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Computer Iundamenta|s

CC8 CompuLlng l431

8havesh v 1allor

!" $%&'(% )*% )%+,- *!+./!+%0 -1&)/!+%0 '(23) .%4'5%0 -)1+!6% .%4'5% !(.
13)23) .%4'5%
1be pbyslcol compooeots tbot moke op o compotet system

1be compotet ptoqtoms/set of losttoctloos tbot tell tbe compotet wbot to Jo

notJwote tbot ollows Joto to be eoteteJ loto o compotet

notJwote tbot ollows Joto to be soveJ/stoteJ, looq-tetm, oftet lt bos beeo lopotteJ
loto o compotet fot fotote ose

notJwote tbot pteseots Joto ftom tbe system to tbe oset

7" $%-5+'7% )*% 23+21-% 1& '(23) .%4'5%-0 -)1+!6% .%4'5%- !(. 13)23) .%4'5%-

Clves Lhe compuLer Lhe daLa Lo be used when lnsLrucLlons are carrled ouL
8otcoJe teoJet- to teoJ tbe botcoJe oo oo ltem
keybootJ- to lopot JomoqeJ botcoJe/omooot polJ

needed Lo sLore flles when Lhe power Lo Lhe processor ls swlLched off
needed Lo sLore flles whlch are Loo blg Lo be sLored ln Lhe processor
.q. notJ ulsk utlve, cu-kOM, u58 Memoty 5tlck

needed so LhaL Lhe compuLer can reporL Lo us whaL lL has done
needed as lL affecLs fuLure lnpuL ln sysLem
ltlotet- to qlve botJ copy ootpot fot costomets to keep
5cteeo (lcu) - to sbows Jetolls ooJ ptlce of cotteot ltems
8eepet- to slqolfy botcoJe bos beeo ptopetly teoJ
cblp ooJ llo- to lopot poymeot Jetolls

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

5" $%-5+'7% )*% .'&&%+%() +18%- !(. &3(5)'1(- 1& -9-)%,- -1&)/!+% !(.
!228'5!)'1(- 2!5:!6%-

coottols tbe opetotloo of botJwote ooJ ptovlJes o plotfotm to too otbet softwote

Allows tbe oset to Jo sometbloq osefol wltb tbe compotet

3.1.2 SCI1WAkL
!" $%-5+'7% )*% -)!6%- 1& )*% -9-)%,- 8'&% 5958%

1he SysLems llfecycle ls Lhe mosL common way of solvlng problems uslng compuLers.

! ;+178%, $%&'(')'1(
o LxlsLlng problems are ldenLlfled
o user requlremenLs are ldenLlfled
! <%!-'7'8')9 =)3.9
o ls Lhe new sysLem Lechnlcally feaslble?
o SofLware/hardware avallable
o ls Lhe new sysLem economlcally feaslble?
o ls lL soclally feaslble?
o uoes Lhe sLaff have Lhe necessary skllls?
o ls lL legal/wlLhln Lhe daLa proLecLlon leglslaLlon?
o ls lL eLhlcally ok?
o uoes lL meeL envlronmenLal sLandards?
! >(!89-'-
o roducLlon of a requlremenLs speclflcaLlon
o ueLalllng lnpuLs needed and ouLpuLs requlred
o Speclfy user requlremenLs
o Pardware/SofLware needs
o lacL flndlng
! $%-'6(
o SpeclflcaLlon of a sysLem
o user lnLerface deslgned
o SpeclflcaLlon of daLa sLrucLures
o roLoLyplng
o AlgorlLhms
o llles/flle sLrucLure
o lnpuL/form deslgn
o CuLpuL/reporL deslgn
o valldaLlon procedures
o SecurlLy of daLa
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! ?1.'(6@=1&)/!+% .%4%812,%()
o roducLlon of programs
o ModlflcaLlon of code
o roducLlon of documenLaLlon
! A%-)'(6
o roducLlon and carrylng ouL a sulLable LesLlng sLraLegy
o roducLlon of LesL daLa
! B,28%,%()!)'1(
o MeLhod of converslon/changeover (parallel, plloL, dlrecL eLc)
o SLaff Lralnlng
o lnsLallaLlon of hardware/sofLware
o SeLLlng up daLa/Lransferrlng daLa
! C!'()%(!(5%
o uebugglng Lhe sysLem
o ModlflcaLlon due Lo changlng needs
o lmprovlng currenL processes
! D%4'%/@%4!83!)'1(
o Check sysLem agalnsL ob[ecLlves sLaLed
o Are Lhere any llmlLaLlons?

7" EF28!'( )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& .%&'('(6 ! 2+178%, !553+!)%89

1he cllenL may noL undersLand Lhe poLenLlal of Lhe compuLer sysLem. 1he analysL
may noL undersLand/have deLalled knowledge of Lhe speclflc fleld of lnLeresL.
1herefore, Lhe analysL may produce a soluLlon whlch does noL saLlsfy Lhe cllenL. 1he
Lwo musL pool Lhelr lnformaLlon ln order Lo ensure Lhe 'rlghL' problem ls solved.

1he analysL and cllenL wlll have very dlfferenL ldeas of Lhe problem. lL ls necessary
LhaL Lhe problem ln solved ln a way such LhaL boLh Lhe cllenL and analysL agree on.
CLherwlse, Lhe cllenL wlll be unhappy and Lhe analysL wlll noL be pald. 1he analysL ls
an experL ln use of compuLer sysLems and Lhe cllenL ls an experL ln Lhe speclflc area
of problem.
5" $%-5+'7% )*% &3(5)'1( !(. 23+21-% 1& ! &%!-'7'8')9 -)3.9

1he purpose of a feaslblllLy sLudy ls Lo carry ouL lnlLlal enqulrles Lo see lf Lhere are
any reasons why Lhe new sysLem may noL be accepLable before sLarLlng Lo produce
lL. 1he plan should be revlsed lf Lhe feaslblllLy sLudy hlghllghLs any problems.

o Can hardware and sofLware be found Lo lmplemenL Lhe soluLlon
o ls Lhe proposed sysLem posslble wlLhln budgeL
o ls Lhe proposed sysLem economlc Lo run
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o ls Lhe effecL on Lhe humans lnvolved Loo exLreme Lo be allowed
o ls Lhe proposed sysLem envlronmenLally sound
o ls Lhere enough sklll ln Lhe workforce ln order Lo run Lhe new sysLem
o uoes Lhe new sysLem meeL Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe daLa proLecLlon acL
o ls Lhe proposed sysLem posslble ln Lhe glven Llme perlod/scale

." EF28!'( )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& .%)%+,'('(6 )*% '(&1+,!)'1( +%G3'+%,%()- 1& !
-9-)%, !(. .%-5+'7% .'&&%+%() ,%)*1.- 1& &!5) &'(.'(60 '(583.'(6
G3%-)'1((!'+%-0 17-%+4!)'1(0 !(. -)+35)3+%. '()%+4'%/0 *'6*8'6*)'(6 )*%
!.4!()!6%- !(. .'-!.4!()!6%- 1& %!5* ,%)*1.

1he analysL needs Lo ensure LhaL he/she undersLands Lhe organlzaLlon requlremenLs
because oLherwlse Lhe sysLem produced may noL meeL requlremenLs. Also by
deLermlnlng Lhe lnformaLlon requlremenLs, Lhe analysL would ensure LhaL Lhe correcL
hardware and sofLware ls lmplemenLed.

o Cne-Lo-one slLuaLlon
o 1he lnLervlewer can change course of quesLlons
o >.4!()!6%-
" lnLervlewee can elaboraLe on polnLs
" Adv: CllenLs belleve Lhey are fully lnvolved
o $'-!.4!()!6%-
" 1lme consumlng
" Can glve blased and ofLen oplnlonaLed vlews
o Many workers can have Lhelr vlews consldered ln a shorL perlod of Llme
o >.4!()!6%-
" Allows all Lo feel lnvolved
" 1lme-savlng
o $'-!.4!()!6%-
" uoes noL allows for lndlvldual polnLs
" 1he reLurn ls usually poor
o AnalysL able Lo see process ln acLlon
o >.4!()!6%-
" See sysLem wlLh new eyes
" See lnformaLlon workers may noL feel ls lmporLanL
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o $'-!.4!()!6%-
" Workers may noL acL naLurally because Lhey are belng observed
" AnalysL may noL see 'abnormal' procedures

%" $%-5+'7% /*!) '- '(4184%. /*%( !(!89-'(6 )*% +%G3'+%,%()- 1& ! -9-)%,0
%F28!'('(6 )*% (!)3+% 1& )*% +%G3'+%,%()- -2%5'&'5!)'1( !(. ')- 51()%()H
'(583.'(6 53++%() .!)! -)+35)3+%-0 '(23)-0 13)23)- !(. 2+15%--'(6 +%2+%-%()%.
'( .'!6+!,,!)'5 &1+, I.!)! &81/ .'!6+!,-0 -9-)%, &81/5*!+)-J0 '.%()')9
'(%&&'5'%(5'%-@2+178%,- '( )*% 53++%() -9-)%,

! 1he requ|rements spec|f|cat|on ls a llsL of all Lhe Lhlngs whlch Lhe soluLlon ls
lnLended Lo produce. lL wlll also ldenLlfy lnefflclencles/problems ln Lhe currenL
sysLem. ConLenLs lnclude:
o B(23) D%G3'+%,%()-- sootce of tbe votloos Joto
o K3)23) D%G3'+%,%()-- lJeotlfyloq tbe Jestlootloos of tbe flool ootpot
o ;+15%--'(6 D%G3'+%,%()-- lJeotlfyloq woys lo wblcb Joto ls ptocesseJ
o ?8'%()- !6+%%,%() )1 +%G3'+%,%()-- tbese tepoltemeots ote qoloq to be
oseJ to JeclJe wbetbet tbe solotloo sotlsfles tbe ptoblem ooJ wbetbet
ot oot tbe ooolyst qets polJ
! 1he analysL would need Lo examlne Lhe currenL daLa sLrucLures and Lhe
relaLlonshlps beLween Lhem. 1hls lncludes descrlpLlons such as daLa Lype
because Lhls wlll dlcLaLe Lhe form LhaL Lhe daLa wlll be sLored ln and Lhe
amounL of sLorage space requlred for Lhe daLa conLalned wlLhln Lhe new
! 1he analysL wlll use dlagrams Lo help ln Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe presenL
sysLem, boLh daLa flow dlagrams (ulus) and sysLems flow charLs.
o $>A> <LKM $B>ND>C=- sbowloq flow of Joto tbtooqb o system
Source of daLa
LxLernal enLlLles
uaLa processes
o =O=AEC= <LKM ?P>DA=- sbowloq bow potts of o system ote coooecteJ
llle sLorage

&" $%-5+'7% ! .%-'6( -2%5'&'5!)'1( '(583.'(6 '(23) .%-'6(0 .'!6+!,,!)'5
.%2'5)'1( 1& )*% 14%+!88 -9-)%,0 2+15%--'(60 .!)! -)+35)3+% .%-'6( !(.
13)23) .%'6(

! 1he des|gn spec|f|cat|on ls a documenLaLlon LhaL should conLaln Lhe sLages
necessary Lo produce Lhe flnal end producL as Lhe deslgner lnLends.
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! 1he documenLaLlon wlll conLaln Lhe followlng:
" Jeslqo of tbe oset lotetfoce (lopot fotms ooJ meoos) ollowloq
tbe oset to eotet Joto, moke cbolces ooJ qlve losttoctloos
" uoto tepolteJ- qtopblcol, textool ot pbyslcol?
" 1be botJwote ovolloble- keybootJs ot ootomotlc?
" 1be expetleoce of tbe opetotot- cll oot olwoys soltoble
o DIAGkAM CI CVLkALL SS1LM- tbtooqb ose of system flow cbotts ooJ
Joto flow Jloqtoms (ulus)
o kCCLSSING NLCLSSAk]ALGCkI1nM- ootlloes tbe ptoqtommloq
metboJs oeeJeJ to be oseJ to ptocess tbe Joto, ootmolly wtltteo lo
pseoJo-coJe. AJvootoqe ls tbot lt coo be oseJ to Jesctlbe oo olqotltbm
lo o woy tbot ls oot speclflc to ooy pottlcolot ptoqtommloq looqooqe
o DA1A S1kUC1UkL DLSIGN- speclflcotloos of Joto sttoctotes locloJloq
Joto type ooJ tbe oecessoty vollJotloo/vetlflcotloo tecbolpoes
" kepott Jeslqo- sboolJ lofotm of ettots, tell oo ptoqtess, Jlsploy
tesolts ooJ ptovlJe belp
" NeeJs to be JetolleJ lo tbe some woy os tbe lopot Jeslqos
" .q. lotm of ootpot- soooJ moy be loopptoptlote

6" EF28!'( )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& %4!83!)'(6 )*% -9-)%,0 !(. *1/ )1 '.%()'&9 )*%
5+')%+'! 3-%. &1+ %4!83!)'1(

o need Lo be sure Lhe sysLem wlll perform as requlred
o ldenLlfles areas where Lhe soluLlon ls lacklng
o lL deLermlnes Lhe end of Lhe [ob
o lL deLermlnes when Lhe analysL geLs pald
! 1he crlLerla used for evaluaLlon, as far as Lhe analysL ls concerned, ls Lo prove
Lo Lhe cllenL LhaL Lhe soluLlon works and meeLs all Lhe lLems sLaLed ln Lhe
requlremenLs speclflcaLlon.
! 1he crlLerla could also lnclude:
o SUI1A8ILI1- coo tbe oew system cotty oot oll tbe tepoltemeots tbot
wete set, Joes tbe oew system loteqtote wltb tbe exlstloq softwote?
o LIILC1IVLNLSS- ls lt oo lmptovemeot oo tbe exlstloq system, ls lt cost
effectlve, Joes tbe system soffet ftom boqs, ls tbe botJwote/softwote
o USA8ILI1- ls lt eosy to ose, ls tbe oew system compotlble wltb tbe
exlstloq systems, Jo tbe osets tepolte cootloooos ttololoq, ls tbe oo-lloe
belp/tototlols osefol?

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o MAIN1AINA8ILI1- ls tbe system eosy to molotolo?
o WhaL llmlLaLlons Lhere are ln Lhe sysLem
o WhaL enhancemenLs could be made Lo Lhe sysLem ln Lhe fuLure

*" EF28!'( )*% 51()%() !(. ',21+)!(5% 1& .'&&%+%() )92%- 1& .153,%()!)'1( !)
.'&&%+%() -)!6%- 1& )*% -9-)%, 8'&% 5958%0 '(583.'(6 )*% )%5*('5!8 !(. 3-%+

o ueslgned for a fuLure -9-)%, .%4%812%+@51,23)%+ 8')%+!)%
o very valuable for Lhe malnLenance process because Lhe documenLaLlon
shows how each parL of Lhe sysLem has been consLrucLed and Lhe
reasons why cerLaln cholces have been made
o urposes of Lechnlcal documenLaLlon:
" 1o allows debugglng of programs
" 1o asslsL fuLure sofLware developmenLs
" 1o modlfy exlsLlng flle/daLa sLrucLures
" 1o supporL new Lechnlcal sLaff
o 1he Lechnlcal documenLaLlon should lnclude:
" $!)! <81/ $'!6+!,-- sbowloq flow of Joto tbtooqb o system
" =9-)%,- <81/ ?*!+)- sbowloq bow potts of o system ote teloteJ
" E()')9 D%8!)'1(-*'2 .'!6+!,- IED$J- sbows bow Joto tobles
telote to eocb otbet
" >((1)!)%. ;+16+!, 8'-)'(6- tbe ptoqtom coJe wlll be folly
oooototeJ to explolo to tbe teoJet tbe potpose of tbe eocb
sectloo/lloe of coJe
" =)+35)3+% ?*!+)-@2-%3.1Q51.%@!861+')*, .%-'6(-
" $!)! $'5)'1(!+9- tbe flelJ Jefloltloo (locloJloq Joto type, flelJ
leoqtb, vollJotloo tecbolpoes)

o Almed aL Lhe %(. 3-%+
o Should accompany Lhe sysLem and ls for Lhe person who wlll acLually
be uslng Lhe sysLem. lL provldes Lhe user wlLh baslc lnsLrucLlons abouL
how Lo use Lhe sysLem. lL wlll conLaln lnsLrucLlons relaLlng Lo Lhe users'
vlew of Lhe sysLem and would Lherefore be wrlLLen ln a language
approprlaLe Lo Lhe users' ablllLy raLher Lhan ln compuLer [argon.
o 1he user documenLaLlon should lnclude:
" B(23)@K3)23) ;+15%.3+%-
" B(.%F@51()%()-
" N81--!+9 of Lerms used wlLhln Lhe documenLaLlon
" R!5:'(6 32 !(. !+5*'4'(6 2+15%.3+%-
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

" E++1+ ,%--!6%-- deLalls on posslble errors and how Lo deal wlLh
" <>S- lrequenLly Asked CuesLlons
" C!'()%(!(5% 1& &'8%-/llle searchlng
" D%G3'+%. *!+./!+% -2%5'&'5!)'1(-
" lnsLrucLlons on *1/ )1 12%+!)% )*% -9-)%,

'" EF28!'( )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& -9-)%, )%-)'(6 !(. '(-)!88!)'1( 28!(('(6

o 1he lmporLance of sysLem LesLlng ls Lo ensure LhaL Lhe sysLem -!)'-&'%-
)*% 3-%+T- +%G3'+%,%()- and Lo .'-514%+ !(9 %++1+- LhaL mlghL be
presenL. ln slmple Lerms, Lo ensure LhaL Lhe sysLem works. 1he analysL
would need Lo provlde proof LhaL Lhe sysLem does as requlred because
'& -355%--&380 )*% !(!89-) /'88 6%) 2!'."
o SysLems LesLlng also declde how Lhe (%/ *!+./!+% wlll be lnLroduced,
wheLher or noL exlsLlng sLaff wlll need Lo be )+!'(%. and Lhe meLhods ln
whlch .!)! &'8%- wlll be )+!(-&%++%. from Lhe old sysLem Lo Lhe new
o ;!+!88%8- old sysLem and new sysLem operaLe alongslde each oLher for a
perlod of Llme, dolng Lhe same processlng. 8esulLs from boLh sysLems
wlll be compared and Lhe old sysLem wlll only be fully replaced when
Lhe lssues/errors regardlng Lhe new sysLem have been resolved.
arallel converslon allows an organlsaLlon Lo reverL Lo Lhe old sysLem lf
Lhe new sysLem falls. Powever, Lhls ls very expenslve and should only
be done ln slLuaLlons where daLa ls very valuable.
o $'+%5)- 1he old sysLem ls fully removed and dlsconLlnued and Lhe new
sysLem replaces lL compleLely and lmmedlaLely, aL a quleL Llme such as
weekends or overnlghL. 1here ls no overlap Llme beLween Lhe sysLems
and no parL changeover. lf Lhe new sysLem falls, Lhe old sysLem cannoL
be used.
o ;'81)- 1he new sysLem ls lmplemenLed buL only ln one area of Lhe
organlsaLlon. 1he sofLware ls runnlng ln a real slLuaLlon Lo help ldenLlfy
and resolve errors before Lhe resL of Lhe organlzaLlon converLs Lo Lhe
new sysLem. 1hls meLhod of converslon allows sLaff Lo be Lralned and lf
a ma[or faulL occurs, only one branch of Lhe buslness ls affecLed. lf
successful, Lhe new sysLem ls rolled ouL, lf unsuccessful, Lhe new
sysLem ls abandoned.
o ;*!-'(6- 1he old sysLem ls gradually replaced, ln sLages, by Lhe new
sysLem. 1hls allows for LesLlng of new sysLem Lo be done and allows for
Lhe gradual reLralnlng of sLaff.

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o MeLhod of ',28%,%()!)'1(- parallel/plloL/phased/dlrecL
o A+!'('(6 2+16+!, musL be devlsed
o P!+./!+% musL be broughL and lnsLalled
o SysLem musL be )%-)%. wlLh real daLa flles by users
o WrlLlng Lhe )%5*('5!8 .153,%()!)'1(
o $!)! &'8%- musL be !.!2)%.@+%&1+,!))%. from presenL flles

U" EF28!'( )*% 23+21-% 1& ,!'()!'('(6 )*% -9-)%,0 !(. %F28!'( )*% (%%. &1+
-9-)%, +%4'%/ !(. +%!--%--,%()0 3(.%+-)!(.'(6 )*!) -1&)/!+% *!- ! 8',')%.
8'&% -2!(

! Ma|ntenance ls tbe ptocess of mokloq lmptovemeots to (ot moJlfyloq) o
system tbot ls lo ose. 5ystem tevlew ooJ teossessmeot ls oeeJeJ becoose.
o 8ugs]errors are d|scovered |n the software code- Lhese bugs wlll have
been ldenLlfled only afLer Lhe sysLem ls ln full use. 1hey wlll be 'flxed'
and a 'paLch' would be lssued LhaL changes Lhe approprlaLe llnes of
code wlLhln Lhe end-users' program.
o 1he user requ|rements may change- Lhls ofLen happens afLer a sysLem
has been ln operaLlon for some Llme and Lhe user sees furLher uses of
Lhe daLa LhaL Lhe sysLem produces. (changlng user needs)
o Some |n-bu||t parameters change- e.g. vA1 raLe (legal requlremenLs)
o nardware |s chang|ng- Lhe sysLem wlll need Lo be updaLed Lo Lake
advanLage of new hardware developmenLs. 1hls could be a new lnpuL
devlce, ouLpuL devlce, or even communlcaLlons devlce.
o Cperat|ng System needs upgrad|ng- Lhe sysLem wlll need Lo be
modlfled Lo Lake advanLage of Lhe addlLlonal capaclLles of Lhe CS.
o erformance needs |mprovement- some of Lhe orlglnal code may
conLaln several unnecessary rouLlnes LhaL are slow Lo execuLe and need
'Lldylng up'. SysLems performance can ofLen be lmproved by flndlng
more efflclenL algorlLhms for such rouLlnes.

! A*%+% !+% )*+%% )92%- 1& ,!'()%(!(5%H
o Correct|ve Ma|ntenance- to cottect boqs/ettots foooJ lo softwote
wbeo beloq oseJ
o erfect|ve Ma|ntenance- to lmptove petfotmooce of softwote
o Adapt|ve Ma|ntenance- to oltet softwote becoose of extetool oeeJ.
" A change ln user requlremenLs
" A change ln law
" A change ln processes e.g. vA1 change
" 1o Lake accounL of new Lechnologles

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

k. descr|be prototyp|ng to demonstrate how a so|ut|on w||| appear

! A prototype ls o slmpllfleJ vetsloo of o ptoqtom to lllosttote o feotote of tbe
! normally used Lo |||ustrate |nput and output screens
! 1he screens are dumm|es ln LhaL Lhey e||c|t no act|on
! used Lo show Lhe cllenL Lhe way Lhe sysLem wlll look ln order Lo galn a clearer
ldea of Lhe sysLem
! Allows |ssues/errors Lo be spotted
! 1he cllenL ls parL of Lhe deslgn process ln order Lo glve more focused feedback
! roLoLypes are eva|uated and repeated|y ref|ned unLll cllenL ls saLlsfled

! >.4!()!6%-
o roduced very qulckly
o Check LhaL end user/cllenL ls happy wlLh sysLem
o More focused feedback
! $'-!.4!()!6%-
o 1akes up developmenL Llme, especlally ls process ls repeaLed

L" .%-5+'7% )*% -2'+!8 !(. /!)%+&!88 ,1.%8- 1& )*% -9-)%,- 8'&% 5958%

o Aoolyst beqlos by collectloq Joto followeJ by eocb of tbe otbet stoqes
leoJloq to evolootloo, wblcb wlll leoJ to o tetoto to Joto collectloo to
moJlfy tesolts.
o 1be Jlffeteot stoqes ote tefloeJ eocb tlme tbe moJel ls wotkeJ tbtooqb
o ltoqtess ls seeo os flowloq-steoJlly JowowotJs (llke o wotetfoll)
o 1be tesolts ftom ooe stoqe ote oseJ to lofotm tbe wotk oo tbe oext
stoqe lo tbe cycle"
o At ooy stoqe, lt moy be foooJ oecessoty to tetoto to te-evoloote o
ptevloos stoqe

C" '.%()'&9 )*% &%!)3+%- 1& 51,,1( !228'5!)'1(- &13(. '( 73-'(%--0
51,,%+5'!8 !(. '(.3-)+'!8 !228'5!)'1(-H %"6" -)15: 51()+180 1+.%+ 2+15%--'(60
2!9+1880 2+15%-- 51()+180 21'()Q1&Q-!8% -9-)%,-0 ,!+:%)'(60 51,23)%+Q!'.%.
.%-'6( I?>$J0 !(. 51,23)%+Q!'.%. ,!(3&!5)3+% I?>CJ

! keeplng Lrack of sLock
! 8ecordlng sLock levels

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor


o uaLabase has enLry for each lu number
o When sLock ls scanned, Lhe lu number ls found ln Lhe daLabase
o number ln sLock fleld ls.
o Incremented lf goods are comlng lnLo Lhe warehouse
o Decremented lf goods are leavlng Lhe warehouse
o 1herefore, number ln sLock fleld ls always up Lo daLe wlLh whaL ls ln Lhe
! CondlLlon of sLock
! keeplng Lrack of where sLock ls golng

! lf quanLlLy ln sLock falls below a pre-deLermlned llmlL.
! 1he sysLem auLomaLlcally lnsLlLuLes a reorderlng process
! When goods are dellvered, Lhe orderlng sysLem ls lnformed so LhaL Lhe llve
order can be shown Lo have been fulfllled

! 8ecords are processed all aL Lhe same Llme
! aL regular lnLervals (e.g. once a week)
! requlres no human lnLervenLlon durlng Lhe processlng
! payroll run once workers have gone home
! large amounLs of daLa needs Lo be processed
! daLa ls slmllar ln naLure, requlrlng slmllar processlng
! no need for lnsLanL responses Lo lnpuL

! AuLomaLlcally conLrols a process
! CompuLer recelves lnformaLlon abouL Lhe process from sensors
! uaLa from Lhe sensors allows Lhe sysLem Lo make declslons
! 8esulLs of declslons are acLlons LhaL are carrled ouL
! 1he nexL seL of lnpuLs from Lhe sensors are compared wlLh Lhe lasL seL of
lnpuLs Lo declde wheLher Lhe acLlons LhaL were Laken lasL Llme had any lmpacL

L.g. ko|||ng rocess
! CompuLer sLores parameLers beLween whlch Lhe Lhlckness ls accepLable
! AcLual Lhlckness lnpuL aL regular lnLervals from Lhe sensors
! AcLual Lhlckness compared wlLh sLored values
! lf accepLable Lhen Lhe process ls repeaLed
! lf Lhlckness ls dlfferenL Lo sLored values, Lhen Lhe roller ls ad[usLed
! Ieedback- lf roller ls ad[usLed, Lhe nexL lnpuL ls compared Lo Lhe prevlous
lnpuL Lo see lf Lhe ad[usLmenL had an effecL

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! ldenLlfles goods belng boughL
o 8eads Lhe barcode on producLs
o lu searched on daLabase
! Carry ouL processlng requlred
o AccumulaLes LoLal value of all Lhe goods
o roduces a prlnLouL for Lhe cusLomer (Llll recelpL)
! Arranges for paymenL
o Made elecLronlcally

! ltocess wbete poteotlol costomets ote moJe owote of o ptoJoct ot setvlce
! roduce adverLlslng maLerlal and producL promoLlonal maLerlal
! 1hrough Lhe lnLerneL or Lhrough dlrecL malllng

Computer A|ded Des|gn (CAD)
! use of o compotet system to Jeslqo o commoJlty/ptoJoct
! SofLware can be used Lo do calculaLlons
! Can be used Lo make declslons abouL Lhe way Lhe producL ls manufacLured
! Can be used Lo cosL a soluLlon and make predlcLlons

Computer A|ded Manufacture (CAM)
! use of o compotet system to belp wltb tbe mooofoctotloq ptocess
! 1he deslgn would be produced by compuLer conLrolled roboLs

V" '.%()'&9 !(. U3-)'&9 6%(%+'5 !228'5!)'1(- -1&)/!+% &1+ 2!+)'538!+ !228'5!)'1(
!+%!-0 %"6" /1+. 2+15%--'(60 -2+%!.-*%%)-0 .%-:)12 2378'-*'(6 I$A;J0
2+%-%()!)'1( -1&)/!+%0 .+!/'(6 2!5:!6%-

! WrlLe leLLers Lo cusLomers
! rocess reporLs

! 1o keep records of sales
! CalculaLe lnvolces
! Make auLomaLlc calculaLlons

! roducLlon of a manual (e.g. lnsLrucLlons manual)
! used for produclng brochures/leafleLs/flyers
! roduce hlgh quallLy graphlcs

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! used for produclng mulLl-medla presenLaLlons for an audlence

! used for produclng adverLs/leafleLs/flyers

! 1o sLore flles of cusLomers and sales
! 1o manlpulaLe cusLomer/sLock flles

! 1o creaLe lmages

ADVAN1AGLS 1& ;+%Q/+'))%( I6%(%+'5J -1&)/!+%
! Shared deve|opment costs makes Lhe sofLware cheaper Lo buy
! Immed|ate|y]read||y ava||ab|e
! 8eady pool of Lralned workers
! MosL of Lhe bugs would be m|ss|ng as sofLware wlll be fu||y tested
! Compat|b|e wlLh sofLware from oLher organlsaLlons
! 1hlrd parLy user documenLaLlon avallable/on||ne he|p avallable
! 1here may also be Lralnlng maLerlal accompanylng sofLware
! SLaff may already know how Lo use sofLware

1" B.%()'&9 !(. U3-)'&9 !228'5!)'1(- !+%!- &1+ /*'5* 53-)1,Q/+'))%(
!228'5!)'1(- -1&)/!+% '- !22+12+'!)%

ADVAN1AGLS 1& ?3-)1,Q/+'))%( -1&)/!+%
! Wr|tten spec|f|ca||y for Lhe parLlcular purpose needed by Lhe buslness
! ueslgned Lo do exacLly whaL Lhe user needs/flLs user requlremenLs exacLly
! AppllcaLlon ls 'one off']un|que and does noL flL normal crlLerla for sLandard
! Gener|c software wlll noL ex|st
! ConLalns all Lhe features LhaL Lhe buslness needs lncludlng non-standard ones
! uoes noL conLaln excess funct|ona||ty
! rogram ma|ntenance may be easler

;" .%-5+'7% )*% 5*!+!5)%+'-)'5- 1& :(1/8%.6%Q7!-%. -9-)%,-

! A know|edge-based system ls a compuLer sysLem where all Lhe %F2%+) *3,!(
:(1/8%.6% coverlng a 2!+)'538!+ )12'5 ls broughL LogeLher and made avallable
Lo Lhe user Lhrough a 51,23)%+ -9-)%, whlch uses Lhe facLs lL has been glven
ln order Lo !(-/%+ G3%+'%- from ouLslde Lhe sysLem.
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! D%-)+'5)%. Lo a (!++1/ !+%! 1& :(1/8%.6% because human knowledge ls so
vasL LhaL lL would need masslve areas of daLa
! 8esulLs cannoL be glven wlLhln any .%6+%% 1& !553+!59

P1/ '- ! :(1/8%.6%Q7!-%. -9-)%, -%) 32W
! LxperLs ln Lhe fleld are lnLervlewed
! lnformaLlon needs Lo be collecLed from many sources
! 1hls lnformaLlon ls used Lo creaLe Lhe knowledge base
! 1he rules used Lo lnLerrogaLe Lhe knowledge are collecLed ln Lhe rule base
! 1he seL of algorlLhms used Lo Lell Lhe rules ln Lhe rule base Lo lnLerrogaLe Lhe
knowledge base are sLored ln Lhe lnference englne
! PCl ls seL up Lo provlde communlcaLlon ouLslde of Lhe knowledge-based

o cootolos tbe lofotmotloo sopplleJ to tbe system by tbe expetts
o cootolos tbe toles tbot coo be opplleJ to tbe koowleJqe
o 1bls oses tbe toles lo tbe tole bose ooJ seotcbes tbtooqb tbe koowleJqe
o Allows fot poetles to be lopot ooJ tesolts to be ootpot

S" .%-5+'7% )*% 23+21-% 1& 12%+!)'(6 -9-)%,-

! An CS ls a su|te of programs deslgned Lo manage Lhe hardware of Lhe sysLem
! used Lo contro| the hardware of the system Lhrough sofLware llke botJwote
Jtlvets ooJ systems softwote
! used Lo prov|de a p|atform on wh|ch app||cat|ons can run and Jeols wltb
lssoes LhaL Lhe sofLware may have (e.g. stotoqe of flles)
! rovldes a user |nterface w|th the operator Lo allow commoolcotloo betweeo
tbe oset ooJ botJwote. 1he speclflc Lype of user lnLerface depends on Lhe
! nand|es commun|cat|ons uslng ptotocols to qoveto tbe commoolcotloo
! nand|es trans|at|on of code uslng compllets ooJ lotetptetets
! nas many ut|||ty programs used Lo carry ouL boosekeeploq tosks on Lhe

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

D" .%-5+'7% )*% 5*!+!5)%+'-)'5- 1& .'&&%+%() )92%- 1& 12%+!)'(6 -9-)%,- !(.
)*%'+ 3-%-H 7!)5*0 +%!8Q)',%0 -'(68%Q3-%+0 ,38)'Q3-%+0 ,38)'Q)!-:'(6 !(.
.'-)+'73)%. -9-)%,-

! uaLa ls collecLed and lnpuL lnLo Lhe sysLem over a perlod of Llme
! lnpuLs are sLored as a '[ob' Lo be processed laLer and collecLed lnLo 'baLches'
! rocesslng occurs when all lnpuL has been collecLed
! 1herefore, Lhere are large amounLs of daLa Lo be processed
! rocesslng ls carrled ouL from beglnnlng Lo end wlLhouL human lnLeracLlon
! 1here ls no need for lnsLanL responses Lo lnpuL (noL Llme senslLlve)
! uaLa ls slmllar ln naLure and requlres slmllar processlng

! uaLa ls processed lnsLanLly and Lhe sysLem responds lnsLanLly Lo changes ln
! 1herefore, Lhe ouLpuL affecLs Lhe nexL lnpuL and occurs before Lhe nexL lnpuL
! 1he compuLer musL respond wlLhln a seL Llme llmlL

! Allows one user aL a Llme Lo use Lhe sysLem
! AllocaLes each user wlLh rlghLs
! keeps user flles separaLe

! Allows more Lhan one user Lo access Lhe sysLem and Lhelr flles slmulLaneously
! user have Lhelr own unlque access Lo Lhe compuLer
! keeps user flles separaLe
! AllocaLes each user wlLh rlghLs

! Allows more Lhan one Lask Lo run slmulLaneously
! use of separaLe wlndows for each Lask
! Lach Lask ls glven an amounL of processlng Llme before golng on Lo Lhe nexL
! L.g. play muslc whlle Lyplng an essay
! A Lyplcal C ls descrlbed as mulLl-Lasklng because more Lhan one Lask wlll be
apparenLly runnlng slmulLaneously

! llle sLorage or processlng ls shared beLween dlfferenL compuLers aL dlfferenL
locaLlons, whlch make up Lhe enLlre sysLem
! users wlll be unaware of Lhe exacL physlcal locaLlon of Lhe daLa LhaL Lhey are
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! Speeds up access Lo flles because Lhere ls no slngle place whlch all Lhe
lnformaLlon musL pass Lhrough

=" .%-5+'7% ! +!(6% 1& !228'5!)'1(- +%G3'+'(6 7!)5* 2+15%--'(60 !(.
!228'5!)'1(- '( /*'5* ! +!2'. +%-21(-% '- +%G3'+%.

! K2)'5!8 C!+: D%!.'(6 IKCDJ
o MulLlple cholce CM8 forms- e.g. mulLlple cholce examlnaLlons
o ScrlpLs are baLch processed
o ScrlpLs are processed lncredlbly qulckly
o All processlng ls slmllar ln naLure and daLa ls of slmllar Lype
o Large amounLs of daLa Lo be processed
o ScrlpLs are re[ecLed lf Lhey cannoL be read
! ;+1.35% 7'88- &1+ 53-)1,%+-
o uaLa collecLed over a monLh
o Slmllar daLa ls collecLed
o rocessed aL a convenlenL Llme normally aL a quleL Llme
o 8esulLs are noL needed lmmedlaLely
o no need for human lnLervenLlon
o rocesslng ls slmple
o All Lhe processlng ls Lhe same for each blll
! ;!9+188
o lnpuLs are sLored and collecLed over Lhe course of one week because
lnpuLs are only useful when full week of values are collecLed
o ayroll run once a week all aL Lhe same Llme
o no need for humans Lo be presenL
o 8uns when workers have gone home
o All processlng ls slmllar ln naLure and daLa ls of slmllar Lype
o Large amounL of daLa Lo be processed

! >'+8'(% 711:'(6 -9-)%,
o When a seaL has been booked on a fllghL, Lhe sysLem needs Lo be
updaLed before Lhe nexL LransacLlon (lnpuL) occurs ln order Lo avold Lhe
posslblllLy of a double-booklng
! C'--'8% 63'.!(5%
o varlous sensors deLecL alLlLude, laLlLude, speed eLc
o ConsLanLly provldlng up-Lo-daLe lnformaLlon Lo Lhe guldance sysLem
o lf Lhe mlsslle ls sllghLly off course Lhen ad[usLmenLs musL be made
o A one second delay could resulL ln Lhe mlsslle hlLLlng Lhe wrong LargeL

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! A%,2%+!)3+%@2+%--3+% 51()+18
o L.g. sensors ln a nuclear power sLaLlon wlll be provldlng daLa on Lhe
currenL LemperaLure of Lhe reacLor
o lf Lhe reacLor sLarLs Lo overheaL, Lhen lnlLlaLlng coollng wlll have Lo
happen lnsLanLly Lo avold a poLenLlally dangerous slLuaLlon
! ;+15%-- 51()+18
o ln Lhe manufacLurlng process, 1000s of slgnals per second can arrlve
from sensors aLLached Lo sysLems belng conLrolled
o As such sysLems are fasL movlng, Lhe response Llme would need Lo be
exLremely mlnlmal

)" '.%()'&9 !(. .%-5+'7% )*% 23+21-% 1& .'&&%+%() )92%- 1& 3-%+ '()%+&!5%H &1+,-0
,%(3-0 NXB0 (!)3+!8 8!(63!6% !(. 51,,!(. 8'(%0 -366%-)'(6 )*%
5*!+!5)%+'-)'5- 1& 3-%+ '()%+&!5%- )*!) ,!:% )*%, !22+12+'!)% &1+ .'&&%+%()
)92%- 1& 3-%+

! ?*!+!5)%+'-)'5-
o Pas speclfled areas for daLa lnpuL (lnpuL/LexL boxes)
o Pas a cursor whlch moves Lo Lhe nexL box Lo be fllled ln
o rovldes llsL of alLernaLlve responses Lhrough drop-down llsL
o use of radlo buLLons and check boxes Lo enLer daLa
o Cursor shows poslLlon of nexL lnpuL box Lo be fllled ln and would move
Lo lL
o Cursor may noL move unLll daLa has belng supplled Lo lmporLanL boxes
o Checks lnpuL ls senslble/help buLLon avallable
! M*9 3-% ')W
o ?1,23)%+ 13)23)- 2+1,2)- !(. )*% 3-%+ +%-21(.-
o resenLs user wlLh an on-screen form ln whlch daLa can be vlewed or
o Clear lnsLrucLlons Lo prompL user
o Makes sure lnformaLlon ls lnpuL ln Lhe correcL order (sLandard formaL)
o Slmpllfled valldaLlon process- flxed opLlons of drop-down menus
o very few errors on lnpuL
o Lnsures no necessary lnformaLlon ls mlssed
! M*%( '- ') 3-%.W
o 1ravel agenLs and oLher booklng sysLems
o Workers Laklng orders over Lhe Lelephone

! user lnLerface whlch obta|ns |nput from Lhe user by d|sp|ay|ng a ||st of
opt|ons- the menus- from whlch Lhe user |nd|cates h|s]her cho|ce by uslng a
sequence of key presses or by uslng a mouse. 1hls may lead Lo further menus.
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! M*9 3-% ')W
o Slmple/easy Lo use- requlres no speclallsL knowledge
o LlmlL on cholce- menus resLrlcL opLlons/resLrlcLs user
o user may be compuLer llllLeraLe
! M*%( '- ') 3-%.W- sysLems LhaL requlre Louch screen
o A1Ms- cash machlnes
o Moblle phones
o 1ourlsL lnformaLlon sysLem
" Avolds need for addlLlonal perlpherals such as a mouse
" SulLable for envlronmenL-provldes an enclosed sysLem wlLh
proLecLlon agalnsL vandals and Lhe weaLher

! user uses a devlce such as a mouse Lo move a po|nter and press a button over
an |con. 1he mouse can be used Lo contro| w|ndows or frames on Lhe screen
! <%!)3+%-
o bounded areas of screen wlLhln whlch dlfferenL Lasks can be runnlng
o screen ls organlsed as a serles of wlndows/overlapplng frames
o wlndows can be vlewed slngularly or ln comblnaLlons
o wlndows can be mlnlmlsed/maxlmlsed/reslzed/moved
o allows for mulLl-Lasklng
o Small graphlcal lmage Lo allow easy recognlLlon of appllcaLlons
o Can be polnLed and cllcked on
o used as a shorLcuL for Lhe user
o 1he llsLlng of opLlons from whlch Lhe user may selecL feaLures/opLlons
! 1CCL8Ak
o ComblnaLlon of buLLons
o Lach buLLon has an lcon/leLLer deplcLlng an opLlon
o SlLuaLed on Lhe screen and used ln con[uncLlon wlLh a mouse
o 1o allows Lhe user and Lhe compuLer Lo lnLeracL ln a conLrolled manner
o 1o allows Lhe compuLer Lo conLrol whaL Lhe user ln dolng
o 8y offerlng a llmlLed number of cholces such as yes/no/cancel
o Allows for slmple navlgaLlon
o usually conLrolled by a mouse
o used Lo selecL approprlaLe opLlons
! 8enef|ts
o Culs are lnLulLlve
o Lasy Lo use/navlgaLe- onllne help avallable
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o no commands/lnsLrucLlons have Lo be learned/necessary
o Lasy execuLlon of commands- 'drag and drop' / 'polnL and cllck'
! Drawbacks
o 8equlres more processlng power and sysLem resources
o Can be resLrlcLlve for more experlenced user

! Allows user Lo lnLeracL wlLh compuLer uslng a human language such as Lngllsh
! CperaLed vla use of mlcrophone or keyboard
! E"6" EF2%+) -9-)%,-
! R%(%&')-
o user may flnd use of a naLural synLax easler
! Drawbacks
o CS has Lo Lry and lnLerpreL whaL Lhe user has requesLed however Lhere
ls a problem because Lhe Lngllsh language ls full of amblgulLles

! user lnLerface LhaL lnvolves typ|ng |n commands for Lhe operaLlng sysLem vla
a keyboard Lo perform spec|f|c task
! Least user-fr|end|y and can only be used by a computer ||terate
! Allows mosL d|rect contro| of CS
! 1ask can be performed qu|ck|y by enLerlng commands dlrecLly- need noL
follow a sequence of menus or wlndows Lo geL Lo Lhe deslred opLlons
! X-%-
o 1echnlclan needlng access Lo Lhe whole sysLem
o CompuLer programmlng
! R%(%&')-
o Low processlng power and sysLem resources requlred
o LxperLs able Lo perform complex Lasks uslng slngle commands qulckly
! $+!/7!5:-
o ulfflcolt fot oo loexpetleoceJ oset- requlres Lhe user Lo learn a large
range of LexL-based commands and Lhelr uses
o osy to moke mlstokes- synLax of command ls vlLal, lnsLrucLlons wlll noL
execuLe lf Lhe command ls Lyped lncorrecLly

3" $'-53-- )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& 611. '()%+&!5% .%-'6(

! <1+, 1& 13)23)
o Sound may be lnapproprlaLe
o Sound musL be mlnlmal oLherwlse ln emergency slLuaLlons lL wlll be

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! Y183,% 1& .!)!
o lf large amounLs, operaLor mlghL mlss seelng some lnformaLlon
o lnformaLlon musL be ordered
o 1here ls danger of lnformaLlon overload, leadlng Lo omlsslons
o lnformaLlon musL be prlorlLlsed as only some daLa ls cruclal
o lnformaLlon musL be presenLed ln such a way LhaL lL has lmmedlaLe
! ?1813+- 3-%.
o MusL be enough conLrasL Lo make lnformaLlon readable
o Senslble use of colours llke red for danger
o MusL be conslsLenL
! EF2%+'%(5% 1& )*% 12%+!)1+
o L.g. CLl noL sulLable for lnexperlenced operaLor
! K2%+!)1+ .'-!7'8')9
o 1o ensure LhaL dlsablllLy ls noL an lssue
o ls Lhe operaLor colour bllnd/deaf/capable?
! P!+./!+% 5*1'5%-
o SulLable for boLh user and envlronmenL Lo be used ln
! L!913)
o lnformaLlon spread around Lhe screen
o lmporLanL lnformaLlon ln Lop lefL of screen
o no overload

Y" '.%()'&9 !(. .%-5+'7% )*% 23+21-% 1& ! +!(6% 1& 3)'8')'%-0 %"6" 51,2+%--'1(
-1&)/!+%0 *!+./!+% .+'4%+0 !()'Q4'+3- -1&)/!+%0 &'8% *!(.8%+-

! D%.35%- )*% -'Z% 1& &'8%- by cuLLlng ouL much of Lhe dupllcaLlon of daLa ln Lhe
sLored maLerlal buL malnLaln Lhe conLenL of Lhe flles
! used Lo speed up Lransmlsslon of daLa from one place Lo anoLher
! llles are decompressed uslng a decompresslon algorlLhm aL desLlnaLlon

! ?1()!'(- )*% '(-)+35)'1(- )1 )*% K= &1+ 3-'(6 ! 2%+'2*%+!8
! used Lo conflgure hardware
! L.g. would be used when a new prlnLer was boughL ln order Lo lnsLall
communlcaLlons proLocols Lo Lhe CS

! ConLlnually looklng ouL for Lhe characLerlsLlcs of a vlrus
! lL wlll deleLe any vlruses LhaL Lhe sofLware flnds

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! =%) 1& 2+16+!,- )*!) ,!(!6% .!)! -)1+!6%
! Allows flles Lo be searched, stoteJ, occesseJ, olteteJ, JeleteJ, metqeJ, sotteJ,
otJeteJ, teoomeJ ot copleJ

! >3)1,!)'5!889 ,!:%- 512'%- 1& &'8%-
! 1o prevenL loss of flles
! roLecLs lmporLanL work by ensurlng LhaL back-up coples are made on
dlfferenL hardware devlces and aL regular lnLervals
! lncremenLal backups should be made

! used Lo check LhaL daLa has noL been corrupLed afLer daLa Lransfer from one
parL of Lhe sysLem Lo anoLher
! CfLen error checklng sofLware wlll auLomaLlcally correcL errors
! .q. ecboloq bock ot potlty cbecks


$" %F28!'( )*% 3-% 1& 51.% )1 +%2+%-%() ! 5*!+!5)%+ -%) I>=?BB0 ER?$B? >V$
! 1he symbols LhaL a compuLer can recognlse and use
! Lach symbol ls dlsLlngulshable from all oLhers
! L.g. ASCll, unlCCuL, L8CulC

! Word rocesslng
! A1M Lermlnal
o A1M uses 10 dlglLs + 6 command codes, wlLh 4 blLs per characLer

! Lach requlred characLer ls glven a unlque blnary code
! 1he more characLers requlred, Lhe more blLs ln each code
! 1he number of blLs Lo represenL Lhe code esLabllshes Lhe slze of a byLe
! L.g. ASCll uses 8 blLs per characLer- 236 maxlmum number of characLers
! L8CulC uses 8 blLs per characLer- 236 maxlmum number of characLers
! unlCCuL uses 16 blLs per characLer- 63336 maxlmum number of characLers
! number of characLers wlll Lherefore Lend Lo be a power of 2
! Allows keys Lo have dlfferenL characLers

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

E" .%-5+'7% ,!(3!8 !(. !3)1,!)'5 ,%)*1.- 1& 6!)*%+'(6 !(. '(23))'(6 .!)!
'()1 ! -9-)%,0 '(583.'(6 &1+, .%-'6(0 :%971!+. %()+90 41'5% +%516(')'1(0
7!+51.%-0 12)'5!8 ,!+: +%516(')'1( IKCDJ0 12)'5!8 5*!+!5)%+ +%516(')'1(
IK?DJ0 ,!6(%)'5 '(: 5*!+!5)%+ +%516(')'1( ICB?DJ0 )135* -5+%%(-[ ',!6%
5!2)3+%0 5*'2 !(. 2'(0 -%(-1+- !(. +%,1)% .!)! 8166'(6

! A form would be used Lo collecL Lhe requlred daLa
! 1he form should noL be amblguous
! 1he daLa ls Lhen lnpuL lnLo Lhe compuLer vla a keyboard
! l.e. an operaLor would read Lhe daLa ln Lhe form and Lype lL lnLo Lhe compuLer

Y1'5% +%516(')'1(
! ose of o mlctopbooe to teoJ losttoctloos loto compotet
! uaLa ls lnpuL ln audlo form dlrecLly Lhrough use of a mlcrophone
! sound waves produced are sampled and dlglLallsed
! dlglLal values compared wlLh sLored values ln a llbrary of sounds
! dlglLal values lnLerpreLed by compuLer
! command ls execuLed lf undersLood
! e.g. securlLy sysLems/moblle Lelephones

! P1/ ! 7!+51.% -)1+%- .!)!
! A barcode comprlses of paLLerns of llghL/dark llnes of varylng wldLhs
! alrs of llnes sLore dlglLs
! Check dlglL lncluded ln barcode for auLomaLlc checklng
! SLarL and sLop codes allows bars Lo be read boLh ways
! P1/ .!)! '- '(23) &+1, 7!+51.%-
! A laser, lnfrared scanner ls used
! 8eflecLlons show up Lhlckness of llnes
! Check dlglL calculaLlon done for lmmedlaLe checklng of readlng
! SLarL and sLop codes declde dlrecLlon of readlng
! R!+51.% +%!.%+
! Plgh level of accuracy achleved
! uaLa capLure ls fasL
! LllmlnaLes human enLry
! 8arcodes can be easlly mlsread by Lhe sysLem
! 8arcodes are easlly damaged

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

K2)'5!8 ?*!+!5)%+ D%516(')'1( IK?DJ
! Shapes of lndlvldual characLers are scanned opLlcally
! 1hese shapes are compared wlLh sLandard shapes sLored ln Lhe compuLer's
! Unre||ab|e form of |nput- only effecLlve when havlng Lo recognlse a sLandard
(prlnLed) characLer seL raLher Lhan hand-wrlLlng
! L.g. readlng documenLs for Lhe bllnd, scannlng a hard copy lnLo a word-

C!6(%)'5 B(: ?*!+!5)%+ D%516(')'1( ICB?DJ
! Speclal characLers are prlnLed on documenLs ln magneLlsable lnk
! Are boLh compuLer and human readable
! MagneLlsed lnk means LhaL characLers are more llkely Lo be read accuraLely
! .q. occooot oombets oo cbepoes

K2)'5!8 C!+: D%516(')'1( IKCDJ
! oslLlon of marks on a documenL equaLes wlLh lnformaLlon
! uocumenL ls scanned for coordlnaLes of marks
! Scanner reads Lhe reflecLed llghL from marks
! .q. lopot of lottety cbolces

C38)'28% 5*1'5% )%-)-
! CorrecL responses wlll all be ln predeLermlned poslLlons
! Answers are rlghL or wrong
! 1here are no areas for debaLe
! 1esLs are marked very qulckly and very accuraLely
! oslLlon of shaded areas compared wlLh 'correcL' poslLlons
! number of correcL poslLlons added and sLored ln a flle accordlng Lo candldaLe

A135* =5+%%(-
! lnpuL achleved by presslng on Lhe screen
! used when Lhere are a flnlLe number of posslble cholces
! user resLrlcLed Lo whaL avallable on Lhe screen
! L.g. A1M machlnes

B,!6% ?!2)3+%
! 1okloq ooJ stotloq plctotes
! =5!((%+
o 1o lnpuL plcLures from hard copy
o lxels are scanned and Lhe reflecLed ls measured

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! E8%5)+1('5 5!,%+!
o Camera would Lake a plcLure
o Lens focuses lmage onLo maLrlx of recepLors
o lcLure Lransferred Lo compuLer vla cable or a memory card

?*'2 !(. 2'(
! ersonal lnformaLlon ls exLremely senslLlve and valuable
! SLored on a compuLer chlp embedded lnLo a card
! ldenLlflcaLlon code (ln) requlred Lo galn access Lo lnformaLlon
! .q. cteJlt ot Jeblt cotJ- to lopot cotJ Jetolls

! lnpuL devlce LhaL deLecLs physlcal quanLlLles
! lncludlng heaL, llghL, sound, movemenL
! Sensors converL Lhese quanLlLles lnLo elecLrlcal slgnals
! L.g. measurlng LemperaLure, measurlng humldlLy

Magnet|c Str|pe Card
! uaLa can be read from Lhe sLrlpe by a magneLlc sLrlpe reader
! Lncoded lnformaLlon sLored on Lhe sLrlp can be auLomaLlcally read lnLo a
! very accuraLe/lnpuL noL prone Lo human errors
! SLrlpe can only sLore a small amounL of lnformaLlon
! L.g. credlL card/deblL card/membershlp card

<" %F28!'( )*% )%5*('G3%- 1& 4!8'.!)'1( !(. 4%+'&'5!)'1(0 !(. .%-5+'7%
4!8'.!)'1( )%-)- /*'5* 5!( 7% 5!++'%. 13) 1( .!)!

! lnpuLs daLa/values Lwlce Lo Lhe compuLer sysLem
! SysLem checks Lhe Lwo lnpuLs are Lhe same
! AnoLher Lechnlclan also enLers daLa/values Lo Lhe compuLer sysLem
! SysLem checks Lwo lnpuLs are Lhe same
! A check on daLa lnpuL Lo Lhe sysLem by comparlng Lhe daLa lnpuL wlLh a seL of
rules LhaL Lhe compuLer has been Lold Lhe daLa musL follow
! ?P>D>?AED ?PE?\@AO;E ?PE?\
o Checks Lo see lf enLered daLa ls of Lhe correcL Lype
o L.g. leLLers of alphabeL Lhe name
! D>VNE ?PE?\
o Check Lo see lf Lhe value enLered ls ln a cerLaln range

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o Checks Lo see lf lnpuL daLa conLalns a cerLaln number of characLers
o number of characLers enLered should be wlLhln a pre-deflned llmlL
! ICkMA1 CnLCk
o L.g. Perd Lype should be 1 characLer followed by 3 dlglLs

! ;DE=EV?E ?PE?\
o Lnsure LhaL a value has acLually been enLered
! E]B=AEV?E ?PE?\
o lnpuL daLa ls searched on a daLabase. lf daLa ls noL recognlsed Lhen
elLher Lhe daLa does noL exlsL on Lhe daLabase or Lhe daLa has been
wrongly read
! ?PE?\ $BNBA
o ln a sLrlng of dlglLs, one of Lhe numbers ls speclal. lL ls called Lhe check
dlglL. 1he value of Lhls dlglL ls calculaLed by applylng a slmple algorlLhm
Lo Lhe oLher dlglLs. When Lhe sLrlngs of dlglLs are senL, Lhe check dlglL ls
calculaLed agaln aL Lhe recelvlng end. lf Lhe arlLhmeLlc does noL glve Lhe
check dlglL, Lhen Lhe sLrlng of dlglLs have been corrupLed durlng daLa

N" .%-5+'7% 21--'78% &1+,- 1& 13)23) -35* !- 6+!2*-0 +%21+)-0 '()%+!5)'4%
2+%-%()!)'1(-0 -13(.0 4'.%10 ',!6%-0 !(',!)'1(-0 -)!)'(6 )*% !.4!()!6%- !(.
.'-!.4!()!6%- 1& %!5* /')* +%&%+%(5% )1 )*% )!+6%) !3.'%(5%

! ND>;P=
o Shows )+%(.- very clearly when Lwo varlables need Lo be compared
o noL posslble Lo Lake rellable readlngs Lo any degree of accuracy

o P!+. 5129 2+'()13) of values for fuLure reference/research
o roduces Lhe acLual flgures speclfled by Lhe user
o May need sklll Lo lnLerpreL slgnlflcance of Lhe flgures Lhemselves
o L.g. Lo allows analysls of a paLlenL condlLlon ln a hosplLal
o 1akes large amounLs of memory Lo produce
o useful for demonsLraLlons of Lechnlque
! BC>NE=@ND>;PB?=
o used Lo enhance undersLandlng- shows deLalls
o Makes Lrend spoLLlng easler
o CreaLed uslng graphlcs packages
o scanned lnLo compuLer
o lmporLed from camera
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! =KXV$
o 8eep Lo slgnlfy daLa has been accepLed
o 1o presenL !8!+, -'6(!8-

P" %F28!'( )*% 2+15%.3+% '(4184%. '( 7!5:'(6 32 .!)! !(. !+5*'4'(60 '(583.'(6
)*% .'&&%+%(5% 7%)/%%( .!)! )*!) '- 7!5:%. 32 !(. .!)! )*!) '- !+5*'4%.

! Maklng coples of lmporLanL flles
! SLorlng Lhem on a porLable medlum
! Coples are kepL away from Lhe orlglnals (masLer flles)
! So LhaL lf Lhe orlglnal flles are corrupLed, Lhey can easlly be replaced
! DE>=KV- flles are lmporLanL Lo an organlsaLlon and so musL be proLecLed
! uaLa could become corrupLed and daLa could be losL.
! SLorlng Lhe daLa produced on a long Lerm sLorage devlce
! So LhaL lL can be referred Lo lf necessary
! DE>=KV- uaLa ls avallable wlLhouL Laklng up space on worklng sLorage

! <+%G3%(59 1& 7!5:32- e.g. back up copy Laken weekly
! K( 1+ K&&8'(%W - e.g. aL leasL one copy should be sLored offllne
! C38)'28% 512'%- of daLa should be Laken
! B(5+%,%()!8 1+ &388 7!5:32-- preferably lncremenLal back ups Laken
! M*%( )!:%(W - lmmedlaLely afLer updaLlng of daLa on compuLer sysLem
! M*%+% -)1+%.W - 8ack ups should be sLored ln more Lhan 1 locaLlon and sLored
ln secure locaLlons
! C%.'!W - coples of all flles sLored onLo a removable sLorage devlce, e.g. Cu8W

3.1.4 nAkDWAkL

>" .%-5+'7% )*% &3(5)'1( !(. 23+21-% 1& )*% 51()+18 3(')0 ,%,1+9 3(') !(.
>LX I!+')*,%)'5 816'5 3(')J !- '(.'4'.3!8 2!+)- 1& ! 51,23)%+

! Manages execuLlon of lnsLrucLlons
! 8y sendlng conLrol slgnals Lo oLher parLs of Lhe processor uslng busses
! ConLrols Lhe feLch/execuLe cycle
o lL decldes whlch lnsLrucLlon Lo carry ouL
o 1hen feLches lL, decodes lL, and synchronlses lLs execuLlon
! Synchronlses acLlons uslng lnbullL clock

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! A*'- '- /*%+% %4%+9)*'(6 )*% 2+15%--1+ '- 61'(6 )1 3-% '- -)1+%.
! SLores Lhe parL of Lhe CS currenLly ln use
! SLores sofLware currenLly ln use
! SLores daLa needed Lo carry ouL Lhose lnsLrucLlons

! Carrles ouL arlLhmeLlc calculaLlons
! carrles ouL loglcal declslons
! acLs as a gaLeway Lo Lhe processor

R" %F28!'( )*% (%%. &1+0 !(. 3-% 1&0 +%6'-)%+- '( )*% &3(5)'1('(6 1& )*%
2+15%--1+ I;+16+!, ?13()%+0 C%,1+9 >..+%-- D%6'-)%+0 C%,1+9 $!)!
D%6'-)%+0 ?3++%() B(-)+35)'1( D%6'-)%+ !. >553,38!)1+J

! A reglsLer ls a small area of memory, wlLhln Lhe processor lLself, where daLa or
conLrol lnformaLlon ls Lemporarlly sLored
! 8eglsLers are used because Lransferrlng daLa Lo and from a reglsLer ls much
qulcker Lhan Lransferrlng Lhe daLa beLween Lhe processor and maln memory

! =)1+%- )*% !..+%-- 1& )*% (%F) '(-)+35)'1(
! ConLrols Lhe sequence ln whlch lnsLrucLlons are execuLed
! lL ls lncremenLed afLer belng read
! lL ls alLered as a resulL of a [ump lnsLrucLlon

! SLores Lhe address ln memory currenLly belng accessed
! Polds Lhe poslLlon ln memory of Lhe locaLlon conLalnlng elLher Lhe nexL plece
of daLa Lo be read or Lhe nexL lnsLrucLlon Lo be used

! SLores Lhe daLa belng Lransferred Lo or from memory
! AcLs llke a buffer beLween Lhe lAS and Cu

! SLores Lhe lnsLrucLlon currenLly belng operaLed on

! 1emporary sLore for Lhe resulLs of Lhe lasL arlLhmeLlc or loglcal operaLlon unLll
lL ls declded whaL Lo do wlLh Lhe daLa

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

?" %F28!'( )*% (%%. &1+0 !(. .%-5+'7% )*% 3-% 1& 73-%- )1 51(4%9 '(&1+,!)'1(
I$!)!0 >..+%-- !(. ?1()+18 73-%-J

! cottles lJeotlflcotloo oboot wbete tbe Joto ls beloq seot/comloq ftom
! necessary lf large amounLs of memory need Lo be used

! cottles Joto beloq ttoosmltteJ betweeo oteos of tbe ptocessot
! 1wo-way bus as daLa can be Lransferred ln elLher dlrecLlon

! cottles coottol slqools ftom tbe coottol oolt to ollow syocbtoolsotloo of slqools

$" .%-5+'7% )*% 51((%5)'4')9 1& .%4'5%- I,%)*1.- 1& *!+. /'+'(60 !(. /'+%8%--
! <'7+%Q12)'5 ?!78%
o 1ransmlLs daLa uslng llghL beams senL down a flne glass fllamenL
o lnLerference free

! M'+%8%-- =9-)%,
o used over shorL dlsLances
o noL secure because anyone can Lap ln sysLem
! C'5+1/!4% )+!(-,'--'1(
o use of saLelllLe dlshes
o Llne of slghL necessary
o used by buslnesses Lo connecL a neLwork ln dlfferenL locaLlons
! B(&+!+%. )+!(-,'--'1(
o unobsLrucLed llne of slghL
! =%+'!80 2!+!88%80 $328%F0 P!8&Q$328%F .!)! )+!(-,'--'1(

E" .%-5+'7% )*% .'&&%+%(5%- 7%)/%%( )92%- 1& 2+',!+9 ,%,1+9 !(. %F28!'(
)*%'+ 3-%-
! $%-5+'2)'1(
o non-volaLlle
o ConLenLs of memory are noL erased when power ls off
o Memory conLenLs cannoL be alLered/changed
! A92% 1& -1&)/!+% -)1+%.
o ConLalns Lhe booL program (sLarL-up sofLware)
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! D%!-1(
o rogram ls requlred lmmedlaLely when power ls swlLched on
o 1herefore Lhe booL program musL be ln 8CM

! $%-5+'2)'1(
o volaLlle
o ConLenLs of memory ls erased when power ls off
o rocessor musL have some 8AM as worklng memory/buffer
! A92% 1& -1&)/!+% -)1+%.
o AppllcaLlons sofLware
o CperaLlng sysLem
o user flles
! D%!-1(
o Allows changes Lo be made Lo saved conLenLs
o Allows changes Lo be made Lo flles ln currenL use/user can enLer daLa
o lasL access Lo daLa

<" .%-5+'7% )*% 7!-'5 &%!)3+%-0 !.4!()!6%-0 .'-!.4!()!6%- !(. 3-%- 1&
-%51(.!+9 -)1+!6% ,%.'!

! erlpheral/exLernal devlce whlch allows sLorage of daLa over a long perlod
! P!+. .'-: .+'4% IP$$JQ C!6(%)'5 ,%.'3,
o useJ fot stotloq softwote locloJloq opetotloq system, otbet systems
softwote, oppllcotloos ptoqtoms ooJ Joto flles
o lasL access Lo daLa
o Large capaclLy
o Powever requlres formaLLlng before use

! ?$QDKCQ K2)'5!8 ,%.'3,
o uses reflecLlon of a laser off a plLLed surface Lo sLore lnformaLlon
o SLores slgnlflcanL quanLlLles of lnformaLlon
o CompleLely porLable from one machlne Lo anoLher
o Powever access Lo lnformaLlon ls slower
o Cu8CM cannoL be alLered/changed by Lhe user
o .q. to looJ softwote socb os ocyclopoeJlos

! ?$QDMQ K2)'5!8 ,%.'3,
o Same as Cu8CM excepL.
o conLenLs can be boLh erased and rewrlLLen
o oseJ to moke bock op flles
o osefol fot ttoospottloq flles

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! $Y$QDKC !(. $Y$QDMQ K2)'5!8 ,%.'3,
o Same as Cu-8CM and Cu-8W excepL.
o Pold larger amounLs of lnformaLlon
o lasLer access Lo lnformaLlon

! C%,1+9 X=R =)'5:Q =18'. =)!)% ,%.'3,
o useable on any machlne
o very fasL access Lo lnformaLlon
o uevlce ls fully porLable, small and llghL
o no movlng parLs and are Lherefore more sulLable for carrylng around
o Large capaclLy
o useJ to stote seosltlve lofotmotloo os Jevlce coo be kept wltb owoet
o coo be oseJ to ttoospott flles
o coo be oseJ to moke bockops

N" .%-5+'7% )*% )+!(-&%+ 1& .!)! 7%)/%%( .'&&%+%() .%4'5%- !(. 2+',!+9
,%,1+90 '(583.'(6 )*% 3-%- 1& 73&&%+- !(. '()%++32)-

! A buffer ls a Lemporary sLorage LhaL ls used Lo hold daLa whlle lL ls belng
moved from Lhe prlmary memory Lo a sLorage devlce
! An |nterrupt ls a message senL Lo Lhe processor Lelllng lL Lo 'walL' whllsL
anoLher more lmporLanL command ls execuLed
o uoto ls seot to boffet ftom ptlmoty memoty
o ltocessot coo cootlooe otbet tosks wblle Joto ls ttoosmltteJ
o lotettopt ls seot wbeo tbe boffet ls foll
o 8offet ls emptleJ to tbe stotoqe Jevlce bot ot o slowet speeJ to
occommoJote tbe Jevlce
o wbeo tbe boffet bos beeo emptleJ, oo lotettopt ls seot to tbe ptocessot
to tepoest boffet teflll
o ltocess ls tepeoteJ ootll tbe flle of Joto bos beeo soccessfolly ooJ folly
ttoosfetteJ to tbe stotoqe Jevlce
o uoto ls ottooqeJ lo pockets ooJ seot vlo potollel commoolcotloo
o uoto ls cbeckeJ fot ettots oo ottlvol ot stotoqe Jevlce
o lf tbete ote ooy ettots, Joto woolJ be teseot

P" .%-5+'7% ! +!(6% 1& 51,,1( 2%+'2*%+!8 .%4'5%- '( )%+,- 1& )*%'+ &%!)3+%-0
!.4!()!6%-0 .'-!.4!()!6%- !(. 3-%-H 7!+Q51.% +%!.%+-0 CB?D0 K?D0 KCD0
-5!((%+-0 2+'()%+-0 281))%+-0 -2%!:%+-0 ,'5+12*1(%-0 -%(-1+-0 !5)3!)1+-

! P!+./!+% .%4'5% LhaL ls %F)%+(!8 Lo Lhe compuLer buL can be !))!5*%. Lo Lhe

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! rovldes a permanenL ouLpuL known as a hard copy
! Can be kepL for laLer use
! L.g. provlng evldence for updaLlng oLher flles
! >.4!()!6%- 1& -*!+'(6 2+'()%+- 1( ! (%)/1+:
o More Lhan one prlnLer ln case of fallure
o Lase of malnLenance
o Lach user has access Lo dlfferenL Lypes of prlnLers for dlfferenL [obs
! $'-!.4!()!6%- 1& -*!+'(6 2+'()%+- 1( ! (%)/1+:
o need Lo queue for prlnLouL
o rlnLouLs are noL prlvaLe
o rlnLer may noL be local
o 1here would be no dlrecL conLrol over prlnLer
o Lack of back-up lf prlnLer falls

! 1ype of prlnLer deslgned for drawlng llnes and geomeLrlc deslgns
! lmage creaLed by pens begln moved across a plece of paper
! used for drawlng blueprlnLs, e.g. deLalled drawlngs of bulldlngs

! CuLpuL devlce operaLed by a compuLer whlch produces and conLrols physlcal
! L.g. ln rolllng process, acLuaLor used Lo ad[usL gap beLween rollers

! losttoctloos ot Joto coo be teoJ loto compotet

! used Lo ouLpuL sound from a compuLer sysLem
! 1ells oset wbot tbe compotet bos ptocesseJ
! useful for vlsually lmpalred people lnsLead of monlLors


>" .%-5+'7% )*% 5*!+!5)%+'-)'5- 1& ! L>V I815!8 !+%! (%)/1+:J !(. ! M>V
I/'.% !+%! (%)/1+:J

! A collecLlon of compuLers and perlpherals over a sma|| geograph|ca| area,
usually one bulldlng or slLe
! LAn can be hard-w|red uslng cable or connecLed vla a shorL-range w|re|ess
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! LAn ls far more secure
! LAn requlres no extra commun|cat|on dev|ce
! Allows shar|ng of dev|ces
! L.g. school compuLer room

! A collecLlon of compuLers over a |arge geograph|ca| area
! Machlnes ln a WAn Lend Lo be spread more remote|y
! WAn Lends Lo use th|rd party commun|cat|on ||nks
! uaLa on a WAn ls sub[ect to |ntercept|on]attack
! WAn requlres a modem
! L.g. lnLerneL

R" -*1/ !( 3(.%+-)!(.'(6 1& )*% *!+./!+% !(. -1&)/!+% (%%.%. &1+ ! L>V
!(. &1+ !55%--'(6 ! M>V0 %"6" )*% '()%+(%)

! =K<AM>DE
o neLwork CperaLlng SysLem (nCS)
o CommunlcaLlons sofLware
o urlvers for hardware
o neLwork verslons of appllcaLlons sofLware
! P>D$M>DE
o neLwork lnLerface Card (nlC)
o Cabllng/wlreless access polnLs
o Server

! =K<AM>DE
o Same as LAn
! P>D$M>DE
o llbre-opLlc cable
o 1elephone cable
o lnfrared/mlcrowave saLelllLe
o need for a modem/rouLer- Lo llnk Lhe LAn Lo a WAn

! M*9 (%)/1+: 51,23)%+-W
o Allow each compuLer Lo access up-Lo-daLe lnformaLlon
o Shared access Lo daLabase/sysLem
o L.g. LlckeLlng sysLem- avold double-booklngs

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! >.4!()!6%- 1& (%)/1+:'(6
o Sharlng of hardware
o Sharlng of sofLware
o Sharlng of daLa flles
o Can use any machlne
! $'-!.4!()!6%- 1& (%)/1+:'(6
o laulL ln hardware may cause problems LhroughouL Lhe neLwork
o SecurlLy of flles ls worse
o vlruses spread more easlly

?" .%-5+'7% )*% .'&&%+%() )92%- 1& .!)! )+!(-,'--'1(H -%+'!8 !(. 2!+!88%8[ !(.
-',28%F0 *!8&Q.328%F !(. .328%F ,1.%-

! A byLe ls senL, one blL aL a Llme, Lhrough a slngle wlre
! Slower, buL slmpler and more rellable
! A byLe ls senL Lhrough mulLlple wlres, one wlre for each blL ln Lhe byLe
! 1herefore, mulLlple blLs are LransmlLLed aL a Llme
! lasLer buL less rellable because Lhe blLs can become muddled up as blLs wlll
naLurally be LransmlLLed aL sllghLly dlfferenL raLes

! CommunlcaLlon ln one dlrecLlon only

! CommunlcaLlon ln boLh dlrecLlons buL one way aL a Llme

! CommunlcaLlon ln boLh dlrecLlons slmulLaneously

$" %F28!'( )*% +%8!)'1(-*'2 7%)/%%( 7') +!)%- !(. )*% )',% -%(-')'4')9 1& )*%
8I1 kA1L
! 1he raLe aL whlch daLa ls Lransferred
! Pow many blLs LhaL can be senL ln a speclflc Llme perlod
! Measured ln blLs per second/baud
! E"6" =)+%!,'(6 1& ! 4'.%1 )1 ! ,!5*'(%
o 8equlre large volume of daLa
o vldeo flle ls large and ls used lmmedlaLely
o 1lme senslLlve because delay wlll lnLerrupL vldeo ouLpuL
o lf delay, vldeo wlll freeze or lag
o 1herefore, requlres hlgh blL raLe oLherwlse daLa becomes useless
Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! E"6" =',28% A%F) &'8%-
o use a small volume of daLa
o 1end Lo have less daLa Lo LransmlL Lhan a vldeo flle
o noL needed lmmedlaLely
o 1herefore, blL raLe ls unlmporLanL because Lhere ls Llme for daLa Lo
download even aL slow raLe
! ConsequenLly, number of blLs per second ls lmporLanL and dependenL on Lhe
daLa belng senL

E" +%516('-% )*!) %++1+- 5!( 1553+ '( .!)! )+!(-,'--'1(0 !(. %F28!'( ,%)*1.-
1& .%)%5)'(6 !(. 51++%5)'(6 )*%-% %++1+- I2!+')9 5*%5:-0 )*% 3-% 1& 2!+')9 '(
.!)! 7815:- )1 7%51,% -%8&Q51++%5)'(60 5*%5: -3,- !(. %5*1%-J

! number of ones ln a byLe ls elLher always odd or always even
! SysLem has been lnlLlallsed Lo always expecL elLher odd or even number of
ones ln a byLe
! Lach byLe has one blL called Lhe parlLy blL whlch does noL conLaln daLa
! lL ls seL Lo 1 or 0 ln order Lo malnLaln Lhe agreed odd or even parlLy
! When LransmlLLed, Lhe number of ones should maLch agreed parlLy
! lf noL, Lhe byLe conLalns an error

! Lach byLe has a parlLy blL
! Lach blL place has also goL a parlLy blL
! All parlLy ls checked
! lf Lhere ls an error ln Lhe parlLy for a byLe and Lhe parlLy for a place value
! 1hen where Lhey lnLersecL wlll be Lhe faulLy blL
! lf lL ls 0, change lL Lo 1
! lf lL ls 1, change lL Lo 0
! lf more Lhan one error ln Lhe block has occurred Lhen daLa ls re-LransmlLLed

! 8locks of byLes are added LogeLher before Lransmlsslon
! 1hls LoLal ls LransmlLLed wlLh Lhe block
! 1he same calculaLlon ls done on Lhe daLa blocks aL Lhe desLlnaLlon
! 1he resulL ls compared wlLh Lhe LransmlLLed value
! lf dlfferenL, a Lransmlsslon error has occurred

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

! When a seL of daLa ls LransmlLLed from one devlce Lo anoLher.
! 1he recelved daLa ls reLransmlLLed back Lo Lhe sender
! lL ls Lhen compared Lo Lhe orlglnal daLa
! Any dlfferences wlll slgnlfy a Lransmlsslon error
! And Lhe orlglnal daLa ls reLransmlLLed

<" .%-5+'7% 2!5:%) -/')5*'(6 !(. 5'+53') -/')5*'(6

! llle of daLa spllL lnLo packeLs whlch are senL onLo Lhe neLwork
! Lach packeL ls senL Lo Lhe desLlnaLlon vla dlfferenL (lndlvldual) rouLes
! ackeLs arrlve aL Lhe desLlnaLlon aL dlfferenL Llmes and ln a wrong order
! ackeLs musL be reordered aL desLlnaLlon

! 8ouLe ls deserved before Lransmlsslon
! lor Lhe duraLlon of Lhe Lransmlsslon
! All packeLs follow Lhe same rouLe
! ackeLs arrlve aL Lhe desLlnaLlon ln Lhe correcL order

N" %F28!'( )*% .'&&%+%(5% '( 3-% 1& 2!5:%) -/')5*'(6 !(. 5'+53') -/')5*'(6

! no esLabllshed rouLe ! LsLabllshes a rouLe along whlch Lo send
packeLs for duraLlon of message
! ackeLs senL on lndlvldual rouLes ! All packeLs follow Lhe same rouLe
! Secure because lmposslble Lo lnLercepL
all packeLs
! Message can be easlly lnLercepLed
because all packeLs are on Lhe same
! ackeLs need Lo be reordered/only as
fasL as lLs slowesL packeL
! ackeLs remaln ln correcL order
! Maxlmlses use of neLwork ! 1les up large areas of neLwork

P" .%&'(% )*% )%+, 2+1)1518 !(. %F28!'( )*% ',21+)!(5% 1& ! 2+1)1518 )1 )*%
)+!(-,'--'1( 1& .!)!
! A seL of rules Lo govern communlcaLlon beLween devlces

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

B" .%-5+'7% )*% (%%. &1+ 51,,3('5!)'1( 7%)/%%( .%4'5%- !(. 7%)/%%(
51,23)%+-0 !(. %F28!'( )*% (%%. &1+ 2+1)1518- )1 %-)!78'-* 8'(:-

! A handshake s|gna| ls a slgnal senL beLween Lwo devlces Lo ensure LhaL Lhey
are boLh ready Lo communlcaLe
! A handshake slgnal ls senL from one devlce and acknowledged by Lhe oLher
! 1hls saLes LhaL boLh devlces are now ready for communlcaLlon
! (LsLabllshes medlum for communlcaLlon)
! M*9 (%5%--!+9W- unless boLh devlces follow Lhe same rules, Lhere can be no

^" %F28!'( )*% (%%. &1+ 71)* 2*9-'5!8 !(. 816'5!8 2+1)1518- !(. )*% (%%. &1+
8!9%+'(6 '( !( '()%+&!5%

! Wlreless/hard-wlred?
! WhaL frequencles?
! Serlal or parallel?
! 8adlo or mlcrowaves?
! Copper cable or flbre-opLlc?

! 8aud raLe
! Lrror correcLlon Lechnlque
! 8ouLlng
! llow conLrol
! ackeL slze
! Compresslon Lype
! llle Lype

! roLocols are arranged ln layers because lL allows dlfferenL rules wlLhln a
proLocol Lo be seL up lndependenLly
! Layers are ordered whlch slmpllfles Lhe creaLlon of Lhe proLocol
! Allows manufacLurers Lo deslgn for parLlcular layers
! Changes can be made by alLerlng a slngle layer and Lhe llnks Lo Lhe oLher
layers ln conLacL wlLh lL

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor


>" .'-53-- 5*!(6'(6 )+%(.- '( 51,23)%+ 3-% !(. )*%'+ %51(1,'50 -15'!80 8%6!8
!(. %)*'5!8 %&&%5)- 1( -15'%)9

! =15'!8
o Less soclallslng because young people on compuLer all Lhe Llme
o See oLher socleLles whlch may cause frlcLlon wlLh parenLs and oLher
flgures of auLhorlLles
o Wlll ralse expecLaLlons/wanLs
o Wlll lncrease knowledge of oLher socleLles
o Clve opporLunlLy Lo communlcaLe dlrecLly wlLh oLhers
! E)*'5!8
o CopyrlghL and plaglarlsm
o use of lnLerneL for educaLlonal purposes
o use of lnLerneL Lo spread undersLandlng

! E51(1,'5
o Lmployees save money on commuLlng
o Company would noL need Lo supply offlces
! =15'!8
o AblllLy Lo work aL own Llmes (more flexlble worklng hours)
o More freedom wlLh famlly- comblne work and famlly commlLmenLs
o Save Llme on commuLlng
o Powever more easlly dlsLracLed
o Lack of soclal conLacL/lnLeracLlon beLween people (feellng of lsolaLlon)
o 1eam communlcaLlon more dlfflculL
o ulfflculLly lf sysLem malfuncLlons
o Company would have less conLrol over Lhe work of lndlvlduals
o Less flexlblllLy ln alLerlng course of work
o CpporLunlLy for employmenL of dlsabled people
o ulfflculL Lo arrange meeLlngs
! E)*'5!8
o Less polluLlon (more envlronmenLally frlendly)
o 8educed Lrafflc congesLlon as fewer cars on Lhe road

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

R" %F28!'( 5*!(6%- )1 -15'%)9 7+136*) !713) 79 )*% 3-% 1& 51,23)%+ -9-)%,-0
%"6" '( 5*!(6'(6 8%'-3+% 2!))%+(- !(. /1+: %F2%5)!)'1(-

! Worry abouL [ob loss (redundancy lssue)
! Worry abouL Lralnlng
! Less Llme spenL on mundane Lasks
! Lmployees glven more responslblllLy- good/bad?
! More lnformaLlon avallable when needed
! Changes of sLress levels
! More chances of lmproved quallflcaLlons as Lralnlng makes employees more
! Leadlng Lo enhanced [ob prospecLs (promoLlon) and more pay
! Lmployees expecLed Lo be more llLeraLe wlLh new compuLer sysLem
! lncreased work load Lo brlng new sysLem on llne

! CusLomer concern abouL lack of human conLacL
! CusLomer saLlsfacLlon due Lo reducLlon ln chance of human errors
! Savlng of cosLs due Lo redundancles

?" .'-53- )*% %&&%5)- 1& 2+'4!59 !(. 51(&'.%()'!8')9 1& .!)! *%8. '( 51,23)%+
-9-)%,- !(. -)%2- )*!) 5!( 7% )!:%( )1 2+1)%5) 51(&'.%()'!8')9

! ;1-')'4%-
o uaLa ls noL readable wlLhouL access Lo a compuLer
o Lasler Lo log who has accessed Lhe daLa
o uaLa ls noL sLored ln a human readable form
! V%6!)'4%-
o llles of daLa can be easlly and qulckly copled
o Coples of daLa can be placed on Lo Lhe medla or senL elecLronlcally
o Searches for speclflc daLa Lo sLeal can be made easlly and qulckly
o SysLem can be hacked and daLa looked aL remoLely
o More dlfflculL Lo resLrlcL number of coples of daLa ln clrculaLlon

! C%!-3+%-@-)%2-
o Use of f|rewa||s- prevenL ldenLlfy LhefL
" 1o stop slqools ftom ooootbotlseJ osets teocbloq tbe system
o asswords
" kesttlct occess to system ooJ flles
" asswords should use a mlxLure of cases and characLers for

Computer Iundamenta|s
CC8 CompuLlng l431
8havesh v 1allor

o Lncrypt|on
" 5o tbot lf ooootbotlseJ occess ls qoloeJ, tbe Joto ls oolotelllqlble
o roxy server
" kesttlcts tbe osets olloweJ occess to loJlvlJool mocbloes oo
oetwotk ftom lotetoet
o Intrus|on detect|on system
" wotos wbeo oolovlteJ occess ls ottempteJ

$" 3(.%+-)!(. )*% (%%. &1+ 8%6'-8!)'1( 614%+('(6 51,23)%+ 3-%

! lnformaLlon ls confldenLlal and senslLlve
! lnformaLlon musL be accuraLe
! CllenLs musL have confldence LhaL measures are belng Laken Lo proLecL Lhelr
! uaLa sLored musL be updaLed regularly Lo ensure lrrelevanL daLa ls noL kepL
! 1here ls worry abouL ldenLlfy LhefL and fraud
! LeglslaLlon may sLop daLa belng passed on

! <%!)3+%-
! uaLa musL be kepL secure wlLh no unauLhorlsed access
! uaLa musL be obLalned and processed lawfully and falrly
! uaLa musL be accuraLe and up-Lo-daLe
! uaLa cannoL be Lransferred Lo a 3
parLy wlLhouL permlsslon
! uaLa should noL be excesslve
! uaLa musL be relevanL
! uaLa musL noL be kepL longer Lhan necessary
! ersonal daLa should noL be Lransferred Lo ouLslde Lhe L.u
! L',')!)'1(-
! ulfflculL Lo monlLor wheLher companles are abldlng Lo Lhe prlnclples of Lhe acL
! Some parLs of Lhe world may noL comply Lo daLa proLecLlon law
! 1he changlng naLure of Lechnology requlres consLanL revlewlng of daLa
proLecLlon leglslaLlon