of a facility or to enable the facility to perform some new functions.

(1.2)Maintenance Needs

Main purposes of maintenance of buildings are:Retaining value of investment Maintaining the building in a condition in which it continues to fulfil its functions. Presenting a good appearance.

Self Assess Questions

1) Discuss the persons that should be held responsible for causing avoidable maintenance in not more than one page. 2) Identify the role the house owner or occupant plays in the maintenance of his property in not more two paragraphs 3) State three reasons why we need maintenance?


INTRODUCTION A building must meet various requirements and withstand the rigours of climate, and at the same time it is expected to last for many years, preferable with minimal maintenance. Consideration must be given at every stage of the building process of ways of reducing the incidence of defects and prolong the durability of the building.Understanding the causes and agents of deterioration in buildings, is quite necessary to reduce the incidence of defects.

(1.2)Common Factors of Deterioration There are a number of factors that lead to maintenance growth, they include:-

a)Ageing Stock of Buildings more expenditure is expected for maintenance because of the ageing of the building especially in developed countries.

b)Obsolescence of Buildings upgrading needed to buildings to prevent their obsolescence. This is because developments face keen competitions to attract new tenants or to retain existing ones.

c)Advent of New Technologies Changes and modification to existing buildings are required to meet new demands. Such changes are likely to be carried out by renovation or retrofitting of existing buildings.

d)Rising Social Expectation and Aspiration - The natural increase in aspirations and purchasing power will expand the market for higher standards of both maintenance and retrofitting work, already particularly evident in residential premises.

e)New Legal Developments This imposes an increased burden on building owners to maintain and keep their premises safe. These developments will push for higher standards and a greater degree of professionalism and thoroughness in the execution of maintenance work.

f)Environmental Issues protective measures against pollution, erosion, etc.

In order to understand the causes and agents of deterioration and defects in buildings, consideration must be given to every stage of building process.

(1.2)Causes and Agents of Deterioration

Design Deficiencies Many of the subsequent maintenance problems are directly attributed to decisions made at the design stage of the building. These decisions can be broadly classified into several categories:-

a)Approach to Design Many maintenance problems arise where design is sound in principle but has a low probability of satisfactory achievement in practice. Some designers fail to realise that their design can be too complex for site condition and can present problems of buildability. The designer must be fully aware of the clients needs. Defects often occur because of a lack of understanding of how a building is to be used. Inadequacies and faults also result from the owners and designers attempt to provide too much with insufficient money

b)Selection or Choice of Materials Many materials are satisfactory in some conditions but not in others. The choice of design details in relation to the materials to be used and in relation to the proposed use of the building and its environment is the factor most affecting the risk of defect or failures. The designer must either design to suit the materials available or for a required design, choose materials which may be expected to perform satisfactorily with that design in the given environment. It is also necessary to consider the likely behaviour of combinations of different material in use, for there are many examples of such combinations which give rise to problems that arise from chemical interaction or differential involvement.

c)Environmental Factors. The factors arising from above ground condition will usually include climate, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric pollution and exposure conditions. Below ground factors will include

nature of soil, drainage and site stability. Hence sunlight, wind, rainfall, temperatures and atmospheric humidity have profound effects upon the durability of materials and their behaviour.

d)Building Shape and Form. Building maintenance consumes a large proportion of material resources. Attention should be paid to designing buildings which will cut down maintenance expenditure in the future. The influence of building shape and form on maintenance expenditure in profound.

e)Orientation of Building The orientation or arrangement of the axis of a building is a way of controlling the effects of the sun, wind and rain. The building may be orientated to capture the heat of the sun or conversely it may be turned to evade the solar heat in the tropics. Orientation may also be used to control air flow circulation and reduce the disadvantages of wind, rain and snow when prevailing currents are predictable.

f)Design and Maintainability Designers often give too much emphasis to aesthetics at the expense of maintainability. There must be continuous interaction between consultants and maintenance managers in the initial planning as well as in the final design of the building.

Construction Faults Inadequate supervision and the substitution of poor materials, components or fixing could lead to deterioration of buildings. In view of this there is need for stringent control of the work on the site as well as the materials used for the construction.

a)Control of Works on Site Careful supervision of building work at all stages is necessary to complement good designs, specification and detailing by the designers. b)Control of Materials Materials used in buildings must normally be purchased according to the specification or to be similar to an agreed sample. Materials which do not comply with the specification should be rejected.

c)Lack of Maintenance

The clients brief for a new building often determines the long-term maintenance needs of the building. The brief should indicate performance requirements and possible changes in use, as well as future policy for operating, cleaning and maintaining the building. Designers should provide advice to the client on maintenance matters. Users of the building should also show serious commitment toward maintenance.

d)Change of Use of Building Buildings are normally designed for a specific use. During design stage the designers will make provision for that use only. Problems arise when alteration of change of use by the owners or users occur without the designers being consulted before hand.

e)Vandalism Vandalism is caused by wilful damage to the building or structure. Other factors also increase the incidence of the vandalism, lack of security, wrong choice of materials, poor space layout, poor lighting arrangement etc. Any act of vandalism will affect the aesthetic appearance of the material or component. The end result in higher maintenance costs.

Weathering Agents a)Solar Radiation Solar radiation is received at the surface of the earth directly and as diffused long-wave radiation. Solar radiation affects building materials is two ways: i)Chemical effect of visible and infrared radiation will speed up the rate of deterioration carried by other agents. ii)Dimensional change in material that occurs when solar radiation is absorbed when it strikes a material. b)Moisture Moisture is the principal agent of deterioration and is probably also the agent with the greatest influence on the properties of materials. In many cases, moisture is a prerequisite for physical, chemical or biological reactions to take place.

c)Wind Wind can cause direct damage by the removal of part of a building. It can cause dampness by driving moisture into or through a building fabric and excessive heat losses from the interior of a building by uncontrolled air changes.

d)Driving Rain The effect of driving rain is that the vertical surfaces facing the wind receive rainwater at an angle. Constructional details could be used to minimise its deteriorating effect.

e)Atmospheric Gases. In the presence of moisture, these gases contribute to the formation of acids that attack certain materials; such gases include sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone.

Chemical Agents a)Corrosion Atmospheric corrosion mean an oxidation process where metal combines with oxygen in the air to form rust. The process is usually accompanied by expansion of the metal which can affect adjacent materials.

b)Sulphate Attack In persistently damp condition, sulphates will react slowly with tri-calcium aluminates (a constituent of Portland cement and hydraulic lime) which causes the cement render or mortar to expand and eventually disintegrate.

c)Crystallisation of Salt. Soluble salts may be present initially in certain building materials or may be conveyed into them by movement of moisture from the ground or adjoining materials. When moisture gets into a material and evaporates from the surface, the concentration of the salt in solution increases until it crystallises out. It could cause surface disfiguring.

Biological Agents Attack by rodents, insects, fungi, algae and plants may cause serious deterioration in various parts of a building.

Mechanical Agents

Mechanical agents are those which tend to impose a physical force on building. They can be static and permanent such as ground pressure or dynamic such as wind and vibrations.

Self Assess Questions

1. Identify three causes of deterioration peculiar to buildings in industrial areas. 2. In not more than a page and a half discuss how design deficiencies increase maintenance? 3. How can negligence/ignorance of the builder increase maintenance needs? Discuss this in not more than a page. 4. With the aid of five pictures show the role of weathering agents in the deterioration of building works.


INTRODUCTION There is need to understand why and how defects occur, what the implications are and what remedial measures are necessary to restore, maintain or extend the usefulness and safety of buildings. Out of this need has arisen a discipline described as building diagnostics.

(1.1)Diagnosis Terminology

Building Diagnostic Building diagnostic involves a process in which relevant experts investigate the existing condition of a building, carryout the necessary tests, evaluate the data collected, make recommendation professionally, and predict the future performance of the building. The process makes use of a variety of techniques, ranging from visual inspection to sophisticated instrumentation. It is obvious that building diagnostics involves experts from a wide range of disciplines.

(1.2)Need for Building Diagnosis During the life of a building, there will be many occasions when the physical condition of the building may have deteriorated thus affecting its continued use. The building owner should know when such occasions occur so that relevant experts may be called to arrest the problems in time. Diagnostic assessment will be required under the following circumstances:-

a)Persistent Defects: Persistent defects such as cracks and deformations which appear to worsen progressively or become widespread may need thorough diagnostic assessment to determine the causes.

b) Ageing Structure: It is advisable that old buildings be checked periodically to determine the presence and effects of hidden defects such as decreasing concrete strength or corrosion of steel reinforcement.

c) Change of Use or Rehabilitation: A diagnostic assessment should be considered to examine the suitability of the new usage and the extent of rehabilitation work required.

d) Sale of Property: A diagnostic assessment should be considered to know the condition of the building, disclose to the purchaser the defects and their rectification and subsequently give financial institutions a basis for arriving at a value for loans.

e) Post-Crisis Assessment: After severe crises such as fire an assessment is necessary to ascertain the structural stability and safety of buildings.

(1.2)Process of Investigation A plan of action has to be drawn up to make sure that the investigation process progresses without unnecessary inconvenience to occupant of the building and the process entails several steps: a) Preliminaries: Documentation survey on maintenance records, design and as-built drawings, specifications etc.

b) Visual Inspection: On-site investigation relying mainly on sight, hearing, touch and smell. Additional information may be obtained by conducting interviews with occupants and maintenance personnel. Visual inspection is essential as it may lead to selection of other methods of investigation.

c) Testing and Monitoring: Techniques which include non destructive semi destructive tests, destructive tests and chemical and physical analysis of materials.

d) Exploratory Works: Include the techniques of removing obstructions to facilitate a closer inspection of hidden parts of a building.

(1.2)Remedial Measure Recommendation Making recommendations is a very difficult task as there are many alternatives in repair work. Remedial work chosen may belong to one of three general categories:-

a) Patching Up: Very popular because of lower costs involved, but should always be regarded as a temporary measure.

b)Replacement of Parts: First consideration to give a permanent repair.

c)Complete Renewal: Most economic solution for buildings for longer life.

Self Assess Questions

1. Identify four tests that are carried out during maintenance operations 2. Mention four reasons for the need for building diagnosis. 3. Identify a scenario where each of the three remedial works could be applied.


INTRODUCTION The most expensive building repair bills are often incurred with foundation failures. The soil that support the foundation is bound to be disturbed during construction and with the increased loading some movement and settlement must be expected. Soil conditions have an important influence on foundation design and the subsequent behaviour of buildings. Therefore prior to designing foundation, it is necessary to identify the soils characteristics present on the site.

(2.1)Causes of Foundation Defects The extent of foundation movement depends on the nature of the soil and the amount of imposed loads. Thus a good foundation design must take into consideration not only the type of structure to be supported but also the soil conditions.

a)Movement of Soils i)Clay Soils: clays, which shrink on drying and swell again when welted, are commonly responsible for the movement of shallow foundations. The shrinking when drying is accompanied by an increase in bearing strength, while the swelling when wet reduces its bearing strength(Fig 4.1).

Fig 4.1. Cracking associated with shallow foundations on shrinkable clay.

ii)Sandy Soils: Dense beds of sand form excellent foundation soils, but underground water can wash out the finer particles, leaving coarser material in a less stable condition. Much of the bearing capacity of the sand may be lost in such circumstances (Fig 4.2).

Fig 4.2. Washing out of fine sand particles by underground water.

Fig 4.3. Settlement caused by consolidation of soil.

iii)Organic Soils in Made-up Ground: Peats and other soils which contain a high proportion of organic matter from decaying vegetation vary greatly in volume as their water content changes. These soils are highly compressible so that they can even settle readily under their own weight, therefore the bearing capacities of such soils are poor and they should not be used for construction purposes unless deep foundation passing through the fill can be designed and provided economically(Fig 4.3).

iv)Swallow Holes in Lime Stones:- In chalk or lime stone areas, cavities in the bedrock can form by the action of subterranean streams dissolving the rock away. When the overburden

collapses into a cavity, a swallow hole is formed at the surface, causing serious damage to the buildings above or near to the site(Fig 4.4).

Fig 4.4. Formation of Swallow Hole in limestone.

b)Other Movements

i)Effects of Vegetation: The extraction of moisture by tree roots in shrinkable clay will cause the soil to shrink. If this shrinkage takes place under the foundation there is a tendency for it to settle thus affecting the stability of the building (Fig 4.5).

ii)Slopes and Excavations: Clay soils on slopes exceeding 1 in 10 are likely to move down hill slowly, which may be subject to creep and this could result in heavy pressure on walls.

Fig 4.5. Cracking arising from drying action of tree roots

iii) Vibration and Sudden Shocks: Vibration may be caused by traffic or machinery and if these vibrations are prolonged and intense they can affect the foundation of older buildings causing them to settle gradually. An explosion can generate sudden shocks which can affect the stability of the building structure and ground support(Fig 4.6).

Fig 4.6. Effects of vibration and sudden shocks

iv)Mining Subsidence: Buildings above mine tunnels can suffer deformation as the ground subsides over the workings. Initially the buildings tend to tilt but subsequently the tilt decreases and the settlement increases as the ground below is affected(Plate 4.1).

Plate.4.1. Effects of mining subsidence.

v)Differential Settlement: When settlement is uniform over the whole area of the building, it is very unlikely to cause any damage to the superstructure. Damage is usually the result of what is known as differential settlement in which one side of the building subsides more than another, leading to cracks and stresses in the superstructure(Fig 4.8 & Fig 4.9)

Fig 4.8 Settlement at the ends of a wall

Fig 4.9 Sagging under the centre section

Self Assess Questions:

1. Identify the common causes of failures of foundation under the following scenario: a. Sandy desert area like Sokoto b. Marshy rainy area like Bayelsa 2. Identify five things that reveal foundation failures of a building.


INTRODUCTION Most failure in foundation manifests in walls as cracks. These cracks could be in tension, compression or shear and they may be of varying width sizes and direction. In order to arrive at a correct remedial action to be taken, an assessment and classification of the defect must be carried out.

(2.3)Assessment of Foundation Defects The assessment of any defect in foundation involves identifying the form of the superstructure, the substructure as well as the soil, and the determination how well they behave in combination. According to BS 5930, investigation should follow these guidelines: Visual inspection of the building taking note of any cracking and distortion. Examination of old building plans Examination of the geology, topography and water level records of the area, including nearby trees. Exposure of the substructure by trial pits and boreholes to assess ground conditions.

(2.3)Procedure for Reporting Damage a)Determine position and direction of cracks b)Distinguish where possible between tensile cracks, compressive cracks and shear cracks. c)Determine approximate age of cracks by interviewing occupants. d)Estimate the magnitude of any distortion or movement of the building, i.e. tilting, bulging or sloping. e)Record any impediment to serviceability e.g. jammed door or windows, breakdown of services etc. f)Report condition of the walls and finishes.

(2.3)Damage Classification Damage can be classified as failures that affect: Aesthetic appearance of the building Service ability of certain parts of the building which result in fracturing of service pipes, jamming of doors and windows and breakdown of services in the building.

Stability of the building and require extensive repairs to foundations.

(2.4)Remedial Measures Remedial measures are generally difficult and expensive. Generally the remedial measure recommended for foundation failures is to underpin the whole external walls. However in clay soils, where damage is not severe or the building is old, it may be adequate to reduce further movements by surrounding the building with a relatively impervious apron of precast slabs or in site concrete to a with of 1.50m. The remedial action for effect of vegetation takes two forms, where trees have not reached maturity it is good practice to cut them down and kill the stump, as the ground under the building will slowly swell during the wet season, and tend to lift the building and partially close the cracks. If the trees have reached maturity and the building is fairly old, it is unlikely that further movements will occur. In this situation it would be best to leave the trees in position and merely fill up the cracks in the building. Repairs to cracks in walls will depend on the magnitude of the cracks. It ranges from hairline cracks which are negligible to very severe cracks which involve partial or complete rebuilding. Hairline cracks of less than 1mm wide can be easily camouflaged by normal redecoration or filled with cement shinny. Minor cracks which is rectified by chiseling and filling with concrete/mortar as required. Major cracks which require extensive and expensive repair methods such as chiseling blockworrk, introduction of rods and ties and filling. It may also involve stabilizing the foundation.

Case Study Problem

Go round your campus and take at least six pictures of different cracks that may be as a result of foundation failures and write a report using the format above.


INTRODUCTION Underpinning is a highly skilled operation and should be undertaken by experienced firms. No one is like the other and each must be given individual consideration for the most economical and safest scheme to be worked out. It is also generally necessary to provide extensive support through shoring to buildings while excavating close to their foundations or while underpinning their foundations.

(2.4)Underpinning Underpinning a structure is required: a) To support a structure which is sinking or tilting due to ground subsidence or instability of the superstructure. b) As a safe guard against possible settlement of a structure when excavating close to or below its foundation level. c) To enable the foundation to be deepened for structural reasons, e.g. to construct a basement beneath a building. d) To increase the width of a foundation to permit heavier loads to be carried, e.g. increasing the storey height of a building. e) To enable a building to be moved bodily to a new site.

Before any underpinning work is commenced the building should be carefully examined and any urgent repairs carried out. It is important to carry out a soil investigation to determine allowable bearing pressures for the new foundation. It is also important to recognize the true cause of settlement and if underpinning is necessary to arrest settlement, underpinned foundation should be taken down to relatively unyielding ground below the zone of subsidence. The structure to be underpinned should first be supported with shores.

(2.4) Underpinning Procedure. 1. Excavate rectangular pits or legs at intervals beneath the existing foundation. 2. Pits are then filled with concrete or brickwork up to the underside of the existing foundation. 3. After, intervening legs are excavated and the concrete or brickwork constructed within them to bond on to the brickwork already in place.

4. Maximum length of wall which can be left unsupported above each leg is usually 1.2 to 1.5m of normal construction. 5. The unsupported length should be equally distributed over the length of the wall. 6. The sum of the unsupported lengths should not exceed one-quarter of the total length of the structure. 7. Legs should be dealt with in groups of six in the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6(Fig 6.1).

Fig. 6.1. Underpinning.

8. If the wall is heavily loaded or shows signs of structural weakness, the unsupported length at any given point should not exceed one-fifth to one-sixth of its total length. 9. Concrete should be placed as quickly as possible after completion of excavation in each leg. 10. Blockwork or brickwork can be used to fill the spacing between the top of the underpinning concrete and the underside of the existing foundation. 11. When excavating each hole or leg sufficient space is allowed in front of the wall to provide adequate working space. 12. No earth faces should be left unsupported overnight.

Other methods of underpinning also exists which could be employed for cases where this traditional method (Fig 6.2) is not well suited.

Fig.6.2. Traditional methods of underpinning strip foundations

(2.4) Shoring Shoring is needed to give temporary support to walls and floors during alteration, demolition or underpinning (Fig 6.3) or where a building has become unsafe. Shoring of a structure is required:a) To support a structure which is sinking or tilting due to ground subsidence or instability of superstructure. b) As a safeguard against possible settlement of a structure when excavating close to and below its foundation level. c)To support a structure while making alterations to its foundation or main supporting of timber and there are three


Fig. 6.3 Shoring

Dead Shores: The purpose of dead shores is to support dead and superimposed loads of a building, mainly while alteration and repair work is in progress. Dead shores are vertical struts bearing on the ground at the required distance away from the wall to be clear of underpinning operations and surmounted by a horizontal beam or needle spanning between the pair of shores. They must be securely braced together and provided with a firm bearing. If the ground has a low bearing capacity, a mat or grillage should be provided (Fig 6.4).

Fig. 6.4 Dead shore Raking Shores: Raking shores may be used to provide temporary support to a wall which has become defective and unsafe, or as a precautionary measure while alteration work is being undertaken. The arrangement of the shores will depend on the height of the building, loads to be carried, extent of openings and space available adjacent to the building. The angle of the shores with the ground is generally between 45 to 75 degree (Fig 6.5).

Fig. 6.5 Raking shore Flying Shores: Flying shores are used to provide support between buildings, where an intervening building has been demolished, or across a narrow street or alley. Flying shores can be used where the feet of raking shores obstruct construction operations. The use of this type of shore is restricted to spans of 4.50 to 10.5m at spacing of 2.5 to Because flying shores do not bear on the ground, they cannot carry the weight of a wall; they merely provide restraint against bulging and tilting (Fig 6.6).

Fig. 6.6 Flying shore.

Self Assess Questions: 1. In two paragraphs, discuss hazards associated with underpinning and shoring. 2. Identify the major differences between the various types of shores.

INTRODUCTION A wall is a vertical structure forming an inside or an outside surface of a building, usually built of stone, wood, plaster or brick, which acts as a boundary or keeps something in or out. Walls suffer particularly from the following defects: Inability to support imposed loads, resulting in distortion or cracking Inability to keep out the weather Inability to insulate from cold with resultant condensation Deterioration

The defects that occur in walls may be as a result of inherent faults, deficiencies in production, design, materials or workmanship, and attack by environmental agents.

(3.1) Brickwall/Blockwall The majority of bricks in general use are made of clay, however, other materials like sandlime, flintlime, concrete, etc, can also be used to make bricks.

(3.2) Causes of Defects in Brickwall/Blockwall Brickwork/blockwork defects arise in a variety of ways but the general causes of defects in brickwork are: a) Production: these are inherent defects in the bricks/blocks during production and after but before they are being used for the brickwork. The bricks may have defects in size, shape, appearance, body and storage (Fig 7.1). b) Mortar: the mortar for jointing should be of the quality to achieve workability, water retentivity, strength, bond, durability and good appearance and texture. Mortal should be of the same strength and consistency as the mix used for producing the blocks

Fig. 7.1. Production defects

. c) Efflorescence: Efflorescence on brickwork can be seen as a white or whitish deposit of salts on the exposed surfaces of the bricks; especially new brickwork. Efflorescence is caused by the migration of salts from the interior to the surface of the bricks/blocks. Any absorbed water drying out in the bricks will leave the salts behind. It can occur on internal as well as external surface causing damage to decorations. External efflorescence although unsightly is rarely a serious problem because the salts are washed away by rain. Internal efflorescence is usually more troublesome as the plaster could be pushed off the walls. Therefore, where efflorescence can be expected, decorative treatments on walls should not be applied hastily(Plate 7.1).

d) Stains: These may be white like efflorescence, but do not disappear when the brickwork/blockwork is washed by rain. These stains are due to calcium hydroxide produced during hydration of Portland cement reacting with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to form calcium carbonate, an insoluble while crystalline solid. This will form a disfiguring stain on the brickwork/blockwork.

Plate 7.1. Effect of efflorescence on blockwork/brickwork

e) Impurities: The presence of lime nodules, vegetable matter, unoxidised carbon materials, and other foreign matter or materials due to faulty screening during production of bricks/blocks may cause spalling in the case of facing bricks or disintegration of plaster.

f) Sulphate Attack: Sulphate attack on walls is the result of the reaction of tri calcium calumniate present in all ordinary Portland cements with sulphates in solution. This can cause considerable expansion, disintegration of mortar joints and distortion of wall. g) Moisture Movement: Excessive expansion and contraction due to moisture content can produce shrinkable cracks (Plate 7.2).

Plate 7.2. Moisture movement in blockwork/brickwork

h) Thermal Movement: vertical and horizontal movements occur in brickwork/blockwork due to the effect of heat which may or may not be reversible resulting in cracks(Plate 7.3).

Plate 7.3. Thermal movement in blockwork/brickwork.

i) Bulging, Buckling and Spreading:- Bulging and buckling of walls may be caused by the outward spreading of external walls, either vertically between ground level and the roof or horizontally between the walls(Plate 7.4 & 7.5). The main causes of these problems are:1. Vibration from machinery, plant or traffic. 2. Overloading of the structure i.e. increased loads on floors or adding more structures. 3. High slenderness ratio which is inadequate thickness in relation to height. 4. Lack of cross ties between the outer wall structures. This defect takes the form of a gap between the wall and the floor. Spreading, however, occurs at roof level when the roof sags.

Plate 7.4. Buckling in blockwork/brickwork

Plate 7.5. Bulging in blockwork/brickwork

j)Ground Movement or Settlement: Normal slight overall settlement of a building should not affect the brickwork. However, differential settlement often resulting in cracked walls may occur where there are sudden changes in ground conditions over the site or where there is inadequately consolidated fill under foundations. Settlement cracks are usually diagonal and often appear at door and window opening, these being the weakest parts of the wall. k)Atmospheric Impurities:- Dust particles in contact with bricks and moisture from weak acids. This causes deterioration of brick surface, which allow surface erosion. l)Lichen, Moulds and Other Growths:- These organisms are rarely destructive but they do produce disfiguring stains on brickwork/blockwall and other wall surfaces. Climbing and other

plants growing on walls can cause damage to walls but much depends on the condition of the wall and the extent to which the growth of the plants is controlled(Plates 7.6 & 7.7).

Plate 7.6. Mould growths in blockwork/brickwork

Plate 7.7. Lichen growths in blockwork/brickwork

Self Assess Questions:

1. Identify five causes of deterioration on bricks/blockwork that are likely to cause cracks. 2. Classify the causes of deterioration of brick/blockwork under the following headings: Inherent faults. Deficiencies in production. Design Workmanship Materials. Attack by environmental agents.

INTRODUCTION It is not always easy to judge from appearance how serious a defect is likely to affect the strength and stability of a structure. Generally if walls are not too distorted or too out of alignment, it may be taken that the damage may not be too serious, therefore when the damage is not sufficient to affect the structural stability, the repairs can be carried out easily, but if it does, it should be demolished to avoid disaster.

(3.3) Remedial Actions for Wall Defects

(3.3) Repairs to Brickwork/Blockwork a) Production Defects:- It is very important to inspect, select and store bricks/blocks appropriately before use to avoid defect that are caused by production and storage. In any defect noticed after use, it is advisable to chisel out the portion and replaster.

b) Mortar: It is important to use an appropriate mortar, properly batched, and adequately mixed, using the same mix throughout and taking adequate precautions.

c) Efflorescence: Efflorescence is normally washed away by rain/water and no special treatment is needed. To accelerate removal, the brickwork/blockwork can be dry brushed periodically until the soluble salts cease to crystalline. Precautionary measure should be taken before use to ensure that the mix of materials is free from soluble salts.

d) Stains: The normal remedy for stains is as follows: 1. Thoroughly wet the brickwork/blockwork with clean water 2. Carefully brush on diluted hydrochloric acid 3. When stains have dissolved, thoroughly wash wall with clean water. 4. After removal of stains, flashings should be provided to prevent further percolation and staining.

e) Sulphate Attack: In minor cases, affected brickwork/blockwork should be dried out and moisture excluded as far as practicable. In severe cases rebuilding parts of the structure is

necessary and it is essential to use materials suited to the conditions such as sulphate resisting cement.

f) Moisture Movement: Most of this defect occur early in the life of the building and are unlikely to be progressive. It is necessary to use appropriate damp proofing materials and where defect is noticed, the wall should be wind dried and the drainage around the structure improved.

g) Thermal Movement: Provision should be made for maximum thermal movement, after rectifying the damage which is usually cracks.

h) Atmospheric Impurities: The surface dirt can be removed by washing. In addition, all defective bricks should be cut out, the wall rebuilt and then repointed.

i) Lichens, Moulds and Other Growths: Such growths can be prevented or destroyed by applying some toxic washes during a dry spell after partially removing any thick surface growths. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the porosity of the surface and the extent which it is washed by rain.

(3.3)Repair to Cracks Cracking of wall usually indicate failure or defective construction. It is unsightly and unacceptable to the occupants. Cracking often result in air infiltration, heat loss and reduced sound insulation, all of which cause a reduction in the efficiency of the building. Cracks could run more or less diagonally, following horizontal and vertical mortar joints or pass straight down through vertical joints and the intervening bricks/blocks and mortar beds.

Fine cracks of up to 1.5mm wide in joints are usually best left unfilled as they are unlikely to be harmful. Wider cracks (1.5-3.5mm wide) will generally require repair. The procedure will involve raking or cutting out the joints squarely to a depth of about 15mm and repoint with mortar.

With cracks passing through bricks and mortar, cut out and rebound, using a mortar similar to that in the existing wall.

Cracks of similar appearance can be due to different causes. When examining cracks care should be taken to record precisely the direction of the cracks, whether or not they extend through the wall and whether they taper off in any direction.

Case Study Problem 1. Visit a block industry, a building construction site and an abandoned construction site. Observe any defects and proffer solutions for each. Use pictures to buttress your observation.


INTRODUCTION Concrete by nature, is a non uniform, non isotropic structural material consisting of aggregate particle air voids and moisture. Variation in production and subsequent attack by its environment means that concrete is not totally immune to defect although it is generally a durable and maintenance free material. There is therefore a need for regular inspection of all reinforced concrete structure so that any deterioration can be detected at its early stages, and a decision taken on remedial works.

(3.1) Factor Affecting Concrete Durability These could be classified into: a) Faulty design which includes wrong mix proportion, inadequate joint provision e.g. expansion joints and under design of the concrete elements such as inadequate reinforcement. b) Inferior materials which is caused by use of partially hydrated cement, contaminated water or aggregates.

c) Poor construction practice which is caused by faulty formwork, improper placing causing segregation and inadequate curing causing shrinkage cracks. It could also arise from inadequate vibration and misplacement of steel.

d) Abuse of structure such as acts of vandalism, lack of maintenance and change of use of the structure.

e) Environmental effects caused by thermal movement, moisture movement, freezing and thawing or surface erosion of the concrete structure.

f) Chemical aggression which includes sulphate attack, acid attack, leaching of lime etc.

g) Physical aggression such as abrasion, erosion, cavitations etc.

( 3.2)Types and Causes of Concrete Defects Concrete buildings are subject to movement due to compression of foundation, shrinkage of concrete, thermal movement, variable loading and wind pressure. Defects of reinforced concrete member can take the form of surface cracks which are influenced by the effective concrete cover to the steel reinforcement, and internal cracking where the member is subject to bending. Some important conclusions that may be obtained from a well executed visual inspection of concrete structure include the following:-

i) Spalling of concrete indicates corrosion of steel reinforcement. If spalling occurs in spite of adequate cover, the concrete is likely to be porous and weak (Plate 9.1).

Plate 9.1. Spalling defect in concrete floors

ii) When spalling occurs in flat roof and bathrooms and is accompany by damp and wet patches, it is likely water penetration is the cause of problem (Plate 9.2).

iii)Vertical and diagonal cracks in beams indicate that the beams may be overstressed in flexure or shear respectively, either the beams are under-designed or applied loads are higher than those assumed in design.

iv) Vertical cracks in columns indicate a high level of compressive stress in the members which tend to split vertically under the lateral bursting pressure and weaken the confining links. v) Random cracking in floors indicates shrinkage on concrete and lack of movement joints (Plate 9.3).

Plate 9.2. Spalling defect in concrete in flat roof

Plate 9.3. Random Cracks in Floors

vi) Diagonal cracks along walls and at beam ends indicate differential settlement of foundations, in the case of beams; the diagonal cracks are concentrated towards one end of the beam.

(3.3) Repairs of Concrete Structures Having established the causes of the defect by careful diagnosis the next step should be to consider the requirement of the repair method. The selection of the correct method and material for a particular application requires careful consideration, whether to meet special requirement for placing, strength durability or other short or long term properties. The first step in the repair process is to cut away all loose or deteriorated concrete until the sound concrete core is reached. Cutting back should be at right angle to the external surfaces. All exposed reinforcement must be thoroughly cleaned. The formwork must be designed so that the concrete will fill it completely and there must be adequate access for compaction purposes. The method used to place the concrete are usually similar to those used in new work, except the quantities are smaller. Before any crack is repaired it is necessary to determine its cause so that the correct method of repair can be decided. If the cause of the crack is unlikely to reoccur it may be filled with a rigid material. But if it is caused by movement that is likely to continue, then any attempt to seal the crack may cause a new crack to appear along side the old one.

Self Assess Questions

1. In the section under causes and effects of concrete defects, identify the causes and effects for each point. 2. What precautionary measures need to be put in place during the repairs of concrete structures? Discuss in a page.


INTRODUCTION Building stones are generally limestone, sandstones, or granite. They are used generally as wall cladding and facing materials.

(3.1)Requirements of Building Stones a) Strength:- Building stones should normally be of adequate strength to carry imposed load especially at lintels and when used for civil engineering work.

b) Moisture Resistance: - Building stones hardly absorb water but sandstones may absorb up to 20 percent and are subject to appreciable moisture movement. Penetration of damp is also unlikely except at window mullions or jambs and at sills, copings etc (Plate 10.1).

c) Compatibility: - Damage can result from the use of different types of stones in direct contact with one another.

d) Durability:- The durability of stonework is influenced by the stones chemical composition and structure and its performance.

Plate 10.1. Decayed stonework

(3.2) Causes and Defects in Stonework a) Continuous wetting and drying of stones by rains and sun causes internal stresses leading to disintegration of stones.

b) Dissolved acids or atmospheric gases in rain water react with the constituent of stones causing its disintegration.

c) Consequent increase in volume due to frost action causes the stones to disintegrate.

d) Abrasive effect of the dust particles caused by dusty winds lead to deterioration of the stones.

e) Atmospheric impurities react with stones containing carbonate of lime resulting in their deterioration.

f) Building materials used for laying stones sometimes react chemically with the constituent of stone, causing the stones to disintegrate.

g) Differential thermal stresses between its surface and mass may lead to fatigue which may cause scaling and spalling.

h) If stones having different physical characteristics are used together then they may cause mutual decay.

i) Deterioration also occurred due to roots of trees penetrating the joints of masonry thereby keeping the stones damp which causes deterioration.

(3.3)Repairs of Stonework Some form of chemical treatment may be applied to stonework to keep it dry. However it should be noted that although the treatment may improve the impermeability of the stonework, to moisture penetration, it can also drastically affect the appearance of the stone. In the entire repair of stonework, attention must be paid to cracks, bulges or signs of settlement. Accurate diagnosis is important and requires careful observations and measurements. Repair of stone work involves one or more of the following operations:i) Stitching of cracks caused by structural movements

ii) Grouting of cracks not likely to worsen in condition iii) Re-pointing of mortar joints to improve appearance, and reduce water penetration. iv) Cutting defective stones and replacing them with compatible ones from similar sources. v) Metal anchorages should be replaced by bronze and stainless steel ones to avoid or stop corrosion vi) Redressing of stonework where original surface has eroded. vii) Creepers and other plants should be removed carefully with a weed-killer which does not have adverse effects on the stone work.

(3.3) Cleaning of Stonework Most buildings are cleaned regularly for aesthetic reasons. The choice of cleaning techniques may depend largely on the type and condition of the surface, cost, speed and convenience to occupants of the building. The main method commonly used as follows:-

a) Washing or Water Spraying: This is washing away the accumulated dirt from the surface with a water spray and brushes. It is cheap and least harmful but is also the slowest. This method is not effective when stubborn dirt has been formed over a long period.

b) Dry-grit Blasting: Abrasive grit is blown under pressure at the surfaces to remove the dirt. Three sizes of the nozzle are used according to the demands of the job. It could be quite dusty.

c) Wet-grit Blasting: Similar to the previous method except that water is introduced into the air/grit stream, thereby reducing the visible dust. It is less harsh on surface, but it generates slurry which can be troublesome.

d) Mechanical Cleaning: uses conical carborundum stones, grinding and polishing discs, and rotary brushes attached to power tools. Special precautions and great skill is needed to avoid causing damage. Very fast method, useful with hard stones but the cost is high.

e) Chemical Cleaning: Makes use of hydro-fluoric acid as it leaves no soluble salts in the stonework. Could be quite dangerous and caution should be taken to prevent contamination. It is a fast method at relatively low cost for use with harder stones(Plate 10.2).

Plate 10.2. Effect of chemical cleaning on stonework

f) Steam Cleaning: Uses mains water pumped to a boiler and the steam generated is played on to the stone surface assisted by brushes and abrasive stones (Plate 10.3).

Plate 10.3. Steam cleaning machine

Self Assess Questions

1. Find out from occupants of buildings with stonework the popular methods of cleaning. 2. Analyze all the methods of stonework cleaning and recommend one for Nigeria giving our peculiarities.


INTRODUCTION The strength and usefulness of timber can be affected by a wide variety of defects, some of which can occur during natural growth, others during seasoning or manufacture, while others result from attack by fungi and insects.

(4.1) Defects in Timber a) Natural defects occur during the growth of the tree and include the following: i) Knots: parts of a branch which becomes enclosed within the growing trunk (Plate 11.1 & 11.2). They affect the strength of the timber as they cause a deviation of the grain and may leave a hole. ii) Shakes: Separation of fibres along the grain owning to stresses developing in the tree. They affect the strength of the timber by reducing the cross-sectional area (Plate 11.3).

b) Conversion Defects: This is due basically to unsound practice in cutting or attempts to economize during conversion of the timber.

Plate 11.1 Knots in a piece furniture

Plate 11.2 Knots on plank of timber

Plate 11.3 Effect of shakes in timber

c) Seasoning Defects: these defects are directly caused by the movement which occurs in timber due to changes in moisture content. These defects are mostly irreversible. i) Checks: longitudinal separation of the fibres which does not extend throughout the whole cross-section of the wood.

ii) Warp: Distortion in converted timber which causes a departure from its original (Fig 11.1).

Fig 11.1 Effect of warp in timber

iii) Collapse: Condition which may occur during the early stages of seasoning when wet timber shrinks unevenly and/or excessively(Plate 11.4).

Plate 11.4. Collapse in timber

d) Fungal attack: Fungi are the chief cause of decay of timber. Their development is dependent on moisture, oxygen and cellulose in the timber and the absence of any one of these prevents decay. Fungal attacks can be caused by either dry rot or wet rot.

i) Dry Rot: Active when particularly seasoned wood is fixed in a warm, damp and poorly ventilated position (Plate 11.5).

Plate 11.5. Effect of dry rots in timber

ii) Wet Rot: Active in timber which is excessively wet whether located in the interior or exterior of a building (Plate 11.6).

Plate 11.6. Effect of wet rots in timber

e) Insect Attack: Beetles of different kinds infect timber because the organic nature of the material is favorable to its life cycle of hatching, growing and emerging.

f) Termite Attack: Termites are found mainly in the tropics. They are classified into two:i) Dry wood termites that confine themselves entirely within the timber and need no contact with the ground. They may fly into buildings or carried there in previously infested timber ii) Subterranean or soil termites are more widespread and need to maintain contact with the ground. They cause destruction by constructing tubes or covered gullies in the soil over intervening plaster or concrete.

(4.2) Defects in Timber Roofs a) Pitched Roofs: Roof timbers may be affected by i) Wet rot resulting from leaks in the roof covering or condensation. ii) Dry rot due to confined unventilated roof spaces. iii) Insect attack caused by power-post beetle particularly in damp conditions iv) Construction defects caused by poor workmanship and the use of poor materials which mostly lead to sagging.

b) Flat Roofs: Timber and other board materials show considerable movements under changing moisture content, thereby inducing high stresses

(4.3)Timber Roof Remedial Measures Defective areas affected by fungi or insect attack may either be replaced by new ones or splicing old to new where necessary. In case where defect is not severe, it is possible to treat the affected timber and strengthen it with timber or steel members bolted to it. To control or reduce both forms of attack, all timbers for roof construction should be properly and adequately treated with preservation. Where a roof has sagged or through insufficient ties has forced walls out of plumb, it may not be feasible to force the structure back into its original position. In extreme cases reconstruction will be necessary. Vapour barriers need to be provided to protect against water vapour.

Self Assess Questions

1. In two paragraphs each, discuss how natural and seasoning defects in timber can possibly be reduced. 2. Visit a timber shed and identify with the aid of pictures the defects commonly noticed in the available wood.


INTRODUCTON Paints are widely used today as a surface coating to protect, preserve and decorate many materials such as timber, steel and plaster. Painting enhances the appearance of buildings and in many cases also protects materials which would otherwise deteriorate. The maximum durability of a paint is only achieved when the surface has been carefully prepared. The manner and circumstances by which the paint is applied will also influence the performance of the paint system. Such factors as weather conditions at the time of painting, the standard of care taken during painting application and the actual method of applying the paint are also very important.

(4.0) Defects in Paintwork: The common defects associated with paintwork can be categorized as follows: a) Defects Due to Poor Workmanship: i) Crazing and cracking: The elasticity of oil-based films diminishes as oxidation proceeds with ageing. The loss of elasticity is caused by application of drying paint over a soft undercoat and application over contaminated surfaces. The effects are cracking of paint film extending through the entire paint system, crazing which allows shallow breaks in the paint system or alligatoring which is a term used for pronounced wide cracks over the entire surface. Prevention includes using compatible paint systems and allowing the primer or undercoat to dry properly/rubbing down and redecorating will remove slight crazing. In more serious cases however, the existing paint must be stripped and the full paint system properly applied.

ii) Curtaining: This defect occurs when very thick coatings fail to dry flat. The causes are uneven application or heavy application over the wet edge. Prevention lies in the use of good painting techniques and practice. Remedial measures include sanding down the dry film and recoating.

iii) Grinning: This is the ability of paint to hide the surface which depends on the thickness of the film, the type of pigment used, and its absorption and reflectance characteristics. Grinning can be due to one or more of the following reasons: Over thinning of the paint

Applying paint too thinly or unevenly and covering too wide an area. Pigment content of the paint is too low Drastic colour change with too few coats Knots in timber not properly treated. Preventive measures involve the use of reliable materials and good workmanship in the application. Remedial measure is to apply more coats of paint over the entire surface evenly.

iv) Drying problems: The paints remains soft for a long time after application which may be caused by: Too thick a coat being applied Use of unsuitable thinners Applying under wrong climate conditions Presence of oil, grease or wax on the surface. The remedy is to scrape off existing film, clean the surface thoroughly and the re-apply a new coat of paint evenly. Care should be taken to ventilate the painted work. v) Sinkage: This term refers to the wet paint being absorbed into the surface which is caused by surface porosity. To prevent this problem, it may be necessary to apply more coats of sealer or undercoats to the surface before the finishing coats. vi) Painting Faults: Poor painting techniques or the failure to take care during the painting process can result in other faults: Holidays or misses in the coating resulting from working under poor lighting conditions, undercoat of similar colour to the top coat, or careless application. Lifting which is some disturbance of the previous coat resulting from the use of too strong solvents for the new coat. It can also occur when previous coat is not dry when new coat is applied. Pimpling usually on a sprayed paint film, due to wrong air pressure used, paint not properly mixed, wrong thinner used, or spraying to close or too far away from the surface. To rectify these problems another coat can simply be applied to the surface or a complete rubbing down or removal of paint film and repainting.

b) Defects Due to Discolouration of Paints. The discolouration of a paint film can occur gradually over several months or even years. The most common causes are: i) Chalking: This is the condition of a paint surface which, having lost most of its gloss, is coated with a white powder. Generally, chalking appears on whites and light tints, and is the result of photochemical breakdown of the surface layer. The main causes of chalking are: The use of unsuitable pigments Ageing of paint film Repeated condensation on the film followed by drying out. A good washing will remove the deposits and restore the gloss or colour. However, in more serious cases, it is necessary to remove and apply the full paint system.

ii) Bleeding: This is the discolouration of the paint film by some ingredient of the coating or surface below. The remedy is to use a specially formulated sealer or aluminium paint.

iii) Loss of gloss: Gloss in the degree to which a painted surface reflects light. The follow are the common causes of loss of gloss Materials to be painted are highly absorbent, such as new plaster or wood where sealing is essential to prevent sinkage. Poor application of paint Excessively rough surface Painting in damp and foggy conditions

iv) Mould or algae growth:- Paintwork affected by these organisms develop various coloured spots, patches or stains in black, red, green or brown. Prevention of this defect is to ensure that the surface is clean and not infested with growth prior to painting. The remedy in mild attacks is to scrub the organisms off. In serious cases, the old paintwork is stripped off, the wall is then treated with a fungicidal wash, allowed to dry and redecorated with a special fungicidal paint.

c) Defects Due to Chemical Attack. i) To control the problem of efflorescence it is necessary to remove all the salts by brushing and washing, and to avoid if possible the use of water-thinned paints. ii) Saponification:- The alkalinity of lime plasters, cement rendered surfaces and concrete results in the breakdown of oil-based paints by saponification. The degree of the breakdown depends on the strength of the alkali present and the duration of wet conditions to maintain the activity of the alkali. Where the attack is severe, the film should be removed preferably by scraping, allow the surface to dry out thoroughly and then seal the surface by the application of an alkali-resisting plaster before repainting.

d) Defects Due to Loss of Adhesion i) Blistering:- Blistering is due to the liquids or gasses trapped in or underneath the paint film. This causes loss of adhesion of the paint film which with expansion, blows up the film as blisters. ii) Brittleness and flaking;- These result from internal stresses set up in the film during the initial contact when drying. The main causes of brittleness and flaking are: Use of an excessively short drying oil medium. Absorption of moisture resulting in swelling and loss of adhesion. Painting over a loose surface Presence of moisture on the surface will impair adhesion of the film. The remedial measure is to completely remove all the defective paintwork and the repaint.

Self Assess Questions

1. Go through the text and pick all the human factors that cause paint deterioration. Suggest how this could be minimized. 2. Observe buildings in your institution and detect paint failures. State the possible causes and their remedial measures.


INTRODUCTION Dampness is one of the most serious defects in buildings. Apart from causing deterioration by disintegration of the structure (Plate12.2), it can also result in damage to furnishings and contents as stains and fungal growth (Plate12.3) and can in severe cases adversely affect the health of occupants. Good design measures are essential to keep the moisture out of building, but when these measures are inadequate, dampness can enter the building materials to cause their deterioration.

(4.4) Causes of Dampness a) Water introduced during construction: During bricklaying and plastering, tones of water are introduced into the walls. The wall remains damp until a hot season has passed.

b) Penetration of water through roofs, parapets and chimneys: roof may admit fine rain particularly in exposed situation. Roofs must be laid to an adequate pitch, securely fixed and with a generous overhang at eaves to present such penetration. Parapets and chimneys can collect and deliver water to parts of the building below roof level unless they have adequate damp-proof courses and flashings.

c) Penetration of water through walls: penetration occurs most commonly through walls exposed to the prevailing wet wind or where evaporation is retarded. Sometimes the fault may be from a leaking gutter or down pipe. (Plate 12.1)

Plate 12.1. Moisture penetration through walls

d) Penetration of water through broken/decayed plumbing pipes placed in walls could also cause dampness

e) Rising damp: moisture from the ground rising in a porous wall may be caused by:i)Absence of damp-proof courses. Fig 12.1

Fig 12.1 Absence of dpc

ii)Bridging of damp-proof course internally by floor screed laid which is not keyed to the d.p.c. in the wall (Fig 12.2) or external rendering (Fig 12.3) which is liable to crack, and allow moisture to rise.

Fig 12.2 solid floor bridging dpc

Fig 12.3 Bridging of dpc by External rendering

iii)Bridging by earth deposited against the outside of a wall (Fig 12.4)

Fig 12.4 Bridging by earth iv)Bridging caused by mortar dropping and other debris in cavity walls (Fig 12.5)

Fig 12.5 Bridging by mortar droppings

Plate 12.2 disintegration of plaster

Plate 12.3 stains and fungal growth

(4.4) Remedial Measures a) Rising damp: cheap and easy measures can be taken in some instances. These include lowering the earth or paving which extend above the damp-proof course or to remove rendering or pointing which bridges the d.p.c. however in case of lack or defective d.p.c, more expensive methods are adopted. i) Physical insertion of damp-proof courses ii) Electro-Osmotic process iii) Installation of siphons iv) Chemical injections

b) Rain water penetration: It may be necessary to rectify defective damp-proof courses around window and door openings. A one brick thick solid wall is unlikely to withstand severe weather conditions satisfactory and it may be necessary to apply a suitable external finish. The most common external finish is rendering or roughcast.

Self Assess Questions

1. Identify three locations in buildings that are likely to surfer from dampness, stating their causes. 2. Suggest the most appropriate solutions to question (1) above.


INTRODUCTION After 13 weeks of learning the theoretical aspect of maintenance technology, it is necessary to visit real life sites to observe practically, structures that need different forms of maintenance and those undergoing maintenance actions. Site visit Students are taken to identified sites to observe various failures in buildings: a) Foundation failures. b) Wall defects c) Defects in roofs d) Dampness in buildings e) Painting defects

Students Report Students are expected to write a comprehensive report on their observations to cover: Causes of defects Picture/sketches of observed defects Schedule of dilapidation Recommendation towards preventing future occurrences.

The report will take the following format:Preliminaries Main report- background Conclusion Case study Analysis

The format of the schedule of dilapidation is shown below






Bill item description





Fig 5.1 Format of schedule of dilapidation


INTRODUCTION The technology of maintenance is concerned with all the factors that influence and cause the need for maintenance work.

(4.6) Technology of Maintenance Occurrence of defects in the fabric of a building can result from many unrelated decision and action. In order to understand technology of maintenance, the following must be discussed:a)Design decision b)Maintenance at design stage c) Materials d)Assessment of exposure e)Climate f)Atmospheric pollution g)Durability

(4.6) Terotechnology The term terotechnology has been used to embrace the life cycle requirements of physical assets. It is a combination of management, financial engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic life cycle costs. It is concerned with the:a) Specification and design for reliability b) Ease of maintenance of plant, machinery, equipment, building and structure with their installations. c) Commissioning d) Modification and replacement e) Feed back.

The standard of maintenance achieved has an important influence on the quality of the built environment and there seem little doubt that society will continue to expect higher standards in new and existing buildings. There is a need to improve the methods of managing and executing building maintenance. Maintenance budgets should be clear and well reasoned and supported by full information. Feedback from occupier to designer should be improved in order to assemble

information on both the preference of the user, and the performance of materials, components and constructional methods. There is a general lack of essential basic data. Design teams frequently neglect consideration of maintenance aspects and there is a great need to reduce the gap between design and maintenance. Decision making in building maintenance could be assisted by the application of operational research techniques. Consequently for many years to come, maintenance will remain a significant and important part of the work of the construction industry.

(4.6) Role of Maintenance The performance of any building can be affected by decisions taken and actions performed at any stage of a building project, from its initial conception to its final demolition. This reflects the importance of maintenance throughout the life of a building. A skilful design can reduce the amount of maintenance and also make it easier to carry out the work. Decisions at the design stage include selection of materials, forms of construction, orientation of the building and user requirements.

The construction stage requires a high level of supervision to ensure good standards of materials and workmanship as well as correct detailing and specification.

Maintenance is needed throughout the entire period that the building remains in use or occupation so that the various facilities are kept to an acceptable standard. The amount of necessary building maintenance work could be reduced by improved methods of designs, specification and construction. Effective maintenance management embraces many skills. These include the technical knowledge and experience necessary to identify maintenance needs and to specify the right remedies, an understanding of modern techniques of management, knowledge of property and contract law, and an appreciation of sociology.

Self Assess Questions

1. Briefly explain seven considerations the designer must take to minimize maintenance at the design stage in two pages. 2. On a page discuss the importance of maintenance throughout the life of a building.