Sei sulla pagina 1di 22

Memory, Thought, Body and Behavior

PSYCHOLOGY 20CHAPTERS 3 AND 4

INFORMATION PROCESSING

Information processing involves 3 steps: Input (the information people receive from their senses) Central Processing (storing and sorting of this information in the brain) Output (ideas and actions that result from processing

1)

2)

3)

INFORMATION PROCESSING

Selective Attention is: The ability to pick and choose among the various available inputs.

For example: picking out a particular voice in a room full of people

INFORMATION PROCESSING

Feature Extraction is:


o

The identification and analysis of specific elements of a sensory input.


o

For example: readers will generally focus only on the important words, and skim over smaller words like the and a.

STORING INFORMATION
Psychologists distinguish between 3 kinds of memory: 1. Sensory Storageholds information for only a second or so 2. Short-term Memorykeeps information as long as you repeat it 3. Long-term Memorymay be stored indefinitely; is intended for future use

SHORT-TERM MEMORY

Two strategies for preserving memories in the short term are: Rehearsalrepeating the information, either in your mind or out loud. Chunkingstoring information in smaller groups in order to remember it more accurately.

TERMS RELATED TO MEMORY


Confabulation is: The act of filling in memory with events that make sense but that did not actually occur.

Eidetic memory is: Photographic memory (very specific details can be remembered from something viewed)

TERMS RELATED TO MEMORY

Mnemonic devices are:

Techniques for using associations to memorize information. Examples are: Using the phrase Every Good Boy Does Fine to remember the names of the musical notes on the lines of a staff (E-G-B-D-F) Picturing someone attacking a giant cube with a pickax in order to remember that Picasso (which sounds kind of like pickax) was a cubist. This is an example of a mnemonic device in the form of a mental picture.

KINDS OF THINKING

There are three main kinds of thinking: Directed thinkinga systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal Nondirected thinkinga free flow of thoughts, usually images, with no particular goal or plan Metacognitionthinking about thinking

CREATIVITY
Creativity (the ability to use information in an original and meaningful way) has several aspects, including: Flexibilitythe ability to overcome rigidity Recombinationa new mental arrangement Insightthe sudden emergence of a solution by recombination of elements (the aha experience)

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


The nervous system contains messages that are constantly travelling back and forth through the body. The connections and gaps that occur between individual nerve cells are called synapses. Messages to an from the brain travel along strings of long, thin cells called neurons.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


One end of a neuron receives a message, and the other end transmits the message chemically to the next neuron. Chemicals called neurotransmitters do one of two things: Excite the next neuron; or Stop it from transmitting

DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


The somatic nervous system controls voluntary activities. The autonomic nervous system, meanwhile, controls involuntary activities (heartbeat, stomach activity, etc.) It is divided into two parts: 1 Sympathetic: prepares the body for emergencies or strenuous activity 2 Parasympathetic: conserves energy and helps with recovery

STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Structurally, the nervous system is divided into two parts: 1) The brain and spinal chord (called the central nervous system; and 2) The peripheral nervous system (smaller branches of nerves that reach the rest of the body)

THE BRAIN
The higher thinking processes happen in the forebrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebral cortex (outer layer) and the cerebrum (inner layer) To help describe the brain, scientists refer to four different lobes (Parietal, Occipital, Temporal and Frontal)

THE BRAIN
The brain is divided into two hemispheres that are connected by a band of nerves called the corpus callosum. Generally, the brain communicates with the rest of the body in a crisscross fashionfor example, the motor cortex of the left hemisphere controls most of the right side of the body.

STUDYING THE BRAIN


There are different methods used to study the brain, including: 1) Recording (inserting wires into the brain to detect electrical changes when neurons fire) 2) Stimulation (using electrodes to actually set off the firing of neurons) 3) Lesions (cutting into an animals brain, even destroying part of it)

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


The endocrine system one of two systems for sending information to and from the brain (the other one is the nervous system) The endocrine system involves sending hormones (chemical messages) The hormones are produced by various kinds of glands

GLANDS
Glands include: The pituitary (the master gland)it controls the output of hormones by other glands The thyroidit affects how much energy people have Adrenal glandscontrol the release of adrenaline (when someone becomes angry or frightened)

HUMAN BEHAVIOR STUDIED THROUGH ANIMALS


Ethology is the study of the natural behavior patters of animals. One aspect of ethology is the idea of instinct (abilities that are inheritednot behaviours that become automatic after long practice). Some researchers believe that humans also have instincts, such as parental ones, and that human behavior is sometimes comparable to animal behavior.

HUMAN BEHAVIOR STUDIED THROUGH ANIMALS


Sociobiology studies the hereditary basis of social behavior in animals and humans. It tries to explain self-sacrifice in terms of Darwins theory of natural selectionit sometimes helps the chances of an individuals genes surviving. It also tries to explain aggression as a genetic advantageaggressive people will sometimes be more likely to procreate, for example.

HEREDITY VS. ENVIRONMENT


People have long argued about what has the greater influence on human behaviortheir genes or their experiences. There is no clear answer to this question. Psychologists have studied identical twins that have lived in separate environments to study this topic.