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# Fundamentals of Differential Equations

## by Nagle, Saff, and Snider 8th edition)

Section 4.3 (p. 173)- Auxiliary Equations with Complex Roots
3.

## Find a general solution to the DE

Cww "!Cw #'C !
Solve the auxiliary equation 7# "!7 #' !.
We can use the quadratic formula to find 7.
"! "!! %a#'b
"! %
7

#
#
"! #3
&3
#
Recall that if + 3, are solutions to the auxiliary equation
then /+B aG" -9= ,B G# =38 ,Bb are solutions to the De.
Therefore the general solution to the DE is
C /&> aG" -9= > G# =38 >b

6.

## Find a general solution to the DE

Aww %Aw 'A !
The auxiliary equation is 7# %7 ' ! .
We can solve this equation be completing the square.
7# %7 % # ! a7 #b# #
7 # # 7 # # 3
The general solution is C /#> G" -9= # > G# =38 # >

17.

## Find a general solution to the equation

Cww Cw (C !
7# 7 (7 !
" " %a"ba(b
" #(
7

#
#

" #( 3
" \$\$ 3 " \$\$

=
3
#
#
#
#
The general solution is C /># G" -9=
23.

\$
#

> G# =38

\$
#

>

## Solve the initial value problem

Aww %Aw #A ! Aa!b ! Aw a!b "
7# %7 # ! 7# %7 % # %
a7 #b# # 7 # # 7 # #
##>

##>

## The general solution is C +/

,/

# #>
##>
Cw # #+/
# #,/
Ca!b + , ! , +
Cw a!b # #+ # #, "

# #+ # #a +b "

# # # # + "
#
"
## + " +

%
##
#
Since , + ,

%
# ##> # ##>
The specific solution is C
/

%
%
29

## Find a general solution to the DE

a) Cwww Cww Cw \$C !
7\$ 7# 7 \$ !
7 " is a solution.
Using synthetic division we get
1 -1 1 3 \ -1

-1 2 -3
--------------------------1 -2 3 0
7\$ 7# 7 \$ a7 "ba7# #8 \$b !
7 " or 7# #8 \$ !
a7 "b# # 7 " # 3
The general solution is

## C G" /> /> G# -9= # > G\$ =38 \$ >

b) Cwww #Cww &Cw #'C !
7\$ #7# &7 #' !
The possible integer solutions are
1, 2, 13, and 26 .
Try 7 # o graph C B\$ #B# &B #' and you will
see that B # is a zero of the function
"
# & #' #
# )
#'
-----------------------

" % "\$

## 7\$ #7# &7 #' !

a7 #ba7# %7 "\$b !
7 # or a7 #b# "\$ %
7 # * # \$3
The general solution is
C G" /#> /#> aG" -9= \$> G# =38 \$>b
c) C % "\$C ww \$'C !
7% "\$7# \$' !
a7# %ba7# *b !
7 #3 \$3

## The general solution is

C G" =38 #> G# -9= #> G\$ =38 \$> G% -9= \$>