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Lani Chung Mr. Nakamura Biology Period 3B 28 March 2013 Spring Break Reading Assignment: Human Health and Physiology I. Nerves, Hormones, and Homeostasis (6.5) A. Organization of the human nervous system 1. Central nervous system (CNS) consists of brain and spinal cord which get sensory information via receptors and processes it. a. Sensory neurons give info to CNS and motor neurons give info to muscles in motor response. b. Sensory and motor neurons make up peripheral nerves. 2. Neuron: Individual cell that quickly carries electrical impulse from one point in body to another. Group of neurons is a nerve.

3. Peripheral nerves consist of spinal and cranial nerves: a. Spinal: 31 pairs (left and right) emerge from spinal cord; some are sensory and some motor. b. Cranial: 12 pairs come from brainstem. (i.e. optic nerve pair that carries info from retina to brain. B. Example of typical nervous system pathway (form of electrical impulse called action potential): You touch someones arm accidentally and quickly remove your hand. 1. Stimulation & Interpretation: Touch caused pressure receptor to begin action potential (nerve impulse). Touch interpretation occurs in brain when neuron chain takes impulse toward CNS. Sensory info reaches spinal cord by a spinal nerve pair. Sensory neurons stretch from receptors to spinal cord. When action potential reaches spinal cord it is sent to CNS for interpretation. When action potential is in spinal cord/brain, its carried by relay neurons. 2. Response: Pathway for the action potential begins in brains relay neurons and is passed down spinal cord and out along a spinal nerve pair. The action potential is now on motor neuron pathway that takes impulse to muscle. Spinal nerve contains sensory and motor neurons. Neurons can only carry action potential in one direction. When action potential reaches muscle, motor neuron sends chemical signal to muscle that causes contraction. Junction where neuron sends chemical signal to muscle tissue is called motor end plate. C. What is a nerve impulse? 1. Like electricity, nerve impulse is measured in volts (typically millivolts).

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2. Individual neurons can carry action potential. The conductor of neuron impulse is the axon. Axons can be very long and can have a surrounding membranous structure called the myelin sheath in organisms with developed nervous systems. a. Myelin sheaths increase rate at which action potential passes down axon. Axon without a myelin sheath is called non-myelinated neuron. D. Resting Potential: State of being where area of neuron is ready to send action potential. The area is said to be polarized. 1. Is characterized by active transport of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) in two different directions. Sodium ions are transported out of axon cell to intercellular fluid and potassium ions are transported into cytoplasm. 2. In cytoplasm there are permanently located negatively charged organic ions which lead to net positive charge outside axon membrane and net negative inside. E. Action Potential: Self-propagating wave of ion movements in and out of neuron membrane. 1. Ion movement consists of ions diffusing from outside to inside of the axon and inside to outside. of

2. Resting potential needs active transport (protein channels and ATP) to make concentration gradient sodium and potassium ions. Since sodium are actively transported to outside, they Soon after, channel opens for K+ ions and they diffuse out of axon.

diffuse in when channel opens.

a. The diffusion of Na+ ions in and K+ ions out is the action potential. It is very quick and is called depolarization. This area then initiates next area of axon to open up sodium channels, then potassium and thus the action potential continues down the axon. This is a self-propagating part of action potential as when you start an impulse at the dendrite end of a neuron, the action potential will selfpropagate itself to far axon-end of cell. F. Return to the resting potential 1. Neurons can quickly send many action potentials but requires that sodium and potassium ions are restored to positions characteristics of action potential first. a. Active transport is needed to pump these 2 ions to resting potential position which is called repolarization. b. Time it takes for neuron to send action potential and repolarize is called refractory period. G. Synaptic transmission: How neurons communicate with each other 1. Sensory pathway is unidirectional because neurons are lined up so terminal end of axon of one neuron adjoins dendrites of the next. (1st neuron called presynaptic and 2nd called postsynaptic) a. Chemical connection called synapse occurs between neurons. There are many different patterns (i.e. one-to-one communication between pre and post, or one pre can form synapse with many post neurons.) H. The mechanism of synaptic transmission 1. At far end of axons are swollen membranous areas called terminal buttons which have small vesicles filled with neurotransmitter (any chemical used for synaptic transmission like acetylcholine in humans). 2. When action potential reaches terminal buttons:

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a. Calcium ions (Ca2+) diffuse into terminal buttons. b. Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and release neurotransmitter. c. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic gap from pre to post neuron. d. Neurotransmitter binds with receptor protein on post neuron membrane. e. Binding results in ion channel opening and sodium ions diffuse in. f. Initiates action potential to move down post neuron because its depolarized. g. Neurotransmitter is degraded (broken up into fragments) by specific enzymes and is released from receptor protein. h. Ion channel closes. i. Neurotransmitter fragments diffuse back across synaptic gap for reassembly in terminal button.

I. Homeostasis: Staying within certain limits for many physiological variables such as blood pH, CO2 concentration, blood glucose concentration, body temperature (37 degrees C/98.6 degrees F), and water balance within tissues. 1. Each variable has expected value/set point considered normal for homeostasis. Fluctuation may occur but there are mechanisms that help regulate homeostasis. a. Physiological changes that bring value back near set point are negative feedback mechanisms. 2. Nervous and endocrine systems work together to ensure homeostasis. Many homeostatic mechanisms initiated by nervous system are controlled by autonomic nervous system. The endocrine system has many glands that produce many hormones that are transported via blood from gland to specific cells. J. Homeostatic control of body temperature 1. Hypothalamus is biological thermostat that senses temperature change. a. If you are hot, it receives info from thermo-receptors in skin and activates cooling mechanisms like increased sweat gland activity that allow evaporative cooling effect of perspiration and dilation of arterioles in skins that fills skin capillaries with blood and allows heat loss by radiation. b. If cold, it activates warming mechanisms like constricting skin arterioles to divert blood to deeper organs and tissues to lose less heat by radiation and stimulating skeletal muscle to shiver to generate body heat. K. Blood glucose level (concentration of glucose dissolved in blood plasma) must stay close to a set point. 1. Glucose is absorbed by bloodstream in capillary beds of villi in small intestine which increases blood glucose level and depleted through cell respiration causing fluctuation. 2. In intestinal villi, glucose is routed through many capillaries, small venules, and veins into the hepatic portal vein that takes blood to the liver.

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a. Hepatic portal vein is only major blood vessel with large blood glucose level fluctuations. All other vessels receive blood acted on by hepatocytes (liver cells). 3. Hepatocytes are directed by two hormones called insulin and glucagon (both made in pancreas) that are antagonistic or have opposite effects on blood glucose concentration. L. What happens when blood glucose level goes above the set point? 1. In pancreas there are beta cells that make insulin which is secreted and absorbed into blood. Since all body cells chemically communicated with blood, they are all exposed to insulin which opens the protein channels in the plasma membranes of cells, allowing glucose diffusion into cells by facilitated diffusion. 2. When blood with high glucose enters liver through hepatic portal vein, insulin stimulates hepatocytes to take in glucose and make glycogen (polysaccharide) which is stored as granules in cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The same effect occurs in muscles. M. What happens when blood glucose level goes below a set point? 1. If blood glucose drops, the body needs to use glycogen made and stored in liver and muscle cells. To do this, alpha cells of the pancreas secretes glucagon which circulated in bloodstream and stimulated hydrolysis of the granules of glycogen stored in hepatocytes and muscle cells, creating glucose that enters bloodstream.

N. Diabetes: Disease characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). 1. Type I is caused when beta cells dont produce enough insulin and Type II is caused when body cell receptors dont respond properly to insulin. a. Since insulin causes facilitated diffusion of glucose into almost all body cells, people with diabetes have plenty of glucose in the blood but not in cells where its needed. 2. Type I can be controlled by injecting insulin and Type II can be controlled by diet. But uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to retina leading to blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and poor wound healing (possibly gangrene that might need amputation). O. Type I and Type II diabetes 1. Type I is an autoimmune disease where bodys immune system attacks and destroys beta cells so little to no insulin is made. Less than 10% of diabetics have it.

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2. Type II is when cells stop responding to insulin which causes pancreas to decrease insulin levels produced. 90% of diabetics have it and it is associated with obesity, genetics, and age. II. Reproduction (6.6) A. Human reproduction: Process when male and female gametes (sperm and ovum) come together to form a zygote with genetic makeup from each parent which helps ensure genetic variation. 1. Hormones play a key role in both development of sexual dimorphism (different body forms of males and females) and regulation of sexual physiology. a. Testosterone determines development of male genitalia during embryonic development, ensures development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty, and maintains male sex drive throughout their lives. 2. Reproductive system structures are adapted for production and release of gametes. The female reproductive system ensures environment for fertilization and growth of embryo. B. The menstrual cycle prepares the ovaries for ovulation and the uterus for implantation. 1. Females begin menstrual cycle at age of puberty that lasts about 28 days. Its purpose is to time the release of an egg (ovulation) for fertilization and implantation into the inner lining of the uterus. Implantation must occur when the uterine inner lining (endometrium) is rich with blood vessels (higher vascular). a. No implantation causes breakdown of blood vessels which causing menstruation. C. Hormones from the brain 1. The hypothalamus (part of female brainstem) is a regulatory center of the menstrual cycle. It makes a hormone called gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). a. The target tissue of GnRH is the pituitary gland and it results in the pituitary producing/secreting follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) into the bloodstream. Their target tissues are the ovaries. D. Effects of FSH and LH on the ovaries 1. FSH and LH increases the production/secretion of estrogen by the follicle cells of the ovary. Estrogen enters the bloodstream and targets the endometrium of the uterus and makes it highly vascular. 2. FSH and LH also cause the production of structures within the ovaries known as Graafian follicles. The hormones cause the somewhat randomly arranged follicle cells and oocytes to arrange into a Graafian follicle. 3. A spike in FSH and LH level causes ovulation (release of oocyte from Graafian follicle). The oocyte is released with inner ring of follicle cells and a glycoprotein membrane coat called zona pellucida. The entire structure is called a follicle and it enters Fallopian tube after ovulation. 4. The outer ring of follicle cells remains in ovary and make progesterone. They divide and fill the wound area left by ovulation and make a glandular structure known as the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum will be hormonally active (producing progesterone which maintains highly vascular endometrium) for only 10-12 days after ovulation. a. As long as progesterone is produced, the endometrium wont break down and the embryo can implant. Additionally, high levels of estrogen and progesterone are negative feedback signals to

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hypothalamus which doesnt produce GnRH so FSH and LH remain low enough not to produce another Graafian follicle during this time. 5. If no pregnancy, the corpus luteum breaks down and declines progesterone and estrogen levels, causing the highly vascular endometrium to no longer be maintained. This causes the capillaries and small blood vessels to rupture, causing menstruation. a. Drop in progesterone and estrogen signals the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH and cause another menstrual cycle. Although there is no real start or end point of the cycle, we designate the first day of menstruation as the first day of the cycle.

E. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) 1. Natural fertilization occurs in Fallopian tube 24-48 hours after ovulation. The resulting zygote starts dividing by mitosis and takes more days to get to endometrium and implant. 2. Some couples cannot naturally reproduce because the male may have low sperm count or be impotent or the female cannot normally ovulate or has blocked Fallopian tubes. F. Steps of an IVF procedure 1. To prepare the woman is injected with FSH for about 10 days to ensure Graafian follicle development in ovaries. Several eggs are harvested surgically sperm is obtained from the male. The eggs and sperm are mixed in a culture dish and microscopic observation reveals which ova are fertilized and if early development is healthy. Usually 2 or 3 embryos are introduced to the uterus to increase the likelihood of healthy implantation. Other embryos can be frozen for later. G. Ethical issues concerning IVF 1. Arguments for IVF a. Allows couples to have children. b. Unhealthy embryos can be unconsidered. c. Genetic screening can eliminate chance of passing on genetic diseases. d. IVF can advance reproductive biology. 2. Arguments against IVF

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a. Unplanted embryos are frozen or destroyed. b. There are legal issues about use of frozen embryos when couples split. c. Genetic screening can cause society to choose only desirable traits. d. Reproductive problems can be passed down and IVF hinders natures way of decreasing the genetic frequency of that reproductive problem. e. Multiple births are more likely. III. Muscles and Movement (11.2) A. Joints (Also called articulation or arthrosis): Point where two or more bones contact each other. 1. Arthrology is study of joints and rheumatology is study or joint diseases/conditions. Kinesiology studies the movement of the human body. 2. Joints provide mobility and hold the body together. They include bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and nerves. B. Bones 1. Bones have tissue so are organs. They provide framework for body support, protect tissue/organs, act as levers for body movement, form bloods cells in marrow, and allow storage of minerals like calcium and phosphorus.

C. Muscles and Tendons 1. Skeletal muscles must be attached to bones by tendons (cords of dense connective tissue) to allow movement. The arrangement of bones/design of the joints determines the type/range of motion possible in an area. Bones act as levers that magnify force provided by muscle contraction. Muscles provide force for movement by shortening length of their fibers or cell. a. To allow body part to return to original position after moving, bones and muscles must act as antagonistic pairs. D. Ligaments and Nerves 1. Ligaments are tough, band-like structures that strengthen joints and provide stability. They have many different sensory nerve endings. Proprioceptors in ligaments and muscles allow monitoring of the joint part position and help prevent over-extension. E. Blood Supply

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1. Blood vessels supply joint. It damaged and there is local bleeding, it can cause swelling. F. Hinge Joints: Provides opening-and-closing type movement (i.e. elbow joint) 1. Elbow joint (called synovial joint) involves humerus, radius, and ulna bones. Synovial fluid (joint lubricant) is in synovial cavity which is found in joint capsule that is composed of dense connective tissue continuous with the membrane of the involved bones. It is a freely movable joint (diarthrotic joint). 2. Elbow parts and functions: a. Cartilage: reduces friction/absorbs compression b. Synovial fluid: lubricates to reduce friction/provides nutrients to cartilage cells c. Joint capsule: surround join, enclosed synovial cavity, and unites connecting bones d. Tendons: Attach muscle to bone e. Ligaments: Connect bone to bone f. Biceps muscle: Contracts to allow flexion (bending) of arm g. Triceps muscle: Contracts to cause extension (straightening) of arm h. Humerus: Acts as lever allowing anchorage of elbow muscles i. Radius: Acts as lever for biceps j. Ulna: Acts as lever for triceps

G. Ball-and-socket joints 1. Hip is diarthrotic but not a hinge joint. It permits movement in several directions including rotational movement because head of femur (ball) fits into depression of hip bone called acetabulum (socket). 2. Hip Joint versus Knee Joint:
Hip Freely movable Angular motions in many directions/rotational movement Motions possible: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation Ball-like structure fits into cup-like depression Knee Freely movable Angular movement in one direction Motions possible: flexion and extension Convex surface first into concave surface

*Definitions: a. Flexion: Decrease in angle between connecting bones b. Extension: Increase in angle between connecting bones c. Abduction: Movement of bone away from body midline d. Adduction: Movement of bone toward midline e. Circumduction: Distal or far end of a limb moves in a circle f. Rotation: A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis H. Muscle 1. Three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal/striated, cardiac, and smooth/non-striated.

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2. Striated muscle is called skeletal muscle as it allows skeletal movement. Muscle is made up of cells called muscle fibers (because of elongated shape), surrounding connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves. a. Blood vessels and nerves penetrate the muscle body. 3. Muscle fibers have multiple nuclei just inside plasma membrane (sarcolemma) which have multiple tunnellike extensions that penetrate the interior of the cell. The penetrations are called transverse or T tubules. 4. Cytoplasm of muscle fibers is called the sarcoplasm. It has many glycosomes that store glycogen and many red proteins called myoglobin. 5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is fluid-filled system of membranous sacs surrounding muscle myofibrils which are rod-shaped bodies that run the length of the cell. Myofibrils are closely packed with mitochondria squeezed between and are contractile elements of the muscle cell. I. Myofibril structure 1. Myofibrils are made of sarcomeres which are units that allow movement.

2. The Z lines mark the ends of the sarcomere, A bands are dark and extend the entire length of the myosin, a narrow H band occurs in middle of A band (contains only myosin), a supporting protein occurs in middle of myosin producing the M line and holds myosin filaments together, and I bands are light and contain only actin. 3. Myofilaments are made of two contractile proteins called actin and myosin:
Actin Thin filaments (8nm in diameter) Contains myosin-binding sites Individual molecules from helical structures Includes two regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and troponin Myosin Thick filaments (16 nm in diameter) Contains myosin heads that have actin-binding sites Individual molecules form a common shaft-like region with outward protruding heads Heads are referred to as cross-bridges and contain ATPbinding sites and ATPase enzymes

J. Muscle Contraction (Sliding filament theory) 1. Muscles contract when actin myofilaments slide over myosin myofilaments. The myofilaments do not shorten but when actin slides over myosin, the sarcomere shortens, causing movement. Key events of muscle contraction: a. Motor neuron carries action potential until it reaches neuromuscular junction b. Neurotransmitter called acetylcholine is released into gap between axon terminal and sarcolemma of muscle fiber. c. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on sarcolemma. d. Sarcolemma ions channels open and sodium ions move through membrane, generating muscle action potential that moves along membrane and through T tubules. e. After generation of muscle action potential, acetylcholine is broken down by enzyme called acetylcholinesterase which ensures one nerve action potential causes only one muscle action potential.

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f. Muscle action potential moving through T tubules causes release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium ions flood into sarcoplasm. g. Calcium ions bind to troponin on the actin myofilaments, exposing myosin-binding sites. h. The myosin heads include ATPase which splits ATP and releases energy. The heads then bind to the myosin-binding sites on the actin with the help of the protein called tropomyosin. i. The myosin-actin cross-bridges rotate towards the center of the sarcomere, producing the power or working stroke. j. ATP once again binds to the myosin head resulting in the detachment of myosin from the actin. k. If there are no further action potentials, the level of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm falls. The troponin-tropomyosin complex then moves to its original position, thus blocking the myosin-binding sites. The muscle then relaxes.

2. When a person dies, calcium ions leak out of sarcoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin which allows action to slide. But without ATP production, myosin heads cannot detach from actin and causes rigor mortis which lasts about 24 hours until further muscle deterioration. 3. Actin/myosin myofilaments dont change length during contraction. Contraction is caused when actin slides over myosin myofilaments which cause shortening of sarcomere necessary for muscle movement. 4. When muscle maximally contracts, H zone disappears and Z lines get closer, I bands are gone, and A bands appear to run complete length of sarcomeres. 5. The muscle may also be in various states of partial contraction which causes difference in position of the sarcomere parts. IV. The Kidney (11.3) A. What is excretion? 1. Excretion: The removal of waste products of metabolic pathways from the body. 2. All of collective reaction within your body cells is metabolism. The bloodstream acts to supply needed substances for metabolism and removes molecular waste products from the tissues. a. Urea is a waste product from metabolism of amino acids when they are deaminated (lose anime group). It is the job of the kidney to filter the bloodstream.

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B. Anatomy of a kidney 1. Major blood vessel called renal artery takes blood to kidneys and renal vein takes blood away from kidneys. 2. Urine (water and dissolved waste products) is produced by kidneys and collects in renal pelvis. The renal pelvis drains urine into tube called ureter which takes urine to urinary bladder. a. Renal pelvis is surrounded by renal medulla which is surrounded by renal cortex.

C. Nephrons are the filtering units of kidneys 1. Each kidney is made up of about 1.25 million filtering units called nephrons which consist of: a. A capillary bed (glomerulus) that filters substances from blood. b. A capsule surrounding the glomerulus called Bowmans capsule. c. A small tube that extends from Bowmans capsule and has parts called proximal convoluted tube, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule. d. A second capillary bed called the peritubular capillary bed which surrounds the 3-part tubule mentioned above.

D. Blood is ultra-filtered within Bowmans capsule 1. Nephrons have small branch of renal artery called afferent arteriole that brings in unfiltered blood. In Bowmans capsule, the afferent arteriole branches into capillary bed called the glomerulus which has slits on its walls that open when blood pressure increases. a. Blood pressure increases because the efferent arteriole (drains blood from glomerulus) is smaller in diameter than afferent. 2. Ultrafiltration is process where substances are filtered through glomerulus under unusually high blood pressure in capillary bed. The ultra-filtered fluid from glomerulus passes through basement membrane which helps prevent large molecules like proteins from becoming part of the filtrate. 3. The filtrate next enters the proximal convoluted tubule. Blood cells, proteins, and other molecules that didnt become part of filtrate exit Bowmans capsule though efferent arteriole.

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E. Reabsorption recovers needed substances to the bloodstream 1. Reabsorption of important substances like water, salt ions, and glucose occurs mostly in the proximal convoluted tubule. Substances are taken back into bloodstream by peritubular capillary beds. a. Proximal convoluted tubule is one cell thick and is composed of a ring of cells. The interior is called lumen which the filtrate flows within. The inner portion of each of the tubule cells has microvilli to increase surface area for reabsorption. 2. Transport mechanisms for reabsorption: a. Salt ions: Most salt ions (Na+, Cl-, K+) must leave filtrate and be returned to blood by reabsorption. They are actively transported into tubule cells and then to intercellular fluid outside tubule. Lastly they are taken into pertubuler capillary bed. b. Water: When salt ions are moved out toward peritubular, water follows by osmosis. c. Glucose: In properly functioning nephron, all glucose in the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the bloodstream most likely through active transport as diffusion would only allow 50% reabsorption. F. Kidney nephrons and osmoregulation 1. Volume of water eliminated daily depends on many physiological factors: a. Total volume of water ingested b. Perspiration rate (affected by exercise and environmental temperature) c. Ventilation rate (water is exhaled when humans breathe out) 2. Bodys response mechanisms that attempt to maintain homeostatic levels of water are osmoregulation. G. Loop of Henle creates a hypertonic environment in the medulla 1. Much water is left from original filtrate after leaving convoluted tubule. When filtrate enters descending portion of loop of Henle, some water leaves as it is water permeable. When filtrate enters ascending portion, salt ions leave as it is ion permeable. As filtrate moves up segment, sodium ions are pumped out and enter the intercellular fluid. a. Loop of Henle extends down to medulla region so it has many ions in comparison to fluids in tubules or the collecting ducts. Although some water moves out of the descending portion of the loop, the filtrate that moves up and into the distal convoluted tubule is relatively hypotonic (high in water). H. ADH and the collecting duct in osmoregulation 1. The filtrate that enters distal convoluted tubule is fine-tuned and hypotonic and enters a nearby collecting duct. Under most circumstances, some water is reabsorbed though needed solutes are absorbed already to conserve water. 2. Collecting duct permeability depends on presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which is secreted from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and circulates in the bloodstream. The collecting ducts extend into the hypertonic medulla and if ADH is present, the colleting duct becomes water permeable and water moves into medulla intercellular fluid. Water then enters peritubular capillary bed and is returned to bloodstream. a. If ADH isnt present, water stays in duct with various waste solutes and urine is more dilute. I. How do the kidneys change blood?

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1. Blood plasma: Blood that enters the glomerulus that is originally from the renal artery and on filtering or reabsorption has yet occurred. 2. Glomerular filtrate: Fluid that enters the proximal convoluted tubule after ultrafiltration in Bowmans capsule. No reabsorption has yet occurred. 3. Urine: Fluid which was the filtrate that went through reabsorption and osmoregulation mechanisms and it taken to bladder for elimination.
Molecule Proteins Glucose Urea Amount in blood plasma in mg 100 ml-1 More than 700 More than 90 30 Amount in glomerular filtrate in mg 100ml-1 0 More than 90 30 Amount in urine in mg 100ml-1 0 0 More than 1800

a. Proteins are too large to fit through basement membrane in glomerulus. b. Glucose is part of filtrate but active transport (mainly in proximal convoluted tubule) takes all glucose back into peritubular capillary bed. c. High concentration of urea in urine (compared to plasma and filtrate) is mostly due to the reabsorption of water which magnifies urea content. J. Why can diabetes lead to the presence of glucose in urine? 1. Diabetics have abnormally high levels of glucose dissolved in blood plasma. Although all of glucose can be reabsorbed into peritubular capillary bed through active transport, if there is too much glucose, its high concentration exceeds the max rate at which active transport can move substances. As a result, all the glucose cannot be moved and some remains in urine. V. Reproduction (11.4) A. Spermatogenesis produces male gametes by meiosis 1. Sperm cells are made in testes which are located outside body to provide cooler temperature for spermatozoa production. In each testis, spermatogenesis occurs in very small tubes called seminiferous tubules. Near the outer wall of the seminiferous tubules lie germinal epithelial cells called spermatogonia. a. Mitosis: Spermatogonia undergo this to replenish numbers (millions a day). Sperm cell production starts at puberty and continues throughout life. b. Meiosis: Spermatogonia undergo this to make spermatozoa which reduce the cell from diploid to haploid. (23 homologous pairs become 23 individual chromosomes). B. Spermatogenesis 1. Human spermatogonia are diploid and have 23 homologous pairs (46 total). DNA replication occurs and for each of 46 chromosomes is a pair of chromatids. Meiosis I occurs and half sized cells result each with haploid number as homologous pairs separate. In Meiosis II, chromatids are separated and 4 haploid cells are created from the original one with 23 homologous pairs. a. To differentiate into fully functioning spermatozoon, the cells stay in interior of seminiferous tubule to form structures like flagellum for mobility and an acrosome to contain enzymes for fertilization. The sperm cells get nutrients by attaching to cells in the seminiferous tubules called Sertoli cells that nourish the other cell stages during mitosis.

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b. Once spermatozoa form completely, they detach from their Sertoli cells and are carried through the lumen of the seminiferous tubule with the movement of fluid. Each sperm cell is swept to the epididymis of the testis where it is stored. C. Hormonal control of sperm production 1. Leutinizing hormone (LH) stiumulates Leydig cells to make testosterone. 2. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone stimulate the meiotic divisions of spermatogonia into spermatozoa. D. Role of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate 1. On sexual arousal, millions of sperms cells move from epididymis into the vas deferens. As sperm moves along vas deferens near bladder, glands called seminal vesicles add fluid with lots of sugar fructose which provides energy for sperm to swim to the ovum. About 70% of fluid in semen is added by seminal vesicles. 2. Near same area, prostate gland adds more fluid thats alkaline to help sperm survive vagina environment. About 30% of semen fluid is from prostate. E. Oogenesis produces female gametes by meiosis 1. Although oogenesis makes 4 cells like spermatogenesis, only one is usable as the ovum while the others are called polar bodies and act as cellular containers for the divided chromosomes during meiosis I and II. F. Events occurring before birth 1. In ovaries of female fetus, cells called oogonia undergo mitosis to build up oogonia in ovaries. The oogonia grow into larger cells called primary oocytes. The large oocyte begins meiosis but stops at prophase I. 2. Cells called follicle cells also undergo mitosis. A single layer of these follicle cells surrounds each primary oocyte and the entire structure becomes primary follicle. When female is born, her ovaries have almost half million primary follicles that remain unchanged till puberty and menstruation. G. Events occurring with the menstrual cycle 1. Each menstrual cycle, a few primary follicles finish meiosis I which make two unequally sized haploid cells. The small one being polar body that later degenerates, and the other a large secondary oocyte. 2. The single ring of follicle cells begins dividing and forming a fluid. Two rings of follicle cells are formed with a fluid-filled cavity separating them. The first (inner) ring of follicle cells surrounds the oocyte, then there is the fluid-filled space, and finally the outer ring of follicle cells. The secondary oocyte begins meiosis II, but is arrested again during prophase. The whole structure is now a Graafian follicle. a. The increase in fluid between the two follicle cell layers creates a bulge on ovary surface that leads to ovulation. 3. Secondary oocytes with the inner ring of follicle cells are released from the ovary at ovulation. Meiosis II is not done until fertilization. The hormones FSH and LH are mainly responsible for the events leading up to and including ovulation. H. Mature sperm and ova 1. One could say that oogenesis is not over until fertilization as this is when meiosis is completed.

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2. Sperm are small cells with flagellum for motility and mitochondria to provide ATP for swimming. At its anterior end, each sperm contains an organelle called an acrosome which has hydrolytic enzymes that help with fertilization. 3. The egg is the largest cell in body by volume. The unequal division ensures that one cell receives almost all of the cytoplasm, nutrients, and organelles needed for new life. Nutrients in ovum are called yolk and cytoplasm has vesicles called cortical granules that function right after fertilization. Just outside plasma membrane is layer of glycoproteins called zona pellucida. I. Comparison of spermatogenesis and oogenesis 1.
Spermatogenesis Millions of sperm produced daily 4 gametes are made for each germinal cell which starts meiosis. Resulting gametes are small Occurs in testis (gonad tissue) Spermatozoa are released during ejaculation Haploid nucleus results from meiosis Spermatogenesis continues all through life Oogenesis One secondary oocyte ovulated per menstrual cycle 1 gamete is produced for each germinal cell that starts meiosis (plus polar bodies) Resulting gametes are large Occurs in ovaries (gonad tissue) Secondary oocyte released during ovulation Haploid nucleus results from meiosis Ovulation starts at puberty and occurs with each menstrual cycle and stops at menopause

J. Fertilization 1. After ejaculation, sperm absorb some fructose in semen to fuel up for journey. Some sperm find way through cervical opening (cervix separates vagina and uterus). They swim up endometrial lining and some enter opening of Fallopian tubes. If female is near middle of menstrual cycle, there may be a secondary oocyte within one of two Fallopian tubes. 2. Typical fertilization location is in a Fallopian tube. Many sperms are needed to penetrate follicle cell layer surrounding the secondary oocyte and several sperms gain access to zona pellucida (glycoprotein gel layer) surrounding the secondary oocyte and release hydrolytic enzymes contained in their acrosomes. Only one sperm will reach the plasma membrane first and the membranes will fuse together which initiates the cortical reaction.

3. Within cytoplasm of secondary oocyte are many small vesicles called cortical granules that are found around interior of plasma membrane. When the two gametes fuse membranes, cortical granules fuse with the oocytes cell membrane and release their enzymes to the outside. This causes chemical change in zona pellucida making

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it impermeable to any more sperm cells. The secondary oocyte completes meiosis II and makes another polar body. The fertilized ovum is now diploid and called a zygote. K. Pregnancy: Early human embryonic development 1. Fertilization triggers the zygote to start mitosis in about 24 hours. During first 5 days, early embryo divides and moves closer to uterus. The rate of division increases and is about 100 cells when it reaches the uterine cavity, and its ready to implant into the endometrium. 2. The embryo at this stage is a ball of cells called a blastocyst which has a surrounding layer of cell called the trophoblast that helps form the fetal portion of the placenta, a group of cells on the interior called inner cell mass will become the embryo body, and it has a fluid-filled cavity. L. Secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin 1. The remaining layer of follicle cells in ovary begins mitosis and secretes estrogen and progesterone. This tissue becomes a temporary endocrine gland called corpus luteum. Normally, the corpus luteum only secretes hormones for 14 days to maintain highly vascular endometrium. But if fertilization occurs, the embryo secretes human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) which maintains secretory functions of the corpus luteum which thus maintains the endometrium. a. Later, role of estrogen and progesterone production is taken over by the placenta. M. Role of the placenta 1. Ovum is large because it has nutrients needed for early embryonic development. During first 2 weeks after fertilization, there is no true growth. The nutrients stored within the egg have been used for metabolism, not growth. After implantation, the embryo quickly runs out of stored nutrients so the embryo and maternal endometrium begin to create placenta. 2. Placenta forms from the trophoblast layer of the blastocyst and when fully formed, two fetal blood vessels in umbilical cord carry fetal blood to the placenta. The blood in these two vessels is deoxygenated and carries waste products. The fetus and mother only exchange materials, not blood. a. The fetal blood exchanges materials with maternal bloodstream and another fetal blood vessel returns oxygenated/nutrient-rich blood to fetus. b. Materials passed from fetus to mother: CO2, urea, water, hormones. c. Materials passed from mother to fetus: Oxygen, nutrients, water, hormones, vitamins/minerals, alcohol/drugs, and viruses like HIV. 3. When the corpus luteum stops activity, the placenta produces the hormones needed to maintain rich blood supply associated with the placenta. N. Role of amniotic fluid 1. Some of the tissues of developing embryos are used to create extraembryonic membranes like the amniotic sac which extends all the way around the fetus and contains amniotic fluid. It allows the fetus to float, grow, and develop in it. 2. Some amniotic fluid functions are providing cushion in case of force applied to mothers abdomen, providing environment where fetus has free movement and gets exercise for all developing muscles and skeletons, and it provides thermal stability as it is mainly made of water.

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3. Amniotic fluid is sampled in amniocentesis procedures which tests cells for chromosome abnormalities. O. Hormonal events associated with birth 1. Parturition: physiological events associated with womans body preparing for birth. a. For example one event is a drop in progesterone level. Around the same time, oxytocin (peptide hormone that binds to protein receptors on target cells) is secreted from posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Some suggest progesterone decline is associated with production of oxytocin receptors on cells of the uterus. b. Production of low levels of oxytocin is associated with the first contractions of the uterus. Each uterine contraction causes uterine mechanoreceptors sending signals back to the posterior lobe of the pituitary to produce more oxytocin so contractions between more intense and frequent. This is called positive feedback and stops only after birth. 2. Major events of childbirth: a. Major hormone changes b. Opening of cervix to 10 cm c. Most typical position for baby is head-first, face down d. Baby shoulders are usually widest part to pass through birth canal e. Afterbirth is name for expelled placenta after birth f. Lactation begins soon after birth