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The authors wish to thank the Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago, UTT Campus, Esperanza Rd, rechin Castle, Cou!a, for allowing the release of rele!ant information on the "ourth Caribbean Geological Conference, Trinidad #$%&, and the "ourth 'atin (merican Geological Congress Trinidad and Tobago, #$)$* +e would also like to thank ,enesh Ramnarace, Reser!oir Engineer of -rimera Group of Companies, ./0 "orest Reser!e Road "yzabad, Trinidad +est 1ndies, for sourcing information which made possible the publication of this document*

Trinidad and Tobago comprises the southernmost of the Caribbean islands and is situated north of and opposite the mouth of the 2rinoco Ri!er* 1t is separated from the South3(merican coast by the Gulf of -aria* Tobago is located /4km 540 miles6 northeast of Trinidad and has an area of /00 s7*km 5#40 s7*miles6, while Trinidad has an area of 8949 s7*km* The island of Tobago is predominantly !olcanic in origin: hence the reason for the absence of onshore hydrocarbons* There has howe!er, been recent findings of large gas fields off the southwest coast of Tobago* Trinidad is situated at a triple ;unction formed by the collision of the South3 (merican, Caribbean and <orth (tlantic -lates* (s a result of this phenomenon, Trinidad and its surroundings is one of the most geologically comple= areas of the world, and has for long been the study of -etroleum Geologists both locally and internationally* The interaction of these plates at the triple ;unction has resulted in the formation of anticlines and faults which ser!e as ideal traps for the accumulation of petroleum* (ll of the positi!e elements for the formation and accumulation of hydrocarbons in commercial 7uantities e=ists in Trinidad: these include traps, reser!oir rocks and source rocks*

Figure 1: Geographica oca!io" o# Tri"i$a$


Geologically, Trinidad forms the eastward e=tension of the South (merican >ainland: a ma;or portion of which lies within the Eastern ?enezuelan asin, while Tobago which lies to the northeast, forms part of the 'esser (ntillean 1sland arc belt* The Southern part of Trinidad is generally a continuation of the >arturin asin, while the <orthern Range of mountains is an e=tension of the ?enezuelan (ndes* S!ruc!o&orpho ogica '( !he area i) $i*i$e$ i"!o #our +,- &a.or up i#! area): a6 b6 c6 d6 Tobago Uplift <orthern Range Uplift Central Range Uplift Southern Range Uplift*

Figure 2: Ma.or Se$i&e"!ar' Pro*i"ce) Geo ogica ' !he area i) $i*i$e$ i"!o #i*e +/- &a.or )e$i&e"!ar' 0a)i")1pro*i"ce): a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 The +est Tobago asin The Caroni asin The Southern asin The Columbus Shelf@(tlantic ,elta -ro!ince The ,istal Shelf (rea*

The stratigraphy of Trinidad can be assessed in terms of three broad tectostratigraphic phasesA -assi!e >argin "oredeep "oreland -otential oil3prone source rocks are recognized in the middle to 'ate Cretaceous -assi!e >argin and -aleogene foredeep sedimentary se7uences* The South3East Caribbean represents a comple= plate interaction zone* The "oreland Thrust elt occupies large areas of <orthern ?enezuela, Central and South Trinidad* 1t forms a belt of deformed, dominantly clastic sediments* The -assi!e >argin of northern South (merica de!eloped during the Early to 'ate Cretaceous period* 1t is represented by the Cuche, Gautier, <aparima Bill and Guayaguayare "ormations in Trinidad* The apparent absence of organic rich and oil3prone sediments in the >id to 'ate Tertiary period supports circumstantial geologic e!idence for a Cretaceous principal source rock in Trinidad* This source rock is known as the <aparima Bill "ormation and outcrops at three locations in Trinidad* Bowe!er, the only accessible location is the San "ernando Bill* The organic rich rocks of the Gautier "ormation are regarded as a secondary source of oil* "urther e!idence is pro!ided by the oil3types in Trinidad* "our main oil types were identified in Trinidadian producing fields, mainly within the Southern asin Consortium* These included two main types and two bacterially3 degraded deri!ations* The two main types are interpreted from gas chromatography as followsA Type (3 fully mature source rock, ano=ic depositional en!ironment with fairly strong terrigineous output* Type 3 early mature source rock, o=ic depositional en!ironment with little or no terrigeneous input and low bacterial acti!ity in the depositional en!ironment*

Tri"i$a$ #a ) i"!o #i*e +/- $i)!i"c! u"i!)( 3hich are c o)e ' re a!e$ !o !he geo ogic !re"$ #or& "or!h !o )ou!h4 These areA a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 The <orthern Range The Caroni -lains The Central Range The <aparima and Southern 'owlands The Southern Range*

<orthern Range

This is a deeply dissected mountain range with an east3west trend* 1t is composed of an unfolded, upthrust region of relati!ely old, low3grade metamorphic rocks* Generally low3lying area of terraces, allu!ial plains and swamp deposits, occupying a synclinal basin infilled with tertiary to Bolocene deposits* 1t appears to be sharply separated from the <orthern range by the El -ilar "ault which trends conspicuously for east to west* The terrain gradually rises to form the northern slopes of the Central Range to the south*

Caroni -lains


Central Range

This is basically an asymmetric anticline, directed southward, and ha!ing a strongly folded core of lower Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks* 1t culminates in a line of low hills aligned northeast to southwest, running diagonally across the island* Consists of sharply folded Tertiary clays and sands of monotonous character, with a few anticlinal inliers of older Tertiary or Cretaceous rocks which form local features at San "ernando, en 'omond and Charuma* The locus of the Southern 5synclinal6 basin is located to the south of these features, and spans the south of the island from east to west and is infilled with young Tertiary deposits* The rim of this basin has been deformed by folding and faulting: and are of economic importance in forming the oil3producing structures of the south of the island* The -itch 'ake 5 righton6 is located on one of these subsidiary folds Geologically, this is an anticlinal trend, but the structures are small, discontinuous and separated by numerous faults* This results in the compartmentalization of the Southern asin* These compartments are sealed by gourges which form along fault plains* Bence se!eral pockets of oil and gas can be found within the Southern part of the island* Bydrocarbon seepages often occur in this area in the form of mud !olcanoes*

<aparima and Southern 'owlands

Southern Range

Oi #ie $ Na&e

alata3 o!allius arrackpore3-enal righton3-oint 'igoure Catshill Coora3Duarry3 >orne ,iablo "yzabad3"orest Reser!e Guayaguayare Group >oruga East

S!ruc!ura Regi&e o# Ma.or Pro$uc!i*e 6o"e) ,etached o!erthrust ,etached o!erthrust ,etached o!erthrust@Strike Slip3En echelon Strike Slip3 En echelon (nticline Strike Slip E Stratigraphic Strike Slip E En echelon (nticline ,etached growth fault related Strike Slip E (nticline

Age o# Ma.or Pro$uc!i*e 6o"e 'ower >iocene 'ower >iocene -liocene 'ower >iocene >io3-liocene >io3-liocene >io3-liocene >io3-liocene -liocene

Na&e o# Ma.or Pro$uc!i*e 6o"e Berrera Sands Berrera Sands >orne lCEnfer <ari!a Catshill Cruse3"orest3>orne lCEnfer Cruse3"orest >oruga "orest E7ui!alent

7ear Di)co*ere$

#$&4 #$##@#$8# #$#0@#$8/

Appro8i&a!e 9 !i&a!e Si:e +acre)Small 'arge /000

#$&4 #$/% #$#8@#$40 #$##@#$4)@#$&$ #$&4

>edium %&00 /$00 >edium Small

2ropouche -alo Seco 3 Erin3 Grande Ra!ine -oint "ortin E -arrylands E Guapo Rock ,ome East 5>oruga <orth3 Trinity E 1nniss6 Rock ,ome +est 5>oruga +est3 Rock ,ome6

,etached o!erthrust Strike Slip E Stratigraphic Strike Slip E (nticlines ,etached o!erthrust

'ower >iocene >io3 -liocene >io3-liocene 'ower >iocene

Retrench Sands Cruse E "orest E >orne lCEnfer Cruse E "orest E >orne lCEnfer Berrera Sands

#$4# #$#4@#$&# #$09@#$#4 #$&%

Small #0 000 4%)0 >edium

,etached o!erthrust

'ower >iocene

Berrera Sands



POINT FORTIN ; PARR7LANDS ; G9APO FIELD 'ocated on the southwestern peninsula of Trinidad* (ppro=imate land area of 4,%)0 acres* Structurally, this field lies north of the 'os a;os "ault, and straddles the <orth3 +est@South3East trending >orne lCEnfer Syncline* Two prominent anticlines are located in this area, ?ance Ri!er (nticline and the 'ot 2ne (nticline* oth of these anticlines trend roughly East3<orth3East@+est3 South3+est* Cruse sands ha!e accounted for appro=imately )$F of the fieldCs cumulati!e production to date* The a!erage gra!ity of the crude produced G #8H(-1* The stratigraphy of this field ranges from the younger -liocene to the older Eocene Cruse Sands* Bowe!er, oil production is mostly confined to the -liocene (ged Cruse sands* Synclinal and stratigraphic traps are predominant in this area* The producing horizons are the 'ower >orne lCEnfer, "orest, Cruse, and <ari!a formations* The number of wells was recorded as #09) in the year 400#* Cumulati!e -roduction 3 I /0 million bbls* Dep!h Ra"ge +#!#/00 E 8000 /&00 E 8/00 Ne! Pa' +#!/00 #00 Poro)i!' +<// 40 Per&ea0i i!' +&$8&0 800 Oi Gra*i!' +API#8 4)

Cruse <ari! a

F76A%AD MAIN FIELD This is one of the more important onshore hydrocarbon accumulations* Consists of a series of interconnected domes along a roughly east3west a=is broken up by faulting* 1t has field acreage of about /,$00 acres and a de!eloped acreage of 4,%$& acres* Consists of a comple= of anticlines and synclines co!ering the southwesterly plunge of the <aparima3<ari!a Thrust elt* To the west, south and east of it the Cruse and "orest e=tend into the elongate +S+3E<E syncline between the <aparima3<ari!a Thrust belt in the north, and the Southern Range and Southern (nticline in the south* This syncline consists of three -artsA 1* Central part or Siparia Syncline 11* 2rtoire Syncline 111* Erin Syncline* (-1 gra!ity of the crude !aries between #$H and /0H*

The main oil producing sands are the Cruse and "orest sands*

PALO SECO FIELD 1t is situated near the South3Central coast of Trinidad* 1t has a surface area of appro=imately #0,000 acres* 'ies near the crest of the >orne ,iablo uplift* Structurally located on the southern limb of the Siparia@Erin basin and is intersected by two 546 ma;or faultsA 1* The 'os a;os fault 11* The Santa "lora fault The main oil3bearing reser!oir is the Top Cruse 5>iocene6 sandstone* (-1 gra!ity of crude range from #8H 3 /%H (-1*

%RIGHTON ; POINT LIGO9RE FIELD This is a gentle dome on the crest of which the -itch 'ake is situated* ( clayey "orest3Cruse comple= follows the top 'a rea and >oruga beds* <early all these rocks are saturated with hea!y, sulphurous oil* The oldest horizon is the Gautier horizon* The main oil3producing reser!oir is found in the <ari!a formation* (nticlinal traps are the predominant trapping mechanisms* ?essigny, located to the southeast of righton, is an anticline, which produces oil from "orest sands* #89 wells had been drilled in this area up to 400#*

Re)er*oir Proper!ie): Poro)i!' Per&ea0i i!' +air490 md Pro$uci"g Dep!h) +#!#900 E 9&00 A*erage Oi Gra*i!' Oi )a"$ Thic="e )) +#!#90 /0 3 /%(-1 Dri*e Mecha"i)& Solution Gas ,ri!e


#$ E 44 F

PENAL>%ARRACKPORE FIELD This field is located in the south3central area of Trinidad, in the county of ?ictoria, on the southern fringe of the <aparima area* 1t lies ) miles southeast of San "ernando* 'ocated along the southern boundary of the <aparima peneplain belt* The formations outcropping at the surface and in the wells range from recent to >iddle 2ligocene*

The Cruse sandstone reser!oir bed has passed into clay, and production comes form younger >iocene sands* >ost of the oil in this field has come from sandy, deltaic >iocene lens3type reser!oirs* Ultimate reco!erable Reser!es G #4)$ >> 2* The -enal@ arrackpore anticline formed as a result of middle >iocene compression that occurred as a result of obli7ue collision of the Caribbean and South (merican plates* ( transpressional episode occurred during the late -liocene causing re;u!enation of faults and additional folding* 'ocal Structure E South3west plunging -enal@ arrackpore anticline with a regional tilt of appro=imately ##H toward the southwest* Thrust faulted anticlinal traps with multiple pays: numerous stratigraphic traps*

Figure ?: Geographica Cro)) Sec!io" o# !he Pe"a Fie $

G9A7AG9A7ARE FIELD 2riginally disco!ered in #$04* 'ighter paraffinic oil is produced* -roduction occurs principally from the >iocene Gros >orne sands*

OROPO9CHE FIELD 'ight oil and gas ha!e been found in the Ste* Croi= formation, but only in small 7uantities*

MOR9GA WEST FIELD (nticline traps are predominant in this area* The oldest horizon is the Gautier formation* The Jaramat and Berrera sands are the main producing reser!oirs in this area* (-1 Gra!ity of crude in these reser!oirs ranges from 4%3//H* 900 acres of this field has been de!eloped* The number of wells drilled in this field was recorded as 4&) in the year 400#* Cumulati!e production in this area is greater than #0 million barrels*

Figure ,: Mai" Oi #ie $) o# O" a"$ Tri"i$a$

DISC9SSION The east3west trend of the <orthern Range probably occurred due to rift3faulting* 1t is decepti!e since its general structural trend is actually northeast3southwest* This direction agrees with the a!erage strike of the pre32ligocene beds both in arbados and along the north of ?enezuela as far as -uerto Cabello* Thrusting seems to ha!e come from both north and south, so that the least deformed portion is a central strip with closely folded and broken beds on either side* The differential folding intensity may also be related to the age of the beds, since, with almost continuous folding and faulting mo!ements in action, the most affected beds would be those which ha!e been sub;ected to tectonic forces the longest* The <orthern Range is predominantly a 'ow Grade >etamorphic Terrain* 1t is composed of intensely folded gneisses, schist and pyrogenic rocks* The formations in this area lack porosity and effecti!e permeability i*e* they do not posses the 7ualities of a reser!oir rock* Bence any hydrocarbon accumulations in this area would result from the fracturing of rocks aided by tectonic forces* The Southern Range, howe!er, is an area predominated by structural traps, mainly multiple plunging anticline and syncline traps* The folding and faulting of reser!oir rocks contained in these areas led to the compartmentalization of formations which were sealed by fault gourges due to the shearing of sandstones* This is a common feature in the Southern asin, hence the reason for se!eral accumulations 5pockets6 of hydrocarbons* The sediments deposited in the Southern asin were KwetL or deltaic e*g* the >orne 'CEnfer sands and this could ha!e caused some hydraulic fracturing in this hydrocarbon play* -assi!e margin deposition appears to ha!e dominated the stratigraphy of the Southern asin right through the Cretaceous and up until the late Eocene* The similarity of the Gautier formation to the Cuche formation tends to suggest that it was deposited in a slope3related en!ironment* 1t is reported to be locally source prone, and as such may represent the transition from Cuche into the <aparima Bill* oth the Gautier and Cuche formations are thought to be the secondary source rocks for onland oil and gas in Trinidad* The <aparima Bill "ormation, being the primary source rock, is compositionally organic rich siliceous mudstone, and thus represents a significant depature from the pre3e=isting shale dominated formations, such as the 'izard Springs and Guayaguayare formations* The Guayaguayare is notably absent from the Central Range* This is probably as a result of erosion in the -aleocene*