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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

Table of contents
Introduction Radiography X and Gamma An illustration of radiography Advantages of radiography Disadvantages of radiography Magnetic particle inspection An illustration of the Principle of Magnetic particle inspection An illustration of magnetic particle inspection Advantages of Magnetic particle Crack Detection Disadvantages of Magnetic particle Crack Detection Dye Penetrant Testing An illustration of Dye Penetrant Testing Advantages of Dye Penetrant Testing Disadvantages of Dye Penetrant Testing Ultrasonic Fla Detection An illustration of Ultrasonic Flaw Testing Advantages of Ultrasonic Flaw Testing Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Flaw Testing !ddy "urrent #nd !lectro$Magnetic Method An illustration of Eddy Current Testing Advantages of Eddy Current Testing Disadvantages of Eddy Current Testing Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Page 6 Page 6 Page 9 Page 9 Page 9 Page 1 Page 11 Page 11 Page 11 Page 12 Page 14 Page 15 Page 15 Page 16 Page 1! Page 1! Page 1! Page 1"

%on$Destructi&e Testing Methods ' #pplications

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

Introduction #on$destructive Testing is one part of the function of %ualit& control and is co'ple'entar& to other long established 'ethods( )& definition non$destructive testing is the testing of 'aterials* for surface or internal fla+s or 'etallurgical condition +ithout interfering in an& +a& +ith the integrit& of the 'aterial or it,s suitabilit& for service( The techni%ue can be applied on a sa'pling basis for individual investigation or 'a& be used for 1 - chec.ing of 'aterial in a production %ualit& control s&ste'( /hilst being a high technolog& concept* evolution of the e%uip'ent has 'ade it robust enough for application in an& industrial environ'ent at an& stage of 'anufacture 0 fro' steel 'a.ing to site inspection of co'ponents alread& in service( A certain degree of s.ill is re%uired to appl& the techni%ues properl& in order to obtain the 'axi'u' a'ount of infor'ation concerning the product* +ith conse%uent feed bac. to the production facilit&( #on$destructive testing is not onl& a 'ethod for re1ecting substandard 'aterial2 it is also an assurance that the supposedl& good is good( The techni%ue uses a variet& of principles2 there is no single 'ethod around +hich a blac. box 'a& be built to satisf& all re%uire'ents in all circu'stances( /hat flo+s is a brief description of the 'ethods 'ost co''onl& used in industr&* together +ith details of t&pical applications* functions and advantages( The 'ethods covered are3 4adiograph& Magnetic Particle 5rac. 6etection 6&e Penetrant Testing 7dd& 5urrent and 7lectro$Magnetic Testing

8o+ever* these are b& no 'eans the total of the principles available to the #(6(T( 7ngineer( 7lectrical potentials drop* 9onics* infra$red* acoustic e'ission and spectrograph&* to na'e but a fe+* have been used to provide

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

infor'ation that the above techni%ues have been unable to &ield* and develop'ent across the board continues( Radiography X and Gamma This techni%ue is suitable for the detection of internal defect in ferrous and non$ferrous 'etals and other 'aterials( :$ra&s* generated electricall&* and ;a''a ra&s e'itted fro' radio$active isotopes* are penetrating radiation +hich is differentl& absorbed b& the 'aterial through +hich it passes2 the greater the thic.ness* the greater the absorption( <urther'ore* the denser the 'aterial the greater the absorption( : and ;a''a ra&s also have the propert&* li.e light* of partiall& converting silver halide cr&stals in a photographic fil' to 'etallic silver* in proportion to the intensit& of the radiation reaching the fil'* and therefore for'ing a latent i'age( This can develop and fixed in a si'ilar +a& to nor'al photographic fil'( Material +ith internal voids is tested b& placing the sub1ect bet+een the source of radiation and the fil'( The voids sho+ as dar.ened areas +here 'ore radiation has reached the fil' on a clear bac.ground( The principles are the sa'e for both : and ;a''a radiograph&( =n :$radiograph& the penetrating po+er is deter'ined b& the nu'ber of volts applied to the :$ra& tube 0 in steel approxi'atel& 1 volts per inch thic.ness is necessar&( =n ;a''a radiograph& the isotopes governs the penetrating po+er and is unalterable in each isotope( Thus iridiu' 192 is used for > ? to 1@ steel and cesiu' 134 is used for A@ to 2 >@ steel( =n :$radiograph& the intensit&* and therefore the exposure ti'e* is governed b& the a'perage of the cathode in the tube( 7xposure ti'e is usuall& expressed in ter's of 'illia'p ere 'inutes( /ith ;a''a ra&s the intensit& of the radiation is set at the ti'e of suppl& of the isotopes( The intensit& of radiation fro' isotopes is 'easured in a'ount of curies is the half$life and is the half$life and is characteristic of each isotopes( <or exa'ple* the half$life of iridiu' 192 is !4 da&s* and caesiu' 134 is 2(1 &ears( The exposure factor is a product of the nu'ber of curies and ti'e* usuall& expressed in curie hours( The ti'e of exposure 'ust be increased as the isotopes deca&s 0 +hen the exposure period beco'es unecono'ical the isotopes 'ust be rene+ed(
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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

As the isotopes is continuousl& e'itting radiation it 'ust be housed in a container of deleted uraniu' or si'ilar dense shielding 'aterial* +hilst not exposed to protect the environ'ent and personnel( To produce an : or ;a''a radiograph* the fil' pac.age Bco'prising fil' and intensif&ing screens 0 the latter being re%uired to reduce the exposure ti'e 0 enclosed in a light tight cassetteC is placed close to the surface of the sub1ect( The source of radiation is positioned on the other side of the sub1ect so'e distance a+a&* so that the radiation passes through the sub1ect and to the fil'( After the exposure period the fil' is re'oved* processed* dried* and then vie+ed b& trans'itted light on a special vie+er( Darious radiographic and photographic accessories are necessar&* including such ite's as radiation 'onitors* fil' 'ar.ers* i'age %ualit& indicators* dar. roo' e%uip'ent* etc( /here the last is concerned there are 'an& degrees of sophistication* including full& auto'atic processing units( These accessories are the sa'e for both : and ;a''a radiograph& s&ste's( Also re%uired are such consu'able ite's as radiographic fil' and processing che'icals( #n illustration of radiography

9che'atic illustration of a t&pical exposure arrange'ent for radiograph&( The source of radiation can be either an :$ra& tube or a radioactive isotope(

The resultant radiograph sho+s the sub1ect as seen fro' the source(
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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

#d&antages of radiography =nfor'ation is presented pictoriall&( A per'anent record is provided +hich 'a& be vie+ed at a ti'e and place distant fro' the test( Eseful for thin sections( 9ensitivit& declared on each fil'( 9uitable for an& 'aterial( Disad&antages of radiography ;enerall& an inabilit& to cope +ith thic. sections( Possible health haFard( #eed to direct the bea' accuratel& for t+o$di'ensional defects( Processing and vie+ing facilities are necessar&* as is an exposure co'pound( #ot suitable for auto'ation* unless the s&ste' incorporates fluoroscop& +ith an i'age intensifier( #ot suitable for surface defects( #o indication of depth of a defect belo+ the surface(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

Magnetic Particle Inspection This 'ethod is suitable for the detection of surface and near surface discontinuities in 'agnetic 'aterial* 'ainl& ferritic steel and iron( #n illustration of the principle of magnetic particle inspection

The principle is to generate 'agnetic flux in the article to be exa'ined* +ith the flux lines running along the surface at right angles to the suspected defect( /here the flux lines approach a discontinuit& the& +ill stra& out into the air at the 'outh of the crac.( The crac. edge beco'es 'agnetic attractive poles north and south( These have the po+er to attract finel& divided particles of 'agnetic 'aterial such as iron fillings( Esuall& these particles are of an oxide of iron in the siFe range 2 to 3 'icrons* and are suspended in a li%uid +hich provides 'obilit& for the particles on the surface of the test piece* assisting their 'igration to the edges( 8o+ever* in so'e instances the& can be applied in a dr& po+der for'( The particles can be red or blac. oxide* or the& can be coated +ith a substance* +hich fluoresces brilliantl& under ultra$violet illu'ination Bblac. lightC( The ob1ect is to present as great a contrast as possible bet+een the crac. indication and the 'aterial bac.ground( The techni%ue not onl& detects those defects* +hich are not nor'all& visible to the unaided e&e* but also renders easil& visible those defects* +hich +ould other+ise re%uire close scrutin& of the surface( There are 'an& 'ethods of generating 'agnetic flux in the test piece* the 'ost si'ple one being the application of a per'anent 'agnet to the surface* but this 'ethod cannot

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

be controlled accuratel& because of indifferent surface contact and deterioration in 'agnetic strength( Modern e%uip'ents generate the 'agnetic field electricall& either directl& or indirectl&( =n the direct 'ethod high a'perage current is passed through the sub1ect and 'agnetic flux is generated at right angles to the current flo+( Therefore the current flo+ should be in the sa'e line as the suspected defect( =f it is not possible to carr& out this 'ethod because of the orientation of the defect* then the indirect 'ethod 'ust be used( This can be one of t+o for's3 Passing a high current through a coil* +hich encircles the sub1ect( Ma.ing the test piece for' part of &o.e* +hich is +ound +ith a current carr&ing coil( The effect is to pas 'agnetic flux along the part to reveal transverse and circu'ferential defects( =f a bar +ith a length 'uch greater than its dia'eter is considered* then longitudinal defects +ould be detected b& current flo+ and transverse and circu'ferential defects b& the indirect 'ethod of an encircling coil or 'agnetic flux flo+( 9ub1ects in +hich crac. radiating fro' a hole suspected could be tested b& 'eans of the threading bar techni%ue* +here b& a current carr&ing conductor is passed through the hole and the field induced is cut b& an& defects( 6etection of longitudinal defects in hollo+ shafts is at&pical application of the threaded bar techni%ue( The electricit& used to generate the 'agnetic flux in an& of these 'ethods can be alternating current* half +ave rectified direct current( A(5( generated 'agnetic flux* because of the s.in effect* preferentiall& follo+s the contours of the surface and does not penetrate deepl& into the 'aterial( 8(/(6(5(penetrates 'ore deepl& but is inclined not to follo+ sharp changes in section( 8(/(6(5( is useful for the detection of slightl& subsurface defects( The pulsing effect of A(5( and 8(/(6(5( gives additional 'obilit& to the indicating particles( 6(5 penetrates even 'ore deepl& but does not have this facilit&( <urther'ore* de'agnetiFing of the 'aterial after 6(5 'agnetiFing is far 'ore difficult than after A(5 'agnetiFing( #or'all& to ensure that a test piece has no crac.s* it is necessar& to 'agnetiFe it in at least t+o directions and after each 'agnetiFing 0n and in. application 0 visuall& exa'ine the piece for crac. indications(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

9ince this double process* +hich +ould include ad1ust'ent of the 'agnetiFing e%uip'ent controls in bet+een each 'agnetiFing ta.es ti'e it is obviousl& advantageous to have the facilit& to reduce the ti'e re%uired( The recent develop'ent of the swinging field 'ethod of 'ulti$directional 'agnetiFing +ill indicate all defects* regardless of their orientation on the surface* +ith one 'agnetiFing shot and therefore re%uires onl& one inspection( B9ee separate publication <aster Magnetic 5rac. 6etection using the 9+inging <ield Multi$6irectional MagnetiFing MethodC( )asicall& 'agnetic crac. detection e%uip'ent ta.es t+o for's( <irstl&* for test pieces +hich are part of a large structure* or pieces* heav& castings* etc( +hich cannot be 'oved easil&* the e%uip'ent ta.es the for' of 1ust a po+er pac. to generate a high current is applied to the sub1ect either b& contact prods on flexible cables or b& an encircling coil of cable* these po+er pac.s can have variable a'perages up to a 'axi'u' of 2 A'ps for portable units* and up to 1 * A'ps for 'obile e%uip'ent* both A(5 and 8(/(6(5( 'agnetiFing current is available( The indicating 'aterial is applied b& 'eans of a spra& and generall& the surplus runs to +aste( <or factor& applications on s'aller 'ore 'anageable test pieces the bench t&pe of e%uip'ent* as represented b& our 7E4GMA; range* is nor'all& preferred( This consist of a po+er pac. si'ilar to those described above* an indicating in. s&ste' +hich recirculates the fluid* and facilities to grip the +or. piece and appl& the current flo+ or 'agnetic flux flo+ in a 'ore 'ethodical* controlled 'anner( The +or. pieces are brought to the e%uip'ent and can be individuall& tested in one operation( 9ub1ects up to approxi'atel& 1 @ long can be acco''odated is such e%uip'ents and can be loaded b& crane if necessar&( This t&pe of universal e%uip'ent is ideall& suited to either investigative +or. or routine %ualit& control testing( This bench t&pe e%uip'ent often incorporate a canop& to prevent direct light falling on the sub1ect so that ultra$violet fluorescent 'aterial can be used to the best effect( The indicating particles 'a& be suspended in ver& thin oil B.eroseneC or +ater( =n so'e circu'stances the indicating 'ediu' can be applied dr&( These e%uip'ent are suited to production +or. and in certain circu'stances can be auto'ated to the extent of loading* 'agnetiFing* in.ing and unloading( The +or. pieces still have to be vie+ed b& e&e for defect indications( 9pecialiFed e%uip'ents are also fre%uentl& 'anufactured to test a particular siFe and t&pe of test piece(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

#n illustration of Magnetic Particle inspection

9che'atic arrange'ent for detecting longitudinal defect using current flo+ through the sub1ect( The source of the current can be a portable I 'obile po+er pac. or* in the case of a bench unit* fro' the built$in po+er pac.(

9che'atic arrange'ent of an encircling coil for the detection of circu'ferential and transverse defects( The coil 'a& be cable +rapped round loosel& or +ound on a for'er* as in a bench unit(

#d&antages of Magnetic Particle "rac( Detection 9i'plicit& of operation and application( Huantitative( 5an be auto'ated* apart fro' vie+ing( Disad&antages of Magnetic Particle "rac( Detection 4estricted to ferro'agnetic 'aterials( 4estricted to surface or near surface fla+s( #ot fail safe in that lac. of indication could 'ean no defects or process not carried out properl&(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

Dye Penetrant Testing This 'ethod is fre%uentl& used for the detection of surface brea.ing fla+s in non$ ferro'agnetic 'aterials( The sub1ect to be exa'ined is first of all che'icall& cleaned* usuall& b& vapour phase to re'ove all traces of foreign 'aterial* grease* dirt* etc( fro' the surface generall&* and also for' +ithin the crac.s( #ext the penetrant B+hich is a ver& fine thin oil usuall& d&ed bright red or ultra$violet fluorescentC is applied and allo+ed to re'ain in contact +ith the surface for approxi'atel& fifteen 'inutes( 5apillar& action dra+s the penetrant into the crac. during this period( The surplus on the surface penetrant is then re'oved co'pletel& and thin coating of po+dered chal. is applied( After further period Bdevelop'ent ti'eC the chal. dra+s the d&e out of the crac.* rather li.e blotting paper* to for' a visual* 'agnified in +idth* indication in good contrast to the bac.ground( The process is purel& a 'echanical che'ical one and the various substances used 'a& be applied in a large variet& of +a&s* fro' aerosol spra& cans at the 'ost si'ple end to dipping in large tan.s on an auto'atic basis at the other end( The latter s&ste' re%uires sophisticated tan.s* spra&ing and dr&ing e%uip'ent but the principle re'ains the sa'e(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

#n illustration of Dye Penetrant Testing

A( Penetrant applied to the surface and enters defect

)( 7xcess penetrant re'oved fro' surface

5( 6eveloper po+der applied to dra+ Penetrant out of crac.(

6( Accentuated indication of crac. as Penetrant spreads around the opening

#d&antages of Dye Penetrant Testing 9i'plicit& of operation( )est 'ethod for surface brea.ing crac.s in non$ferrous 'etals( 9uitable for auto'atic testing* +ith reservation concerning vie+ing( Huantities( Disad&antages of Dye Penetrant Testing 4estricted to surface brea.ing defects onl&( 6ecreased sensitivit&( Eses a considerable a'ount of consu'able(
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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

Ultrasonic Fla Detection This techni%ue is used for the detection of internal and surface Bparticularl& distant surfaceC detect in sound conducting 'aterials( The principle is in so'e respects si'ilar to a pieFo electric cr&stal* +hich vibrates for a ver& short period at a fre%uenc&* related to the thic.ness of the cr&stal( =n fla+ detection this fre%uenc& is usuall& in the range of one 'illion to six 'illion ti'es per second B1 M8F to 6 M8FC( Dibrations or sound +aves at this fre%uenc& have the abilit& to travel a considerable distance in ho'ogeneous elastic 'aterial* such as 'an& 'etals* +ith little attenuation( The velocit& at +hich these +aves propagate is related to the Joungs Modulus for that 'aterial( <or exa'ple the velocit& in steel is 59 'eters per second* and in +ater 14 'eters per second( Eltrasonic energ& is considerabl& attenuated in air* and a bea' propagated through a solid +ill* on reaching an interface Be(g( a defect* or intended hole* or the bac. +allC bet+een that 'aterial and air reflect a considerable a'ount of energ& in the direction e%ual to the angle of incidence( <or contact testing the oscillating cr&stal is incorporated in a hand held probe* +hich is applied to the surface of the 'aterial to be tested( To facilitate the transfer of energ& across the s'all air gap bet+een the s'all air gap bet+een the cr&stal and the test piece* a la&er of li%uid* usuall& oil* +ater or grease* is applied to the surface( As 'entioned previousl&* the cr&stal does not oscillate continuousl& but in short pulses* bet+een each of +hich it is %uiescent( PieFo electric 'aterials not onl& convert electrical pulses to 'echanical oscillations* but +ill also transducer 'echanical oscillations into electrical pulses2 thus +e have not onl& a generator of sound +aves but also a detector of returned pulses( The cr&stal is in a state to detect returned pulses +hen it is %uiescent( The pulse ta.es a finite ti'e to travel through the 'aterial to the interface and to be reflected bac. to the probe(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

The nor'al 'ethod of presenting infor'ation in ultrasonic testing is b& 'eans of a cathode ra& tube* in +hich horiFontal 'ove'ent of the spot fro' left to right represents ti'e elapsed( The rate at +hich the spot 'oves is such that it gives the appearance of horiFontal line on the screen( The s&ste' is s&nchroniFed electronicall& so that at the instant the probe receives its electrical pulse the spot begins to traverse the screen( An up+ard deflection Bpea.C of the line on the left hand side of the screen is an indication of this occurrence( This pea. is usuall& ter'ed the initial pulse( /hilst the base line is perfectl& level the cr&stal is %uiescent( An& pea.s to the right of the initial pulse indicate that the cr&stal has received an inco'ing pulse reflected fro' one or 'ore interfaces in the 'aterial( 9ince the spot 'oves at a ver& even speed across the tube face* and the pulse of ultrasonic +aves 'oves at a ver& even velocit& through the 'aterial* it is possible to calibrate the horiFontal line on the screen in ter's of absolute 'easure'ent( The use of a calibration bloc.* +hich produces a reflection fro' the bac. +all a .no+n distance a+a& fro' the cr&stal together +ith variable controls on the fla+ detector* allo+s the screen to be calibrated in units of distance* and therefore deter'ination of origins of returned pulses obtained fro' a test piece( =t is therefore possible not onl& to discover a defect bet+een the surface and the bac. +all* but also to 'easure its distance belo+ the surface( =t is i'portant that the e%uip'ents properl& calibrated and* since it is in itself not able to discri'inate bet+een intended boundaries of the ob1ect under test and unintended discontinuities* the operator 'ust able to identif& the origin of each pea.( <urther as the pulses fro' a bea' it is also possible to deter'ine the plan position of a flo+( The height of the pea. BechoC is roughl& proportional to the area of the reflector* though there is on all instru'ents a control* +hich can reduce or increase the siFe of an indication$variable sensitivit& in fact( #ot onl& is part& of the bea' reflected at a 'aterialIair interface but also at an& 1unction +here there is a velocit& change* for exa'ple steelIslag in a +eld( Probing all faces of a test piece not onl& discovers the three$di'ensional defect and 'easures its depth but can also deter'ine its siFe( T+o di'ensional BplanarC defect scan also be found but* unli.e radiograph&* it is best that the incident bea' i'pinges on the defect as near to right angles to the plane as possible( To achieve this so'e probes introduce the bea' at an angle to the surface( =n this 'anner longitudinal defects in tubes Binner or outer surfaceC are detected(
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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

=nterpretation of the indication on the cathode ra& tube re%uires a certain a'ount of s.ill* particularl& +hen testing +ith hand held probes( The techni%ue is* ho+ever* ad'irabl& suited to auto'atic testing of regular shapes b& 'eans of a 'onitor 0 an electronic device that fits into the 'ain e%uip'ent to provide an electrical signal +hen an echo occurs in a particular position on the trace( The trigger level of this signal is variable and it can be 'ade to operate a variet& of 'echanical gates and fla+ +arnings( Modern ultrasonic fla+ detectors are full& solid state and batteries operated* and are robustl& built to +ith stand site conditions( 9ince the velocit& of sound in an& 'aterial is characteristic of that 'aterial* it follo+s that so'e 'aterials can be identified b& the deter'ination of the velocit&( This can be applied* for exa'ple in 9(;( cast irons to deter'ine the percentage of graphite nodularit&( This process can also be auto'ated and is no+ in use in 'an& foundries( A t&pical e%uip'ent is the HEAK=4G#( /hen the velocit& is constant* as it is in a +ide range of steels* the ti'e ta.en for the pulse to travel through the 'aterial is proportional to its thic.ness( Therefore* +ith a properl& calibrated instru'ent* it is possible to 'easure thic.ness fro' one side +ith accurac& in thousandths of an inch( This techni%ue is no+ in ver& co''on use( A develop'ent of the standard fla+ detectors is the digital +all thic.ness gauge( This operates on si'ilar principles but gives an indication* in K76 or K56 nu'eric* of thic.ness in absolute ter's of 'illi'eters( These e%uip'ents are eas& to use but re%uire prudence in their application( #n illustration of Ultrasonic Fla Detection

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

#d&antages of Ultrasonic Fla Detection Thic.ness and length up to 3 ft can be tested( Position* siFe and t&pe of defect can be deter'ined( =nstant test results( Portable( 7xtre'el& sensitive if re%uired( 5apable of being full& auto'ated( Access to onl& one side necessar&( #o consu'ables( #d&antages of Ultrasonic Fla Detection #o per'anent record available 0 the operator decides +hether the test piece is defective or not +hilst test proceeds( =ndications re%uire interpretation Bexcept for digital +all thic.ness gaugesC( 5onsiderable degree of s.ill necessar& to obtain the fullest infor'ation fro' the test( Der& thin section can prove difficult(

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

!ddy current and !lectro$Magnetic Methods The edd& current 'ethod is e'plo&ed in t+o aspects of non$destructive testing( <irstl& as a 'eans of finding surface and subsurface fla+s* and secondl& as a 'eans of deter'ining different 'etallurgical characteristics in place of destructive 'ethods( 7dd& currents are produced in an& electrical conducting 'aterial +ithin +hich an alternating 'agnetic field Bfre%uenc& range fro' 2L8F to 1 L8FC has been generated( This alternating 'agnetic field can be generated in the +or. piece to be tested b& 'eans an encircling coil that is fed +ith an A(5( voltage( 7dd& current possesses the propert& of generating a voltage in a second coil* +hich also surround the sub1ect( The principle is so'e+hat si'ilar to that of a transfor'er +ith pri'ar& +inding* core and secondar& +inding( The value in ter's of a'plitude* phase* etc( of the current so generated in the secondar& +inding b& the edd& currents is dependent on the charters tics of the 'aterial in +hich the edd& currents circulates( 9o there +ould be a difference in the value of the current fro' the secondar& +inding bet+een t+o pieces of 'aterial +hich +ere identical in siFe* shape and co'position* but in one of +hich there +as a crac. 0 the effect of the discontinuit& being to disturb the circulation of the edd& currents( The difference in phase b& a cathode ra& tube( =n this 'anner not onl& can crac. be detected but* to a certain degree their siFe can be deter'ined* i(e( the absence of 'etal( The value of the current in the secondar& can also be altered in co'parison +ith a standard b& difference in co'position* hardness* texture* shape* conductivit& and siFe and in theor& there should be onl& one variable( <or instance* if one is searching for crac.s in* sa&* bar 'aterial* and then the other characteristics 'entioned above should be constant( =t fre%uentl& happens* though* that a standard is set for a particular ite' and an& deviation* fro +hatever reason* results in re1ection( #or'all& e%uip'ents have t+o separate test coils* each of +hich houses a pri'ar& and a secondar& +inding( =n one coil the .no+n standard is placed* the un.no+n sub1ect being placed in the second coil* the differences are displa&ed on the instru'entation( =t is not strictl& necessar& that the coils encircle the sub1ect( 4ecent
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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

develop'ents use a single coil* +hich uses i'pedance generated b& the edd& currents( This 'eans that probe s&ste's have evolved +hich can be scanned over the surface of the part to be tested( The depth of penetration of edd& current depends on the 'aterial( At a given co'position the lo+er the fre%uenc& of the A(5( current fed to the pri'ar& the deeper the penetration( 8o+ever* the lo+er the fre%uenc& the less sensitive the 'ethod is too s'all changes( )eing a purel& electrical 'ethod edd& current testing is easil& auto'ated* since the encircling coil or probe need not co'e into contact +ith the test piece( The 'echanical handling 'a.es it a re%uire'ent that the pieces are of a si'ple geo'etric shape #n illustration of !ddy "urrent Testing

#d&antages of !ddy "urrent Testing 9uitable for the deter'ination of a +ide range of conditions of conducting 'aterial* such as defect detection* co'position* hardness* conductivit&* etc( in a +ide variet& of engineering 'etals( =nfor'ation is provided in si'ple ter's3 Gften goIno go( 5an be portable( #o consu'able( 9uitable for total auto'ation( Disad&antages of !ddy "urrent Testing The +ide range of characteristics* +hich have an effect on* an edd& current s&ste' tends to 'ilitte against it* e(g( /hilst carbon variation can be tolerated

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A brief explanation of non destructive Testing Method

in particular steels* crac.s +ould not* and the instru'ent 'ight not be able to discri'inate( ;enerall& test restricted to surface conditions(

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