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*

STUDY WORDS
MACMILLAN ANDERSON

OF

ENGLISH
By

JESSIE

NEW

YORK:.

CINCINNATI:

CHICAGO

AMERICAN

BOOK

COMPANY

Copyright,

1897,
by

COMPANY.
AMERICAN BOOK

STUDY

OF

BNQ.

WORDS

w.

P.

17

TO

Cfte

Ee"erenti

Sameg

iWiarsfjall

antiergon

WHO,

STUDENT

OF

ANCIENT

AND

MODERN

LANGUAGES,

HAS

TAUGHT

ME

FROM

MY

EARLY

CHILDHOOD

TO

LOOK

FOE

THE

HIDDEN

BEAUTIES

OF

OUR

ENGLISH

SPEECH

THIS

BOOK

IS

LOVINGLY

INSCRIBED

266949

PREFACE

The find its


as

study

of

English

as

language
with the

is

beginning
study
of

to

rightful
literature.

place, parallel

lish Eng-

Archbishop
works
our on

Trench
were

and

Richard
in

Grant this
cannot

White,
direction. claim

in

their From

words,

pioneers followers,
but
we
we

very of

position
these of late

as

the

nality origiof the and which

leaders,

have far

the

advantage
and broader
on

records
more

scholarship,
than the

deeper

trustworthy
based their book

accepted

traditions

they
This
.

statements.

little within

is

believed
scope

to

be and

the

first

effort form

to

bring
the

schoolroom

schoolbook about the

latest After

discoveries
Trench
to

of and

language
White and and Emerson has

students

lish. Engauthor

Skeat,
;

is

indebted of of

Whitney

and

Professor allowed
at

Jackson the
use

Columbia
his table

University
for

most

kindly

distinguishing

word-origins

sight (page

46).
the book is and
meant
as a

Although
Grammar
to

stepping-stone
of

from Litera-

Rhetoric

the

History

English

PREFACE

ture,
of

by

means

of

an

elastic

set

of

Topics
work

at

the

close

each

chapter,
advanced

original
classes,

and

varied

may

be

done

by
It

more

if

desired.

is

the

author's

hope
the time

that

this

elementary boys
tongue,
of their and

work

may shall

help
know

toward

when

our

girls
shall

more

of

their

English
and worth

and

feel

increasingly

the

charm

language

inheritance.
J.
M. A.

April,

1897.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER General
Principles Difference
of

I
PAOK

Language

Growth and Mechanism and


;

between Dead

Organism
;

Language
;

is The

Organic
"

Languages Family
of
;

Ancestry
:

Descendants
and

Indo-European
Classification upon Words

Alphabets
Grimm's Nations

Consonants

Vowels,
in Words

Consonants;
by
of Different Mistaken

Law,
;

Change
of

being
;

used

Growth

Compound

Danger

Etymologies.

CHAPTER

II 23
as

Origin

and

Growth
a

of

English

How

Language
Position
;

changes
Traces of Latin
;

it travels

Influences
Roman
"

of

graphical Geo-

inthe
;

English
Scandinavian and

of

the

Invasion, Saxons,
Norman tween bein

Celtic Jutes French

Element,
;

Arrival

German

Tribes,

Angles, Norse,

Ecclesiastical
;

or

Early English Modern Early and


Greek Words in

Wyclif

Chaucer,
; Other

Differences Elements
; a

English, Spelling English


; Technical

English,

Terms

Simpler

Classification. CHAPTER
III
in

Greek,

Latin,
Greek,

and

French

Elements

English

specially

Considered

34

Latin, and
of Stems
; Hints

French under for

Derivatives,
Each
;

"

General

Description,
Traits of the

with Saxon
;

Lists

Distinguishing
of Elements in

Element

approximately

ing testing Origin by Spell-

Diagram

showing

Proportion

English.

CHAPTER
Growth
and

IV English Words
;

Change
; Stems

in

Form

of

50

Roots

; Inflectional

Change

Compounds,
"

Prefixes,
Latin,

"

Greek,
;

Latin,

French,
of

English;

Suffixes,

Greek,

lish Eng-

Weakening

Endings.
7

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER The

V
rAOE

Spelling

of

Latin-English from from


Noun

66 Stems Verb
;

Derivatives

Verb Latin

forming
Derivatives

Words from

Stems

in Exceptions ; Exercise in -ble ; ; Adjectives Forms.

Stems;

Weakened

CHAPTER Growth
and

VI
of

Change of

in

the

Meaning

Words

70

Development from Physical


Latin Words

Meanings ; Principles of Change ; Change of Meaning, in to Mental Meaning ; Transfer traced and Saxon in the Growth Words of History ; of Meaning. ; Narrowing

CHAPTER
Latin
and

VII
82

Saxon the

English Latin
;

Effect of
Saxon Latin

and

Saxon between

Elements Latin

; Character

of Words of

the
;

Element the
;

Choice of

and

Saxon Use

Language ; Proper Vocabulary at Different Proportion of Latin and Saxon Periods, with Quotations from Representative Writers.
Words

Exact

Science

Saxon

CHAPTER
The

VIII Use of
of

Artist's

and

the

Scientist's Words
;

Words Associative Element

93

Association in

of

Value

the

Meanings;

Illustrations.

CHAPTER
'^

IX 98

Synonyms

Meanings, by Derivation, Development, of Several Groups of Synonyms,


;

and

Association

amination ; Ex-

with of

No with

Absolute

Synonyms
from in

Value

tinctions Regard to DisDistinguishing

Synonyms,
Arnold
;

Illustrations of Words

Shakespeare
;

and

Matthew and

Choice

Argument

in

Persuasion

Diplomacy.
CHAPTER Rhythm Prose Accent
; Recurrence

X Ill

of Unaccented from

Syllables ; Value
and Dr. R.

of

Prose

Rhythms

illustrated

Stevenson

S. Storrs.

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

CHAPTER

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

Difference the
tree

between

Organism
a

and

Mechanism.
and
a

"

One that
never

of the
a

differences
was

between
a

house

tree

is
was

once

child
tree

tree, while

the
a

house little few

child
a

house. little did and say


it
was

The

began
small
a

with and

set

of

roots,
;

weak

trunk,

and with

branches
a

the

house

not
a

begin
three
tree

little from
it

kitchen,
the and the and first
in
one

tiny

front

door,
We
that

roof of the

inches that
was

ground.
of
tree

grew^

the
a

house
thing some-

built. made

There the

within
out on,

which house another. house done is each


or was

parts

swell

shoot

up

the

enlarged
The

by

adding
may

story,
:

then the been of the it

difference
we
''
"

be

seen

this what
more

while has
rows

building, day,

can

point
have

out

just
ten

They
have

laid the

bricks,"
tree
was. we

''They only

put
"

in

staircases";

of than

can

say,

It

is

bigger, stronger

It For

is

developing."
two

these those
:

classes
are

of

things,
"

"

those have The


two

which

^r^ow

and
names

which

made^

we

important

Organism

and

Mechanism.
9

first

question

10
of

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

our

present study is, To


is

which

class does

Language

belong ? history of primitive language,we find that its parts are not brought togetherall ready-made, like bricks for a house, but begin as baby words and grow to maturity,changing as a boy's and recognizable in their features change ; yet the same, and hands are developed forms, as the boy's nose nizable recogman's. Like in the grown a tree, again, the is irregular out growth of the whole ; language sends an unexpected shoot here, and there it loses a branch through scanty supply of sap at that point. The many in which be language life is like tree life may ways guessed from the student's use of the words root^ stem^ branch, to express the facts of language growth. The guage deeper we go, the clearer it becomes that a lanis Organic ; that like a tree, like a human being, it has life and the stages of life, childhood, maturity,
Language Organic.
" "

In

examining

the

old age, death.


its language dead when life as a language is finished, though as a literature it still live and thought. Such a literature may convey is not unlike a mummy of a man's as livingappear; and ance his mummy and brings down to us very slight vague notion, so of the beauty and richness of an ancient tongue miss much when we we study it as a dead language. Another Ancestry and Descendants. sign of organic be and life, long lines of ancestors descendants, may traced in languages as in men. Take, for example, Latin. It is a dead language, but it has left many When the Romans quered living children. fought and conDead

Languages.

"

We

call

"

"

the

savage

tribes
to

in
use

the

countries

around

them,
So the

these tribes learned

the

Latin

tongue.

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

11

Latin
we now

took

root

and

sent

out

shoots
and

in the

call

France

and

Spain
a

places which Portugal. Like a


in

tree, when well


her
as

it

died, it left offshoots


or

these

lands

as

in

Italy;
one

like

human

mother, Latin
scattered. of

left
And
same

children,
educated

at

home, the
or

others

like stock

transplantedtrees,

like

children

the

unlike, with
on

apart, these all grew up, alike and yet family features, and individual variations
we

these.

Thus

have

the

Romance

('from
And

the their

Roman') languages of Modern family tide is like this :


"

Europe.

LATIN

I
,

I
French

I
Spanish

I
Portuguese

Italian

The Latin

Indo-European
we

Family.
to
an a

"

For vaguer

the

ancestors

of

must

go

back
was

record.
"

Scholars

which originalfamily they and that it gradually spread call the Indo-European and covered large parts of Asia and nearly all of Europe. Of the common grandmother tongue we have But there seem to a nothing left,not even mummy. have been eight branches in this family tree. will We look at these, leaving out some of the unfamiliar names in order attention to give all our to the more tant imporus
"

tell

that

there

ones.

These

eight

branches

did

not, however,
at
even

all

sprout
them and
not

from directly

the

originaltrunk, and
From

distances of

from
are

one

another.
much

the

fact that

some

very

alike

it is clear that Italic), been separated so long

the Hellenic (especially these, for example, have

from

each

other

as

from

the

others.

12

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Vedic Indian

As
no

has

been

said,
of the

we

have

pi Aryan- 1

L
I

Sanskrit old Persian

Iranian

j ] fAvestan

remnant

original
tongue,
guages lanto

Indo-European
therefore
can

none

of

these

be
;

traced
but

back

II Armenian

their with

source

Sanskrit, Avestan,
to

the

kindred

is

undoubtedly
"

nearest

the

Ill Hellenic

"

Attic Greek

of the parent original form speech. The farther back we the Indogo in the history of European languages, the more alike do the words of the
"

rV

Albanian (the language of


ancient

lllyria)

various

branches

become,

the simple, familiar, especially words, pointing to necessary


"

PUmbrian
Oscan
1

the

same

roots

in

an

I"

'

French Italian, iSpanish,Portuguese


(

original childlike of speech, variations


which formed of
guage the lanour

Gallic
"

tant dis-

Britannic Gaelic
"

Welsh, Cornish

Irish,Scotch-Gaelic,Manx

ancestors

while

they were still living near

EOld
Bohemian,
I
"

Prussian, Lithuanian
Polish

one

another
common

in

Russian, Bulgarian some

home.
Gothic

But

wjiere

Norwegian
Icelandic
-

this
was,

home original

Scandinavian Danish Swedish

whether
or can

in in

L-VIII Teutonic

Europe
Asia,
never

"

High German

"

German Frisian Dutch

ably probbe

Low

German Flemish

[ English

determined.

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

13
to

From
to

the chart,Latin
same

and

English

are

seen

belong
The

Family, but not to the same English language is Teutonic, though she
the much from
her aunts, Greek

Branch. has

inherited

and

Latin, and has borrowed

from her cousins,especially French, and from her largely Modern sisters, (calledHigh (High) German especially the high lands, while the twin Low because spoken on German languages,Dutch and English,or Anglo-Saxon, the lowland tongues). were This is but a hint of the vast study of the Genealogy of Languages. Let us now look at one great trait of every developed language, the mode of writing it, and trace therein the laws of heredity and growth.

Development of

Written

Characters.

"

The

earliest written

language of which we know anything is the picture from writing of the Egyptians,called the Hieroglyphic, the Greek words because it meaning 'sacred carvings,' used to carve records. From in stone the priestly was these hieroglyphics opment trace the stages in the develwe can of alphabets. The hieroglyphics of things. rude pictures were actually If one wished he made to write sun a or picture, moon^
somewhat The like
our

modern

almanac's the

O,

^.

we
or

to repdrawing of one thing, resent several words sounding alike ; as if,for instance, should make either pear the picture of a pear, to mean little sign to show which was pair or pare^ with some

second

stage was

intended. This
soon

led to the third

the Syllabic. stage of writing, of


a representing

instead figure, representeda syllable. The


a

In this, each

whole

word,

fourth

step was

to have

and letter,

this is the

real

figurerepresent only beginning of an alphabet.


each

14
The
we

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

picturesbegan to have fewer and have, for example, the Phoenician

fewer

strokes
which

till the

sign ",

to A. So changed to A and the later Romans Egypt was probably the birthplaceof the alphabet now used over nearly all Europe.

Greeks

In

some

of the

Roman

numerals,

we

find

traces

of the

picturewriting. I,II, III,IIII may have arisen from the holdingup of the fingers in counting.
Our Runic.
or

old

Saxon The

ancestors

had

another

kind of

called writing,

Runic

written letters,

alphabet consisted of sixteen Runes, almost wholly in straightlines,partly


carved
in stone and hard in
an

because
can see

they
a

were

woods.

We

trace

of these
"

old th.

Runes This

Anglo-Saxon
what some-

letter called

thorn^]"

our

letter looked that the old

like y, and that is the the is so often written ye or


was

reason

y^.
sixth

It

was

English and really'})e,' English


in the of

always pronounced 'the.'


In

the

latter
to

part of the
use

century, the

nation

began

the

Roman

alphabet, and

eleventh

century they had the Black-letter writing it (the origin of the present German
The
two
are

method

type).
ingly accord-

present forms
"

came

from

and Italy,

named The The

Roman Italic shown

"

"

A, A,

a. a.

and hand languages inherit, features as alphadown with slightchanges, such special bets, be found in a tribe or nose just as a particular may for generation after generation. family,distinguishable We how such shall now see special features help us languages and greatly in tracing the originof modern We have
now

that

dialects.

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

15

Resemblances
most

and

Changes
that
so

in Words.

"

Of

course

the guages lan-

distinct
are

signs of family relationships among


often
one

the Words

Such

words

appear

they may changed


at

have
as

in
to

common.

recognizableby
a

who

looks
a

them

hardly while carelessly,


that could
not

be

student
come

will

see

in them

deep

likeness

have
As

by chance.
all

in growth, there is no absolute regularity these changes ; but again, as in all growth, there are underlying and general laws. The law of the Variation of Consonants in the Indo-European family of languages discovered and his brother,and is was by Jacob Grimm called Grimm's Law. (These are the famous Fairy Tale the fairytales, Grimms, and the law is as interesting as when takes the time to understand it fully.) one
in Consonant
name comes

and

Vowel. the
was

"

What Latin

is

consonant

The
means

from

consonans^

which

'sounding with '; and


because when

they
of

were

given thought not


a

to to

one

class of sounds, "vocal"

be

except

sounded

with

vowel

while
were

those

letter sounds Vowels

wliich were
word from

themselves

vocal

called

(a
form,
two
as

the Latin

modified vocalis,

by

the French

voyelle).
This sounds distinction is not
5,
a or

the

most

accurate.

The

of the consonant

for instance,can The

be sounded

alone,as with clearly, of degree of openness


the freest, because the throat and
true
or

vowel.

distinction The vowel


to

is rather
are

closeness.

sounds

the breath

is allowed

pass
;

through
while the

mouth sounds

with the least obstruction


are

consonant

lips or
are

shaped by the palateor tongue teeth, considerably obstructing the passage of


All

the breath.

vocal

sounds, whether
variation of

vowel the

or

nant, conso-

varied

by

the

shape

of

the

16

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

throat

and

mouth, while

the

breath

is

passing through

instrument shape of the cavity in a wind In the vowel determines the qualityof its tone. sounds, the breath the is, simply, shaped. In the semivowels breath is slightly obstructed in its passage. In the true consonant sounds, the breath is actually blocked in its

just as

the

exit. is

For

instance, the

vowel

sound

(as

in

shaped by freelyopening throat, mouth, giving the least possibleobstruction to the


the breath. is somewhat The sound of the semivowel
w

and

father^ lips,
"

passage

of

(as in water)
before
are

the breath closer, the a-sound.


or

obstructed slightly
true consonant

passinginto

The

sounds

in less closed^

greater degree.
"

Classification of Consonants.
are

If closed

by

the

lips, they

called Labial If If
If

S,/). (j9, (t^d^ tJi).

by by by

the teeth.Dental

the throat.Guttural
the

Breathed
"

(^, g^ K). Palatal (/,ch). palate, and Voiced Q'Hard'' and Consonants. Soft'')
'-^

There

is another

classification of these true

consonants,

though, alequally recognizedby authorities, named. unfortunately, variously By comparing the sounds of p and J, t and c?, c (k) and ^, it will be found the breathy thatp,f,c can be pronounced simplyby expelling while 5, d, g requirethe use of the vocal chords as well.

equally clear,and

The
and

two

classes have

been, therefore,called Breathed

Voiced.

/ (
with

which

the AspiIncludingwith these consonants rates build up a little table th^A, we may now jt?^), of Grimm's Law : to illustrate the principles
"

18

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Changes
consonants

in Consonant found easy


to

Groups.
the

"

Many
and do

combinations
one are

of

tongues of
nation

nation, seem
avoided
s

harsh
them.
=

and

difficult to another
For

by

example,
p.

the

French

not

like

before

(?( k), ^, or
Hence in

takingfrom the stomachus^ they put spiritus^ combination, throwing the s


thus the French
In many
we

Latin
an e

such
in

words
to
e.

front,
the

scapus^ break the We have

as

back

with

estomac. escape, esprit, like words, they afterwards

dropped the
French

and

find

"

Latin

schola siudium

ecole etude

Syllables Shortened

and

Dropped.
Latin

"

Another
to

frequent
is found

change
in the the

in words

passing from

French

down

that follow Those syllables shorteningprocess. accented syllableof the Latin word are either cut or dropped altogether. For instance :
"

Latin

French

pdpulus dngelus
Growth of

peuple
ange

Compound
of

Words.

"

most

in the

growth

words, whether

ment eleinteresting within their original

ing language or in process of transfer to another, is the formof compounds. For example, from such a combination
as

the
a

Latin

vera

mente,

'

with

true

mind,'

we

come

to

vraiment, 'truly.' And compound as the French French this ending, -ment, becomes the usual suffix for was our ending -ly, forming adverbs from adjectives ; as
such
once a

separate word, like ; true-like (German treulicK)


=

truly.

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

19

Danger
needs of the

of

Mistaken up,

Etymologies.
"

One
our

taking

before

we

go

on

to

point specialstudy
more

English tongue in its growth and changes; and students. These that is an earnest warning to young about, in the life and growth of any changes that come and the word it is altogether, language, often disguise only by the closest and most cautious historical study that is with any certainty traced. the originof a word Very several laws often there are acting together,each of be simple enough if acting alone, while would which of all is very the complex result of the interaction puzzling.
There
are

also

mere

coincidences

that look

like laws ;
must

for,as
agree

in every

branch
can

of science,many be
sure

instances

before

we

of

an

ciple. underlying prin-

Many
and

mistakes

about
later

corrected

by

already been made, it is only in investigations ; and


one

words

have

the latest dictionaries that derivations


are

is told whether

the offered

certain

or

only acceptedfor lack of better


do
not

knowledge.
There
are

words

that

look

alike, that
words

can

be

proved
ego.
same

to

be
;

related,perhaps in historically
as

direct genealogical

line
And

is the
are

case

w4th

the

jT, je,ik, ich^


have the

there

words have

that look been


;
as

alike and

meaning,
no

which

proved, nevertheless, to
the

have

historical connection

Greek

holos and

the

Englishwhole,the Latin compono and the English compose. tive All language changes are especially active in the formaperiod,the childhood of the language. We shall begin our study of English,then, with an of these early years and conditions of what examination call Angk)-Saxon. we

20

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

QUESTIONS
1. 2. and

ON

CHAPTER

What Give

is the difference between


five

growing process,

and besides

beingmade?
the house

examples
the two

of each

tree.

3.
4.

How To

are

classes of

things named

what of
a

language belong? Explain. respects is language growth like the growth of a man
What What What
From

which

class does

In
or

tree ?

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

is meant is meant children what


out

by by
has

a
"

language ? of languages? families


" "

dead

"

Latin

left

us

? ?

tongue has Latin


the

herself descended

Indo-European family tree, as given. Which branches two to Europe ? belong to Asia ? How many of this family does English belong ? 10. To what branch and to which is she most nearly related ? Low German 11. What do we ? mean by High and of writing ? 12. What the earliest method was 13. Through what four stages did this pass, to reach an alphabet?
" '' " "

Write

14. 15.

Give What ?

the earlier forms


trace

of

our

A.
we

of

writing have pictorial


?
to be written
our

in the Eoman

numerals
16. 17. 18. ?

What

were

the Eunes the


came

Explain
In what

how

y*.
the
?

century did
did the
we

nation Black

use

Eoman From

bet alphawhat

When
came

write

it in

Letter

country
19. 20.

How What

present mode of writing ? traced among are languages ? family relationships the languages is the law of consonant change among Indo-European Family
is the did this is the called ? word
consonant

of the 21.

What

derivation

of the

What

distinction 22. What ?

imply ?
truer

distinction

between

vowels

and

sonants con-

GENERAL

PRINCIPLES

OF

LANGUAGE

GROWTH

21

23. 24.
"

How

is all variation of vocal what


are

sound

produced ?
"

In this sense,
"

the exact
''

distinctions of
?

vowel,"
the

and semivowel,^' 25.

consonant

sounds

Give

Give

the

classificationof

consonants

examples. according to

closed. they are partially to the force of the check. 26. Give the classification according the table, 27. Write combining these classifications. the change of consonants 28. Give words illustrating by Also the mnemonic table (mnemonic from Law. Grimm's a Greek word for ^memory'). found in many two generalchanges in spelling 29. What are words passingfrom Latin into modern French ? 30. Illustrate the formation of compound words. for caution in word 31. Explain the necessity study.

pointat

which

TOPICS

IN

CONNECTION
Review
or

WITH
Advanced

CHAPTER

[For
I.

Work]

Organisms and Mechanisms. In the following list distinguish the steam-engine family nation butterfly
mine umbrella

two

classes seal

"

seal-muff

list under Prepare an original


II.

each class.
I.

The Look

words principal
up in Webster

of

Chapter

the derivation

of the words

"

alphabet genealogy
III.

family language
about Latin.

history development

characteristic literature

Some When

Facts
was

its classical
to be
a

ceased

period? spoken language?


now

How

long

is it since it

What

took the Romans

into the countries What

called France,

signof

Eoman

conquest

was

Spain,Portugal? left in the languages

of these countries ?

22

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WOkDS

IV.

Illustrations of the

fact

that

words

may

look
at

alike and
least from words

yet

be

derived

from of be

different
one

roots, or
from

different branches
of this list
are

original root.
those
a

(The

to

studied

Webster's

tional Interna-

Dictionary; distinguish
referred
to

which, though
common

have separate derivations,

origin

easily traced.)
admiral, admirable. alder,elder,alderman. annual, annular. date,fruit; date, time. dock, three uses, as noun.
ear, two
to fret,

distinct derivations.
tease ;

apparel, apparent.
arsenic. arsenal,

to ornament, fret, polish; gloss, comment gloss,

ash, the tree; ashes. social dance ; ball, a ball, object. bank, as noun
all its and

tary.
round

grate, parallelbars; grate, to


sound

harshly.

verb, with
tion declara-

idea,idiot.
ornament. of water; jet, jet, a heap. a stake; pile, pile, a sound; ring,a circle. ring,

meanings. a bill, of a bird; bill,


in
as close,

writing.
noun,

verb. adjective,

in scale,

all

meanings.
may

V.

Illustrations but
have

of
a

the
common

fact

that
root.

words

look word

unlike
from

(Study
mint,

each

Webster.)
amateur, amiable,
deceive, capable, cemetery, comedy, quiet, money, river, rival,

pathos, passion,

discern,decree,critic. ignore,agnostic, fashion, fact,deficient,

preach,predicate,
star,street,

double,ply.

vision, envy, ticket, etiquette.

Future
root
come

chapterswill discuss how words from the in meaning. to vary either in spelling or

same

CHAPTER

II

ORIGIN

AND

GROWTH

OF

ENGLISH

How is
a

Language living thing.


use

changes.
Its

"

Language,
and

as

we

have
come

seen,

growth
living

change
as

about
grow

through
change.

daily
So that
we
use

by

people origin
to

they

and of the
of

must
a

study

the
in

and

growth
at

people
the

language,

order

get

the

facts

life of
Period

that of
in

language.
Change.
"

Greatest

This of the

is

especially true,
periods
a

as

was

seen

the

last

chapter,

earlier
in

of

language,
"

before

its words

become

fixed

book mouth and

ture, literato

while

they

are

simply
at

passing
of
very

from rude

mouth,

and, if written
Like
a

all, are
a

tain uncer-

spelling.
its

man,

language
the

changes boy
of

more

in

youth.
of

You

hardly
but

recognize
man

six will

in
not

the be

youth
very
How

sixteen,
at

the

of

thirty-six

different
a

forty-six.
travels.
"

Language
comes

We Teutonic

have
or

seen

that

our

lish Engbranch

tongue
of the

of

the

Germanic

Indo-European
in

family.
be
must

But

language foreign

does
;

not

travel

books,

to

adopted
first

by
carry

nation
How

the
a

people
Germanic

speaking

it

it

over.

did

language
?

reach

England,

and

become

England's

language
Caesar

had
of

gone

to

Britain

as

well

as

to
a

Gaul.

The lan-

language

France

(ancient
23

Gaul)

is

Romance

24

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

why did not England receive a form Roman soldiers, as language from the Roman and Spain and Portugal ? Or if the island rejectedthe Latin, why
guage:

of the did

old

France

did

she

not

preserve

her

native

Celtic ?

Who

were

the

conquering
their Germanic

Anglo-Saxons that brought in speech?


Influence the Romans
as

and

established

of
never

Geographical
established
was

Position.

"

One
so

reason

why

their rule
an

in Gaul

is that Britain

fullyin Britain island,which they could

in their small only by crossing a rough channel From of transportingsoldiers, and boats. this difficulty of getting prompt well as as reports of native uprisings, from a varietyof causes lying in the nature and habits of the barbarians themselves, the Romans always had great

reach

keeping track of the constant rebellions among these Britons and quellingthem. And, though Caesar had of the fifth crossed as earlyas 65 B.C., we find the Romans century a.d. abandoning the island and withdrawing their legions.
trouble in Traces Romans such
were

in had

English of
left
as some

the Roman
trace

Invasion.

"

Of

course

the of

of their

language, but

most

words
names

had
new

of

reallybecome part of the island speech things introduced by the Romans, for
there
was no

which, of
not

course,

native
some

word. of
as

These
in

were

many,

but form.

we

still have

them

slightly
street^ Mil

changed
"

Thus

we

say

from

the

Roman's the Latin

strata measure,

they via^ 'paved way.'


street^
milia passuum^

said

they

took

from

'

thousand

To this period belong also paces,'and we write mile. the endings, -caster^ -cester^ or -chester (Latin castra, 'camp'), and perhaps -coin (Latin colonia, 'colony').

So

we

still have

Lancaster, Worcester, Winchester, Lincoln,

26

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

for 'seven

kingdoms.' Of these,the Jutes had Kent; the had Sussex Saxons (South-Saxons), Wessex ons), (West-SaxEssex and (East-Saxons); the Angles had the rest. the Jutes were fewest and weakOf these three tribes, est.
In the tenth

century,when

all the tribes

were

united

the Angles, to the island, name enough to give a common it England (Angle-land), and having the most land, named the tongue English. Up to 1100, however, the language is now generallytermed Old English or Anglo-Saxon. have Ecclesiastical Latin. We alreadyspoken of two of words sets wards tribes,but afterforeignto the German incorporatedinto Anglo-Saxon, the one taken from
"

the Romans

who native

went

away

in the fifth century, the other


set

from words

the
was

Celtic

introduced
came

tongue. A second when, in 597, a band


from Rome
to

of Latin

of Christian
to

missionaries

over

convert

tianity Chris-

the heathen

Anglo-Saxon

tribes.

These
and the

aries mission-

customs brought with them many to the Church, and belonging especially

conceptions Anglo-Saxon
Latin.
;

received Church
element

what service of this

is known

as

Ecclesiastical
in Latin

The

itself

was

conducted

the

Latin

only many ecclesiastical terms churchy priest^ (altar bishop^ psalm) but also a number of common names words, particularly of plants, and foods (lily^ animals trout^ pea^ plantslobster^ butter^cheese and others). In 870 the Danes Scandinavian Norse. or began to
however, period includes,^

not

"

invade is often

Britain, and
difficult to

left

number

of

their

words.

It

distinguishthe Norse
their them
'

contributions
at

from

the Saxon, but

number may

is estimated

about

five hundred.

Among

be mentioned in

the

place-

suffixes

-Jy, and

as 'thorp^ village,'

by-laws^ Whitby^

Oglethorp,

ORIGIN

AND

GROWTH

OF

ENGLISH

27
quest, Con-

Norman-French.
William

"

In 1066, the year

of the Norman

the
;

Norman-French fashion
in

Conqueror brought in a court using had already become the in fact, this use
of Edward,
consequence

the
As
a

court
a

who
of the

was

educated

in

Normandy.
supremacy,

Norman-French

vast

number
common

of French

words
of

crept
words

into

the

speech
uses

the
manners.

gradually people, especially


which which
we

thus

for fashionable
"

and

Early English.
date grown

In

1100, then, the


was
we

year

from

what earlyEnglish, into English as


or

this know

Anglo-Saxon
it? It was,

has

mainly, a

made fusion of a tongue., up from the dialects of Angles,Saxons, and Jutes. It had grafted Latin words, received at two difit about six hundred ferent on Teutonic times who
:

Germanic

the first from

left Britain

conquerors in the fifth century ; the second. Church

the

earlyRoman

Latin, brought

in

by
a

Christian Danish it had

missionaries words from

after

697.

Again, it had
of the ninth of the
use

taken

few

the invasion

century; and
and William

of Norman-French the

the Confessor
A up

ence begun to feel the influby the courts of Edward Conqueror.

table of these the matter


more

English in by
"

1100

stem a Teutonic grafts upon may sum clearly: the Anglo-Saxon tongue, modified was
"

1. 2.

few

native words words Danish

Celtic proper
of Church
and

names.

Latin Latin
A

for streets, etc., before

the fifth

century.

3. 4. 6.

scholar,after 597.

few

Norman-French

words, ninth century. of court and high life, after 1042.


educated
"

By
three

1200

every

man

Avas

expected
and Latin.

to

know

French, languages, English,

English

28 the

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

was

common

speech, French
century, Robert
Chronicle

the

language of polite
tongue.
wrote

life and

Latin literature,

the scholar's

In the thirteenth

of Gloucester

in

Englisha Rhymed bury gives us some


"

of Britain.

Professor

Louns"

lines of it, put into modern


man

English :

For But

unless low
men

knows
to

French, he is little thought of,


to their
own

keep

English and
I.
came

speech."

From the

1272, when
of the

Edward

to the

throne, on
was

to

close

fifteenth

century, French

used

in

public acts.
Influence

of

Wyclif and
a

Chaucer.

"

In the fourteenth

tury, cen-

then, for
of courage

scholar to write
may

in

English took
now.

degree
this

which

be underrated easily

But
to

courage on the part of two great writers the first literary English.
In

did much

shape

into of scholars who lacked insight spiteof the scorn the vast possibilities and of English, and still used French forward the fathers came as Latin, Wyclif and Chaucer of English literature. lation Wyclif finished his English trans-

of the
owe

much

of

in 1380, and Scriptures the simplicity and force

it is to him

that

we

and

peculiar beauty
ligion, re-

of later translations

of the Bible. for the

What

Wyclif did
Chaucer

language and literature of


letters. Before

did for poetry and

this,no

one

had dreamed

of the power and language,and for one hundred


went

beautylatent
years in

in the

lish Eng-

after their death

their work
and
a

unappreciated. Even

1623, two

ries centu-

quarter after Chaucer's death, Lord Bacon turned his English works into Latin, that they might be "preserved

thoughtof Latin as the universal and permanent humble while English was a language of learning, speech for the less learned, and might die cut altogether.
!

"

For he

ORIGIN

AND

GROWTH

OF

ENGLISH

29

The English. Early and Modern modern English of Bacon and Shakespeare,though more than that of Wyclif and Chaucer, is still not our English.
Differences between
"

Professor read
no

Whitney
a

says: from

"If
one

we

were

to hear

Shakespeare
be in

aloud

scene

of his works, it would

of the by reason especially part unintelligible, his pronunciation and ours." great difference between To sum up : the English of the Anglo-Saxon period, although our own English is descended from it,differs in small
certain

respectsfrom

our

modern The

speechas
written

much

as

Latin,

English of the sixteenth century, except for the chaotic spelling, is for the most to us, though we part intelligible might not be
able to understand
"

for instance, from

Spanish.

spoken. Spelling. Johnson's Dictionary, published in 1765, did much of English, and is by many to fix the spelling held for some of the lack of law or reason therein responsible discoverable. Spellingought to show the pronunciation of words, and if possible, at the same time, the derivation, while much of our shows neither. spelling
it
as

then

Other
a

Elements the

in

English.
"

We

have

now

shown,

in

general way,
at
more

growth

influenced far

various

English from Anglo-Saxon, stages by Celtic and Danish, but


and French.
to

of

by seriously
are

Latin

There much
:

many

other

languages
;

which
;

we

owe

Spanish and

Italian
;

Modern
even

German the American


to

Hebrew,
Indian.

Persian,Arabic, Turkish
For

and

especially Italy, in the period of the Renaissance, and their writings show borrowed strong traces of Italian influence ; words were
instance,English scholars
went

for the fine arts; e.g., canto^ studio^concert. especially Political dealings with Spain, especiallyduring the reignsof Mary and Elizabeth,introduced Spanish words;

30

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

e.g., don^
was

cigar.
from

The the

taken

(as in Chinese^Maltese) though modified by the Spaniards,


-ese

suffix

Italian The

spelling.
Reformation

brought England and the Netherlands Dutch for seainto contact, and many words, especially faring anglicized;e.g., schooner^ sloop. use, were Biblical literature uses a few English words direct from
the

Hebrew,
the

as

amen.

Scholars
Travelers

use

German

derivatives

for the

sciences, etc.
names

of

Oriental
Americans

brought into English importations ; e.g., skawl^


have borrowed such
native

have

chintz^ indigo; and


Indian words
as

canoe.,

tobacco.

Greek

and

Latin

Words
are

in

English.
"

Scholars
a

trained

in specially of words.
come,
a

the classics A

for responsible of Greek of

special group
words has

large element
slow process

and

Latin

not

recent

common

change and adoption,but by in direct borrowing; e.g., the following words maxiin form : deficit^ use are unchanged even by

ORIGIN

AND

GROWTH

OF

ENGLISH

31^

mum^

climax^ stimulus^ pathos^ apex^ alumnus^ animus^ syllabus^ delta.

Scholars,and
and Latin terms

have scientists, especially

also

used

Greek

for their classifications and

ventions in-

until it is almost

impossibleto study the


a

natural and

sciences Latin

without intelligently roots and endings.


Terms.
as
"

knowledge

of Greek

Technical

Some
nanies

of these terms of botanical

are

stillstrictly But
our

such technical, many of words

the

families.

from
as

the Greek the

have

been

brought into

everyday usage,
Of two and
names

for instance practicaldiscoveries,


common

have needed electricity, classes of Greek of


new

names.
"

words, then,
"

names can

of sciences

inventions,
Sciences

we

find

plenty of

examples.

hence earth description, Geo-graphy, earth-writhig, hence Geo-logy, earth-word, earth-study. God-wordyhence study of God. Theo-logy,

Inventions at-a-distance sight. Tele-scope, at-a-distance sound. Tele-phone, at-a-distance writing. Tele-graph,

Phono-graph,sound-writing. Auto-graph,self-writing. Photo-graph, light-writing.

A
our

Simpler Classification,
a

"

It is
many

confusingto
alien

think

of
For
:
"

language as enfoldingso

elements.

generalpurposes,
Elements
of the

simple twofold classification is used


f 1. Latin Saxon
: ;

words

of classical

origin.

English Language. A

[ 2.

native Teutonic

words.

styleis often described as containing a large proportion of Latin words, or as being ^'almost pure Saxon."

32

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

The

characteristic
to

marks

of

these

two

classes

with

regard
future the

their

effect upon
But

we style, us

shall

chapter.

first let

examine in

study in a more exactly

stems, suffixes,and
Saxon

prefixes used

Greek, Latin,

French, and

derivatives.

QUESTIONS
1.

ON

CHAPTER

II

What

is the
a

connection

between

the

study of
most

people

and

the
2. 3.

study of
what what

language ?
a

At To

period does
branch

language change

rapidly?
the

of the

Indo-European family does


to be

English language belong?


4. 5. How did it

happen
K/Omans

not

of the Latin

branch

?
as

Why

did the

never

gain

foothold

in Britain

in Gaul? 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Draw 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. In what

century

did the Eomans words

leave

Britain this

What
Have Who What

class of Latin
we

belongs to

period?

kept any native Celtic words ? conquered Britain in the sixth century ?
is the relative of position the three

settlements

the outline What What When What

map. of the Saxons'

is the date
was

coming?

the how the

Heptarchy?
England so named ? language called, up to 1100 ? words was brought in by the
was

and
was

What
?

class of When
?

Eoman

sionaries mis-

16.

In

what

century
and how

did

the

Danes

leave

trace

of

their

language?
17. 18.

When
Give
a

was

Norman-French of the elements

introduced of the

? of

short

review

English

1100.
19. 20. Put

this in tabular
what three

form.

In 1200

languages

were

in

use

in

England

CHAPTER

III

GREEK,

LATIN,

AND SPECIALLY

FRENCH

ELEMENTS CONSIDERED

IN

ENGLISH

Greek,

Latin,

and
more

French in

Derivatives. detail in
our

"

We
most

may

now

study
classes

somewhat of

the

.three

important
a

foreign
how
as

elements

English,

with and

view

to

learning

to

distinguish
with

Greek,
one

Latin,
and

French Saxon

derivatives,
words.

contrasted

another

with

Historically,
our

as

we

have

seen

in

Chapter
from the

II,

most

of and

French of
in the
our

w^ords Latin
case

were

descended
were

Latin,
the

many

words the forms

borrowed been
so

from

Greek;

but

each

have

plainly modified
that

by
be
when

tongues
with took

that the them. in

have
last

adopted language

them,
which

they
had

have

to

classed
we

they

reached

Accordingly,
1.
As

this

chapter
those the

we

shall words
into

class which
our

"

Greek
taken the
most

Derivatives,

have

been

directly from
part this
Derivatives

Greek

English
been

(for

direct

borrowing Chapter

has

recent).
words

2.

As
came

Latin
"

(see

II), those

that

From

the

Roman

occupation
words. and his

of

Britain;

mainly
From

military

Augustine
church

successors;

mainly

words.
34

GREEK, From the

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

35

monks

and

scholars

of the

Middle

Ages;

mainly scholastic words.


From

modern

scholars;
various
"

words
3.

for the most

purposes. the

As

French

Derivatives,

Norman-French of the educated

words, brought in from


the
at

reign of Edward
the Norman

Confessor
to

beginning (who was

court)
words

mandy the loss of Nor-

by King John
Parisian French

(1042-1204).
the

French;
scholars

both of

introduced and

by

the

the

thirteenth

fourteenth

centuries, and those of modern


Greek
Derivatives.
to
as

adoption.
words
stems
are

"

The

Greek

tively comparause

easy
are so

few

and the distinguish, learned : to be easily


"

in

common

1.

The

endings used (compare end of Chapter II).


*

five familiar

in

naming

Sciences

^word/ ^speech'). knowledge {log-, "(o)logy, science (nom-, law '). "{p)nomy, description {graph-,write'). '{p)graphy, measurement {metr-, '{o)metry, ^measure'). from the feminine -ics (suffix, adjective ending -iMy used -ic,
^

by
* ^

the Greeks

with the noun,

shortened rhetorical art,^

*art' : e.g., rhetor techn^, into our rhetoric; or with


'

ike

techne,
'

episteme,

science

'

e.g., mathematiM
we

in this

case

have

added

science ; episteme, mathematical shortened s to the form, making

mathematics).
with endings -sophyand -logy^when combined the stem pMU are reallynot, as in this list of ejidings, the less important,but the chief part of the compound : love of wisdom love of philosophymeans ; philo-logy^ The
'
'

'

words.'

36
..

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

2.

The
more

more

common

forms

of have

stems

to

which
:
"

one

or

of these

endings

been

added

ancient. archae, arcliai,

chron,time.
entom, insect.
ge, earth.
once

aster, astr, star.

bijlife. oiko, house; cf. economy,


opt, sight.

oeconomy,
art. techn,

phon, sound. physi,nature.


With
to form

the,God.
zo, animal.
a

the the

knowledge of
commoner as

few

more

stems,

we

shall be able
to

Greek Greek

and derivatives,
we

recognize
:
"

such
1.

derivatives

whenever
the
sense

meet

them
In

arch, archy, first (in


stem
means

of the

rule).

archaic,

this archaeology, 2.

in first

sense

of ancient.

crat, cracy, power.


one,
or
"

Combine of the

one

of pair,

these

endings with
pluto,rich.
best. aristo,

ej**ch

following:
alone.

mon,

hier, priestly. hept,seven.


demo, people.
; discussed

auto, self.
few. olig, an, without

patri,father.

under

Prefixes, Chapter IV.


list:
"

One

more

short,miscellaneous

micro, little.
circle. cycl,

at tele,

distance.

amber, the substance in pedia, electr, Compare en-cyclofirst ^in-a-circle (all-around) which was electricity
observed.
pan-orama, direction.'

instruction.'
pan,
^

all. view

Compare
in every

baro, weight.
measures

barometer

the of the

weight

or

mim, mimic.
petr, stone.

atmosphere. Compare petrify. crit, distinguish. Compare


pressure criterion, critic,
as

din, lean.
meter,
seep
same

-metry above.

(skep), scop, sight.

dynam, force. city. polit,

GREEK,

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

37

learningof these stems by much and varied practice in forming and recognizing words, rather than by memorizing stems, is earnestlyrecommended.
The Latin
more are

Derivatives.
numerous

"

The the be

Latin Greek.

derivatives

are

far

than

Practically,they

recognizedby the Latin prefixes the simple stems often and not are as suffixes, used. (See lists of prefixesand suffixes in the next chapter.) Let the student the stems carefullyexamine given below, and then analyze the subjoinedderivatives with
almost

always

to

reference

to

the

use

of

these

stems, both

in form

and

meaning.
do. ig, act,drive, alt, high.

ag,

round, cing, cinct,sur-

fac, face. fac, fie,fact,feet, make, do. felic, happy. fer,bear. fess, acknowledge. Jid,faith. Jin,end. form, shape. fort,strong. frang, frag, fract,
break.

gird.
cor,

anim, mind.
ann,

cord, heart.
crown.

year.

coron,

aper, apr, open.

apert,

corpus,

corpor,

body.
cred,believe.
cur, curr,
care. run.

apt, fit. art, art.

aud, hear.
aur,

gold.

dat,dit, give. dent,tooth. di,day. diet, speak. dign,worthy. dom, home. domin, master. dorm, sleep. due, duct,lead.
equ,

brev,short.
cad, cid,cas, fall.
cant, sing.
head. capit,
cap, cam,

fund, fus, melt.


genus, gener, kind. gen,

dp, capt, take.


flesh.
move,

gest, carry.

ced,cess,

yield. celer, quick.


cent, hundred.

grad, gred, gress, step.


gran,

equal.

grain.

fa,fat,say.

grand, great.

38

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

gratf favor,thanks.

mir, wonder. mitt,miss,


mon,

port, gate.
send. pos,

hor, hour. horr, shudder. hospit,guest.


cast. ject,

stop, place.

advise.

pot, drink. potent, powerful.

mort, death. mot,


move.

prehend, prehens,
seize.

judic, judge. junct, joined. jm^, law. latj carry.


send. leg,

mult, many.
mu7i,

fortify. ship.
number.

prim, first.
punct, point.

born. 7iat,
nav,

quadr, four.
quant, how
quer,

not, known.
numer,

much,

led,gather, leg,lig, choose, read.


free. liber,

quir, ask.

nunci, announce.

ocid,eye.
par,
par,

complain. quiesc,quiet,quiet
quer,

lin,flax,

lingu,tongue.
letter. liter,

equal. get ready.


step.

radi,ray.
rap,

rapt, snatch.

part, partit,divide.
pass,

rat, reason.
reg, rect,rule.

loc, place. loqu, locut, speak.


hid, lus,play.
magn,

pat, pass, suffer. past, feed. pater, patr, father.

ris,laugh. 7^id, riv,brook.


rog, rogat, ask.

large.
mans,

older. major, larger, man,

ped, foot. puis, drive. pell,


pen,

rupt, broken.
sacr,

remain,
hand.

holy.

dwell.
manu, mar, man,
sea.

repent.

sal,salt.

pen,

aljiKTst.

suit, sal,sil, leap.


sanct,
lished. holy, estab-

pend, hang, weigh.


ask. pet, petit,

mater, matr,
mother.

pig,pict,paint.

sat, sa, enough.

medi, middle. medic, heal.


mens,
measure.

plac,please.
fill. pie, plet,

schol,school.
know. sci,

plen, full.
fold. plic,

scrib,script,write.
sec,

ment, mind.
mere,

sect,cut.

pay.
mers,

merg,

mingle,

plum, feather. plumb, lead.


pon,

sen, old.

sent,sens, feel.
sequ,
serv,

dip.
migr, remove.

place. posit,

secut, follow.

port, carry.

keep, serve.

GREEK, stand. sisty alone. solj

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

39

sum,

sumpt,

take.

und, vad,

wave. use.

surg,

rise. S2irrect,

ut, us,

sol,accustomed.
son, sound.

tact, tang, ting,


touch.
cover. teg,tect,

vas,

go.

val,be strong.
ven,

soii,lot.

vent, come.

spic,speet,sped,
see.

temper, moderate. temper, time.

vert, vers, turn.

vi, force. vine,vict, conquer.

spir, breathe.

tend, tent,tens,
stretch. witness. test,

standing. sta7it,
star. stell,

vid,vis,see.
viv,victu,live.
voc, call.

bind. strict, string,

tors,tort,twist.
draw. tract, rub. trit,

stru, struct, build.

roll. volv,volut,

sui,self.

vot, vow.

suad, suas, persuade.

trud,trus, thrust.
un,
one.

Latin

Derivatives

40

STUDY

OF

BN6IJSH

WORDS

42

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Changes
of French the time
more
"

due upon

to

the

Norman
was,

Conquest.
of course,
"

"

The
most

influence marked
at

English
Norman

of

speak
Edward It 1. words. 2. Saxon 3. Saxon
4.
was

in
to

Conqu^est, including,also, to the period just before quest, the Conaccurately, 1204 1042 to all, from (from the reign of John's loss of the province of Normandy).
in four ways
:
"

the

shown

The

introduction

of

vast

number

of Norman-French

correspondingloss of
words. introduction of
new

largenumber

of old

AngloAngloof

The

stems, which, with


many

prefixesor
The

formed suffixes, of
new

hybrids.
or

introduction

habits

tendencies

language growth. The Borrowing. English from other


"

marked
Teutonic

habit

which
"

to
own

borrow
"

words

languages instead of coining them

distinguishes ness namely, readifrom its

resources

has been traced to the Norman

influence.

Anglo-Saxons found it an advantage to have both native and foreignwords, Saxon and Norman, fold twoa treasury ; and the English have developedthis scheme to its present proportions.
The
" "

Introduction

of

New

Words. the

"

As

to

the

new

words quest, Conwords

actuallybrought into though not so


introduced for
our

language by the
as

Norman

numerous

the

FrencU
are

in

the

fourteenth

the earlier study,because formative period and became part of the very foundation Within the years which of the English language. we have Period (1042-1204) are assigned to the Norman counted words
;

century, they in at they came

tant impor-

about
at

five

hundred

of

these

borrowed
find

French

Chaucer's

death, in 1400, we

nearlythirty-

GREEK,

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

43

five hundred element


warp

French

words

is harder to

English. The older (Norman) from the Anglo-Saxon distinguish


in

with

which

it is interwoven,

because,in obedience

to

are more general principlethat earlier combinations of a word often anglithe sound and spelling so were vital, cized French of the thirteenth ; while the later (Parisian) and fourteenth centuries, and, in still greater degree,the modern French element, have more nearlykept the French sound and spelling. In the followingpairs of words, the first is from the

the

and the second from older,


,

the later, French


;

borrowing:

"

chaise chair,
more
"

suite suit,

ticket, etiquette.
the
two

Forsets of

general view,
the from
one

compare

following
ings, borrowmore

words,

from

the

oldest French

the

other

the

latest; notice how


looks
:
"

much

English the

first group

borrowings may also differ accordingto the dialects from which they came. For example, we find doublets of the same man, period,showing a ch from the Norand
a

Early French

^-sound

from

another

dialect

e.g., chase^catch;

cattle. chattel^

Marks
now

of French

Derivatives.

"

few

general rules may


:
"

be

given

for

recognizingFrench

derivatives

44

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

1.
two

When

Latin

stem

has

one

consonant

between

vowels, the
soften
are

French this

derivative

shows

tendency
sounds

to

drop or general

consonant.

Consonant

in

softened.

in -que^ are adjectives derivation : as cavalier^ of French sepulcher^ unique, 3. Most words beginning with counter^ pur^ sur, are of French derivation : as counterpoint, purpose, survey. These three rules maj^ be summed up in the general 2.
nouns

Most

in

and -cher^ -ier^

statement

that

most

words
in

in

which be

Latin

stems
as

appear

very

much

changed

spelling may

classed

French

derivatives.

GREEK,

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

45

Norman elements

-English Hybrids.
"

Our
"

third

class of Norman

(originally often used with Anglo-Saxon Latin) stems, which were prefixesand suffixes; also, in compounds, with Angloin

English remains,

the

Norman

Saxon

stems.

French Stem : a-round,he-cause, en-throne. Anglo-SaxonPrefix, troublesome, French Stem, Anglo-Saxon SufB.x : duke-dom,false-hood,
purpose-xss,

genial-ly.

French

and may

Saxon

Compounds
French

heir-loom, scape-goat.
division of this

We

close the five stems from

glancing at
us

French peculiarly Low

into the French


to classical
;

Latin, and

so

chapterby (perhapscarried not traceable by


off :

Latin).
; gross, thicken ; cut pari,speak ; taill,

bas, low

bat,beat

battle, debate, engross, bas-relief,


entail.

parlor, parliament, tailor,

DistinguishingTraits of
elements
are more

the

Saxon

Element.

"

The

eign for-

in

Englishhave
and

been
more

because they given first,

distinguished. easily The Saxon part of the language,being the very root and substance thereof, is harder to separate and analyze, though far more useful for a scientific understandingof English. Saxon stems have two generalcharacteristics : 1. They are the stem as usuallyshort monosyllables;
"

definite in form

from which hit^

come

the verbs bite^ embitter; the hit^

nouns

the adjective bitter. bit^ bitters; 2. They are modified (fornumber, tense, change in part of speech) by root- vowel changes rather than by endings.
Verb8 Nouns Nouns
from

Adjectives

draw, drew fell ; fall,


sing,sang
;

goose, geese ;
man, mouse,
men

broad,breadth

; mice ;

strong, strength ;

deep,depth.

46

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Hints

for

approximately

testing

Origin

by

Spelling

accompanying diagram represents approximately the proportion of classical and elements in Germanic English, about five sevenths of the English vocabulary

The

being
about

of
two

classical

derivation, and
words small the other about of

sevenths
The

manic Ger-

origin.
segment
elements from

unmarked
combined
sources, two
or

represents
all

represented by only
three
But upon the relative number of

thousand
this words

words.

proportion
to

is

based in
an

be

found

and does not at all represent the unabridged dictionary, nary proportion of Latin and Saxon words employed in ordispeech. Tested by use, it will be found much easier
to

do without

Latin

than without

Saxon

words.

This

fact

will be further

developed in

another

chapter.

GREEK,

LATIN,

AND

FRENCH

ELEMENTS

47

QUESTIONS lo What in
are

ON

CHAPTER

III

tlie three

important classes

of

foreignwords

English ? 2. Explain

in detail the

Greek
and

derivatives ; (b)of the of the French sources ; (c)

principleof classification, (a) of Latin derivatives of four periods


derivatives of two

periodsand
reference

sources.

3.

Explain the followingGreek


:
"

with derivatives,

to stems

(The
so

student
with

will find it the few


stems

an

invaluable

aid in farther
can

work,

to

become

familiar

given, that he

recognize their form

and

and meaning instantly,

without

the list.) consulting

technic

often used) (Frenchform technique stem means petroleum (second oil) skeptic (onethat looks into things) in the International

4. Find
as

possiblefrom the Latin the dictionary's explanation of is thoroughlystudied.)


5. How
are

Dictionary as many stems given. (Be


the derivation
of

tives derivasure

that

each

word

French

derivatives

to be known?

48
6. with

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Give

short sketch

of the threefold

Norman

influences,

examples. 7. Give examples


8. Write in the Latin

of

earlyand
derivative each of

late French in

borrowing.
"

derivative

English,from

English, and the French the following stems :

reg vocal

car

9. What French
10. in

endings and

prefixesusually
Latin
stems

mark

words

as

? origin How, in general, may French ?

be

from distinguished

Norman
11. 12. 13. trate. 14.

Give Give What

examples of
five French
are

three classes of Norman-Saxon


stems not

hybrids.
?

found of

in classical Latin. Saxon


stems

the

general marks
derivatives

Illus-

Pick

out

Saxon

among

the

words foreign

"

telephone
friend domestic house heaven

handsome horseman

audible
hand hearth

harshness

elegant
holiness forceful

doorway
distract

opening
credulous

reply
chicken

felicity hope quadrant


shrewd

comparison colloquy
ladle
metric

evaporate
orchard

precise
15.

holly
and

the Distinguish

Greek

the Latin

derivatives

monograph implication
16. Give

inquisitive bicycle
derived

rupture
revolution

anarchy
disturb

five words

from

Latin

through French.

CHAPTER

IV

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Roots.

"

Most,
are

if

not to

all, of
have
was a

the

words of

of

primitive
two
or

languages
three

thought
one

consisted vowel.

only

letters,
roots

of

which

These

labic monosylby
these
roots

were

modified

in
as

use

and

meaning
used

being
binations com-

combined. of for

Such

languages

have

only
the

monosyllabic
all every
uses

roots,

keeping
and
are

changed un-

and
case

relations,
a

marking
called is the

the
syllabic Monomost

compound

in

by
this

hyphen, family,

languages.
familiar Stems. much
more

Of

Chinese

representative.
"

Other

languages
we

have
find

combined
many
stems

their of
two

roots

closely,until
of
one

lables, syl-

or

syllable containing
the To

several of
are

consonants,

which

must

be

corrupted
these which
to

forms
in

original
added formation

root

combinations.

stems,
are

turn,
so

other
as

syllables
to
or

or

letters

of

recent

be in

plainly traceable
some

originally independent
an

words

;
we

cases,

instead

of of

added
the of
"

syllable
vowel.
or

or

letter,
Those

have

an

internal which

change

root

guages lan-

express in

changes
two

meaning by
are

of

ical grammatadditions,

relation
or

these vowel

ways
"

external called

by

internal All

change

Inflectional
are

languages.
some

the

Indo-European

languages

in

degree

inflectional.
60

GROWTH

AND

UHAJNGE

IN

FORM

51

examples of these two kinds take our of inflectional change,in English, we two may verb preterites. Our strong verbs change the root vowel Our weak verbs their past tense : as sing, to form sang. has at first annexed a verb, which helping (auxiliary) now ending : as love, love-did degenerated into a mere (or a similar form of the verb do') love-d. of stem examination The changes to express various such as the modifications of nouns grammaticalrelations, We and verbs, belongsto Grammar. shall here take up only the changes by which various shades of meaning and relation are given to the same stem, by the formation
Inflectional Change.
"

As

of various

in derivatives,

two

By adding to one word By adding a prefixor


Compounds.
can
"

ways another
a

"

independentword.
stem.

sufiix to

In

the formation

of

compound
this second

words

we

trace

the various

stages by which

method

seems

only a
words

continuation stand

of the first.

The

different authorities

written variouslyby independently, with or without hyphens : e.g., man-

that each word of-war; this is so loose a combination retains practically its distinct accent. The hyphen disappears, and the whole written is now as one word, with only the one accent natural to a single word: e.g,, thanksgiving. The less importantword is shortened, in pronunciation and then in spelling : e.g.,thanJcfull thankful ; tillfinally, the second element is recognized only as a suffix or prefix.
.

Prefixes. of the

"

We

may

now

examine

the

form

and

force

arranged English prefixesand suffixes, in groups according to their source. Prefixes may omit or change a final letter in order to sound well with the first letter of the stem to which they
commoner

52 attached.

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

are

This
When

is the

an

illustration

of the

Euphony.
to

final letter of the

of the

of principle prefix is made


process is

match

the

initial letter

stem, the
may be

called

Assimilation.

Assimilation
in

The syllable. contain the commonest prefixesderived from Latin and The Greek. prefixesare given in their originalforms, and in the forms produced by euphonic changes.

sympathy^or complete,as

in as partial, followinglists

I. Prefixes

from

the

Greek

a, an,

without, not.
:

Has

negative

force

Orchromatic,color-

less

amphi,

on

lack of government. an-arcliy, around : amphi-biouSj both (on land both sides, living

water). of to loose again (the elements ana, up, upon, again : ana-lyze, a compound) ; ana-tomy, a cutting up. a a feeling against; ant-agonist, anti,ant, against: anti-patliy, against. struggler from : apostle, sent from ; aph-orism, a one apo, aph, off, away, definition. marking off, a downaccordingto : catastrophe, cata, cath, down, completely, the whole, universal. on turning,overturning; cath-olic, through. dia, through : diormeter,measure having two syllables dis,di,twice,double : dissyllabic, ; di-mity]
'

and

in

double-threaded
:

fabric.
;

ec, ex, out en, em,

choosing out ec-lectic,


burnt en-caustic, in ;

ex-odus,a going

out. stress

in

putting on em-phatic,

of

voice.

epi, ep, on,

eph-emeral, epi-gram, something written on; lastingonly for a day. ger a messeneu, ev, well : eu-phony,a pleasingsound ; ev-angelist, of good. hemi, half : hemisphere, a half-sphere. over-critical. hyper, over, excessive : hyper-critical,
to:

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

53

bypo, hyph, under


stroke meta, met,

hypo-dermiCyunder
parts of
a

the

skin ;

hyph-euya
denotes

unitingtwo
math,
:

word. after.

among,

with,

Sometimes
;

change of form meta-morphosiSy suspended among ; meth-odja way after. change


para, par,

met-eor, a thing

: beside,contrary : para-dox,contraryto opinion

allel, par-

beside each other.

peri,around poly, many


pro, before pros, towards
: :

languages. pro-hlem,a thing placed before.


:

measure peri-meter, in many poly-glot,

around.

one pros-elyte,

who

comes

to

(another belief).
together; syl-lable
stem, sy-

syn,

syl,sym,

sy, with

syn-tax, arrangement

taken together; sym-pathy^a suffering with; (letters) a placing together.

II. Prefixes a,
see

from

the

Latin

ab, ad, ex,


:

ab, a, abs, av, from


from
;

to ah-lior,

shrink
;

from

a-vert, to
before

turn

to abs-tain,

hold

from

av-aunt, from

gone). (be-

ad, a, ac, af , ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, to


to Orchieve, to ; to ;
come

to the to ;

ad-equate, equalto ; to yield end, accomplish; ac-cede,


:

to fasten af-Jix,

amb,

am

flock to ; al-ly, to bind ag-gregate,to ing askan-nex, to tie to ; ap-pend, to hang to ; ar-rogant, for ; as-sent,to think toward ; at-tempt,to try toward. about: amh-ient, putate, (= Greek amplii), going around; amto cut

about.
:

ante, anti,an, before


take

going before ante-cedent,

to ayiti-cipate,

before ; an-cestor,forefather.
:

bene, well

bene-Jlcent, doing well.


:

bis,bi,twice,two
every two

years
:

twice cooked ; bi-ennial, occurring bis-cuit, occurring twice a y^ar. ; bi-annual,

circum, around

lookingaround. circumspect, to speak against; contra, contro, counter, against: contrordict,


contro-versy,a turningagainst;counter-act,to act against.

5i

STUDY

OP

ENGLISH

WORDS

com,

CO,

col,con, cor, with

to fightwith corn-bat,

co-operate,to
bind

to strike together; con-nect, to with; col-lide, with. to answer together; cor-respond,

work

down de, di,from, off, from


;

de-duce,to draw

from

to desist,

cease

to drop down, distill,


:

dis,de, di,dif,apart, not


to di-vide, set

dissimilar, unlike
not easy. dif-Jicult,

to de-feat,

undo

apart

du, two
ex, e,

twofold. du-plicate, to shut ef,a, from, out of : ex-clude,


:

out

; enormous, to

out

of the fault.

rule; ef-fusive, a-mend, out-pouring;


;

free

from

extra, beyond
1.

extrorordinary, beyond the


em, en,

common.

in, am,
to

an,

il,im, ir, in, on,


a

to:

to in-ject,
smear on

cast

in;

am-hush, hiding
go
on

in

wood

an-oint,to

em-hark,

2.

lustrat shipboard; en-danger, to place in danger ; ilto throw lighton ; im-hihe,to drink in ; ir-rnption, a burstingin. not in, en, i, il,im, ir, not (= Eng. un): in-firm, strong; not not ful lawnot noble; il-legal, friend; i-gnoble, en-emy, not reasonable. not possible ; ir-rational, ; im-possible,
:

inter, intro,between
lead among.

to put between inter-pose,

to intro-duce,

mis, wrong,

ill (French,from

Lat. See
:

ill luck minus): mis-chance,


mis-.

mis-creant,unbeliever.
towards ob, oc, of, op, against,

also A.S.

to cast against; oc-cur, ob-ject, to bring towards to run against; of-fer, ; op-pose, to place against.

almost an island. pen(e), almost: pen-insula, per, through, thoroughly: per-mit, to let pass through ; per-fect,

thoroughly done. written after. post, after: postscript, fore-caution. pre, before : pre-caution, to bring forth. pro, before,forth : pro-duce, re, red, back, again: re-act, to act backward; red-eem,to buy
back.

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

55

ee,

to go apart ; sed-ition, a going apart. sed, apart : se-cede,

semi, half: semi-annuaU

half-yearly.
sus, to

sub, sue, suf, sug, sup, sur, to cast under; suoceed,

under, close
come

after:

sub-ject,

after; suggest,to carry to stealthy sur-reptitious, ; sus-tain,


super, sur,
over name
:

to fasten after; suf-fix, under; sup-pose, to place under;

hold underneath.
; sur-name,
an

super-abundant,over-abundance
;

added

sur-loin, part above


across
:

the loin.
across
:

trans, tra, tran, tres,

handing over; dition,


overstep.
III.

to carry trans-fer, to copy over; transcribe,

tra-

to tres-pass,

Prefixes

from

the

French

Most

French

words

retain

the

Latin

form

of the

mon com-

prefixes. In cases in which we have both old forms and modern (as in the Latin super^ shortened in F'rench to sur^ by the regular omission of a consonant between in Latin-French two vowels words) the French form of the prefixwill usually be found with distinctively French stems : sur-feit^ sur-mise^sur-prise, sur-vey.
These modified French forms
are

Latin

included

in the

ceding pre-

list.
IV.
ft, of,
on;

English

Prefixes

Orkin,a-board, a-foot. Special caution should be employed in assigning derivations to words containing this prefix, which values in has at least thirteen different English (see Greek a, Lat. a, ab, ad, ex). As an English prefix it may represent Anglo-Saxon and: a-long(A.S. andlang); Gothic ur: a-rise: A.S. an, one: a-pace, one
pace. This
to

^^iby, by, on.


It is used

has prefix transitive intensify


common

varietyof meanings. verbs: sprinkle bebespatter,


transitive verbs:

with

intransitive verbs to make

56

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

be-think;with
verbs:

nouns

and

to adjectives

make

transitive

of nouns, be-jeivel, besiege,be-dim; as an element and adverbs by-word, be-fore. prepositions, be-half,
,

for, from
force for

for-bid, to

bid

from.

It

has is
a

also

an

intensive

for-lorn, quite lost.

Forego

mistaken

spelling

forgo. in front : fore-bode, fore,before, fore-ground. to speak against. Compare a-gain. gain, against: gain-say,

badly : mis-deed, mis-take (not to be confused with French Lat. minus). mis- from not: n-or. n (A.S.ne), n-ever, n-either, n-one, not one; to give out : out-land ish, foreign out, ut, out, completely ; ut-tei^, pass: (voice).In compositionit sometimes has the force of surmis, wrong,
out-run, to surpass
1. un,
not

in

running.
un,

(=

Lat.

in, German
This letter

known, strange.
stems ; its final

prefixis
is
never

un-couth,un~ negative): freelyused with French


assimilated
:

un-merited,
from 1. un,

un-ruly.
2.
un

(=

German
a

ent).
reversed

verbal
:

prefixdistinct

denoting

action

un-lock, un-fold.
stand

back with, against,

: withstand, to (German wider)

against;

to hold back. with-hold,


Note. usual The

"

independent
in

words

after,in, over,
therefore need

up,
not

etc., retain
be treated

their

meanings

composition, and

here.

The

student
stem

should

now

be able to account
in the

for
"

the prefix

and

of every

word

followinglist :

58

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

see -ism,-ist,

-m, 4.

-ise. -ize,

Verb

ending

-m, -ma,

-ism, -sm
action

denoting an
an nouns
:

criticise. eulogize^ (Greek -ma [stem -mat], -mps). action, condition,or theory,or
:

Noun the

ending
result of
In the

rhythm, drama, Platoiiism, egotism,chasm. ending in -ma (or-m, when shortened from -ma)
of the
-ic: stem
-mat

final

reappears

before when

the the

adjective
final
-m

ending
to

dramatic, prismatic; but


Greek
:

represents the
the

stem

ending is added rhythmic. The ending -ism


-mos, stems
:

the

ately immedi-

is often

combined
-sis. -sm,

with

Latin

provincialism.
:

Noun

ending, denoting
-m,
-t.

action

analysis. genesis,

-St, see

ending, denoting the agent : poet, iconoclast, The dramatist. ending -ist is in very free use with stems of Latin and other origin: naturalist. "ter or -tre (Greek -tron). Noun ending: theater or theatre. : suryery. ending,forming abstract nouns -y (Greek -ia). Noun
-t,-St, -ist.
Noun

II.
see -able,

Suffixes

from

the

Latin

and

Latin-French

-ble.
-ce.

-ace,
-aceous

see

in botany ending,used chiefly (Lat.-aceus). Adjective and zoology: herbaceous. -acious. Adjective ending, as if from Latin -aciosus; coined by adding the suffix -ous to stems in -aci: pugnacious. Noun ending corresponding to the -acity (Lat. -acitat[em'\). ending -acious: pugnacity. adjective
see -ce.

-acy, -age

confined to French (Lat.-aticum).Noun ending, originally used with various stems : advantage,folifreely age, stems, now

breakage.
-ain,see
-al
-an.

and -alis).Adjective (Lat.

noun

ending: formal,animal.

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

59

-an, -ane,

-ain,-ian (Lat. -anus,

-ianus). Adjective and

noun

Christian. huynane, certain^ endings: hitman, Noun responding endings cor-entia). -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency (Lat.-antia, to the adjective endings -ant, -ent: observance,

expectancy, obedience, dependency.


_

(Lat.-aneus). Adjectiveending : contemporaneous. -en^[em]).Adjective and noun -ant, -ent (Lat.-ani[em],


-aneous
=

ing, end-

-er Eng. -ing,

expectant, obedient, servant, continent.


Noun

1.

2.

(Lat.-aris).Adjectiveending : regular. -arius, -ear, -er (Lat. -arium). -ar, -ary, -ry, -ier,
-ar
.

ending :
sary, neces-

saucer. chandelier, volunteer, sanctuary, vestry, secretary, vicar,

1. -ary,

-arian (Lat. -arius).Adjectiveending: -arious,

riparian. precarious,
2. -ary,
see

2.
-t.

-ar.

1. -ate, see

2. -ate

Noun ending of the fourth declension). (Lat.-at[us'], ending,denoting office : senate, consulate.
-ic.

see -atic,

1.

-ble,-able,-ible (Lat. -bilis). Adjective ending, in reality


affixed always -ble,
to

audible,voluble.
any it 2. the

It is

ending in a, i, u : admirable, of combined in English with stems


stems

origin: teachable, gullible.Before


form original -bili:

the

noun

ending -ty

resumes

volubility.

see -ble,

-plex.

-ce, -cy, -ace, -ice

Noun -cium,-tium,-acl^em"], -ic^emj). (Lat.-tia, palace, ending: diligence, infancy (see-ance), grace, sacrifice,

vice, furnace,pumice.
-cle

(Lat.-culum).
see

Noun

ending for

diminutives

particle.
:

-ear,

2.

-ar.

-la (Lat.-ellus, -al, -idus).Noun

ending

for diminutives

libel,

angle.
-ance, -ancy,
see -ance

and

-ce.

-ant, see
-arn

-ant.

(Lat.-emus,
cavern.

-erna). Noun

and

ending: subaltern, adjective

GO
-ernal
-esce

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Adjectiveending : lufernaL (Lat. -ernalls). (Lat.-esco).Verb ending: acquiesce.


-t.
see

-ete, see
-eur,

-tor.

Verb -fy (Lat.-Jico).

ending

magnify.

-ian,see
-ible,see

-an.

-ble.

-atic (Lat.-icus, -ticus). -ique,-tic, Adjectiveending: public, -ic,

uniquey rustic, aquatic.


see -ice, -ce.

-icious

(Lat. -iciosus;also
It is
-ocious
:

pernicious.
and
-id

ending). Adjectiveending: frequentlya coined ending like -acious


a

coined

judicious, fluid. -idus). Adjectiveending: candid, (Lsit.


2.
-ar.

see -ier,

-le (Lat.-His). Adjective ending: fertile, Gentile, civil, -il, -ile,

gentle.
-in,-ine (Lat.-inus,-ina). Adjective and
noun

ending

Latin,

feminine, rapine.
-ion,-tion, -sion,-xion
-ise Noun (Lat. -ion\_em~^.

ending: union,
As
a

persuasion,complexion. completion, ending: exercise. (Lat.-itium). Noun


it is identical with

verb

ending

Greek

-ize.

-ish.

Verb
see

ending

of French

derivation

finish.
ambitious.

-ism,

Greek

-ism.

-itious
see -ity,

Adjectiveending: (Lat.-itiosus).
-ty.
:

-ive

(Lat. -ivus).Adjectiveending
-el and -ile.

active, passive,

-le,see
-ment

(Lat.-mentlumj). Noun ending: ornament. (Lat.-monium). Noun ending : alimony,patrimony. -mony -ocious. Adjectiveending, as if from Latin -ociosus; coined by
adding
1.
-or
nouns
:

the

suffix
French

-ous

to stems

in -oci

atrocious.

(Lat.-or,

-eur). Noun

ending, forming abstract

clamor, fervor.

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

61

2. -or,

see

-tor,

: auditorium, factory. -orium, -ory (Lat.-orium)

tory, predaending: meritorious, -orious, -orius).Adjective -ory (Lat.

advisory,
"ory,
-ose,
see see

-orium. -orious, 2.
-ous.

1. 2.

-ous

(Lat.-us). Adjectiveending: credulous. morose. -ous, -ose (Lat.-osus).Adjective ending: religious,


See also -ocious. -acious, -icious,

fold (stem-plic)). -ble (Lat.-plex, ending: Adjective -pie, -plex,

complex,folded together ; simple,onefold


-ry,
-se,
see see

twofold. double,

2. -ar, and
-t.

-y.

see -sion,

-ion.
-tor. -ture.

-sor,

see see

-sure,

-ite (Lat. ending of -t,-se, ,-ate, -t[um'], -ete, 'S[um'], and N"oun, adjective,, verb

ciple). perfectparti-

ending: fact,perfect,

reject ;
-ter

verse,

reverse;

private, complete, polite.

(Lat.-ter),Nonn
-y.
-ic. -ion.
-eur

master. endingi minister,

-tery,-try,see
see -tic, see -tion,

'

-tor,-sor, -or,

-sor (Lat.-tor,

; Frencli

-eur). Noun

ending

amateur. denotingthe agent : rector,divisor, emperor, multitude. Noun -tude (Lat.-tud[inem']). ending: fortitude, measure. ending: picture, -tura, -sura). Noun -ture,-sure (Lat. Noun agility. ending : liberty, ty, -ity(Lat.-tat[^em']).

-ure, -y,

see

-tare.

-tery,-try (Lat.-ia,-ium). Noun

ministry. This
of

ending is

ending in -er : agency last class of words, this


form -ery, with See also
numerous -ance.

ending : family, mastery, freelyused with English nouns bakery. By analogy with the
appears
:

ending
stems

also, under

the nery. hen-

cookery, snuggery,

62

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

III. -craft.

English

Suffixes
or

Noun

ending denoting skill

trade

witchstatecraft,

craft.
-d, see
-dom. -th.

Noun
wisdom.

or : kingdom^ ending denotingjurisdiction quality

-el,-le,-1.
1.

Noun

ending, usually diminutive:


verb

kernel,bundle,

apple,nail. and -en. Noun, adjective, brighten.


see
-n.

ending : maiden, wooden,

2. -en, 1.
-er.

Noun
:

ending, denoting agent, instrument,or Londoner. writer,stair (= riser),


southern

itant inhab-

2. -er,
-ern.

see

2. -le.

Adjectiveending :
see

(= south-running).

-ey,

-y.

form Adjectiveending: steadfast, shamefaced (corrupted of shamefast, connection with face). through a mistaken -fold. Adjectiveending : tiuofold, manifold. -ful. ending : hopeful, Adjectiveand noun cupful. -hood, condition (A.S. -had). Noun ending : childhood, hood. priest-fast.

see -lie,

3. -le.
noun

ending: traveling, clothing. 2. -ing,son, part. Noun ending: king (A.B.cyning), farthing. -ish,-sh (A.S. -isc). Adjective ending : heathenish, Danish, French (= Frankish), fresh. (It has no connection with the -ish of punish, etc.) Verb ending, usuallyfrequentative -k. : hark. Diminutive -kin. noun ending : napkin, manikin.
1. 2.
see -le, -1,

1.

-ing (A.S.-ung). Verbal

-el.

-le,-1,-er.

Verb

: ending, usually frequentative sparkle,

kneel,chatter.
3. evil. -il. Adjectiveending : idle, -le,

without. -less,

hopeless. ending godless, Adjective


:

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

FORM

63

godly. Adjectiveending : godlike, -lie). -ly (A.S. -like,


-ling. Diminutive
-m, -me, -n, -en,
-ness. -om.

Noun Noun

-on.

worldling, ending : gosling, darling, ending : room, dream, home, bottom. ending : horn, oven, weapon.
noun

Noun
see see -m.
-n.

ending:

loveliness.

-om, -on,

-sh, see

-ish.

Noun state (A.S.-scipe). worship. ending : friendship, -ship, ending : meddlesome, handsome. -some. Adjective

ending : bedstead,homestead. to Noun -ster. equivalent feminine,but now ending,originally The only word in which it retains teamster. -er : youngster, a feminine meaning is spinster. place. Noun -stead,
-t,see
-th. -ther. Noun

-ter,see

-th, -t, -d.

and

bloodyheight, ending: birth, adjective


murder. ending : father,daughter,

dead. soft, south,

-ter,-der. -ther,
-ward.

Noun

-y, -ey

ending: forward, heavenward. Adjective and adjective ending: body, honey, (A.S. -ig). Noun

crafty.
Let the student all elements (stems, prefixes, identify of the following words, giving meanings and of derivatives
:
"

in each suffixes)

both of elements

64

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Weakening.
have

"

We

have
into

seen

how

stems,

once

dent, indepenin the lists

weakened have

suffixes or prefixes
many of the

given, we
in the

noticed

that
one

selves, suffixes them-

passing from
time

lapse of
have
;

become

language to another, through of pronunciaand through carelessness tion, much shorter as to be hardly recogso nizable
-osus

e.g., the suffix

in Latin

was

added

to

noun

stems,
of
a

to

form

denoting usually the adjectives

presence
=

odiosus as religiosus, ; quality,or its abundance forms of this suffix hate-ful. The modern religion-ful^ (French -eux^ English -ous^ have been contracted into one syllable, simply for easier pronunciation. The weakening of grammatical endings which belonged and Teutonic inflections is a marked to Latin originally characteristic of the English language. of the first For example, the final -a of Latin nouns silent e : declension in English oftenest as a mere appears become thus Latin Roma^ rosa English Home, rose.

QUESTIONS
1. 2.

ON

CHAPTER

IV

What What
in

is
are

MonosyllabicLanguage the two general methods


Give
an

of inflection ? in the

trate Illustwo

English.
noun

original illustration

classes

of

plurals.

CHAPTER

THE

SPELLING

OF

LATIN-ENGLISH

English
Latin

is

proverbially
has

irregular
certain certain

in

spelling

yet

its
a

element of

kept
makes

original points
of

distinctions,
in
our

knowledge

which
Some

spelling
kind
on we

intelligible.
shall
now

typical
in
two

distinctions
1.

this
based

examine,
vowels of the
the

groups: Latin in each of


"

those

the

characteristic from based 1. those


on

of

the

conjugations, conjugation
the Latin
;

especially
2. those

participles

characteristic from verbs


stems

stems

declensions.

Derivatives and the

Verb
are

Stems.
on

Many
verb and vowels
to

of

our

nouns,

adjectives,
on

based of
the

Latin

forms,

ticularly par-

present
of
the

perfect

ciples. partito

general

scheme

belonging
our

these
seem

in
more

each

conjugation
reasonable,
even

will in
to

help
those the

make
cases

spelling
which
the

in

pronunciation
vowel

gives
is made

no

key

spelling.

The

teristic charac-

prominent
Stem

by heavy
COERBSPONDING

type.
ENGLISH SUFFIX

Conjugation

Pre8.

Part.

I II

ant(em) ent(em) ent(em) ient(em)


Perf.
Part.

ant ent ent lent

ance

(ancy)
(ency)

ence

III
IV

ence

(ency)
(iency)

ience

Conjugation

Stem

Corresponding

English

Suffix

I II

at(um) et(um)
66

ate ete

ation etion

ator

ative etive

atory itory

THE

SPELLING

OF

LATIN-ENGLISH

67
English Suffix

Corresponding

ite

ition tion sion ition

itor tor
sor

itive tive sive itive

t(e) s(e) it(e)


It will be noticed
that in

itory tory
sory

itor

itory

the vowels

before Latin.

the

participial

sign -nt

are

the

same

English and
Derivatives

Typical

First

Conjugation Verbs

expectant, acceptance,vacancy

commodate, ac-

acceleration, orator, administrative, tory. anticipaSecond

Conjugation Verbs : permanent, adherence, decency; complete,completion,admonition, monitory. rection Third ConjugationVerbs : regent, affluence, agency ; act, diactor, active, factory ; verse, recess, admission, confusion, divisor, excessive,cursory. Fourth ConjugationVerbs : expedient, experience, expediency; auditor, infinitive, advent, finite, expedition, auditory.
'^

In

often have

our irregularperfectparticiples, spelling follows the original; e.g., from pello^ pulsum^ we impelsimpulse. cases
" "

of

Exceptions.
-ant^

Here

must

be noted other
use

class of words

in

coming from verbs of first, through the old French from verbs of are following
and
written
-ent:

conjugations than
in all
cases.

the
The

of -ant second

the

and

third
the

gations, conju-

would, if taken
"

from directly

Latin, be

ascendant
attendant

defendant

tenant

repentant
and

valiant

Exercise.

"

Form the

from
to

tives explain the spellingof derivafollowing stems, stating the conjugation


to

which

they are

be

referred

"

68

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

consist;pati, pass; despond; imman;

affirm; agglomer; conjluyinflu, aggreg ; immiyi; alien; pend; alliter; transi; altern; impud; altern;

constitu;correspond; alterc;delinqu; impend;

ambul; excell; expon ; intellig amat; amalgam; diffld;efflci; ; the following annihil; preced; also from amplijic; anim; stems : irregular participle solutyabsolut ; accret ; acquisit ;
illat.

Adjectives in
took the form and the

-ble.

"

The

-ahilis with form

adjectiveending -hilis of the first conjuverb stems gation,


Latin

-ihilis with
nouns

others.
and

In

English,
stems

and verbs, adjectives,

in -ate

from -ation^

of the first conjugation, are

in accompanied by adjectives of

-ahle^while
fourth

those

from

stems

the

second, third, and

in -ihle. conjugationshave adjectives

As

in the

case

of -ant

and

-ent^ Old of all

French

used
we

-able have

for indiscriminately thus in English many


stems

stems

conjugations ;

of

the

in -ahle^ from not derived adjectives first conjugation,but taken from French

forms
to
an

in -able.

Others

are

formed

simplyby adding -able

English verb.
preferable
tenable

preventable
answerable

breakable

enjoyable
"

2.

Derivatives

from

Noun

Stems.
nouns

The

of spelling

our

words
be

derived

from

Latin

and
stem

adjectives may
rather

often
to

explained by reference
form
to

to the

than

the in the

nominative
most

which This

the

derivation
seen

is referred of

Dictionaries.
:
"

will be

by study

following table

THE

SPELLING

OE

LATIN-ENGLISH

69

NoMiNATivK
Latin

Form,
Word

English

Derivativh

vetiis
rex

veter-

veter-an

reg-

caput
genus

csiipitgener-

reg-al capiY-al
gener-al
"

tempus
mors

tempormor^

tempor-al
mortal

simplex
corpus

simplzccorpor-

simpl?'c-ity
corpor-al princip-al military

princeps
miles

principmilitForms.

ing Many words, through the weakenor shortening processes of language change, have become in sound abbreviated in spelling. than more silent letters thus retained The seem quite irrational, unless referred to the Latin original; e.g., debtor^from Latin debitor. The same be seen at work principle may in words of English origin, in knee^ know^ would. For as detailed study of these changes, Skeat's Etymological recommended teachers and to Dictionary is specially
Weakened
"

advanced The aim

students. of this
not

chapterhas
Latin
a

been

to

give

to

students

that have
of Latin

studied
upon

Grammar that

glimpse into the influence and to encourage English spelling,


Grammar
out. to

those
research

know

Latin

make

farther
class has

in the

directions

pointed

If the

elementaryLatin work, several lessons may be well the lists above. employed at this point,in enlarging It is, to give similar references unfortunately, impossible at this point to Anglo-Saxon the pupilshave as grammar, had no basis for such work. Such usually study, if time taken for it,would throw were ing equal lightupon the spellof Saxon

done

derivatives.

CHAPTER

YI

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

THE

MEANING

OF

WORDS

Development
such
of
a

of

Meanings.
as

We
"

have

but

to
at
see

look,
the that

in list
a

dictionary
under

Webster's
many
a common

International,
word,
to

meanings

word Let
human
now us

lives, grows,
take
a

changes,
of
the

as

does
names

language
for the

in

general.
of the
are

few and

simple
the

parts
of

body,

trace

meanings

(some

which

obsolete) through

which

they

have

passed.

Head 1. 2.

Original physical meaning.


Part head of
an

inanimate
a

object, resembling

an

animal's

head

of
an

pin.
inanimate

3.

Part

of

object

associated

with

man's

head

head 4. The

of

bed.

conspicuous
head in
an

part

of

an

organized
its
:

body,
head of
a

as

is

the

mal's ani-

relation individual

to

body

of

an

army.

5. 6.

In The

counting,
brain

thirty

head
:

cattle. head.

(not physical,
the

but

mental)
out

clear

In

order
its

to

study

spreading
we

of

this
a

single

word of

into
the

various

meanings,
classes
case

must

have

clear
or

notion

principal
as

of

Metaphor
be,
of the

(in review, study belong).


two

tion, anticipato

the

may

of

Rhetoric,

which
The

figures
word

of

speech

properly
is from
70

metaphor

Greek

words,

"

the

GKOWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

MEANING

OF

WORDS

71

to phor Latin /"3r, beyond. A metaphor is old meaning. stem


=

carry, and
a

the
a

meta^ preposition word

carrying of
The
new

beyond

its

Principlesof Change.
on

"

the old, in
1. 2. 3. 4.

one

or

other of the

meaning must be based : following respects


"

likeness. Physical

Association.
Likeness
The

of relation.

5. The

conspicuouspart,for the whole. physical. mental,for the corresponding


be

If the six definitions of head


to

studied

with

reference

of metaphor, the first definition will be principles into the second, on the princifound to have passed over ple 1 ; the second into the third,on the principle marked these marked
1. The

2, etc.
"head''
so

of

pin looks
bed

like the head the


use

of

an

animate
same

body,
the

and 2. The

suggests
of
a

to the mind

of the
so

word.

"head"

(orof

is table)
human

called because

mind with 3. The

associates

it with of
an a

the

head

(Principle 1) oi
as

the head of human be

family (Principle 2).


army is its This

"head''
of
a

leading member,
is
an

is the

head
and

may
head

body. expressedin
:

equalityof relations, mathematical : proportion


"

of army
of

army

: :

head

of man
whole

: man.

4.

"head."
use as

sheep,used
part which

for the

sheep,is

natural

of the in

counting.

first catches the eye, for the used for "a Compare "a sail,"
used for
an

whole,

ship";
in

a visible outside also,

invisible

inside,as

the
5.

"The expression,
"

kettle boils."

A clear

head
"

"

is

one

example
from

of the commonest mental

of all metaphors,
or

the

transfer

physicalto
shall
now

spiritual

meanings.

This

pointwe

take up

more

fully.

72

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Change
of

from
a

Physical Meaning
or

to

Mental.

"

guage In the lan-

child

of

nation, the naming

of

first. By physicalthings we mean things comes there Now by the physicalsenses. things tliat are known are correspondencesbetween the impressionsmade upon the mind and those made the senses or spirit.When upon and spiritual there comes for naming these mental a need things,it is easy to transfer the words already in use, from the physicalto the correspondingmental or spiritual

physical simply

impressions.
For

instance, there is
So
he

kindness, which

spiritual glow caused by human corresponds to the bodilyglow felt from


a we

physicallieat.
and

say that has


a

man

has

warm

hands

"

principle of two 2 above is of the association marked physical things; this transfer from the physical to the spiritual of the same is simply a carrying out principle, the association and physical, of the spiritual A very large proportion of our adjectives descriptive mental of spiritual nouns or states, and of our naming such states, had first a purely physical application. But before taking up this class of words, which are largely finish our Latin, we study of the simple Saxon may of the parts of the body : names The head were used six definitions given for the word There to illustrate the five classes of metaphor. are a should few other meanings, easilyto be classified: we keep in mind, however, that the list of definitions is not its meaning from developed in strict order, each new of natural is the irregularity predecessor ; but that there growth, so that care must be taken to trace each use to late meaning is its real beginning. Sometimes a very the first definition of the word. taken directly from
wa"rm
" " "

then, that

heart.

The

74

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Idiom

At arrays

length'.

Hand 1. 2.

Original physicalmeaning.
Part of
an

inanimate
a

resembling the object,

human

hand:

hands 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Measure

of
=

clock.

4 inches the

(used in measuring horses).


the
one

Side

on

right hand.
: on application

Side,in
Power: Actual Servant: the

mental
to

hand,

try one's

hand.

performance:
twenty

it is his hand. in the field

hands

(the essential part

for

whole).
^^.^^^
in his
=

9.

Handwriting.
In his hands Hand To
To To
=

possession.
to be

and
a

seal hand

contract. in
=

have wash

concerned
to shake
=

in.

one's hands
and

of=

off

responsibility.
connection.
store
or resources.

be hand live

gloveivith
to mouth

intimate
=

To

from

hand

without

Eye 1. 2.

Original physicalmeaning. Part of an inanimate resembling object,


:

the eye of

an

mal ani-

eye of

needle.
eye for

3. 4. 5.

Power

of

seeing: an
:

beauty. importance or beauty: the second example.


in

Observation

under

the eye of the master. eye the

Resembling
eye of

the

human

day ;

compare

Idioms To have To
an

eye to eye
on

"

to be

on

the watch
over.

for.

keep an

to watch

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

MEANING

OF

WORDS

75

Tongue 1. Part
2. of the
as

body.
actions
:
*'

Words,

in word
3. 4.

opposed to thoughts or neither in tongueJ'


mother
or

Let

us

not

love

Speech,language:
A tribe nations and

tongue,
their

nation, as
tongues,
inanimate

distinguished by

speech:
or

all

5. Part
an

of

an

resembling in object,
:

form

position

animaPs

tongue

tongue of
with
Court

buckle ; tongue of land.

Some

other

simple words

varietyof meaning

"

1. An
2. A

inclosed

space.

3.
4.

5.

place (from the idea of exclusiveness and protection: Principle 1). The body of persons forming the retinue of a ruler. The assembly of these persons : to hold court. tion) Conduct designed to gain favor (metaphor from associa:

to pay

court,

6.

hall

7. The

is administered. place where justice of justice. persons engaged in the administration


or

Set 1. To
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To To To To To To

seat,give placeto:
attach
:

to set

trunk
on.

down.

to set one's
a

affections
one

put into
fix

state

to set

thinking.
a

: firmly

to set one's to set


set a
a

set features,

jeweL

fix : appoint, : to regulate

time.
a

watch, set
to music.

bone.

fit : to set words stud


:

8. To
9. To

to set with

diamonds.

point out (of hunting dogs).


of

Transfer is
now

Meaning
our

in Saxon Saxon

and

in Latin
can

Words.
trace

"

It

clear that in

English we

within

76
the limits of

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

the transfer of words English dictionary from the earlier and simpler to the later and more cated complimeanings ; usuallyalso,from a physicalto a mental of Latin application. In the case English, our English often tells only the latter half of the story. It dictionary is to be remembered that the Latin was a finished language from it ; and that, having already when we took so largely in physical words for the simpler ideas,especially our own retained them, borrowing the meanings, we in most cases Latin words in their later metaphoricaluses. To find the of these words we first uses must go to a Latin dictionary,
an

j and
! much

we

shall

see

that the older Roman the

uses

of

word

throw

English derivatives therefrom. A familiar example of this transfer is the word intend. this word had the sense of a physicalstretching Originally toward something. This physical meaning we find in the but it is marked obsolete,and stands English dictionary, in displacing succeeded a \ there only to show that it never of bending good Saxon word. Only the metaphorical sense the mind will upon In into English use. has come or Latin, the two meanings stand side by side. This metaphorical basis of our mental and spiritual vocabulary is a favorite subjectwith many great writers. and Hero Mesartus Carlyle (^Sartor Worship^ and Ruskin (Sesame and Lilies^stop often to discuss the facts of human as thought and feeling proved by these metaphors. in Archbishop Trench treats the subjectmore technically his Study of Words. The is strongly advised to student do some reading on the subject at this point, as we have lighton
'

room

here for

only a

few

In

these classifying
a

strikingillustrations. words, there is often a


a

doubt
sense,

as or

to

whether

word

has

fixed

metaphorical
This

is

simply capable of metaphorical use.

confusion, and

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

MEANING

OF

WORDS

77

questionof degree that enters mto the steps between for open literal and metaphoricaluses, will give a chance
the

and

free discussion vert,vers.

as

to

the

classification. following
Mental
:

Stem

obverse. : invert, Physical

advert,

adverse,aversion, controvert,controversy, converse, inadvertence, inverse,pervert, perverse, revert, version.


reverse. convert, divert,

Both

uses:

avert,
to

To

invert

cup.
to

The

obverse

of

coin.

To

advert

ject. sub-

society. He converses fluently. The theory To was controverted;a political controversy. To inverse order. To pervert one's to the subjectthrough inadvertence. revert
Aversion

meaning
avert
a

perverse

character.
a

His

versioyi

of

the

story.
water

To into

blow ; to
convert

avert

misfortune.
The

To
stream

convert

steam

; to

the

heathen.

is diverted To
reverse

from
an

its

course

; the mind

is diverted

by

recreation.

engine;
In
a

the

judge reverses
manner

his decision.

similar

illustrate the
:
"

uses

of derivatives

from

the

stems following

Stem

vid, vis.
Both
uses
:

: Physical

visible.

Mental

provide,providence.

evident, vision,divide, provision.

spectator,spectrum, spic, spect. Physical: spectacle, spect, circumspect, expect,prospective, respect, retrospecter. Mental: speculative, suspect, suspicious. Both uses : inspect, i^rosspec,

Stem

pect.
Stem
ven,
vent.

Physical: advent, convent.


Both
uses
:

Mental

venient, con-

event, invent, prevent.


Stem cap,

invention. convention,
:

cept. Physical: capacious, receipt. Mental


uses
:

ceive, de-

receptive. Both deceptive, perception, receive, reception.

perceive, capable,captive,
Mental
:

solv,solut. resolution. resolve,


Several
lessons the

Stem

Physical:
Both
uses
:

dissolute, solve,

dissolution. dissolve, solution,

study of

with a careful occupied profitably metaphoricaluses of words in a connected


could

be

78 from

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

any essay or text-book for instance, such as a passage passage

psychology Take, this,from Hamerton's


on
.

Intellectual
"The branches

Life :

"

privilegeof limiting
of

their
to

studies

to

one

or

two

knowledge belonged
of the it."

earlier ages,

and

every

successive

accumulation

world's

knowledge

has

ally gradu-

lessened
1.

The Privilege. in favor

originalLatin
of
an

ordinance f

"a bill or meaning was individual," a privi-law. In this


we

meaning Chaucer English


use.

used

the

word, jet

hardly know

it

as

an

metaphor in our present use of it consists the of meaning, from in the transfer personal advantage of an advantage law, to the looser sense gained by a particular unofiicial permiscustom or allowed, whether sion, by law or mere to one as compared with others. person or class of persons
The 2.
a

Limiting. This
In

word

is connected
in

with

the
was

Latin
a

limen^

threshold.

its

earlyuse

English limit
The word the

crosspath

between

fields ;
from

hence, a boundary.
the

has

transferred

physicalto

mental, and
is measured

both recognizes and 3.

uses, for that is measured Latin

which

simply been the dictionary by the eye,


The

for that which Studies. The

by

the mind. zeal


over
"

studium
was

meant

or

eagerness.

English,can be plainlytraced,however, to the earlier, a zealous application of the mind in the phrase"Study to a particular as object, veloped The noun to show yourselfapproved unto God." study has devarious meanings, 1, the act ; 2, the thing studied; 3,as used in the arts and in music (cf French kude); 4, a room devoted to study.
"

later Latin

meaning, which

taken

into

4.

Successive. both

The

word

succeed

is

case

in which

we

have Latin.
this
sod

borrowed
The
comes

literal and
was

metaphoricalmeanings
go close up
we

from

first

meaning
use

to

to, or
the

advance; from
"

the Latin

which

have
came

in the sentence,

The

succeeds

his

father."

Then

derived

meaning

tc

GROWTH

AND

CHANGE

IN

MEANING

OF

WORDS

79

advance, in the
ceeded/'
:

sense

of to prosper
two

as

we we

say

"

For

these
=

meanings
Latin word

have
=

plan suc" distinct adjectives


up,
as

The

successive

and successful following, The


meant

prosperous. to

5. Accumulation.
into
a

heap

earth

mound.

The

metaphor is a simpletransfer
Latin

from

cal physi-

to mental.

6.

Gradually.

From

gradus,

earlyEnglish use of hymns sung have we gradual,


from the

of this
on

word, from

an step. There was Church Latin, for a book a

the

steps of the pulpit.

In

our

use ing mean-

of

simple transfer of the first Latin to the mental, physical step degree.
"

the

Historytraced
be and
seen

in the Growth
can

of Words.

"

It will

readily

that
an

get

of a nation, go deeplyinto the history insightinto its peculiarcharacteristics, simply


we

by studying the historyof


them

its words needs.

and We

by watching
can even

adapt themselves
of each

to

new

read

in words

the actual events

in

counties

England
of
in
a some

were

history. For instance, the dreds,' formerly divided into 'Hunfamilies.


'

hundred

The
'

division
are

still of

exists, though
thousands

of the

hundreds have

hundreds

of families,while their

others

scarcely grown
;

beyond
settled

originalnumber.
we English,

In parts of this country of this old custom


in

by

the

find traces

Hundred,' a settlement e.g., 'Bermuda This stretching of an old name,


often been
as

Virginia. has geographically,


up

based of
of

on our

error,

and

kept

for convenience

in the

case

American
"

natives,called Indians,

Narrowing
not
a

Meaning. The always imply enlargement


word

growth of language On the of meaning.


of its uses.

does
trary, con-

may

lose

one

or

more

is due

the

mainly to the influence of other words same It meaning and needing to be distinguished. to the chapter on therefore, Synonyms.

This process having almost longs, be-

80

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

QUESTIONS
1. Is there any

ON

CHAPTER

VI

the life of a word between and the parallel life of language in general? head. 2. Give six meanings of the word how the meanings are 3. Show related,and explain the metaphor in each case. and in the five special 4. Define Metaphor in general, cases

illustrated.
5.

Give

some

original illustrations
senses.

of

the

transfer

from

physicalto
6. 7.

mental

Give

the additional

meanings

and

idiomatic

uses

of head.

Account

for the definitions of

foot, arm,

hand,
in words

eye,

tongue,

court, set.
8.

Why
How ?

are

the

metaphoricalmeanings
in Saxon for mental words and
?

of Latin

originless
9.

evident
are

than

words

use spiritual

veloped usuallyde-

10.

Write

sentences,using words

given in
and

the table of Latin

derivatives.
11. Eor
see

illustrations of curious
the

word-derivations, interesting

following words

"

Gotham,
12.
names

as

humorously appliedto examples


and of curious

New

York among

Find of

some

other

derivation

flowers, gems,

cloths.

CHAPTER

VII

LATIN

AND

SAXON

ENGLISH

Effect of

of the
these

Latin
two

and

Saxon

Elements.
our

"

It

is the makes

ence presit

elements

in

English
it is. The and

that

the

rich

and

beautiful words without the


Latin
"

language
are

short, simple,
shoemakers
not

everyday
and
at

Saxon

like
a

farmers

carpenters,
all ;
more

whom

country
"

could
more

get

on

while

words
are

longer,
what
we

elaborate,

and
men,

scholarly
go
more

like

call

professional
questions
of the

who

broadly
Art,
and

into

abstract
a

Religion, Science,
national Character

and

bring

finer

culture

to

thought
of the and for of

taste.

Saxon

Element.

"

Most
use are

of

the

words
;

of
to

home
use

life Latin

constant,

daily
is been
us

Saxon

and

these words

things
have
move

not

in

good
and

taste.

Just
to
us

because from
than

these

dear
more

familiar
and

childhood,
do

they
Latin have
to
an;

quickly
Almost all

surely
little Saxon too;
:

their
we

synonyms.
use

the
are

words
such

that

in

common

speech
and^

words

as

a,

the^ this^ that;


to;

but, for,
I, you,

from,

hy, with, in, at,


most

who,
for
are

which,
home in
;

tvhat;

he,

she, it;

of

our

words

life, father,

mother,
tion, associa-

brother, sister, fire, hearth,


even

Saxon
stems

shape
common

and

when

akin

to

Latin

the

verbs,
and
are

go,

come,

run,

hurry

shut, open,

find, lose, love, hate,


sour,
82

the

jectives, ad-

good, bad, true, sweet,

strong, weak,

Saxon.

LATIN

AND

SAXON

ENGLISH

83

The

different effect of Latin the


same

and
stem

Saxon
can

words
seen

derived

from and
the

Indo-European
words

be

in

fatherly
uses,
as
"

paternal. These
one

for the home, the


between Latin and
us

equallynecessary other for legalrelations


Saxon

have

well.

Choice

Words.
a

"

Some

students words
are

of

language have
Latin

told

that, as

rule,Saxon
most

better than

words.

But, like

sweeping

ments, state-

modifying. The choice between Latin ject and Saxon must depend on several things: on the subthe aim of the speaker, the audience ; and on ; on the result aimed at is simple or complex. whether that is, As a general law, Saxon to the heart and goes straighter ing a more mind, and so arouses simple idea or feeldirectly for the making of subis more tile accurate ; while Latin and more distinctions, profound for the arousing of deliberate or complex emotion.
this needs
Latin those the

Language

of Exact
us

Science.

"

For

instance,
Saxon words

scientists that tell


are

most

that emphatically of Latin


a

words when
and

better than
to

Latin

find the need

they try

make

one. scholarly

this very distinction words have The Latin of their greater exactness

scientific used and


to

been
;

by
use

scientists

because
in

Saxon

words

place of these accepted Latin


unscientific. The

terms

would

sound

loose and

great advocate
cation, Edu-

of Saxon

words, Mr. Herbert


one

Spencer, in writing on
a

calls

section

Education,'"not '"'Up^'-Physical bringing


sentence

will
"

of the Body''; and show fairly enough his


This

from

this
"

essay

own

choice

of words,

reaction being certain, whether the question physical is, the gain resulting from the extra culture is equivalentto the loss ; whether defect of bodily growth, or the want of that structural perfectionwhich gives high vigor and endurance, is compensated for by the additional knowledge gained.''

84
In

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

this

case

there
we
"

was

good

reason a

for

using

Latin

words;

can

find but

clumsy

Saxon

many substitute

so

for the passage,


"As
an

answering
whether makes

weakness
the up

of
we

body
get

is bound that

to

follow,
more

we

may

ask

gain
for

from

much the

mind-training knowledge makes


want

of

that

gain in for the lack in bodily growth, or the up fulness of frame which gives strength and

this loss ; whether

freshness."

Aside

from

faults of translation, the


ways.

passage
exactness

has

fered suf-

in two

We

the miss, first,

of the
tific scien-

make original ; second, the associations which terms suggestive. Let us study these somewhat more closely. The Saxon
ear

the
two

points
so

constructions
an

are

looser and

wordier, and
which their

give to the
The and

effect of looser and have


an

less concise

ing. think-

words

everyday usage
so

is inexact

meaning is if closely questioned. Take the phrase open to discussion, structural perfection ; there is no Saxon word for perfection;
even
" "

untrained,

variable ;

that

and

structure

in the scientific
mean

sense

is

absolutely
of the

exact, while
bone

frame might
as

vaguely
say, "a
man

the outline of

\j

large frame." For the words in their reaction^resulting^ equivalent^ scientific meaning, there is no Saxon. It is impossibleto give them accurate definition in Saxon words. (Compare of the Imperial Dictionary definitions of reaction : one Depression or exhaustion consequent on excessive exstructure,
we
"

when

citement

or as

words,
Each

stimulation.") Again, each of these three used by Mr. Spencer, is a host in itself.
to

calls up really furnish

the

trained
to

mind

set

of

laws

which This

the

key

his

whole

argument.

LATIN

AND

SAXON

ENGLISH

85

force

is lost when
we

Saxon
that

may

say

used. ingly Accordare synonyms when scientist is speaking of a

scientific his And


uses

trained minds, it is subjectsto scientifically of language to use wisest economy Latin terms. minds, he if, for the sake of reaching untrained Saxon

words,

it is at the cost

of exactness Latin
and

and

force.

The

choice, we

repeat,between

Saxon

words,

depends on
hearer, and

the class of

writing on
minds, with

the intelligence of the on subject, the aim of the speaker. Mr. on Spencer, scientific subject, mainly to trained appealing to argumentative persuasionand cona view clusion, wise choice of Latin. of Saxon choice
Words.
"

made

Proper Use

Let

us
a

now

look of
a

at

an

equallywise
Lanier's. The

of Saxon, from here

poem
arouse

writer's wish
vast

is to

Sidney feeling

which, though
^'

and

deep, is perfectly simple:


on

"

As

the marsh-hen

builds secretly
me a

the

watery sod,
;

Behold, I
I will In

will build the

nest

on

the greatness of God


as

flyin

greatnessof God,

the marsh-hen

flies and

the freedom

that fillsall the space 'twixt the marsh the

the skies ;

By

so

many

roots

as

marsh-grasssends
on

in the

sod,

I will

lay me heartily
this go

ahold

the

greatness of God."

Put

will not and


"

and musical Saxon picturesque far as to give the hen her so is ruined
:
"

(we scientific name)

into Latin

the passage
the marsh-hen

As

constructs nest

her
on

abode

on

the aqueous of God."

sod,

Observe,I my
The
not

will erect

the power

words, construct^ aqueous^


words
But
;

observe^power^

erects are

voluminous

understood.

they are simpleenough and easily mental words, they are contemplative,

86
fitted to

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

sympathetic, picturesque words, playing upon the imaginationand the heart. In the present century, Tennyson is the great master of
a

scientific narrative; not

the

music

of Saxon
:
"

words

study

this passage

from

In

Memoriam
"

This truth

came

born

with

bier and

pall,

I felt it when

I sorrowed loved loved

most,
and

'Tis better to have

lost,

Than

never

to have

at all.

"

But

remained, whose
whose life,
on a

hopes were

dim,
little

Whose
To

wander

thoughts,were darkened earth.


me

worth,

Where

all

thingsround

breathed

of him.''

Proportion of
Periods.
"

Latin

and

Saxon

Vocabulary

at

Different

proportionof Latin and Saxon English to be found in representative writers,differs very markedly of the historyof the language. In the at various periods and eighteenth centuries, as representedby seventeenth
The

Milton
of the

and

Samuel

Johnson,

and

even

in the

earlier half

is

represented by Macaulay, the preponderanc of Greek and Latin in a gentleman'seducation in the Latin-Englishstylethus developed. naturallyshown
But
a

nineteenth, as

in the last few

decades, there

has

been

oped devel-

We the use of "good Saxon." tendency toward have spoken of the fact that the scientific terminology is trained in the natural men largelyLatin; yet, as a class, trained in the sciences,use a simplerEnglish than do men classics ; and, setting aside the technical terms, about

which
a more

scientists have

no

choice,or

difficult one,

we

find

purely Saxon English in essays on than in literary and critical essays.

jects scientific sub-

Many

of the

LATIN

AND

SAXON

ENGLISH

87

latest writers of value

force

generalliterature,however, recognizethe of a Saxon vocabulary in securingthe charm and wherever of simplicity, is possible. simplicity

Illustrations Latin
and

of

English,

to

be

studied

with

Reference

to

Saxon

Wording.

(See Question 11, page 92)

Let

us

examine

some

different this
into
use

periodsand
of Latin
or

passages from English writers,of in different fields, with reference to Saxon

English,remembering
the

to take

account

always (1)

character

of

the

theme;

For an English that (2) the fashion of the writer's age. in a scientific work would be strongly Saxon, might in a
poem
on

Nature

be

unduly

Latin.

And

an

essay that in

the seventeenth
now

century would be markedly Saxon, might strike us as characteristically Latin. 1. The Exhortation, inserted in the Morning and
of the Latin for
"

Evening Prayer
the choice between
more

Prayer
and the
more

Book

of words

1552. is

Here

Saxon

given,the

learned

word

learned

classes, the

simpler for the simpler:


"

us Dearly beloved brethren, the scripture moveth manifold and confessour to acknoivledge sundry places, and dissemble and not should that we wickedness, cloak them; to do, when so chiefly yet ought we assemble and meet together.
. . . . . .

in

sins
nor we

^^

2.

Shakespeare(1564-1616)
"

Julius

Caesar:

"

"

Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me kneel ; Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down ; thus he bade me And, being prostrate, say :
Brutus Caesar is
was

and honest ; noble,wise,valiant, and loving." mighty,bold, royal,

88
3.
'^

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Bacon

(1560-1626)
men

"

: Friendship

"

But

little do

perceivewhat
is not

solitude

is,and
faces

how
are

far it but where


a

extendeth; for a crowd and galleryof pictures,


there
*

company, but
a

and

talk
Latin

tinklingcymbal,
meeteth

is

no

love.

The

adage
"

with

it

little,

Magna
4.
"

civitas, magna

soUtudoJ

Sir Thomas
have
upon

Browne

(1605-1682)
"

Z7m

Burial:

"

Many

taken

voluminous
; but
men

pains to
have of their

determine
most

the state

of the soul

disunion

cal in the

singular contrivances
nations have and

phantasticorporaldissolution;
ways, of

been

whilst the soberest


inhumation

rested in two

simple

burning."
"

5.
"

Milton
For Fed
we

(1Q08-1614:)" Li/cidas:
were same

nursed flock

upon

the

selfsame

hill ;

by fountain,shade, and rill ; Together both, ere the high lawns appeared of the morn. the opening eyelids Under
the drove time and afield, the both

We

together heard
the

What

winds gray-fly

our Batt'ning

flocks with
star that

Oft, till the


Toward

rose, at

heav'n's descent

had

sultryhorn, fresh dews of night. evening,bright. slopedhis westeringwheel."


the

her

Paradise
On

Lost

"

,,

Meanwhile

Son

now expedition appeared. Girt with omnipotence,with radiance crowned Of Majesty divine,sapienceand love

his great

Immense." 6.
"

Bunyan (1628-1688)
"

Pilgrim'sProgress:
"

So I

saw man

that

Christian

went

on

his way

yet, at the sight


he could
not

of the old tell what

that sat at the mouth because think, especially

of the cave, he

to

spoke to him, though

90

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

disceriiible. Our Works decisively are first sees the spirit the mirror wherein its natural lineaments. of that impossiblePrecept, Know Hence, too, the folly thyself; till it be translated into this partially what possible one, Know thou canst
"

render

articulate

and

work then

at.''
to

And

fancy the
hollows

fair

that castles, their green

stood flower
or a

sheltered

in

these white

Mountain dames and

; with

lawns, and
the still,

damsels, lovelyenough;
stood her."

better Mother

straw-roofed

cottages, wherein
her children round

many

baking

bread,with
11.
"

Macaulay (lS00-lS59)
how under the

"

Ristort/ of England:
found
to

"

I shall relate

that

the authority of settlement,

law and
with
a

securityof property were


discussion
and of

bejcompatible
action
"^

libertyof
known.*' Emerson
have all
a

individual

never

before 12.
"

(imi^\^^2^
great deal
human
more

"

: Friendship

"

We

kindness
that

than

is

ever

spoken.
the of

Maugre
love like whom honor
we us

the

selfishness

chills like east


bathed persons with
we we an

winds element
in

world, the whole


a

family is
How many whom in

fine ether.

meet

houses,
who in !

scarcelyspeak to,
! How many
we

yet
the

honor,

and

see

street, or

sit with with

church, whom, though silently, to be we warmly rejoice the language of these wandering eye-beams. The Read
knoweth."
Living Writers

heart

13.
"

Henry James,
of
at

Jr.

"

Niagara :
beats

"

In the matter

it line,

Michael
the

Angelo.
that it
to

One

may will
"

seem

first to say
one
a

the
the

least,but
most, in
was

careful

observer

admit

that

says

saying
not

pleases
write

pleases even
other

spectator who
care

ashamed

the

day

that he didn't

for cataracts."

LATIN

AND

SAXON

ENGLISH

91

14.
"At live and it

William
home

Dean

Howells
seems we

"

Venetian
that
no

Life:

"

it sometimes with it

we

are

in such

haste

to

be done

have

time to be
it
were

polite. Or
not."

is

altogetherbetter
15.
"

to be rude ?

I wish

Rudyard Kipling
is
no a

"

On

India

"

There
are

want

of

atmosphere
worth

in

the

sense. painter's

There crude

half-truths
with

noticing.

Men

stand

out

all

nothing to tone them down, and nothing to scale them against. They do their work^ and grow to think that there is nothing but their work, and that they are the real pivotson which the administration turns."
and
raw,

16.
"

Richard
I

Watson

Gilder

"

lightthe sea and wake the sleeping land, the hills make on music, and my hand My footsteps the wind-swept pines." on Plays like a harper's

QUESTIONS
1.

ON

CHAPTER

VII

to

Compare the values of Latin and Saxon English. 2. Which givesus the words of home life ? Give examples. 3. Compare the words fatherly and paternal, with reference originand use. 4. On what three pointsdepends the choice between Latin
Saxon
5. 6.

and

words is

? ? from Mr.

What

^he generaldistinction
two ways
does
the

In what

passage

Spencer

when have replacedthe Latin by Saxon ? we suffer, 7. Explain this loss, in detail. ^. Again, what is lost in changing the given bit from
9.

of

poetry
ments ele-

its Saxon
How vary

into Latin ?
the the

does with

proportionof the Latin and Saxon different periodsof English writing ?

92

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

10.

How ?

do

scientists

compare

with

writers literary,

in this

respect
11.

Study

of

Specimen Passages.
is the and

(a) (b)

How

English
the

Prayer
?

Book

adapted

to

the

learned
Look up,

unlearned

in Webster's words

International
selection. Latin in
some or

Dictionary, the
and Saxon words
;

important

of each of that

(c) Compare
in each

the

proportion
with the
next

selection

other
one

selection
of
a

either choosing

in

time,

similar

style and

purpose.

(d)

Where notice

two

selections
contrast

are

made

from them

the in

same

author,
tion propor-

the

between

this it. and

of Latin

and

Saxon,
to

and

explain

(Much study
the
more on

should
ones

be

given
should

these

passages, up, If

some a

of

marked
the and the

be

followed work.

by
the

week's

lessons of Latin of
statement

author's
Saxon is the
or

characteristic

proportion
ing count-

expressed numerically, by pupil


must

actual

words,
accurate

guard
the

against thinking
has

the

final when may,

research be

necessarily
enough

been for

limited.

The

results

however,

accurate

general comparison.)

TOPICS

IN

CONNECTION

WITH

CHAPTER

VII

I.
II.

Eobert

Louis

Stevenson's of the Latin

English.
of

Comparison
as

histories
and

Motley
words,

and with

Mr.

John

Fiske,
of effect

regards
An

Saxon

study

in each. III. Exercise


:

original essay
as

on

any
as

topic,written
Saxon,
as

in two

versions,

one

Latin, the

other

possible.

CHAPTER

VIII

THE

ARTIST'S

AND

THE

SCIENTIST'S

USE

OF

WORDS

Association
may

of Words.
two sets

"

It

has

been the there

shown

that

word the

have

of of if

meanings,
words,

physical
is another

and

spiritual.

In

the

use

double
a

significance which,
power
to

well

understood,
two

gives
of

twofold double
a

language.
are,

The the of
a

elements

this of

significance (2)
the

(1)

dictionary
word. has
a

definition

word;

associations

For

instance,

stepmother

definite
a

dictionary

ing, mean-

quite colorless, representing


to
our

legal relationship
colored the the that husband's
at

but

minds

the

word
not
we

is
to

so

highly

by

association

that

it is difficult with And which if is not


''

connect
are

it with
in

type story
a

of of

mother stepderella. Cin-

familiar
to

we

wish
so

explain
to

particular
children,

second
we

wife
say, is

unkind
not
a

her

may

She

is
not

stepmother
in

all !

"

Here
sense.

the
In

word

clearly
we

used say

its
a

strict

dictionary
brings

general,
"

may

that

word

to

our

minds 1. The

essential

properties
the

that

always

and

necessarily

belong
2.

to

thing.
attributes that

The

accidental

usually

accompany

these

b
The

properties.
first element scientist.
is

invariable,
second is

and

so

is

depended

upon from

by

the

The

variable,

resulting

94

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

to the experience, and so coming home feelings and this more imagination of each man personally ; upon the poet, dethe artist, pends. appeal to the feelings especially

As

homely example, the


a

names

of the months

have
;

an

invariable scientific value, as have


also

fixed divisions of time


value
to
means

they
of

variable

associative

large classes
midsummer
This

means people : March sunshine, November

bluster,June
means

Thanksgiving.
when
he
;
or

ative associ"

value of life "had

poet
come

uses, to
a

bride

June suggests that the he a story writer, when

morning." story in a settingof a country "June Yet to a New Zealander, June suggests the slightfrosts of their midwinter, though the name June still belongs to
puts
his the month A

scientifically* still more prosaicexample


these Scientifically, the

we

may
names,

of the week.
mean

days Sunday^ Monday^


fixed

find in the

only
seven.
"

place each

day
"

holds

in the

order

of

the

\j

class of people,Monday to one By association, is Wash day,".Saturday Baking day ; to another, Monday is "School again," Saturday "Holiday"; to is another, Monday day." PayWork-again," Saturday These minds associations have in our entirely day the days; Saturreplaced the associations which named to anybody Saturn-Day. no longer means No one can York, now speak of Fifth Avenue, New without suggesting to people in generalsomething more
"

"

"

than If

the you

avenue

between
"

Fourth
a

and

Sixth.

say,

He's

clever

little

chap,"
word
more

there

is

humorous
to

affectionateness
in the word

be

found

implied in the hoy (which is

chap

not

colorless,
young
words male little

and
\J

suggests the

liuman

definition of a dictionary l)eing). Imaginationplays upon the

ARTIST'S

AND

SCIENTIST'S

USE

OF

WORDS

95

chap, and we perhaps has some


Value this

think

the

speaker is
own.

fond

of

children,
of

of his

of the Associative
power

Element.

"

The

management

associative

in words

importance.
ol: the variable

It is because

very greatest associations have somewhat

is of

the

quality of human
the

mood,

that
so

in

hands

of

experience and human come begreat artist they can


to
so

subtle

and

penetrate
that

fine

issues
in

for

Shakespeare
so

discerns
a

which

is vital
"

them, and

speaks to just how long


without
on

universal
count
on

experience,
and feeling He does

to

tiring these.
for its full of the the

understanding lating fancy,and stimunot simply rely


he he leads
may

the

word

the
see

thought
in the

value, but dictionary reader to a point where


needed for the

word

color

effect desired.

What
on

is called oratory

depends for its persuasivepower

justthis management of the associative value of words. For example, study Antony's speech in Julius Caesar, The power of this appeal to the people lies largelyin the

associations Brutus
may

popularlyconnected
have
the

with

the word
"

ambitious. be

reasoned

that Caesar

would

king,"
would

thinking of
lead
to

scientific fact, that

this ambition

issues. But political Antony, playing the the popular associations with ambition^ draws upon the robbery of their money between that they contrast
would
was

certain

he this man of whom Brutus said expect from ambitious," and the public bequestsof Caesar's will.
'-'"

of the people,then shows prejudices how these must fail if directed against Caesar, and, by a subtle move, them turns against Brutus, this time by the with the phrase ''so honorable (?) a associations connected

Antony

arouses

the

man"

he i.e.,

rouses

their

scorn

of

dishonorable with

friend. diction-

honorable is not used merely Here, evidently,

96

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

ary

value, but by the skill of the


of

orator

is made

equivalent
of associative

to dishonorable.

In the smaller

uses

this management life,

values
for tact in

in words

is half the battle in situations

calling

speech. By understanding this power, one avoid the petty brutalities of thoughtlessspeech,and may otherwise be careless, would raise what ungoverned talk Art. to the dignity of an A humorous turn, too, may be given to a disagreeable of a word that has humorous trait or situation,by the use be done This associations. to bring a sordid fact may Du Maurier within the pale of art, as when says, "Oh, happy times of careless impecuniosity! giving us pathos
"

instead of the blank


be used hard in
"

wretchedness

of poverty
dull may

or, it may

actual and

to brighten life,

facts and

soften

ones,

this

art of

words

be half the art of

living.
The
often
more

choice
turns
on

between
their the next

words

of about value.

the

same

meaning
will be
seen

associative

This

fullyin

chapter,on

Synonyms.

QUESTIONS 1. In what
2. 3. 4.

ON

CHAPTER

VHI

does the twofold

of significance

word

consist ?

Illustrate Define

by by

the word

stepmother.
of word of the

the two

elements
names

suggestions.
months,
as a

Illustrate

the

and

of

the

days (as
with

of the week. 5.
"

Illustrate how
"

so

colorless accumulate

word

mere

number

Fifth 6.

Avenue)
is the

may

associations.
of

What

associative

value

chap

as

compared
us

hoy 9
7. word's How does

such

an

artist

as

Shakespeare make

feel

associative

value ?

CHAPTER

IX

SYNONYMS

Meaning.
used
For than for best
one

"

If words
we

are

enough
may
we

alike
them in
our

in

meaning

to

be

interchangeably,
almost every To

call

Synonyms.
language
shade
we more

idea,

have idea
group
on

word.
must

give

tlie
a

just
of

the

wish
one

it, we
word.

choose This choice

from

synonyms

the

depends

three

points

already

sxamined 1.
2.

"

Derivation,
The

Latin

or

Saxon

(Chapter
the

VII).
word has

meanings

through

which

passed

^'Chapter VI).
3. Associations

(Chapter
between
Latin

VIII).
and
two

The

choice
been
are

Saxon

synonyms
now

has be
a sidered con-

already

discussed.
then the

The Past before


not

points
the
can

to

and
we

Present
use

of word in

word. ligently. intel-

We

must

know
The

both,
two
are

the

always,

however,
must

harmony;
decide
our

when

they

conflict, present

associations

choice.
For the word
sense

example,

the

word

preMy
is

had
now

in

Middle

English
the

tricky ; this
now means

meaning

quite lost, and Cunning meaning, tricky


two

physically

attractive. from this

meant

originally knowing,, skillful;


have been of

others

adopted pretty)

by
and

good

usage, The

(the

original rejects

meaning

tvinsome.
98

purist that

SYNONYMS

99

as rejectthe first, meaning should logically also the present use of pretty. is a better guide to As a rule, however, the derivation

the

second

present usage than


For To false say
use one
"

in that

case^
on.

example,adore^ dote
adores
"

kittens

is at
we

once

shown that the

to be

of
meant

the

word, when
to ;

know

Latin this
most

adorare

to pray

the is

present usage follows


for the

derivation,and
sacred

the word

properlykept
on

associations. for the

To dote

kittens is the

originalmeaning of the but trivial fondness, such as is innocent an stronger word, dotage. this point, We have, then, to review
"

pression, exfitting word implies

seen

in the

"

for

almost

every
;

word and

we

use,

the

choice

word

On

we choosing, the present assomeans ciations by derivation ; 2. Whether uphold the derivative distinctions. let us examine these two principles, some groups of :
"

in

of synoa among group nyms consider : 1. What each must

synonyms

accessible, courteous, civil, Affable, benign. Affablemeans This derivative meaning governs derivation to-be-spoken-to. of the word, for we do not properlyapply it to men use

by
our

in

but to persons of rank, who grant such approach as a general, he gives us of high position is affable when privilege.A man
an access

to him

not

our

due.

We

may

but this word


to
a

means or an

mountain,
the

and to-be-reached, in the physical sense island, civil is of the off

say that he is accessible ; has a special suitability


of

reaching.
means
"

Courteous

while is of the court,


corners

city. Civil
with
town.

simplywith
manners

rubbed

by

contact

men,

with may to his

formed
a

to suit the

say that

servant
we

formal life of a is civil, because his manner


a

So

we

is formed
to
a

office ; but

say of

gentleman that

he is courteous

lady.

100
meant

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

and is used of the kindness well-born, originally from the higherto the lower, associated with and condescension nobility. In this group, we have found present association almost exactlydetermined by derivation.

Benign

horrible. dreadful, terrible, Awful, fearful,

In

this group,
the

the

ending -fulmarks
the others
as

the

first three
The

as

Saxon,

ending -ible,

Latin.
the
nouns

purpose,

and

be dropped, for our suffixes may that call for discrimination are awe,
awe was

The originalmeaning of fear, dread, terror, horror. first used of the peril of travel. choking. Fear was meant of the hair. These tremhling ; horror, a bristling while

Terror tions, deriva-

they

do

not

define accurately Awe


or

our

present usage,
presence of

give it
what

invaluable

color.

may

be felt in the

is vast, whether
so we
"

of evil ;

while

our

"hair evil.

while we horror only use evil, choke '^ when reading of a magnanimous deed, of bristles" only when element there is an

good

threatened
it used in

Dread

used

to have

graver

sense,

as

we

find

literature ; the ordinarypresent idea of it is religious of the simply of a strong personal fear, as a child's "dread dark." While we usually associate fear with evil,there is and worship, of reverence of it in the sense the Biblical use in the sentence, " They hated knowledge and did not choose as
fear of the

the

Lord."

Fear

has

the

widest

range

of all five

words, being applied to things large or have extreme degree of fear; one may
feet

small.
a

Tensor of of

is

an

fear

gettinghis
some

wet, but he has

terror

of the consequences

grave

crime.

Love, like,enjoy,incline, pleased, content,


use

satisfied.

The

fitting

by association. If we are to keep it for the higher attachments,we must not vulgarizeit ; " love when the word is cheapened at once we potatoes. To like is found in Middle English as an impersonal, liketh^ it is like or suitable for; this suitableness is still the prominent
of the word love is determined
"
=

idea ;

one

likes what
a

fitshis

taste.
mere

To

enjoy is
"

to

joy in, and

expresses

livelier

than feeling

liking,

more

positive

SYNONYMS

101 to, and


between
has
two

pleasure.
in

To

incline to is to lean
seems

an

idea of

parison com-

and to things, from one thing toward the other. lean away To please is allied, to appease with the word in its Latin original, (asan enemy or the this offended an give us of it may specialsense divinity) ;
to
as
a

it; one

stand

condescension,as
To be content

person

is
a

inferior.

is from

usually pleased with an Latin word meaning to hold


" "

and suggests that what has corresponds to what a man together, he wishes, or that he holds togetherand restrains his desires. To

be

also satisfied if he has

means

to

have

enough;

man

is said

to

be

limited his desires to his condition ; voluntarily if he has not been obligedso to check his desires, he is satisfied but has had them fullymet. To invent is to come in thought; to Invent, discover. upon The distinction is that a thing discover is to uncover, reveal discovered existed before the discovery ica to discover Amer: as first existent ; to invent is used of a thing or combination "hit upon'^ in our minds ; as machine." to invent a new or
content
" '' "

Leisure,idleness.

Leisure

and

idleness

both
not

mean

employed free,un-

time; but leisure is regularemployment or business doing nothing (from a Saxon


business hours
man

used

may
not

write

book

by a idleness means actually ; while word meaning empty). So a in his leisure hours,but these
is used of word, laisser,
To hire

of time

exacted

could

be called idle.
To whom of the

Lease,hire.
the person
to

from lease,
a

French

property belongs.
to whom

(from the
let for
a

Saxon) is used
season.

person

the

property is

(Latin habeo, to have) is that which is held or retained, Custom (French acquired by long custom. coutume, cf. Latin consuetus, used) is an established practice either of a man of a community. It is thus a more or general word than habit, and definite meaning. We has a more speak ot any common such as sucking the thumb, vagary of a child, and European customs. there are American as a habit; while
Custom, habit.
Rabit

102

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Enough, sufficient.
words
\

One

of the

distinctions
the

between

these
the

is that

already spoken of,as


Latin
=

difference between

colder dignified,

homely Saxon. Sufficient sufficiens putting under, supplying,i.e., meeting our (Latin, what is adequate to needs. what Enough means wants) means
and the warm,

v/

wish, plenty. feelingof gratified Hinder (from Anglo-Saxon, to keep back) Hinder, prevent. Prevent to block, obstruct. means (Latin praevenio, to go gives us
"

the

means before,anticipate)

to

get ahead
We

of,and
prevent

is oftener

used thought; fore-

in

good
we

sense

than

hinder.

disease

by

hinder

progress.

Character, reputation. Character


that which

(from

the
covers

Greek)
the

means

marks
a man.

or

and distinguishes,

essential

of qualities what
or

is

thought

of

Reputation (Latin puto, to think)means him, and may be a true sign of character
are

otherwise.

Vice, crime.
;

These
a

both

from

the Latin

ish a blem(vitiiinfi, but


vice

crimen,
to

refers

crime). They both mean personal habit which cannot


some

wrongdoing,
be touched

by
word

human

law, until

outward These of
a

evil
are

act, or crime, is committed.


from the
same

Artist,artisan.

Latin

art);

artist is used
;
an

worker is
a

in the fine

arts,
"

{ars, music, painting,

poetry

artisan

mechanical

laborer.

Certain, sure.
sure

lished; decreed, estab(Latin certus)means means safe. Certain is used more (Latin securus) Certain and of
sure

of the
a

mind,

of the friend.

feelings.
the

You

may

be

certain

of

fact,but

sure

Allow, permit.

Allow

(from

French) and permit (Latin

of be used to give leave. Permit permitto)both mean may " mits impersonal agents (" my health does not permit," time perbe used of should allow only ") r persons. the actually Saxon) means Empty (from Empty, vacant. of an means occupant. deprived containing nothing; vacant A furnished house may To Mil be vacant, but
means

cannot to

be empty. take life.

Kill, murder.

simply

Murder

SYNONYMS

108
human

means

the word

the

wrongful taking of is metaphorical.


To

life;any

other

use

of

Hope, expect.

expect is

to

look that

for something
it will
come.

"

whether
To

good
of it.
seems

or

evil

"

with

confidence
a a

hope is
what

to wish

ardentlythat
We
may

thing may

come,
we

sure feeling partially

expect

but calamity,

hope

for

even

unattainable

if it is desirable.

Knowledge,

wisdom.

These
the

are

Saxon

words,

of

simple
means means

meaning. ripenessof

Knowledge is of
Wisdom character.

mind

information.

is of the life and

and principally, and experience,

(Latin convinco, to conquer) another's reasoning. is to triumph in an argument, to overcome with and will,specially To persuade is to sway a man's feeling
reference wrong,
to

Convince,persuade. To convince

action.
to

One

convinces him
to

man

that

he

is in the

in order

persuade
Absolute

change.
"

There

are

no

Synonyms.

It is the

language to let no two words stand in it with precisely the same meaning ; and it is a scholar's duty to see to it that these distinctions are well founded, based on the history of the words. There are instances, into English from however, in which words have come in their real different languages, with distinction no distinction meanings. In such a case, an arbitrary original For example, sympathy and compassionare arises. soon words, one from the Greek, the other from exactlyparallel the Latin, both meaning, by derivation, with-feeling^ distinction has grown But a fellow-feeling. up which permits sympathy to keep its earliest meaning, applicable to either joy or sorrow compassionis used in the ; while later sense of i^Wow -suffering^ pity. On the other hand, passionis used of a great emotion, whether of love or of is kept for sorrow. anger ; while pathos
a
"

of

tendency side by side

104

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Value

of these

Distinctions. of
a

"

However
trained

these

tions distincuse

arise,it is the mark


not
as

artist to

them

limitations,but
a

as

opportunities. By
to convey

fine

shading
of

in

words,

writer

is enabled

the

finer effects of if his choice

the feeling,
words
seems

finer shades
at first to

of
be

and thought,

by the fact that in a there is reallyonly one that fits large group of synonyms his meaning, the force and beauty of that one right word is just so much heightened. that show well-chosen Let us now study some passages
narrowed words
1.
:
"

From
"

Lowell's

JjTar^^arc? Commemoration

Ode:

"

Long
Or

as

man's

hope
some

insatiate
more

can

discern

only guess
here

goal." inspiring
chosen
with

The
art
so are

three words

that

seem

particular
it is stated while subtle

discern^ insatiate^

guess.

Insatiate^ because

have sympathetic with hope; insatiable would be satisfied ; never boldly that the hope would insatiate (which is reallyun-sated) has the more
idea of not

and allows yet satisfied, and


guess
are

one

to look

on

into the

future.

Discern

well
two

chosen, because

they
and

bring into vivid imagination, of


discern and is to

contrast

the which

faculties, reason

both

of

separatebetween^ and

Hope avails herself; to impliesthe most accurate

painstaking mental process ; to guess is to loose the Some cerned^ fancy from all bonds of reason. goals can be dissuch Hope presses grasped by logic; toward can only be guessed by freest fancy rationally ; others such or Hope presses irrationally. aspiration ; toward
How much of
more

he than

has

said

about

the

eagerness,

the three

greed,
other

Hope,

could

have

been

said

in

wora^.

106

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

give the idea of going over not hastily.


Honored
has
a

and hy degrees^

so,

thoroughly,

number

revered^ esteemed; but

of synonyms, of the group

"

praised^ respected^
is the word

honored

associated with the rewards of literary particularly ness. great-esteemed^have also associations of Self-praised^ self and self-respecting is a decidedly self-glorification; prosaic word.

Secure

means

safe (without care).


would

He

could

not

say

and saved mean self Selfself-safe^ self-rescued. would eifort, protected guarded or self suggest aggressive while self -secure gives justthe rightimpressionof a calm of the mountain. So it carryingout the figure self-poise, that we could not change one of these words without appears marring the effect. 8. An example from Shakespeare,- Macbeth:
"

"

"

the

king-becominggraces,

As

justice, verity, temperance, stableness, Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness, '* Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude,
"

We

can

that this passage is ruined by the substitution of less artistically chosen synonyms ; for instance,
soon see
"

sovereign-like virtues, Equity,truthfulness, moderation, constancy,

the

Generosity, persistence, humility. pity, endurance. Faithfulness, resignation, bravery,

separately inferior for their purpose, as that the harmony of the are is gone. whole Shakespeare has the art of so grouping words that,as in a pieceof mosaic, the impressionis of a
so

Here

it is not

much

that the words

taken

whole,

not

of

sequence

or

list. In

this

passage,

the

SYNONYMS

lQ7

broad and simplicity humanity which he calls king-becoming, rather than sion artificial condescenan toward is given by the whole as a whole, his subjects, marked by the simpler words, though it is especially stableness for constancy. The general bountyfor generosity^
"

effect of

the

difference between
at

his group

of words graces
"

and
a more

ours

is hinted

by
In

his first than

generalterm,

spontaneous

word

virtues.

pends, dethis passage from Macbeth^ the choice of words of course, somewhat the verse meter ; and in upon

governed by the prose, our choice will be partly words and word sequences.
Before the

rhythm

of

taking

selection

advantages to
:

1. As

affecting look at two of words, let us important in distinguishing be gained by care synonyms of basis for Argument ; 2. As a method a
up the

subjectof rhythm

as

Persuasion. Choice of Words


as a

Basis

for Argument.
an

"

Carlyle
into the

often condenses

the whole
two

force of

argument

and this distinction he synonyms, the derivation of the words. almost always bases upon do without "A Happiness, and man," he says, "can distinction between instead thereof find Blessedness.
man

Why
cannot

Because

piness Hapupon
a

depends on hap^ and He must be able -per-haps!. is there to take its place?
which from word
'Blood' of
a
"

depend
this
;

to do

without
! he may

but

what

Ah
we

have the has

ness^ Blessedtion deriva-

even

if

do

not

accept
"

with

the idea of sacrifice and


'

always
fastness steadThis

something meaning
love God
he
;

meaning, religious
which is
"

of its source,

not
"

suggeststhe hap but God,''


'

We

have

"Love not Pleasure, emphasizes further on, this is the EverlastingYea." Arnold's instance of Matthew an just seen

1Q8
choice

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

of words

in
;
was

sonnet,
words

"

short, pithy words,


the

as

was

lit for sonnet cahn Let

form

that carried

majesty,as
us now see

for fitting in prose,

impressionof his subject, Shakespeare.


uses

how,

he

the

same

care

in
on

his choice

of

words, making

his whole

argument

turn

phrasing that exactly suits his meaning, and repeating insistence too severe these phrases over with an and over need for a commonplace writer, who would a variety of to give varietyto his style. For, as in matters synonyms of architecture or of dress,so severe is very a simplicity trying and must be carried out with perfectart. he says that Homer In his essay On Translating Homer has four qualities to be lost sightof by a translator ; never that he is eminently rapid ; eminently plain and direct in style eminently plain and direct in ideas ; eminently ;
noble. in the

These
pages of

words
that

and over, great critic turns over their follow, wringing out of them
the

utmost

of the
or we

the
are

descriptive showing that it is for want power, that this understanding of these simple qualities other translator has wholly or partially failed, till
"

driven

to

the

conclusion

that these

and

no

other

words
for the

explain such
future. of Words

failures of the

past and

possibilities
To

Choice

as

Method

of

Persuasion. is of the

"

the

orator, the
of

large extent depends his power As ple examan persuading and swaying his audience. of an the right word could hit upon who orator

choice proper for on it to a

of words

utmost

portance im-

for

bringing
he took

his

audience
a

to

his

side,

we

may

xtake bury, Salis-

Disraeli.

Once, after
the

cutting speech
and "The
one

from

Lord
the

upon

sting out of it his opponent by remarking, vigor,but it has possesses

turned
noble

laugh

vective lord's in"

defect,

it lacks

SYNONYMS

109

is so cool, so neat, so calmly finish in point and of its synodelicacyno one nyms it. match It elegance can ease, grace^ polish^ end. has also the other suggestion of an this short chapter that in daily from It will be seen speech we may gain or lose much, in proportion to our In the regard for the proper distinctions of synonyms. ! Do not say that a girl, trivial talk. Discriminate most a a day, are cheese, a dance, a sky, a story, a sermon, lent; "lovely." The girl may be lovely; the cheese is excelthe sky, beautiful;the the dance was delightful; remarkably good; the story, entertaining;the sermon, day,fine. Do not, above all,use words with no regard whatever for their meaning, in such a phrase as "I like her awfully
" "

The finish!''' that judicial,

word

well."
The

habit
a

of

using
and

words
an

is intelligently
:

of

twofold

value, as
mind for

means

end

1.

means

of

trainingthe

defined the tone

and for wellthought on any subject, scholarly life ; 2. an end, in improving thought in practical and letter writing. of general conversation

QUESTIONS 1. What
2.

ON

CHAPTER

IX

is meant
two

by

synonyms

On

what

considerations

does the choice of synonyms

depend ? 3. How,
its Past
4. 5. and

in other

words,
?

is

our

use

of

word

governed by

Present
on

Comment Discuss

the

historyof

the words

cunning and pretty.

the write

synonyms
sentences

and benign, meaning.

accessible, courteous, civil, affable, and showing difference in use

6. Use

as

horrible. above^ awful,fearful, terrible, dreadful,

110

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

7.

To

love,like enjoy, incline to,


J

he

pleased with, he

content

with. with, he satisfied

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 24. 25.

Invent,

discover.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.


"

artisan. Artist,

Leisure, idleness. Lease, hire.

Certain,sure. Allow, permit.


Empty,
vacant.

Custom,

hahit.

Enough, sufficient.
Hinder, prevent. Vice, crime.

Kill, murder.

21. 22. 23.

Propose, purpose. Hope, expect. Knowledge,


wisdom.

Character, reputation. Convince, persuade.


What
as

synonyms, 26. What

between by an arhitrary distinction between sympathy and compassion? artist gain from tion discriminaa careful a word may
meant

is

between
27.

synonyms
as

"Long
Or

man's guess

hope
some

insatiate
more

can

discern

only

inspiringgoal.''
in this passage.
text

Point words up

out

the

niceties of word

selection

(Other
be taken

than

those

noted specially

in the

should

here.)
28.
"

Discuss
Self In

the

verse,

"

-schooled,self-scanned,self-honored,self-secure."
the passage and
two

29. and

from

Macheth,
in detail.

look

up

all

derivations

synonyms, 30. What

discuss

are

to

31.

particular advantages to the writer or speaker be gained by careful distinguishing of synonyms ? What of life ? general advantages,for the daily purposes

TOPICS

Distinction

of synonyms

for the

purposes Letter

of

Art, Argument,

Persuasion, Study, Conversation,

and

Writing.

CHAPTER

RHYTHM

Prose

Accent. is to

"

Prose

has been

said to be to

verse

what

of prose dancing ; that is,while the measure is not marked of the accent or by a regular recurrence beat, there should be a rhythmicalmovement, giving to it

walking

grace In

of its

own.

English verse As Sidney verse. Verse^ though each


bar

there Lanier
measure

is less
says

than regularity
in

in classic

his Science
two

of English
a

between

accents, like
may

of music, has
over

an

equal time,
of
easy

this time

uted be distribthe number number These

any

number

provided syllables,
movement.

is not of

too

great for
an are

The
or

usual three.

in syllables

English
named

foot thus

is two
:
"

varieties of foot

Trochee;

two

with syllables,

an

accent

on

the

as first,

Idve-ly,
Iambus:
two

with syllables,

an

accent

on

the

second, as

a-fdr.

Dactyl:
Amphibrach Anapest :
:

three

with syllables,

an

accent

on

the

as first,

ten-der-ly.
three
171

with an accent syllables, springtime (rare). with syllables, the light.


Ill
an

on

the second, as

three
in

accent

on

the

third,as

112
Three

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

syllables may for of eighth-notes provided the accent


; or
as

be substituted
one

for two

(likea triplet
two
are

quarter, in music), or
and may the be

for one,
not

general

time
a

turbed dis-

the accent
in music

shifted,for

effect, special
receives

is done
accent

when

the middle

of the bar

the

by syncopation.
of in Unaccented
or

Recurrence either

Syllables.
"

It is rare,
more

ever, howtwo

verse

in

prose,

to

have

than

follow each other. So natural is this syllables habit to the English tongue, that it is almost impossible The tendency able. hd spit to get people to say, cdntumeli/, is to divide more ; or to give evenly, contHmely, hospitable a mdtrimony^ ciistomdry. A certain secondary accent, class of words is thus cut out of poetical use, unless the effect is is very irregularin form, or a humorous poem form aimed It is difficult to fit into regular verse at. without ing interfersuch words as cdmbatable^disinterestedly^ with both accent and time. By the use of secondary as accent, however, in such words readilyadmit it,long

unaccented

"

"

words Poe's

may

be

used

in

metrical perfectly

verse

as

in

"

tm-tin-ab-u-la-tion of the bells.''

This
its

four-time

verse

raritymay

be

three consecutive This

for English. The reason the prejudicespoken of above, against unaccented syllables. is
rare

in

the

in (sing-song it is to verse),and to prose as prose, because not proper the opposite fault of too great irregularity (for to that both prose and laws of rhythm govern extent, the same In other words, the accent should occur usually verse)

prejudiceholds in prose as in verse. that for rhythmical prose, principle fault of too great regularityof accent

It is
we

an

portant im-

must

avoid

114
"

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

The

sea, it is
a seam
on

true, was
that of

smooth
wide but

like

glass:
the

even

the Boost
Men
so no

was more

but

mirror,and
to

Merry
ear,

than with

caps

foam;

my

eye

and

long

the sea also seemed to lie uneasily places, ; where I stood ; like a long sigh,mounted of it, to me a sound and, quiet as it was, the Roost itself appeared to be revolving in these dwellers mischief. I x)ught to say that all we For of warnif not at least a quality ing, prescience, parts attributed, of the tides/' to that strange and dangerous creature

familiar

these

the Study particularly


"a

effect of the

syllables,
"

16ng sigh, mdunted,"


pause

with

the imitative

demanded
"

as

for the time

of

an

unaccented

between syllable
"

mounted^ long (-er) sigh(-ing),

Now

examine, with regard to rhythm, the closingsentence


R.

of Dr.

S. Storrs's Oration
:
"

at

the

opening of the

East

River
"

Bridge

Surely we
era

should

not

go

from

this

hour, which

marks

of these cities, and which history pointsto their in each of us future indefinite expansion, without the purpose with their increase in numbei-s, that,so far forth as in us lies, wealth, equipment, shall also proceed with equal step thenin whatever is noblest and best in publicand private progress life ; that all which in them shall come sets humanity forward to ampler endowment, renowned more exhibition; so that, linked together,as hereafter they must be, and seeing the purpledeepening in their robes of power, they may be always conscious of fulfilled obligation to the nation and increasingly make the land, at whose to God magnificent gateway ; may they stand, their constant debtor, and may contribute their societyfor mighty part toward that ultimate perfect human
new

in the

RHYTHM

115
as majestic

which
that of

the
a

seer

could

find

no

image
from

so

meet

or

so

above,its stones laid with with sapphires, of fair its windows and all its borders of pleasant agates, its gates of carbuncles, above it : promiseresplendent stones, with the sovereign
coming down city, colors,its foundations
"

And

greatshall
of of

be the peace

of

thy children.'

"

The

rhythm
but
can

this
its

is

more

artificial than

that

of

Stevenson;
smoothness

kind,
seen

it is almost
to

perfect. The

depend on the words in about their sequence and on equal proportion. it With the sovereign promise resplendentabove the regular reads like a verse from based on a poem followed foot,two unaccented syllables by an accented ; it is saved from being too regular for prose by the irregularity of the following phrase ; if this read, And great is the peace of thy children," there would be an unpleasantly sing-song sound to the whole ; so that,to break this,the welcome. three successive unaccented are syllables If it Now the rhythm of the phrase is very beautiful. had been written, With the majestic promise shining
be easily
"
"

"

'^

over

it,"the. loss of effectiveness would


to the lack of

have

been

due the

quite as much

rhythm
phrase

as

to

anything in

meaning
As
to

or

associations of the words. take much the


"

sequence, equipment." How

in
we

numbers,
say, "in

wealth,

poorer In the

it is if

ment, equip-

wealth, numbers."
words
roll

smoothly togetherto
resources.

the three phrase, original give us just the desired

effect of combined
But

rhythm
be
was

does
a

not

always

mean

smoothness.

This
or

would

fatal to

passage
;

in which may
;

sharp
be
for

contrast

emphasis
as

desired
a

abruptness
of its
own

to

have

fine

rhythm

managed example,
so
"

116
"

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

Be the

no

longer

Chaos.

Produce

Produce of
a

Were

it duce pro-

but

infinitesimal pitifulest
''

fraction

Product,

it !

Here
of
"

the

swing
in

of the the
"

sentence,

as

well

it, throws
were

four then

unaccented
comes

it but

the

out

meaning little syllables with emphasis on


as
"

the

and jerksout the crisis of stress '-'pitifulest infinitesimal,'' number The unusual of unaccented on ''frdction.'' bles syllaand -tes six of them between gives an effect -pitof words to the climax. of a torrent on sweeping one Rough as is this rhythm, it is not lawless or the effect little change To make of chance. for most one pitiful pitifulest would spoilit. It is said that the natural expressionof strong feeling is always rhythmical ; like the rhythm of the unrestrained
" " "

winds

great storm lapping waves.


a

in

"

not

the smooth

rhythm

of peacefully

Addison sounds of

says, in

one

of the

Spectator papers,
''

that the
"

English words are less tunable and sonorous than those of other languages, "like stringmusic, short and transient, sounds which rise and perish upon a single touch," while those of other languages are "like the notes of wind and lengthened instruments, sweet and swelling, out into varietyof modulation."
"

lengthenedsound the longer We is at once felt in calling to a person. use form of a name, Be^-sie ! rather than Bess," prolonging A monosyllable the latter syllable to be heard at a distance. often say, Southerners has not much carrying power. 0 Mary I allowing the long sound of the call to rest the vowel 0. on So, too, we Hurry up l'' when, say, for meaning, Hurry ! would do as well. I should When read of Fox saying, If I had a son we
inconvenience
of short words
"
"

The

for

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

RHYTHM

117

frequentlywriting English verses, because that sort of composition forces one to consider fully very carethe exact meaning of words," we can go farther and say that the necessities of rhythmicalprose also force upon
on one

insist

his

the

exact

consideration of words

shall

be masters

of synonyms: only when we

and
can

that

we

balance

the

claims

of their derivative value.

and meaning, their associations,

their metrical It is
more

than it used to be, that clearlyunderstood but a this choosing and using of words is not a superficial vital and inextricable part of thought^ of character. even So largely is a man's vocabularythe result of his life and development, that his language is,as Buffon said, of the man." So also is the language of a nation the expression of the character and genius of that people.
"

QUESTIONS 1. Is there
verse

ON

CHAPTER

anything

in

prose

corresponding to

meter

in

? 2. 3.

What What
prose

are

the recognizedvarieties of foot in

two

general laws
verse

govern

the

English verse ? frequency of accents


these laws
to the

in both 4.

and
an

? of the of application

Give
of
a

example
name.

wording
5.
accents.

firm

Analyze the
The Can
same,
a

passage

from

Stevenson,with
from Dr.

reference

to

6. 7.

in the sentence
be

Storrs.

rough emphasis
was

rhythmical?
about the

8. What with

Addison's
to

remark

Englishlanguage,
callingto
verse

reference

9. 10.

Illustrate What
and did
use

rhythm ? the necessity of rhythm


Fox say of the ?

in of

any

one.

bearing

writingupon

the choice

of words

118

STUDY

OF

ENGLISH

WORDS

TOPICS

IN

CONNECTION

WITH

CHAPTER

I.

study
irregular
this

of

Sidney variety amply

Lanier's of verse."

theory, (For
two

that advanced

"Prose

is

an

students,
work
at

would

repay

weeks'

this

point).
II. III.

Rhythm
In

illustrated
Sesame
contrasts

in
and

Emerson's

Essays.
first and of Edwin lecture.

Euskin's

Lilies,
smoothness of

IV. V. ^"^'
-^

Carlyle's
The

of

roughness.
Arnold's

sing-song of
Asia,

quality

parts

Light

INDEX

PAGK

Character, Accent, Accessible, Accurnulation,


111 99 79

102 influence
on

Chaucer, Civil,

English,

28 99

Classification Classification

of of

consonants,

16 31

Addison, Adjectives Affable,


Allow,

quoted
in

89, 116
68 99

derivatives,

-ble,

Compound
Consonant Consonant

words, sounds,
groups,

18, 51
15 18 100 103

10.2

Alphabet, Angles,
Arabic

development Saxons, Jutes,


in

of,

13 25 29 73

Content,

Convince, Court, Courteous^ Crime,

element

English,

75
99 102 98 101

Arm, Arnold,
Artist,
Artist's

quoted,
artisan,
and

105 102
use

Chinning,
Custom,

scientist's

of VIII 93-96 100

words, Association,

Chapter

D
Dead

Awful,

languages,
of

10

Development Discover, Bacon, Benign,


Brother, Urowne,
Sir

word-meanings,
of synonyms,
104-109

70 101

quoted,

88 99 17

Distinguishing

Dreadful,
Dutch

100 in

Thomas,

quoted,

88 88

element

English,

30

Bunyan,

quoted,

Early Carlyle, quoted,


Celtic element in

English, derivatives,

27 26 90 102

89, 107,

116 25 102

Ecclesiastical-Latin

English,

Emerson, Empty, English


.

quoted,
1100, 1200,
between

Certain, Change
in

words,
in form of

15

in in

27

Changes
words,

English
50-65

27-28

English,
Early
119

difference

Changes

in

meaning,

70-81

and

Modem,

29

120

INDEX

Genealogy of Language,
of

11

Indo-European 12 languages, 12 of English, in English, element 29 German 91 Gilder, quoted, 79 Gradually, Greek 31, 34-36 derivatives, 17 Grimm's Law,
.

23 Language growth, 85 Lanier, quoted, Latin derivatives, spelling, 66-69 Latin element in English, 34, 37-40 83 Latin-English, exactness of, Latin and Saxon English, Chapter YII 53-55 Latin prefixes, Latin Latin

stems,
established

37-39 58-61 in 24 101 101 100


'

suffixes, Latin, why not


Britain ?

Habit,
Hand,

101 74

Lease, Leisure, Like, love,

Head,
Hebrew element in

70, 73

English,

29 25 102 101

Limit,

78
M

Heptarchy, Hinder, Hire,

Macaulay, quoted,
Mental and

90
uses

physical

of

History Hope,

in

words,

79 103 100 91 96 45

Horrible,

77 words, in language-growth, Metaphors 70, 72, 75-79

Howells, quoted, Humorous words, Hybrids,

Mile,
Milton,

24

quoted,

88 50 102 N

Monosyllabic language,
Murder,

Narrowing
Norman

of

element

meanings, in English,
in

79

27, 42, 43
Norse

element

English,

26

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