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16_6.4 M.Tech. Communication Engineering

M. Tech Communication Engineering

CURRICULUM & SYLLABI

2009 Batch onwards

Engineering CURRICULUM & SYLLABI 2009 Batch onwards VIT U N I V E R S I

VIT

U N I V E R S I T Y

(Estd. u/s 3 of UGC Act 1956)

VELLORE 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India

A place to learn; a chance to grow

M.TECH - COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 2009 BATCH

Sl.NO

SUBJECT

No. of.

Credits

1

PROGRAM CORE

55

2

PROGRAM ELECTIVES

12

3

UNIVERSITY CORE

3

 

TOTAL NO OF CREDITS

70

PROGRAM CORE:

 

Sl. NO

SUBJECT

L

T

P

C

1

PROBABILITY THEORY AND RANDOM PROCESS

3

1

0

4

2

MODERN DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

3

0

2

4

3

WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS

3

0

2

4

4

MODERN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

3

0

2

4

5

HIGH PERFORMANCE NETWORKS

3

0

0

3

6

MODELING OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

2

0

4

4

7

FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

3

0

0

3

8

RF AND MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN

3

0

4

5

9

PRE-PROJECT SEMINAR

     

4

10

PROJECT WORK

     

20

PROGRAM ELECTIVES:

 

Sl. NO

SUBJECT NAME

L

T

P

C

1

MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

3

0

0

3

2

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

3

0

0

3

3

NETWORK SECURITY

3

0

0

3

4

MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING

3

0

0

3

5

PROCESSORS AND ARCHITECTURES

3

0

0

3

6

MODERN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

3

0

0

3

7

MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING

3

0

0

3

8

MOBILE COMPUTING

3

0

0

3

9

SOFTWARE RADIO ARCHITECTURE

3

0

0

3

10

ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING

3

0

0

3

11

HARDWARE SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN

3

0

0

3

12

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

3

0

0

3

13

RF MEMS

3

0

0

3

14

IMAGE PROCESSING AND COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

3

0

0

3

15

EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN

3

1

0

4

16

ELECTRONIC HARDWARE SYSTEM DESIGN

3

0

0

3

17

ADVANCED RADIATION SYSTEMS

3

0

0

3

18

COMMUNICATION ICs AND DESIGN APPLICATIONS

3

0

0

3

CORE SUBJECTS

PROBABILITY THEORY AND RANDOM PROCESS

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Aims and Objectives: This course will help the students to understand the basic statistical methods and processes required to work with both analog and digital communication systems in future. It will also build them to model the complicated communication systems and to simulate them.

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of statistics and mathematics

Course Outcome: Will get detail knowledge about basic probability, discrete and continuous random variables, stochastic processes and systems which will enable students to work on communications systems in future. Basic probability Sample spaces, events, and probability functions. Independence and conditioning on events using Bayes rule. Discrete random variables Uniform, Bernoulli, Geometric, probability mass functions, conditioning on random variables. Counting arguments. Summary statistics: Expectations, variances, moment generating functions Continuous random variables Uniform, Exponential, Gaussian, probability density functions, jointly continuous random variables, conditioning on continuous or discrete random variables. Laws of large numbers and bounding:

Markov Inequality, Chebychev Inequality, Chernoff Bounding, Weak law of large numbers, Central Limit Theorem Estimation Very basic MMSE and LLSE estimation Stochastic Processes Martingale convergence theorem, stopping times, sequential analysis. Ergodic Theory: Measure preserving transformations, stationary processes, mixing conditions, ergodic theorem, Shannon- Millan-Breiman theorem. Markov chains-asymptotic stationarity, indecomposability, ergodicity. Continuous time processes: Separability, continuity, measurability, stochastic integral. Stochastic systems Response of linear dynamic systems (e.g. state space or ARMA systems) to stochastic inputs; Lyapunov equations; correlation function; power spectral density function. Text Books:

1. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and stochastic processes, 4th, McGraw Hill, 2002

2. Grimmett, G. R., and D. R. Stirzaker. Probability and Random Processes. 3rd ed. New York, NY:

Oxford University Press, 2001

Reference Books:

1. H Stark and J W Woods “Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal

Processing”, Prentice, Hall, 2002.

2. Larson and B.O. Schubert, Stochastic Processes, Vol.I and II, Holden-Day, 1979

3. Gardener, Stochastic Processes, McGraw Hill, 1986.

MODERN DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

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Aims and Objectives: This course examines the fundamentals of detection and estimation for signal processing, communications, and control. It will help the students to implement new algorithms for signal processing applications in frequency, time and mixed domains and also it will expose students to the adaptive systems.

Pre-requisites: Basic knowledge in signals and systems, Probability Theory and Random Process, Digital Signal processing and Principles of communication systems.

Course Outcome: Will learn Multirate signal processing, signal processing application in frequency and time domain. Introduction to Modern Digital Signal Processing: Signals, systems and signal processing

(continuous & discrete an overview), time domain and frequency domain analysis of signals. Sampling and reconstruction of signals, Concepts of Two dimensional, Multi-rate and adaptive signal processing. Design of digital filters, moving average filters, adaptive filters and Filter banks Discrete and fast fourier transform algorithms,Power spectrum estimation, Introduction to Digital signal Processors: Fixed and Floating Point Processors, Complex numbers – fixed and floating point representation Applications: Applications of Digital Signal Processing to Speech & Audio coding and processing Design and implementation example:

An IIR and FIR audio filters - Modeling in MATLAB / LabVIEW and implementation on a DSP Circuit element Board

1. Analog measurement on DSP Systems

2. Fixed and floating Point Realization impacts

Text Book:

1.

Steven W. Smith, “Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists”, Elsevier, 2003.

Reference Books:

2. John G. Proakis, “Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications” , 4 th edition , PHI 2007.

3. Lawrence R. Rabiner, Bernard Gold, “Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing”, PHI 2001.

4. Roberto Cristi “Modern Digital Signal Processing”, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004.

WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS

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Aim and Objective: To know about the various spectrum allocation standards and BW allocation, to initiate into the world of Mobile Communication System and to keep abreast of the future of mobile communication.

Prerequisites: Modulation Theory

Course Outcome: Will train the students on various generation of Wireless networks.

Wireless transmission:

Introduction to Wireless mobile networks and its applications; Frequencies for radio transmission-Signals-Antennas-Signal propagation-multiplexing- Modulation-Spread spectrum-Cellular systems

Medium access control:

Motivation for a specialized MAC-SDMA-FDMA-TDMA-CDMA-Comparison of S/T/F/CDMA IS-95, CDMA2000 1X/3X-WCDMA (3G)

Telecommunications systems:

GSM-Mobile services-system architecture, radio interface, protocols, localization and calling, Handover, Security, New data services- GPRS,EDGE (2.5G),UMTS and IMT-2000 (3G).

Mobile Network layer:

Mobile IP-Goals and requirements, entities and terminology, IP packet delivery, Agent discovery, Registration, Tunneling and encapsulation, optimizations, IPV6 343, IP micro- mobility support; Dynamic host configuration protocol; Mobile ad-hoc networks.

Mobile Transport layer:

Traditional TCP- Congestion control, Slow start, Fast retransmit/fast recovery, Implications of mobility; Classical TCP improvements-Indirect TCP 375, Snooping TCP 378, Mobile TCP 380, Fast retransmit/fast recovery 382, Transmission/time-out freezing 383, selective retransmission 383, Transaction-oriented TCP 384, TCP over 2.5/3G wireless networks, Performance enhancing proxies.

Text Book:

1. Mobile Communication, Jochen Schiller , Second Edition, PEARSON Education,2003

Reference Books:

1. Wireless Communications principles and practice, Theodore S.Rappaport, second edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2006

2. Wireless Information Networks ,K. Pahlavan and A. Levesque ,John Wiley and Sons, second edition, 2005

MODERN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

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Aims and Objectives: This course will help the students mainly to understand the basic theory behind the design part of digital communication systems. They will also get a clear concept on basic digital communication techniques through this course.

Prerequisites: Fundamentals of communication systems, signal processing and modulation theory.

Course Outcome: It will train students on basic digital communication techniques, modulation techniques and design issues Introduction: Elements of a Digital Communication System, Communication Channels and Their Characteristics, Mathematical Methods for Communication Channels. Source Coding: Mathematical Models for Information Sources, A Logarithmic Measure of Information Coding for Discrete Sources, Coding for Analog Sources – Optimum Quantization Coding Techniques for Analog Sources. Channel Capacity and Coding: Channel Models and Channel Capacity Random Selection of Codes, Communication System Design Based on the Cutoff Rate. Advanced Modulation Techniques: M-ary Modulation, Probability of error, Orthogonal Modulation, Orthogonal Pulse-Amplitude Modulation, Modulation with memory, Bandwidth and Signal Dimensionality, Capacity and Modulation Non coherent Demodulation of carrier modulated signals: structure of optimal non-coherent demodulator, performance analysis for non-coherent demodulation of binary orthogonal signals, performance analysis of non-coherent detection of M-ary orthogonal signals, Power spectra of digitally modulated signals. Optimum Receivers for the Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel : Optimum Receiver for Signals Corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise, Performance of the Optimum Receiver for Memoryless Modulation Optimum Receiver for CPM Signals Optimum Receiver for Signals with Random Phase in AWGN Channel Performance Analysis for Wireline and Radio Communication Systems . Adaptive Equalization :Adaptive Linear Equalization ,Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizer , Adaptive Equalization of Trellis-Coded Signals Recursive Least-Squares Algorithms for Adaptive Equalization ,Self-Recovering (Blind) Equalization . Spread Spectrum Techniques: Model of Spread Spectrum Digital Communication System, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Signals, Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum Signals, Other Types of Spread Spectrum Signals, Synchronization of Spread Spectrum Systems. Text Books:

1. John Proakis ,“Digital communication”, Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill,2000.

2. Bernard Sklar, “ Digital Communications – Fundamentals and Applications”, 2 nd edition Prentice Hall, 2001.

Reference Books:

1. Simon Haykin, “Digital communication”, Fourth Edition, John Wiley and Sons,2000.

2. Modulation and coding for wireless communication by Alister Burr Prentice Hall, 1st edition, June 20, 2001.

3. Dr.Kemilo Feher, “Wireless Digital Communication Modulation and Spread spectrum communication”, PHI Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi-1999.

HIGH PERFORMANCE NETWORKS

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Aims and Objectives: This course teaches the networking principles, various type of switching network and wireless Network.

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge about the networks

Outcome: Know the different type of wireless network existing and the use of high speed networks and use those networks in real time applications.

Basics of Networks: Telephone, computer, Cable television and Wireless network, networking principles, Digitalization Service and layered architecture, traffic characterization and QOS, networks services network elements and network mechanisms

Packet Switched Networks: OSI and IP models Ethernet (IEEE 802.3); token ring (IEEE 802.5), FDDI, DQDB, frame relay, SMDS, Internet working with SMDS.

Internet and TCP/IP Networks: Overview, internet protocol, TCP and UDP, Performance of TCP/IP networks circuits switched networks SONET DWDM, VPN and MPLS , VoIP and TVoIP.

ATM and Wireless Networks: Main features addressing, signaling and routing ATM header structure- adaptation layer, management and control, BISDN, Inter working with ATM, Wireless channel, link level design channel access Network design and wireless networks

Optical Networks and Switching: Optical links – WDM systems, cross-connects optical LAN’s optical paths and networks TDS and SDS modular switch designs- Packet switching, shared, input and output buffers

Text Books:

1. Jean walrand and Pravin Varaiya, “High Performance Communication Networks”, 2nd edition, Harcourt and Morgan Kanffman, London, 2000

Reference Books:

1. Leon Garcia, Widjaja, “Communication networks”, 2 nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2003

2. Lumit Kasera,Pankaj Sethi, “ATM Networks”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi,2000

3. Behrouz.a. Forouzan, “Data Communication and Networking”, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2000.

MODELING OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

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Aim and Objectives: The course aims to provide simulation approaches for communication system modeling, channel modeling, modeling of computer networks.

Prerequisites: Queuing Theory, computer networks, Information and coding and modulation theory.

Course Outcome: Able to model and simulate communication systems and computer networks.

Introduction to Simulation Approach Methods of performance evaluation-simulation approach- Advantages and limitations. System model steps and its types involved in simulation study. Error sources in simulation. Role of simulation in communication system and random process. Introduction to random variables - univariate models (discrete and continuous) and multi-variate models.

Review of Stochastic Process and Parameter Estimation Stochastic process: Definitions, properties – stationarity, time averaging and ergodicity, random process models, Monte Carlo simulation, properties, generation and techniques for generating random numbers and processes. Parameter estimation: Quality of an estimator, estimating average power probability density function, estimation of power spectral density of a process, delay and phase. SNR estimation and importance sampling.

Modeling of Communication Systems Introduction to modeling of communication systems - Information sources, source coding, base band modulation, channel coding, RF and optical modulation, filtering, multiplexing, detection/demodulation- carrier and timing recovery for BPSK and QPSK. Modeling considerations for PLL.

Communication Channel Models Statistical characterization of multipath channels and time-varying channels with Doppler effects, models for multipath fading channels. Finite state channel models – channels with and without memory. Methodology for simulating communication systems operating over fading channels Communication over Wired and wireless medium between Mobile and stationery systems

Simulation of Queues and Computer Networks Queuing models: Characteristics of queuing systems, performance parameters, simulation of queuing systems (M/M/1, M/G/1), steady state behavior of infinite population. Markovian models and finite population models. Jackson networks, networks of queues, flow control. Simulation of computer networks: Traffic modeling, MAC protocols, data link layer, TCP, model construction.

Text Books:

1. M.C. Jeruchim, Philip Balaban & K.Sam shanmugam. “Simulation of communication systems”, Plemum press, New York, 2000.

2. William H.Tranter, K.Sam shanmugam, S Rappaport and kurt L.Kosbar ”Principles of Communication system simulation with wireless applications” 2000.

Reference Books:

1. Mathworks ,””Communication Tool Box for MATLAB & Simulink”

2. John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi, Gerhard Bauch ,”Contemporary Communication Systems using MATLAB “, Nelson Engineering, 2005.

3. K.Hayes, “Modelling and Analysis of computer communication networks”, Plenum press, New York, 1984.

4. Banks, J.S.Carson, Nelson and D.M.Nicol, “Discrete –Event system simulation”, Prentice Hall of India, 4th Edition, 2005.

5. Z.Peebles , ”Probability, Random Variable and Random Signal Principles”, Tata McGraw Hill, 4th edition 2002.

6. M.Law & W.David Kelton ,” Simulation Modelling and analysis” ,McGraw Hill, New York, 1999.

FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

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Aim & Objectives: Provides a deep insight on enabling technology at a lever necessary to understand the devices on which light wave networks are built. It emphasizes on methodology for network analysis, design, control and management focusing on four classes of optical networks.

Prerequisites: Knowledge on Optical Fiber Communication, Optical Components and Devices. Course Outcome: The students will have a strong understanding of the enabling technology and the devices that builds a light wave network. They will be able to analyze and design a light wave network of various classes.

Network Elements Optical and Photonic Device Technology: Attenuation and dispersion, Chirp, Dispersion Management, Couplers, Isolators, Circulators, Multiplexers and Filters, EDFA, Raman Amplifier, SOA, SRA, Active and Passive Optical Switches, Optical Cross Connects, Wavelength Selective Cross Connects, Wavelength Converters, Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR),Optical Spectrum Analysers (OSA),WDM and Filters: dielectric, AWG and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) devices, Nonlinear optical fibers.

Optical Modulators:

Phenomenological theory of nonlinearities. Optics of anisotropic media. Harmonic generation, mixing and parametric effects. Two-photon absorption, saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scattering. Self-focusing and self-phase-modulation. Self- induced transparency. Solitons. Optical switching, Electro-Optic Effect and Acousto-Optic effects. EO and AO modulators.

Detection and receiver design:

Receiver Sensitivity – Bit-Error Rate, Eye Pattern, Minimum received power, Quantum limit of photo detection; Receiver Design – Front End, Linear channel, Decision circuit, Integrated Receivers; Noise in detection Circuit – Shot Noise, Thermal noise; Concept of Carrier to Noise Analysis.

Network Architectures and Topologies The End To End Transmission Path, Loss And Dispersion Budgets in Network Designing, Optical Signal Flow And Constraints, Design of STAR, BUS, MESH and RING Topologies, Static Multipoint Networks: The Broadcast Star, Multiplexing and Multiple Access Schemes: TWDM/MA, Sub carriers, CDMA, Capacity Allocation for Dedicated Connections, Demand Assigned Connections.

Optical Networks Optical Networks Architecture, SONET/SDH Optical Network, WDM Optical Networks, Wavelength Routed Optical Network, Routing Algorithms, Network Monitoring and Management, Fault and Security Management, Routing Protocols, Intelligent Optical Network (ION), FDDI, FTTH, Business Drivers for Next Generation-Optical Networks, Coherent Optical Communication Systems and Design Requirements, Dispersion Compensating Network Designs, Optical Heterodyne Systems.

Text Books:

1. Gerd Keiser, “Optical Fiber Communications” McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition, 2000.

2. R. Ramaswami & K.N. Sivarajan, Morgan Kaufmann,” Optical Networks A practical perspective”, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2000.

Reference Books:

3. Govind P. Agrawal, “Fiber-Optic Communication Systems” , 3 rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2002

4. John M. Senior “Optical Fiber Communications principles and practice“ 3 rd edition, PHI,2009.

5. Thomas E. Stern and Krishna Bala, “Multiwavelength Optical Networks A Layered Approach”, Addison Wesley, 1996.

RF AND MICROWAVE CIRCUIT DESIGN

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Aims and Objectives: This course aims to provide students with the essential techniques for designing analog electronic circuits at intermediate frequency and radio frequency stages.

Pre-requisite: Microwave engineering

Course Outcome: Able to design RF and Microwave circuit.

Wave Propagation in Networks: Introduction to RF/Microwave Concepts and applications; RF Electronics Concepts; Fundamental Concepts in Wave Propagation; Circuit Representations of two port RF/MW networks.

Microwave Passive components: Isolators, circulators, Directional couplers, Duplexers’ Matching circuits for Antenna elements

Passive Circuit Design: The Smith Chart, Application of the Smith Chart in Distributed and lumped element circuit applications, Design of Matching networks.S- Parameters and Microwave Transistor Definitions and use of S Parameters with passive and active devices - Noise analysis in linear two port networks - Modeling of microwave bipolar transistor - Microwave FET-DC biasing- Impedance matching - S-parameter matrix and properties of S-parameters. Amplifier Design:Unilateral and non-unilateral design - One stage and multistage design - Low-noise amplifiers - High-power amplifiers - Balanced amplifiers - Feedback - Design examples - Small-signal distributed amplifiers. RF/MW Amplifiers Small Signal Design, Large Signal Design, RF/MW Oscillator Design, RF/MW Frequency Conversion Rectifier and Detector Design, Mixer Design, RF/MW Control Circuit Design, RF/MW Integrated circuit design.

Oscillator Design Resonators – Dielectric resonators – YIG resonators – Varactor resonators – Resonator measurements – Two-port oscillator design – Noise Lesson’s oscillator model – Low-noise design. Non-linear oscillator model

Mixer Design Diode mixer theory - Single diode mixers - Single-balanced mixers - Double balanced mixers - FET mixer theory - Balanced FET Mixers - Spectral mixer circuits - Image rejection mixer - single side band modulator performance - Simple sub harmonically pumped mixer circuit configuration. Microwave and RF measurements: Power, Standing wave ratio, frequency, Spectrum Analyzer, Vector Network Analyzer.

Reference Books:

1 Reinhold Ludwig and Pavel Bretchko, “RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications,” Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004. 2. Matthew M. Radmanesh, “Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics Illustrated," Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

3. Websites of AGILENT, Anritsu Electric, W & G.

PROGRAMME ELECTIVES

MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

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Aims and Objectives: To introduce the diverse literature on wireless and ad-hoc networks, to expose to the fundamental issues in designing and analyzing Wireless and ad-hoc network and to discuss the challenges in designing MAC, routing and transport protocols for wireless ad-hoc/sensor networks.

Prerequisites: Communication Networks and Object oriented programming Course Outcome: Student will knowing about the basics of Ad Hoc networks, Routing algorithm etc. Ad hoc wireless Networks Introduction to cellular and ad hoc wireless networks, applications of ad hoc networks, issues in ad hoc wireless networks – medium access scheme, routing, multicasting, transport layer protocols, pricing scheme , quality of service provisioning, self organization, security, address and security discovery, energy management, scalability, deployment considerations, ad hoc wireless Internet. MAC Protocols for Ad hoc Wireless Networks Issues in Designing a MAC Protocol for ad hoc wireless networks, design goals of a MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Classification of MAC Protocols, Contention based Protocols, Contention based Protocols with Reservation mechanism , Contention Based MAC Protocols with Scheduling Mechanisms, Other MAC protocols. Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Wireless Networks Design issues and classification, Table-driven, On-demand and Hybrid routing protocols, Routing protocols with efficient flooding mechanisms, Hierarchical and power-aware routing protocols. Multicast Routing Protocols and Network security Design issues and operation, Architecture Reference Model, classification, Tree-based and Mesh-Based Protocols, Energy-Efficient Multicasting, Multicasting with Quality of Service Guarantee, Application Dependent Multicast Routing. Quality of Service: Issues and challenges in providing QoS, Classification of QoS solutions, MAC layer solutions, Network layer solutions, QoS frameworks, Network security issues.

Energy Management Need, classification of battery management schemes, Transmission power management schemes, System power management schemes. Wireless Sensor Networks: Architecture, Data dissemination, Date gathering, MAC protocols, location discovery, Quality of a sensor network.

Text Book:

1. C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S. Manoj, AdHoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and protocols, Prentice Hall PTR, 2004 Reference Books:

2. C.-K.Toh, AdHoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems, Prentice Hall, 2001

3. Mohammad Ilyas, The Handbook of AdHoc Wireless Networks, CRC press, 2002

4. Charles E. Perkins, AdHoc Networking, Addison – Wesley, 2000

5. Stefano Basagni, Marco Conti, Silvia Giordano and Ivan Stojmenovic, Mobile AdHoc Networking, Wiley – IEEE press, 2004.

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

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Aims and Objectives: To enable the student familiar with active and passive microwave components used in microwave communication systems.

Prerequisites: Field theory and antennas

Course Outcome: To know the application and design of microwave integrated circuits and do analysis,

Microstrip Lines, Design Analysis Introduction, types of MICs and their technology, Propagating models, Analysis of MIC by conformal transformation,Numerical analysis, Hybrid mode analysis. losses in Microstrip,Introduction to slot line and coplanar wave guide .

Coupled Microstrip, Directional Couplers and Lumped Elements for MICS Introduction to coupled Microstrip, Even and odd mode analysis, Directional couplers, branch line couplers, Design and Fabrication of Lumped elements for MICs, Comparison with distributed circuits

Non-Reciprocal Components and Active Devices for MICS Ferromagneticsubstrates and inserts, Microstrip circulators, Phase shifters, Microwave Transistors, Parametric diodes and Amplifiers, PIN diodes, Transferred electron devices, IMPATT, BARITT, Avalanche diodes, Microwave transistors circuits

Microstrip Circuit Design and Applications Introduction, Impedance transformers, Filters, High power circuits, Low power circuits, MICs in satellite and Radar .

MMIC Technology Fabrication process of MMIC, Hybrid MICs, Configuration, Dielectric substances, thick and thinfilm technology, Testing methods, Encapsulation and mounting of Devices.

Text Book:

1. Bharathi Bhat, Shiban K. Koul “Stripline-Like Transmission Lines for Microwave

Integrated Circuits”, Blackie Academic & Professional, 1989.

Reference Books:

1. Hoffman R.K." Hand Book of Microwave Integrated Circuits ", Artech House, Boston,

1987.

2. Gupta .K.C and Amarjit Singh, "Microwave Intergrated circuits" John Wiley, New York,

1975.

NETWORK SECURITY

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Aims and Objectives: This course will help to know about the techniques for security of networks. They will know about data encryption and decryption.

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of coding and information theory

Course Outcome: Will train the students on how to secure the networks

Introduction: Attacks – Services – Mechanisms – Conventional Encryption – Classical and Modern Techniques – Encryption Algorithms – Confidentiality.

Public Key Encryption: RSA – Elliptic Curve cryptography – Number Theory Concepts.

Message Authentication: Hash Functions, Hash and Mac algorithms– Digest Functions – Digital Signatures – Authentication Protocols.

Network Security Practice: -IP Security overview, architecture, authentication header, security payload and key management–Web Security: secure socket layer, transport layer security, secure electronic transaction, dual signature.

System Security: Intruders, viruses, worms, Fire Walls, Trusted systems: antivirus techniques and digital immune systems.

Text Book:

1.William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Standards, Prentice Hall India, 3rd Edition, 2003

Reference Books:

1.

Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner, Network Security: Private Communication in a public world, Prentice Hall India, 2nd Edition, 2002

2.

Man Young Rhee, “Internet Security”, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

3.

Pfleeger & Pfleeger, “Security in Computing”, Pearson Education, 3 rd Edition, 2003.

MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING

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Aims and Objectives: Know the various topology, networks, the TCP/IP architecture, Routing protocols used for internetworks and application of graph theory.

Prerequisite: computer networks.

Course Outcome: Able to classify the multimedia networks, estimate the bandwidth requirements for multimedia applications use various routing protocols for real time applications.

Introduction: Constituent of an Internetwork, hierarchy in Internetworks, classification of networks, steps involved in Internetwork Design, primary design goals of Internetwork design, the hierarchical Internetworking, design models: architectural view. Introduction to the multimedia Internetworking Technology Basics: elements of multimedia communication, defining multimedia internetwork ,principles of redesign and upgrading of Data- Intranets to Multimedia intranets, multimedia internetwork integration, classification of multimedia internetworks, estimating bandwidth requirements for multimedia internetworks, the bandwidth factors, multimedia broadcast standards. The TCP/IPv6 Internetworking architecture: Introduction, the TCP/IP6 Architecture, The Internet Protocol: IPv4 options, IPv4 and the world of classes, concept of subnetting and supernetting, on the Internet Control Message Protocol ,On the Internet Group Management Protocol, The Address Resolution Protocol, The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, Mobile IP, The Internet Protocol Version 6, IPv6 versus IPv4 comparison, IPv6 address notations, address issues in IPv6, address autoconfiguration/plug-and-play support in IPv6, Time sensitive IPv6 MM Traffic Over the Ethernet, Mobile IPv6, On the Congestion Control in Internetworks , More on the Generic Transport Layer Concepts. Internetwork Routing Architectures: Introduction, About Routing terminology, classification of routing architectures, shortest path routing, flooding based routing, flow based routing, distance vector routing algorithm, link state routing algorithm, hierarchical routing architectures, issues in Hierarchical routing architectures. Graph Theory: Introduction to graph models, structure and representation, trees; Spanning trees- An Intuitive Tree-Growing Scheme - Depth-First and Breadth-First Search Applications of Depth-First Search- Counting Spanning Trees: Prüfer Encoding- Minimum Spanning Trees and Shortest Paths- Cycles, Edge-Cuts, and Spanning Trees- Graphs and Vector Spaces- Matroids and the Greedy Algorithm. Internetwork-Based Video-on-Demand Architectures: Introduction, types of video-on-demand technologies, the video-on-demand system, the VoD Architecture, basic issues in VoD design, constituents of a VoD system, Internetworking aspects of VoD System, Internetworking aspects of VoD Technology.

Text Book:

1. Rahul Banerjee. Internetworking Technologies-An Engineering Perspective, PHI, 2002.

Reference Books:

1. Jon Crowcroft, Mark Handley, Ian Wakeman. Internetworking Multimedia, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd, Singapore, 1998.

2. B.O. Szuprowicz, Multimedia Networking, McGraw Hill, New York. 1995

3. Tay Vaughan, Multimedia making it to work, 4ed,Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2000.

PROCESSORS AND ARCHITECTURES

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Aims and Objectives: To explore the current trends and future directions of processor architectures.

Prerequisite: Microprocessors and it’s applications

Course Outcome: Identify the architectures for dsp devices and use programmable digital signal processors for the specific applications.

Computational Accuracy in DSP Implementations: Number formats for signals and coefficients in DSP systems, Dynamic Range and Precision, Sources of error in DSP implementations, A/D Conversion errors, DSP Computational errors,D/AConversion Errors, Compensating filter. Architectures for Programmable DSP Devices: Basic Architectural features, DSP Computational Building Blocks, Bus Architecture and Memory, Data Addressing Capabilities, Address Generation Unit, Programmability and Program Execution, Speed Issues, Features for External interfacing. Execution Control and Pipelining: Hardware looping, Interrupts, Stacks, Relative Branch support, Pipelining and Performance, Pipeline Depth, Interlocking, Branching effects, Interrupt effects, Pipeline Programming models. Programmable Digital Signal Processors: Commercial Digital signal-processing Devices, Data Addressing modes of TMS320C54XX DSPs, Data Addressing modes of TMS320C54XX Processors, Memory space of TMS320C54XX Processors, Program Control, TMS320C54XX instructions and Programming, On-Chip Peripherals, Interrupts of TMS320C54XX processors, Pipeline Operation of

TMS320C54XXProcessors.

Implementations of Basic DSP Algorithms: The Q-notation, FIR Filters, IIR Filters, Interpolation Filters, Decimation Filters, PID Controller, Adaptive Filters, 2-D Signal Processing. Implementation of FFT Algorithms: An FFT Algorithm for DFT Computation, A Butterfly Computation, Overflow and scaling, Bit-Reversed index generation, An 8-Point FFT implementation on the TMS320C54XX, Computation of the signal spectrum. Interfacing Memory and I/O Peripherals to Programmable DSP Devices:Memory space organization, External bus interfacing signals, Memory interface, Parallel I/O interface, Programmed I/O, Interrupts and I/O, Direct memory access (DMA). A Multichannel buffered serial port (McBSP), McBSP Programming, a CODEC interface circuit, CODEC programming, A CODEC- DSP interface example.

Text Books:

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Digital Signal Processing – Avtar Singh and S. Srinivasan, Thomson Publications, 2004.

2.

DSP Processor Fundamentals, Architectures & Features – Lapsley et al. S. Chand & Co, 2000.

Reference Books:

1.

Digital Signal Processors, Architecture, Programming and Applications – B. Venkata Ramani and M. Bhaskar, TMH, 2004.

2.

Digital Signal Processing – Jonatham Stein, John Wiley, 2005

MODERN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

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Aims and Objectives: To get in depth knowledge of communication through satellite, to obtain appropriate background in satellite technology, link design, operation and to understand digital communication technologies used in satellite communications such as modulation techniques, multiple access, error correction, and voice coding

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of communication systems

Course Outcome: Will train the students on satellite communication systems, in Multiple access and error correction techniques.

Emerging Trends in communication Satellites: Geosynchronous spacecraft design, station keeping techniques, ground station design, orbital overcrowding and its proposed solutions, Evolution of satellite based Mobile telecommunications: Terrestrial systems, satellite systems.

Satellite constellations: Selecting proper constellation architectures, Mobile communication satellites at Geosynchronous, Low altitude voice messaging systems, Medium altitude constellations.

Radio Link in Satellite communication: spectrum issues, propagation, characteristics, radio link analysis, modulation, coding and Multi Access and communicators: Gateways, mobile terminals, environmental issues, next generation technology.

Space borne Land Mobile communication Systems: The critical importance of digital data relay, geostar’s geosynchronous messaging services, Omni TRAC’s Mobile communication services, satellite based paging services.

Related Satellite systems: Distress and safety systems, Navigation systems, Direct satellite sound Broadcast, Direct Television Broadcast systems, Very small aperture Terminal systems, Terrestrial cellular systems, Satellite Mobile communication Networks Beyond UMTS.

Text Books:

1. M. Richharia “ Mobile satellite Communications Principles and Trends” , Pearson Education,

2003.

Reference Books:

2. Robert.M.Gagliardi, “Satellite Communication”, CBS Publishers ,2006

3. Tom Logsdon,”Mobile Communication Satellites”, McGraw-Hill International editions,

1995.

4. Tri.T.Ha, “Digital Satellite Communication Systems Engineering”, McGraw Hill, 1990.

5. Wilbur Pritchard,Henri Suyderhoud and Robert A. Nelson, “Satellite Communication Systems Engineering”, Prentice Hall India, 1993

6. Mono Racharia, “Satellite Communication Systems design and analysis”, McMillan Publishers, 1996.

7. Dennis Roddy, “Satellite Communications”, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, l994

MULTIRATE SIGNAL PROCESSING

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Aims and Objectives: To study the fundamentals of multi rate systems, multirate filter banks, reconstruction of filter banks.

Prerequisite: DSP

Course Outcome: Able to identify and use different types of multirate systems for various applications.

Fundamentals of Multi-rate Systems: Basic multi-rate operations, interconnection of building blocks, poly-phase representation, multistage implementation, applications of multi- rate systems, special filters and filter banks.

Multirate Filter Banks:

Maximally decimated filter banks: Errors created in the QMF bank, alias-free QMF system, power symmetric QMF banks, Mchannel filter banks, poly-phase representation, perfect reconstruction systems, alias-free filter banks, tree structured filter banks, trans-multiplexers.

Para-unitary Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks: Lossless transfer matrices, filter bank properties induced by paraunitariness, two channel Para-unitary lattices, M-channel FIR Para- unitary QMF banks, transform coding.

Linear Phase Perfect Reconstruction QMF Banks: Necessary conditions, lattice structures for linear phase FIR PR QMF banks, formal synthesis of linear phase FIR PR QMF lattice.

Cosine Modulated Filter Banks: Pseudo-QMF bank and its design, efficient poly-phase structures, properties of cosine matrices, cosine modulated perfect reconstruction systems. Wavelet Transform: Short-time Fourier transform, Wavelet transform, discrete-time Ortho- normal wavelets, continuous-time Ortho-normal wavelets.

Text Books::

1. P.P. Vaidyanathan, “Multirate Systems and Filter Banks," Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2004.

Reference Books:

2. Gilbert Strang and Truong Nguyen, "Wavelets and Filter Banks," Wellesley-Cambridge Press, 1996.

3. N. J. Fliege, "Multirate Digital Signal Processing,” John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2000.

MOBILE COMPUTING

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Aim and Objective: To give the students knowledge of wireless systems and networks, basic services and security aspects.

Pre-requisite: High performance networks.

Course Outcome: On completion of this course the students should be familiar with the specifics of mobile computing and its applications.

Introduction to mobile computing, adaptability, mechanism for adaptability, how to develop or incorporate adaptations in applications, support for building adaptive mobile applications.

Mobile computing Frameworks and tools, Mobile applications: Speech, Mobile agents and peer to peer architectures for mobile applications, Wireless connectivity and Mobile applications, Synchronization and replication of Mobile Data,

Mobility and Location based services: Context aware computing: Ubiquitous or pervasive computing, definition and types of contexts, context aware applications.

Mobile security:Traditional security issues, mobile and wireless security issues,mobility, additional types of attacks, Approaches to security:Limit the signal, encryption, integrity codes, IPSec. Other security related mechanisms.

Mobile development Process: Architecture, Design and Technology selection for Mobile Applications, Mobile Application development Hurdles, Testing mobile applications Case Study: Home Services, Travel and Business services, consumer services.

Text Books:

1. Reza B’Far, “Mobile Computing Principles and Designing and Developing Mobile Applications with UML and XML”, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Reference Books:

2. Frank Adelstein, Sandeep K. S. Gupta, Golden G. Richard III, Loren Schewiebert,” undamentals of Mobile and Pervasive Computing” Tata McGraw-Hill,2007.

3. Uwe Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S. Nicklous, Thomas Stober,“Principles of Mobile Computing,”Springer International ,2005.

4. Yi Bing Lin, “Wireless and Mobile Networks Architecture”, John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

5. Tomasz Imielinski et.al, “Mobile Computing”, Kluwer Academic Press 1996

6. Uwe Hansmann, “Pervasive Computing Handbook. The Mobile World”, IEE publication

2002

7. Jochen Burkhardt, et.al.” Pervasive Computing, Technology and Architecture of Mobile Internet Applications”, Addison Wesley, 2002

SOFTWARE RADIO ARCHITECTURE

Aims and Objectives: The course aims to know the basic concept of software radio, the technology used in software radios and its

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applications. Prerequisites: Analog modulation theory and wireless communication. Course Outcome: Able to design and use software radio platform for various generation of mobile. Software Based Radio Software defined radio and Software Radio Concepts – Realization of Software Based Radio - Front end Technology: Radio Frequency Translation and Software Defined Radio: Requirements and Specifications- Receiver Design Considerations- Transmitter Design Considerations- Candidate Architectures for SDR – Radio frequency front end Implementations for Multimode SDRS:

Evolution of RF Front Ends – Superheterodyne Architecture- The AS 2/6 Product Family – Dual Band, Six Mode – Alternative RF Front End Architectures.

Data Conversion in Software Defined Radios:

The Importance of Data Converters in Software Defined Radios-Converter Architectures – Converter Performance Impact on SDR-Superconductor Microelectronics: A Digital RF Technology for Software Radios: Introduction-Rapid Single Flux Quantum Digital Logic – Cryogenic Aspects- Superconductor SDR for Commercial Applications & Military Applications –

The Digital Front End: Bridge Between RF and Baseband Processing: The digital front end-Digital up and down conversions-Channel Filtering-Sample Rate Conversion. Baseband Technology:

Baseband Processing for SDR-The Role of Baseband Architectures – Base Band Component Technologies-Design Tools and Methodologies-System design and maintenance – Parameterization-

A Technique for SDR Implementation – Definitions-Adaptability – Parameterization of Standards –

Signal Processing Issues – Adaptive Computing IC Technology for 3G Software – Software defined Radio – A Solution for Mobile Devices – The Mobile Application Space and the need for Processing

Power- SDR Baseband processing – Hardware with Software Programmability – The Computational Power Efficiency Required by 3 G Algorithms – Example Case Studies.

Software Technology:

Software Engineering for Software Radios-Overview of Vanu Systems – The Importance of software

in software Radio – Software Portability-Commodity PC hardware-Signal Processing software-

Control – Software-Performance-Future Directions – Software Download for Mobile Terminals – Downloading Technologies for SDR – Standards for downloading-Seamless Upgrading ‘on the FLY’

security of download –software Architectures for Download- Future Applications of SDR Downloading.

Protocols and Network aspects of SDR-Protocol Stacks:

SAPS vs. Reconfigurability-Approaches to protocol stack reconfiguration – Reconfiguration Management and control – Network support for software radios Conclusions – The Waveform Description Language: The specification problem – WDL overview – FM3TR example – Refinement to an implication – WDL details – A practical WDL support environment.

Software Radio Design:

Architectural characteristics intrinsic to Software radio-Architectural characteristics important to Software radio-Architectural characteristics of Practical Software radio.

Application Case Studies:

Wireless Information Transfer System-Software radio communication Systems

Reference Books:

1. Walter Tuttlebee, “Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies”, Wiley Publications, 2002.

2. Paul Burns, “ Software Defined Radio for 3G”, Artech House, 2002

3. Markus Dillinger, “Software Defined Radio: Architectures, Systems and Functions”, Wiley series

2003.

4. Simulation and software radio For Mobile communications by Hiroshi Harada and Ramjee Prasad. Artech Book House 2002 ISBN 1-58053-044-5. Software radio - A modern approach to Radio Engineering by Jeffrey Reed 2002 Pearson Education ISBN 81-7808-826-6

ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING

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Aims and Objectives: To study and investigate the latest advances in digital signal processing theory and applications.

Prerequisite: DSP

Course Outcome: Able to know the various stochastic processes and models and use of different types of filters for various applications.

Stochastic Processes and models, Wiener Filtering, Linear Prediction (Forward and Backward prediction, Levinson-Durbin Algorithm, AR modelling of WSS process). Method of Steepest Descent LMS algorithm Normalised LMS Method of least squares , Recursive Least squares, Kalman filtering. Hinf filtering and comparison with Kalman filtering, robust adaptive estimation in non-Gaussian measurement models

Reference Books:

1. Treichler, Johnson and Larimore, Adaptive filters, Prentice Hall EEE, 2001.

2. Boroujeny, Adaptive filter, Wiley, 1999.

3. Mangoubi, Robust estimation and failure detection, Springer, 1998

4. Widrow and Steams, Adaptive signal processing, Prentice Hall, 1985.

5. Mendel, Lessons in Digital Estimation Theory, Prentice Hall, 1987

6. Orfanidis, Optimal signal processing, Macmillan, 1985.

7. Kailath , Lectures on wiener and Kalman Filtering ,Springer Verlag, 1981.

8. Huber, Robust Statistics, 1985.

HARDWARE SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN

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Aims and Objectives: Teach the essential issues in codesign, introduction of prototyping and emulation techniques, compilation techniques and tools used for embedded processors and computational models for co-design.

Prerequisite: Embedded system design.

Course Outcome: Able to know the application and use hardware software codesign for computational models. Essential issues in Codesign Models-Architectures-Languages-A Generic Co-Design Methodology

Prototyping and Emulation:

Introduction-prototying and Emulation Techniques-Prototyping and Emulation Environments-Fut ure developments in Emulation and Prototyping

Target Architecture:

Introductin- Architecture specillization techniques-system communication infrastructure-target architecute and application system classes-mixed system and less specialized systems-selected codesign problems.

Compilation techniques and tools for embedded processors architecture:

Continued integration leading to embedded processors-modern embedded architecture-embedded software development needs- compilation technologies-practical consideration in a compiler development environment.

Design specification and verification:

Introduction to Co-design computational models-concurrency-coordinating concurrent computations- Interfacing components-Verification.

Text Book:

1. Hardware/Software Co-design principles and Practice edited by Jorgen Staunstrup and Wayne Wolf, Kluwer Academic press, ISBN 0-7923-8013-4.

Reference Books

1. Hardware-Software co-design of embedded systems-The POLIS Approach, Felice Balarin, Kluwer Academic Press, ISBN: 0-7923-9936-6

2. Sanjaya Kumar, James H. Ayler “The Co-design of Embedded Systems: A Unified Hardware Software Representation” , Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2002 .

3. 2 Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis, ” Embedded System Design:A Unified Hardware/Software Approach”, John Wiley ,2002.

4. H. Kopetz, Real-time Systems, Kluwer, 1997.

5. R. Gupta, Co-synthesis of Hardware and Software for Embedded Systems, Kluwer 1995.

6. S. Allworth, Introduction to Real-time Software Design, Springer-Verlag, 1984.

7. C. M. Krishna, K. Shin, Real-time Systems, Mc-Graw Hill, 1997.

8. Peter Marwedel, G. Goosens, Code Generation for Embedded Processors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

NETWORK MANAGEMENT

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Aim and Objectives: To know how to maintain, and manage a Local Area Network, to get knowledge about network management applications.

Prerequisites: Computer Communication

Course Outcome: Students will be aware of Fundamentals of Computer Networks, Network Management & Applications. Fundamentals of Computer Network Technology Network Topology, LAN, Network node components- Hubs, Bridges, Routers, Gateways, Switches, WAN, I SDN Transmission Technology, Communications protocols and standards

Network Management Applications (FCAPS) Configuration management, Fault management, Performance management, Event Correlation Techniques security Management, Accounting management, Report Management, Policy Based Management Service Level Management

OSI Network Management OSI Network management model -Organizational Model-Information model, communication model. Abstract Syntax Notation - Encoding structure, Macros Functional model CMIP/CMIS

Internet Management (SNMP V1, V2, V3;) SNMP-Organizational model-System Overview, The information model, communication model-Functional model, SNMP proxy server, Management information base (MIB), protocol remote monitoring

Competing Networking Management protocols:

Remote Network Monitoring, Telecommunication Management Network, Web based Management - comparative studies.

Text Books:

1. Mani Subramanian, “Network Management Principles and practice ", Addison Wesley New York, 2000.

Reference Books:

2. Salah Aiidarous, Thomas Plevayk, " Telecommunication Network Management Technologies and Implementations ", Eastern Economy Edition IEEE press, New Delhi, 1998.

3. Lakshmi G. Raman, “Fundamentals of Telecommunication Network Management ", Eastern Economy Edition IEEE Press, New Delhi, 1999.

RF MEMS

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Aims and Objectives: To know the various sensors, actuators and RF MEM and it’s applications.

Prerequisite: Physics

Course Outcome: Will train the students on designing MEMS based circuit . Evolution of Microsystems:

Benefits of micro systems, concept of micro machines/ micro systems, Scaling laws, nano machines. Introduction to Sensors, Actuators and Mathematical Models:

Various domains and classification of transducers: electrostatic, piezoelectric, thermal sensing principles: electrostatic, resistive, chemical etc. SAW devices. Surface Bulk Micro Machining:

Overview of silicon processes techniques, micro machining techniques and special processes for MEMS, polymer MEMS, Recent advances in MEMS fabrication. RF MEMS – enabled circuit elements and models – RF/Microwave substrate properties, Micro machined – enhanced elements – capacitors, inductors, varactors, MEM switch – shunt MEM switch, low voltage hinged MEM switch approaches, push-pull series switch, folded – beam – springs suspension series switch, Resonators – transmission line planar resonators, cavity resonators, micromechanical resonators, film bulk acoustics wave resonators, MEMS modeling – mechanical modeling, electromagnetic modeling. Novel RF MEMS – Enabled circuits – reconfigurable circuits – the resonant MEMS switch, capacitors, inductors, tunable CPW resonator, MEMS microswitch arrays, Reconfigurable circuits – double – stud tuner, Nth-stub tuner, filters, resonator tuning system, massively parallel switchable RF front ends, true delay digital phase shifters, reconfigurable antennas – tunable dipole antennas, tunable microstrip patch- array antenna. RF MEMS Based Circuit Design – Phase shifters – fundamentals, X-Band RF MEMS phase shifter for phased array applications, Ka-Band RF MEMS phase shifter for radar systems applications, Film bulk acoustic wave filters – FBAR filter fundamentals, FBAR filter for PCS applications, RF MEMS filters – A Ka-Band millimeter-wave Micro machined tunable filter, A High-Q 8 MHz MEM Resonators filter, RF MEMS Oscillators – fundamentals, A 14GHz MEM Oscillator, A Ka-Band Micro machined cavity oscillator, A 2.4 GHz MEMS based voltage controlled oscillator.

Text Book:

1. Hector J. De Los Santos, “RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless Communications”, Artech House,

2002.

Reference Books:

2. Vijay K. Varadan, K.J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, “RF MEMS and their Applications”, John Wiley and sons, Ltd., 2002.

3. Gabriel M. Rebeiz, “RF MEMS Theory, Design & Technology”, Wiley Interscience, 2002.

IMAGE PROCESSING AND COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

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Aims and Objectives: To develop theoretical and algorithmic principles behind the acquisition, display, manipulation and processing of digital images. To explore the methods used to digitize, transfer, display, organize, process and compare digital images and image sequences. To analyze technique in image compression

Prerequisites: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, C or C++ programming languages and object oriented design, Matrix Algebra, Fourier Transforms

Course Outcome: Will get knowledge on Image Transform, Image Enhancement and Image segmentation techniques, color image processing and image compression.

Image Formation and Display: Digital Image Structure, cameras and eyes, Television video signals, other image acquisition and display, brightness and contrast adjustments, grayscale transforms. Warping.

Linear Image processing: Convolution, 3x3 edge modification Analysis, FFT Convolution.

Special Imaging Techniques Techniques: Spatial Resolution, sample spacing and sampling aperture, signal to noise ratio, morphological image processing, computed tomography.

Data compression: Data Compression Strategies, Run length Coding, Huffman Encoding, Delta Encoding, LZW Compression, JPEG (Transform Compression), MPEG. Applications and Techniques of Image processing in Remote Sensing, Bio medical, Forensic and Security,

Text Books:Reference Books:

1. Steven W. Smith, “Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Guide for Engineers and Scientists”, Elsevier, 2003

2. Anil.K.Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing” PHI, 1995.

3. R.C.Gonzalez and R.E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, PHI, 2002.

EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN

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Aim and Objectives: To provide the detailed understanding of the embedded system design methodology and the applications in communication systems

Prerequisites: Computer architecture, Digital system design and mathematical foundations like graph theory and set theory

Course Outcome: Will prepare the students to learn Embedded systems which will prepare them for industry jobs.

Introduction to Embedded System: An embedded system, processor, hardware unit, soft ware embedded into a system, Example of an embedded system, OS services, Embedded Design life cycle; Modeling embedded systems Processor and Memory Organization: Structural unit in as processor, processor selection for an embedded systems. Memory devices, memory selection for an embedded system, allocation of memory to program statements and blocks and memory map of a system. Direct memory accesses. Devices and Buses for Device Networks: I/O devices, serial communication using FC, CAN devices, device drivers, parallel port device driver in a system, serial port device driver in a system, device driver for internal programmable timing devices, interrupt servicing mechanism, V context and periods for switching networked I/O devices using ISA, PCI deadline and interrupt latency and advanced buses.

Programming Concepts and embedded programming in C:

Languages, Firmware development environment, Start up code or Boot loader, Abstraction Layers, Application Layer, build download debug process of firmware.

Program Modeling Concepts in Single and Multiprocessor Systems: software development process, modeling process for software analysis before software implementation, programming model for the event controlled or response time constrained real time programs, modeling of multiprocessor system.

Inter-Process Communication and Synchronization of Processors Tasks: and threads; multiple process in an application, problems of sharing data by multiple tasks and routines, inter process communications. RTOS task scheduling models interrupt literacy and response times, performance metric in scheduling models, standardization of RTOS, list of basic functions, synchronization.

Text Book:

1. Raj Kamal, “Embedded systems Architecture, Programming and design”, Second Edition, 2008.

2. Frank Vahid, Tony Givargis,” Embedded System Design: A Unified Harware /Software Approach, John Wiley, 2002.

Reference Books:

1. Steve Heath , “Embedded Systems Design”, EDN Series , 2003.

2. Wayne Wolf “Computers as components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design”, The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Architecture and Design, 2008

3. Jane W. S., Liu, “Real time systems”, Pearson Education, 2000.

4. David E simon,” An Embedded Software Primer”, 1 st edition, Addison Wesley 1999.

ELECTRONIC HARDWARE SYSTEM DESIGN

Prerequisites:

Digital and Analog Electronics

Aims:

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To teach the fundamental possibilities and limitations of different technology platforms (FPGA, and PCB), and specifically describe some FPGA families, architectures and capabilities.

To provide knowledge in some current and relevant DSP applications for FPGAs

Learning Outcomes:

Ability to demonstrate proficiency in implementing designs using hardware description languages and EDA tools such as HDL simulators and synthesizers.

Ablity to describe the steps required for the design, implementation, verification and test of a complex new electronic product of today, and how these steps are related to each other.

Programmable Logic devices & FPGAs.

Introduction to FPGAs –FPGA technologies –FPGA Architectures –FPGA Design Flow Prototyping with Xilinx FPGAs –FPGA based Testing

Applications on FPGA

DSP Algorithms on FPGAs –Wireless applications -FPGAs for automotive applications -Use of Lab view for real time simulations

PCB design

Signal integrity -High speed PCB design -EMI/EMC analysis -System level design of electronic hardware for automotive applications -System level testing and validation of automotive electronics systems for reliability Case studies References

1. Gajski, Principles of Digital Design, Prentice- Hall International, 1997.

2. Samir Palnitker, A guide to Digital design and Synthesis, Pearson Education

3. Stephen Brown, Zvonko Vranesic, Fundamentals of Digital Logic with Verilog Design, TATA Mcgraw Hill, 2002

4. Charles Roth, Digital Systems Design using VHDL, Thomson Books.

5. J Bhasker, A Verilog Premier, 2001

6. Donald B Thomas, Philip R Moorby, The Verilog Hardware Description Language, Computers - 2002

7. Lionel Bening, Harry Foster, Principles of Verifiable RTL Design, Computers – 2001

8. Howard. W. Johnson & Martin Graham, High speed Digital Design, Prentice Hall, 2004.

9. Stephen H. Hall,Garrett W. Hall&James A. McCall, High-Speed Digital System Design—A Handbook of Interconnect Theory and Design Practices, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2000

Mode of evaluation:

Written examination, Seminar, Assignments

ADVANCED RADIATION SYSTEMS

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Aims and Objectives: To know the basic concepts, and how radiation occurs through various apertures, know the synthesis of array antennas, know measurements.

Prerequisite: Antenna theory

Course Outcome: synthesis of array antennas and able to take EMI measurements, able to use various types of antennas for different applications.

Basics Concepts of Radiation:

Radiation from surface current and current line current distribution, Basic antenna parameters, Radiation mechanism-Current distribution of Antennas, Impedance concept- Balanced to Unbalanced transformer

Radiation from Apertures:

Field equivalence principle, Rectangular and circular apertures, Uniform distribution on an infinite ground plane, Aperture fields of Horn antenna-Babinets principle, Geometrical theory of diffgraction, Reflector antennas, and Design considerations - Slot antennas

Synthesis of Array Antennas:

Types of linear arrays, current distribution in linear arrrays, Phased arrays, Optimization of Array patterns, Continuous aperture sources, Antenna synthesis techniques

Micro Strip Antennas:

Radiation mechanisms, Feeding structure, Retangular patch, Circular patch, Ring antenna. Input impedance of patch antenna, Microstrip dipole, Microstrip arrays

EMI S/EMC/Antenna Measurements:

Log periodic, Bi-conical, Log spiral ridge Guide, Multi turn loop, Travelling Wave antenna, Antenna measurement and instrumentation, Amplitude and Phase Measurement, Gain, Directivity. Impedance and polarization measurement, Antenna range, Design and Evaluation

Text Books:

1. Kraus.J.D., " Antennas" 2 nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

2. Balanis.A, "Antenna Theory Analysis and Design", John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005

Reference Books:

3. Collin R.E. and Zucker.F.," Antenna Theory" Part I, McGraw Hill, New York,1996.

4. R.C. Hansen, “Phased Array Antennas”, John Wiley & Sons, 1998

COMMUNICATION ICs AND DESIGN APPLICATIONS

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Aim and Objectives: To learn integrated circuit design techniques, transceiver architectures and to deal with telecommunication ICs.

Prerequisites: Circuits, RF circuits & systems, Digital integrated circuits, Analog integrated circuits

Course Outcome: Students will be knowing about design issues of communication ICs and their applications

Introduction to RF IC design Gain, decibels, impedance, levels. Nonlinearities and harmonic distortions. Intermodulation, dynamic range.

Introduction to random processes and noises Review of thermal noise. Noise models and circuit noise calculations. Introduction to low- noise amplifiers, Low-noise RF amplifiers structure. Relationship between power consumption, gain, linearity and noise figure.

Nonlinear Elements Nonlinear elements, their characteristics and approximation methods. Harmonics analysis of the current in the nonlinear elements. Nonlinear resonant amplifiers and frequency multipliers. RF mixers: Up and down conversion mixers, single and double balanced mixers.

Oscillators Types of oscillators. Feedback oscillator topologies. Resonant oscillators. Crystal oscillators. Small signal analysis of an oscillator. Short introduction to Voltage Controlled Oscillators(VCOs).

Transceivers Transceivers architectures. Transceivers functions and characteristics. Direct conversion and super heterodyne receivers. Phase-locked loops: Phase-locked loops and frequency synthesis. Basic building blocks of the PLL. PLL synthesizers for radio applications.

Telecommunication ICs PCM, CVSD codec, filters MODEMS, LAN chip sets, ISDN Codecs, Telephone subsrciber circuits, line interface, switched capacitor, DSP chips. High speed decision circuits. MIC and MMIC. High speed DSP Chips. Fibre optic chips.

Reference Books

1. D.M. Pozar. Microwave Engineering. 3 rd Ed., N.Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

2. Leon W. Couch. Digital and Analog Communication Systems . 6 th Ed, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 2001.

3. B.Sklar. Digital Communications. Fundamentals and Applications. 2 nd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 2001.