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Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

Classification of Fish Species A. Based On the Feeding Niche 1. Surface Feeder C"inese carp Silver carp Hypothalmichthys molitrix $ig "ead carp Aristrichthys nobilis $"a#ur Catla catla %. $ottom Feeder Common Carp (&sareli Carp) Cyprinus carpio 'rigal(naini Cirrihinus mrigla 3. Column Feeder )o"u Labeo rohita Silver *ar* Puntius gonionotus +rass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella ,ilapia Oreochromis mossambicus B. On the basis of feeding Habit -. .ooplan#ton feeder $ig "ead carp Aristrichthys nobilis $"a#ur Catla catla )ain*o/ ,rout Oncorhynchus mykiss 0. !"ytoplan#ton feeder Silver carp Hypothalmichthys molitrix +rass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella )o"u Labeo rohita 1. 2mnivorous Nile ,ilapia Oreochromis niloticus Sa"ar Tor tor African Catfis" Clarias gariepinus 3. Detrivorous Fres" /ater !ra/n Macrobrachium rosenbergii C. Other classification 4. 5eed Fis"es Puntius sp Fa#eta6)as*ora6C"el"a 7. !redatory fis"es Channa sp. (8ile) Clarias batrachus ('angur('ungri) !allago attu ( $u"ari) Mystus seenghala (,engro) !"ytoplan#ton feeder Zooplankton feeder

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

2.2. Cage and pen fish culture


2.2.1. General Considerations. Cage culture Cage is defined as t"e rearing of fis" from :uvenile stage to commercial si;e in a volume of /ater enclosed on all sides including *ottom *y net6 /"ile allo/ing t"e free circulation of /ater t"roug"out cage unit. &t is porta*le and can *e carried from almost all standing /ater to flo/ing /ater. &t is /ell adopted in area /"ic" cannot *e drained out e.g in la#e.&t is an innovative tec"nique to e<ploit t"e producing potential of la#e6 reservoirs and riverine ponds. &n Nepal it /as started in 173% from !o#"ara6 Fe/a ,al. Pen Culture &t is defined as t"e rearing of t"e fis" from t"e :uvenile stage to t"e commercial si;e in a volume of /ater t"at are enclosed from all t"e sides e<cluding t"e *ottom. =o/er end is situated in t"e *ottom and all four sides of net are carried a*ove t"e /ater surface.

Figure Cage culture Ad antages of cage and pen &t needs less investment *ut "ig" return. >conomic use of t"e /ater mass /"ic" cannot *e used for ot"er purpose. )egular investigation of fis"es and t"eir feeds is muc" easier. 8arvesting of t"e fis" is comparatively easier and desira*le quantity at time. 2verall operation activities and installment is easier. %
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

Since t"e mes" of t"e net is small6 t"ere is less c"ance of escaping fis" from t"e mes" and less c"ance of predators attac#. ,"e diagnosis and treatment of t"e diseases is muc" simpler t"an pond culture. ,"e provision of inlet and outlet system is not required. &t covers t"e part of t"e /ater mass6 so t"e ot"er part can *e used for ot"er purpose. !isad antages of Cage and Pen fish far"ing ,"e ris# of t"eft is "ig". &f net or cage is not maintained regularly t"en small "ole in cage may cause "uge loss. ,"e fis" #ept in cage cannot get t"e natural feeds according t"eir c"oice. Dissolved 2% in pond may *e decreased in t"e summer and t"at may *e pro*lematic for t"e fis". 2.2.2. #$pes of Cages A. On the basis of "aterials used 1. $am*oo Cage ,"e locally made *am*oos are used. ,"ese are of t/o si;es. 2ne is %?%?%.0 m 3 and ot"er is %?%?% m3. ,"ese types of cage are constructed /it" t"e *am*oo frames and *am*oo stripes /it" 3@- cm space for /ater circulation. ,"is type of cage can *e painted /it" t"e enamel to prevent /eat"ering. ,"ese types of cage are convenient in "andling so are popular. %. 5ooden Cage ,"e locally availa*le /ooden plan#s are used in t"is type of cage construction. Cages are of -4 m3 si;e and are constructed *y sal plan#s generally. ,"ese plan#s are arranged closely /it" 1@% cm spacing on t"e frame. ,"ese types of cages are not so popular due to its /eig"t and *ul#y nature. 3. Nylon or polyt"ene net cage ,"ese cases are most popular among t"e fis" gro/ers. All most all t"e cages t"at are used in Nepal are of 09 m3 (0?0?%)6 *ecause t"ey are easy to "andle and maintenance. Dura*ility of polyt"ene cages is "ig"er comparatively t"an ot"ers. -. &ron Angled ANylon Cage

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

&t consists of frame of iron angle /it" nylon mes". +enerally iron angled of 1.3 cm or 1.7 cm are /elded toget"er to form a frame of -?B?%.0 m3 cage area. +enerally empty oil drums are mounted at - sides of cages. So as to #eep it floating on t"e /ater mass. ,"e cage is provided /it" top cover /it" /ire mes". B. On the basis of Floating nature 1. Fi%ed cage ,"is type of cage is fi<ed *y sta#ing t"e corners of t"e net at *ottom of pond *y sin#ers. 2. Floating Cage Net is supported *y floating o*:ects li#e drums6 empty *ottles (Floaters) and net is freely allo/ed to float in /ater. &t is used for t"e gro/ing type of fis". &. Sub"ersible cage ,"is #ind of cage su*merged equal to t"e /ater level. 1@% inc" of frame is a*ove /ater surface. 2.2.&.!esign and construction of the cages +enerally t"ere is no particular met"od and design of t"e cage. 8o/ever6 square or rectangular cage are used in Nepal. +enerally 09 m3 fis" cage are most commonly used *ecause t"ey are convenient for "andling. ,"e "eig"t of cage s"ould *e 1.1@ % meters. ,"e cage mes" si;e varies upon t"e fis" species cultivated. ,"e cage are used in /"ic" frame are made up of iron6 /ood6 *am*oo or !CC pipes. ,"e upper surface of t"e cage generally remains a little a*ove (%0 cm) /ater surface. +enerally cages are mounted on a *am*oo frame /"ic" also serves cage to float. 8o/ever it can also *e mounted in /ooden or galvani;ed iron pipes /it" floats (empty closed drums). Sin#ers (stones or iron /eig"ts on *ottom) are used to avoid t"e net from *eing floated. Floater may *e of plastic *ottles6 ru**er floaters6 empty drums etc. flotation and anc"oring system are essential to #eep cage in proper s"ape and position. Different types of anc"ors are used depend upon t"e nature of t"e *ottom dept" and t"e nature of /ater current. A single cage can anc"or *y stones *ut multiple cages *y cement. 2.2.'.Culti able species in Cage fish Far"ing S$ste" Species varies according to t"e cage type6 /ater area and topograp"y etc. +enerally in cage fis" farming6 fis" species of ,ilapia6 trout6 catfis" etc are cultivated. &n Nepal silver carp and $ig

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

8ead carp are *eing cultivated commercially in la#es . Stoc#ing of 10@%0 gram average /eig"t of t"e fis" species at t"e density of 19 fingerlings per m3 area are stoc#ed. 2.2.(. Far"ing Operations 2.2.(.1. )aintenances and care of cage &t is essential to #eep t"e cage clean to reduce mortality of t"e fis"es due to inadequate 2 % supply. !eriodic cleaning s"ould *e done manually *rus"ing in@situ or cage removed and cleaned and again put in /ater. %@0 D )o"u can *e used as t"e *iological cleaning agent in t"e cage. )egular gro/t" c"ec# is necessary for *etter production of fis"es. 2.2.(.2. Har esting of Fishes 8arvesting is relatively easy in cages. &n /ell framed cages6 suc" as *am*oo or /ooden cages6 "arvesting can *e done *y using a large scoop net. 8arvesting is done /"en t"ey reac"ed t"e mar#eta*le si;e6 to c"ec# t"e gro/t" rate and disease investigation. 8arvesting is done in partial or as a /"ole (total *iomass "arvest). &n 1 year 0.%3 #g(m3 fis" can *e "arvested. "#ai and Mulmi$ %&&'( . )estoc#ing s"ould *e done as soon as possi*le.

3.5. Types of Fish culture


3.5.1. Monoculture 2n t"e *asis of fis" species cultivated fis" culture system fis" culture system "as *een classified. Fis" production system /"ere only type of fis" species are reared in t"e /ater *ody is #no/n as t"e monoculture system. eg. trout6 tilapia6 catfis" etc species are cultivated singly in t"e /ater *ody. 'onoculture of "ig" mar#et oriented6 "ig" valued fis" species are in practice. Complete feeding is necessary for t"e monoculture system. 8ere are t"e some of t"e advantages of t"e monoculture system. ,"e feeding practice is easy. i.e one type of feeding "a*it of fis". &t permits great control over t"e age6 si;e and se< of t"e fis". 'anagement operation is easy to operate. Selective "arvest of t"e mar#eta*le fis" can *e done. Suita*le for t"e farmers /"o "ave less land. Disadvantages of t"is systemE Natural productivity of t"e pond is not fully utili;ed. Availa*le space in /ater is not fully utili;ed. 0
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

'a<imum c"ances of epi;ootic diseases( parasites out*rea#. 'ore ris# of /ater quality pro*lem li#e dissolved 2% depletion.

3.5.2. Polyculture Fis" production system in /"ic" t/o or more t"an t/o fis" species "aving different feeding "a*it and "a*itats are reared in t"e same /ater *ody. ,"ere s"ould not *e any food or space competition. $iological *asis of t"is system is t"e sepecies "aving different feeding "a*its and different feeding nic"es. &n t"is system t"ere is optimum use of /ater column and feeds. +enerally fis" species of catla6 ro"u6 mrigal6 silvercarp6 grass carp6 common carp are suita*le for t"e polyculture system. Principle re*uire"ent of fish for pol$culture o ,"ey must "ave complementary food "a*its. o ,"ey must occupy different ecological nic"es. o ,"ey must attain mar#eta*le si;es at a time o ,"ey s"ould tolerate eac" ot"er o ,"ey s"ould all *e no predatory )a+or Ad antages of this S$ste" ,"ere is full utili;ation of feeding nic"e ,"ere is full utili;ation of space availa*le in /ater column Full utili;ation of compati*ility of t"e fis"es Full utili;ation of formulated feeds =ess c"ance of fail t"e enterprise A variety of products are availa*le for t"e mar#et at a time 'ore economics return per unit area t"an ot"er =ess c"ance of disease and parasites out*rea#. !isad antages of this s$ste" Difficult to "arvest Difficult to maintain t"e food for all t"e species of fis" Need of "ig" tec"nical #no/ "o/ 1
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

3.5.3. Integrated fish farming &t is t"e system of fis" farming along /it" t"e ot"er enterprises. Fis" enterprises can *e integrated /it" t"e ot"er type of crop6 livestoc# enterprises. &t is more profita*le and /astes can *e utili;ed properly. 1.Horticulture cu" fish far"ing Fis" culture along /it" t"e fruits6 vegeta*les and flo/ers is #no/n as t"e "orticulture cum fis" farming. &n 1 "a of pond 9.3 "a is availa*le for di#es on /"ic" fruits li#e *anana6 papaya 6 citrus and vegeta*les of flo/ers can *e cultivated. =eaves and /astes are used as t"e fis" feed and manure and pond /ater can *e used as t"e irrigation /ater. 2.,i estoc- cu" fish far"ing Fis" farming can *e integrated /it" all most all type of t"e livestoc# components. $ut pig6 duc#6 poultry and cattle are commonly used. Fis" species e.g common carp6 C"inese carp and &ndian ma:or carps6 Nile tilapia are generally reared in integrated fis" farming. 2.1. Pig Fish Far"ing ,"e integration of pig /it" t"e fis" farming is "ig"ly profita*le *usiness. C"inese says6 F!igs are t"e costless fertili;er factory moving on "oovesG. 2nly 39D of t"e feed is digested *y t"e pig and remaining 39D is e<creted as undigested e<creta /"ic" can *e directly used as t"e fis" feed. ,"ere is no any supplementary feed needed. !igs are raised on t"e *an# of ponds and e<creta directly drop or /as"ed into t"e pond. &n 1 "a of pond pigs requirement varies from -9@09 pigs /"ic" are :ust sufficient to fertili;e.

Figure !ig Fis" farming 2.2. !uc- cu" fish far"ing

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

,"ere is co@e<istence of *ot" duc# and fis" in t"is system of integration. Droppings of duc# is used as t"e fertili;er and duc# are natural aerators in t"e fis" pond *ecause t"ey s/im and e<c"ange of gaseous *et/een t"e atmosp"ere and /ater is easier and maintained level of dissolved gaseous in t"e pond. Duc# feeds on suc" organisms eg. =arvae6 tadpoles6 aquatic /eeds etc. )esting place of %9 m% for 399@-99 *irds is necessary. 099 @499 duc#s are :ust sufficient to fertili;e t"e one "ector of fis" pond. Fingerlings of H19 cm si;e are released to prevent from feeding *y t"e duc#. 3999@19999 fingerlings per "ector is stoc#ed. !lan#ton feeding fis"es especially silver carp6 *ig"ead carp6 catla are reared. 2.&. Poultr$ cu" fish far"ing ,"e integrated farming of poultry and fis" is a complementary *usiness since fis" provides fis" meal6 a protein ric" feed for poultry and poultry /astes can *e used in fis" pond as t"e fertili;er. !oultry are raised on t"e *an#s or as t"e duc# cum fis" farming system and droppings as t"e manure. +enerally a density of 1%99@ 1099 *irds per "ector are :ust sufficient to fertili;e t"e pond. ,"e fis" culture is done in ordinary manner. 2.'.!air$ Cu" fish far"ing Fis" culture along /it" dairy cattle and *uffalo can *e done successfully. !artial or temporary confinement of dairy cattle and *uffalo may permit integration /it" fis" culture. +enerally 0@ 3 dairy cattle( *uffalo rearing near one "ector fis" pond is :ust sufficient to fertili;e it. 3.5.4. Rice cum Fish Farming )ice fis" is an integrated farming practice in /"ic" fis" is cultured in rice field along or simultaneously /it" rice crop. Culture of fis" species along /it" t"e rice is #no/n as t"e rice cum fis" farming. &t is t"e primitive farming system practiced in Asia. &n Nepal6 only in 171- it /as introduced and more t"an %14 "a of area is no/ under t"is system. Advantages >conomic utili;ation of land and ena*le t"e farmers to diversify t"eir "arvest. ,"e productivity of rice increases due to *eneficial activities of t"e fis". Fis" controls t"e /eeds6 diseases6 snails6 and "armful insects. )odents control due to sufficient /ater in rice field. 'ore income per unit area.

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

&f rice failed6 it /ill *e compensated *y t"e fis". ,ypes of t"e )ice cum fis" farming 1. Capture system &t is t"e system of capturing t"e natural fis" in t"e rice field. ,"ere is no stoc#ing. ,renc" is prepared in one place and fis"es are captured. %. Culture system &n t"is system fingerlings are stoc#ed and reared in rice field. &t can *e done as simultaneous culture /it" rice /"ere Fingerlings are released after some time of transplanting and "arvest *efore rice "arvesting. &n rotational culture system fingerlings are released in t"e rice field after "arvest of rice to t"e period of rice transplanting. #echni*ues of rice cu" fish far"ing 1. Site selection ,"e availa*ility of adequate /ater supply. Soil "aving good /ater "olding capacity6 prefera*ly loamy soil(!" 3@7) Near to t"e residence for care and management. Sites /"ic" are prone to t"e flood and landslides s"ould not *e avoided. +enerally %99@%999 m% plot s"ould *e ta#en for easy management. Di#e(*und construction ,"e follo/ing points s"ould *e considered /"ile selecting site for rice cum fis" farming. %.

,"e di#e s"ould *e sufficiently increased so t"at it can "old at least 10 cm /ater. +enerally di#e of 09 cm *asal /idt"6 09 cm "ig" and 39 cm at t"e top /idt" s"ould *e constructed. 5ire net s"ould *e #ept in t"e inlet and outlet of /ater entry. &nlet and outlet s"ould *e constructed in diagonal position to allo/ t"e complete /ater supply in t"e field. 3. ,renc" construction ,"e trenc" acts as a refuse for fis" /"en t"e /ater level drops to lo/6 /"en t"e temperature of rice fields is too "ig" and /"en t"ere is t"reat of predators. &t also serves as a catc" *asin. &n Nepal perip"eral6 linear6 , s"aped trenc" are practiced. a. !erip"eral trenc"

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

09 cm /ide and 09 cm deep trenc" is construction all around t"e field. ,renc" s"ould not cover more t"an 19D area of t"e field. *. !ond refuse !ond instead of trenc" is also practiced. &t can *e in t"e corner or in t"e middle of t"e pond. &t may *e circular6 rectangular /it" 1 meter deep and generally covers 19D of rice field.

!erip"eral ,renc" Acti ities.Practices for /ice cu" fish far"ing 1. Species selection ,"ey must t"rive in s"allo/ /ater ,"ey must tolerate "ig" /ater temperature. ,"ey must tolerate in lo/ dissolved 2%. ,"ey must /it"stand fairly "ig" tur*idity ,"ey must gro/ rapidly to mar#eta*le si;e. ,"ey must not s"o/ escaping tendency li#e /ild fis"es.

, s"aped trenc"

For rice fis" farming t"ere must *e some desira*le qualities /"ic" are as follo/sE

+enerally common carp6 Nile tilapia are in practice in Nepal /"ereas silver *ar* can also cultivate. %. )ice varieties selection +enerally late maturing varieties of rice are *eing practiced in t"e rice@fis" farming system. )ice varieties s"ould tolerate t"e "ig" /ater logging condition and t"ey s"ould not *e lodging type. 'ansuli (100 days of maturity)6 sa*itri (1-9 days of maturity)6 )ad"a@- (1%0 days of maturity)6 Iana#i6 8imali6 #anc"an6 $arse@16 $arse@% varieties are suita*le. 3. 19 !reparation of land and transplanting of rice.
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

=and preparation is generally done as general practices. Seedlings are transplanted at a distance of %9@%0 cmE t"is allo/s space for fis" movement. 5ater dept" of 10@%0 cm deep s"ould maintain. -. Fis" stoc#ing Small fingerlings can *e stoc#ed as soon as transplanting of rice for proper gro/t" of fis" *ut t"e large fingerlings (H19 cm) s"ould *e stoc#ed after 19@10 days after transplanting (DA,). A*out 1999 fingerlings per "ectare (109@%09 per ropani) of common carp and 7999 fingerlings per "a of Nile ,ilapia or mi<ed can *e stoc#ed. Fis" fingerlings s"ould *e released in trenc". 0. Fis" feeding )ice field is a ric" source of natural organisms. 8o/ever6 production can *e en"anced *y feeding supplementary feeds. )ice *ran and mustard oil ca#e 1 1 J %@-D *ody /eig"t of fis" per day is provided. 1. Care and 'anagement Sna#e6 *ird are t"e natural predators in t"e field. Sna#e can *e controlled *y using sna#e trap6 *ird *y flas" guns6 sirens6 *am*oo rattles and *ells. 5e s"ould prevent t"e /ater lea#age from t"e pond. !esticide use s"ould *e avoided in t"e rice field. &n case of dissolved o<ygen deficit fis"es came to t"e inlet and open t"eir mout"6 so irrigation s"ould *e done. 3. 8arvesting 8arvesting of fis" can *e done *efore a /ee# of rice "arvest6 /ater s"ould *e drained out and "arvest t"e fis" from t"e trenc". Kield of %99@099 per "a per year (10@%9 #g(ropani in 79 days) fis" can *e "arvest from t"e field *ut varies from farm to farm. 3.5.5. Raceway culture (running water culture )ace/ay culture is defined as raising of fis" in running /ater. &t is a "ig" production system in /"ic" fis" are gro/n in "ig"er stoc#ing density. )ace/ay is designed to provide a flo/ t"roug" system to ena*le rearing of muc" denser population of cold /ater fis"es. +ood quality /ater is needed for "ig" density fis"es and to flus" t"e /astes. )ace/ay ponds may *e concrete or eart"en. Depending upon t"e /ater availa*ility race/ay cultural system are t/o types 1. =inear System ,"is is t"e rotatory system in /"ic" amount of /ater is generally lo/ in pond and oneLs outlet acts t"e ot"erLs inlet. ,"e main advantages of t"is system is it can *e done in less 11
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

/ater /"ereas t"e disadvantage is t"ere may *e "ig" c"ance of disease contamination6 mi<ing /it" poison and attac# of predators. %. !arallel system ,"is system is follo/ed in t"e area /"ere /ater availa*ility is a*undant and continuous. &n t"is system /ater inlet and outlet for eac" pond is different. ,"ere is less c"ance of disease attac#6 poisonous effect and predators attac#.

Figure =inear System Construction of the /ace0a$ culture s$ste"

Fig !arallel System

,"e selected area s"ould "ave different slopes. ,"e site s"ould permanent /ater source. For t"e purpose of fry pond dimension of 19@09 m % and dept" of 10@11 cm can *e constructed. For production purpose pond of 09@109 m% and dept" of 19@79 cm is suita*le. &nlet and outlet s"ould *e provided /it" net s"utter. As far as possi*le /ater fall or ladder is "ig"ly advantageous /it" respect to p"enomena of o<ygen diffusion. )ace/ay culture of )ain*o/ trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in cold /ater is t"e esta*lis"ed system in Nepal. Stoc#ing density varies from 09@199 fry(m%.

1%

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

3.3. Fish Feeds


,"e gro/t" of fis" is directly related to t"e amount of food availa*le in t"e pond. Natural ponds are most economical source of nutrients *ut may not *e sufficient. ,"us6 proper management of feeding is important to ma<imi;e yield. 2n t"e *asis of nature of food it can *e classified as 1. Natural Feed and %. Formulated Feed 1. Natural feeds &t refers to t"e plan#tons6 aquatic animals and plants. ,"ey are naturally produced in t"e pond and are considered *est for fis". !roper fertili;ation is necessary to maintain t"e natural foods. !lan#tons are t"e essential food for all fis" species. !"ytoplan#ton are small plants organisms in /ater. e.g cyanop"yta6 C"olorop"yta6 euglenop"yta. e.g. !roto;oa6 )otifera6 .ooplan#tons are small animal organisms in /ater. of A+uaculture, pp -%.-/) Aquatic animals commonly used as fis" food are snails6 clams6 insects6 aquatic /orms6 and small crustaceans. Aquatic animal feed are *est and complete source of protein for omnivorous and carnivorous fis". Detritus =iving algae(aquatic plants of pond6 if not fed upon *y animals die and slo/ly settles do/n to t"e *ottom of t"e pond. ,"ese non@living particulate organic matter covered *y microorganisms is called as detritus. ,"ese are good source of feed. Aquatic and terrestrial plants t"ese are not used directly as green manure and compost6 *ut are also ingested directly *y "er*ivorous fis"es. >.g. /olffia6 lemna6

Cladocera6 crustaceans6 and ot"er insects. ()ee details of planktons in *Principles

13

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

spirodela6 "ydrilla6 pistia. ,errestrial plants used are napier6 mul*erry6 *anana6 ipil@ ipil6 peas etc. %. Formulated feed (Supplementary feed) ,"ese are food t"at is derived from plant and animal sources *ut is processed in some /ay. ,"ese are supplementary foods in t"e pond to promote t"e gro/t" of fis" in a direct /ay. Supplementary feeds must "ave follo/ing c"aracters >asily availa*le on reasona*le lo/ cost. !roteinous and readily accepta*le. >asily digesta*le. 8ig" conversion value. >asy to transport. 8ig" #eeping quality.

#$pes of supple"entar$ feeds 1. !lant feeds !lant materials are t"e ma:or source of feed for fis" culture. 2il Ca#es t"ese are t"e ric" source of protein and lipids in fis" feeds. 'ustard oil ca#e6 soy*eans oil ca#e6 cotton seed ca#e6 peanut ca#e6 sesame ca#e6 and sunflo/er seed ca#e etc are some of t"e oil ca#es used as fis" feed. +rains and *y products many grains as a /"ole and t"eir *yproducts are also used as t"e fis" feed. ,"ese are t"e ma:or source of car*o"ydrates in t"e fis" feed6 t"ey "ave lo/ protein 4@1%D6 NF> 00@39D6 starc" and lipid %@4D.. +rains used are rice6 /"eat6 corn6 *arley6 oat6 sorg"um6 and *y products are rice *ran6 /"eat *ran6 /"eat flour etc. %. Animals feeds ,"ese are t"e ma:or source of protein (-9@49D) made from t"e *yproduct of processing factories6 slaug"ter "ouse. >.g. fis" meal6 s"rimp meal6 *one po/der and feat"er po/der. Feed #$pe A. Oil Ca-es 'ustard oil ca#e Soya*ean ca#e +roundnut oil ca#e Cotton seed ca#e 1'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

Crude Protein 123 %9@30 -9@09 %0@39 30@-0


&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

Sunflo/er seed ca#e B. Grains and Bran 5"eat *ran )ice *ran Corn()ice $arley C. Ani"al products Fis" meal S"rimp meal $lood meal Feat"er po/der

-9@09 19@10 11@10 3@7 19@1% 00@30 -9@09 49@79 49@79

5"ile feeding t"e fis" /e must *e a/are on t"e follo/ing t"ings ,"e feed s"ould *e given at t"e fi<ed lace and fi<ed time once or t/ice daily ma#ing feeding tray or a fi<ed feeding platform in t"e pond. Feed t"e fis" in t"e morning after dissolved o<ygen level in t"e pond "as *egun rise. )egular inspection s"ould *e done to #no/ t"e degree of food utili;ation *y fis". Feeding s"ould *e avoided in cloudy days and /"en t"e temperature drops *elo/ 10 9 c.(&n case of carps) ,"e amount of feed s"ould *e ad:usted *y sampling t"e fis" at regular interval of %@/ee#s. Co"plete feed "anage"ent and Feed For"ulation Fis" need car*o"ydrates and proteins during t"eir gro/t" /"ic" can *e ta#en from t"e feed. Fat6 vitamins and minerals are needed is lo/ amount. Fis" fingerlings need 39@30D protein and adult need %0@39D protein to gro/.car*o"ydrates is ta#en from t"e crops and t"eir *y products. Source of protein is ca#es6 soya*eans6 fis" meal etc. 'aterials used in t"e feed preparation are classified as t"e lo/ protein and "ig" protein concentration feeds. Feeds "aving t"e protein contain more t"an t"e required is called as t"e ra/ materials of protein /"ereas t"e protein containing less t"an t"e required is #no/n as t"e $asal. 5e calculate t"e average and from !earsonLs square met"od /e /ill calculate t"e required amount of materials required in t"e feed formulation. Calculation From t"e ra/ materials *elo/ listed calculate %0D C!6 199 #g feed for t"e fis". )a/ materials )ice *ran 10
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

!rotein contain(D) 1%
&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

'ai;e flour 5"eat *ran 5"eat flour Soya*ean flour 'ustard oil ca#e Fis" meal !rocedure

19 11% -1 31 -0

1. First calculate t"e *asal from t"e lo/ protein concentration feeds. )ice *ran 1%D 'ai;e flour 19D 5"eat *ran ,otal -4D Average M(1%N19N1-N1%)(M 1%D =o/ !rotein concentrationM 1%D %. Average from "ig" protein concentration feeds. Soya*ean flour 'ustard oil ca#e Fis" meal ,otal Average 8ig" protein concentrationM -%D 3. No/ from !earsonLs square met"od find out t"e amount of *asal and 8!C for %0D protein requirement feed. =!C 1%D
%0D

1-D

5"eat flour 1%D

-1 31 -0 1%3D (-1N31N-0)(3 M-%D

10

@ 8!C -9D

13

2r6

11

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

For t"e preparation of %4 #g feed containing %0D from 1%D protein containing =!C and -9D 8!C6 /e need 10 #g of $asal and 13 #g of 8!C. -. No/ for 199 #g feed preparation /e "ave to calculate t"e $asal and 8!C. 8!C For %4 #g /e need 13 #g 8!C For 1 #g /e need 13(%4 #g 8!C For 199 #g /e need (13(%4)?199 M-1.0 #g =!CM 199@-1.0 M03.0 #g 0. No/ from =!C /e "ave to prepare 03.0 #g feed. 5"ic" can *e ta#en from follo/ing a. )ice *ran From -4 part rice *ran can give 1% part From 1 part rice can give 1%(-4 part From 03.0 part rice can give (1%(-4) ?03.0 part M 13.- #g *. 'ai;e Flour (19(-4)? 03.0 M11 #g c. 5"eat *ran (1-(-4)?03.0 M10.1 #g d. 5"eat flour (1%(-4)?03.0 M13.0 #g

3.7.Stocking , pre- stocking and post stocking operation and management Stoc#ing is t"e practice of installing t"e fis" fingerlings or fry in t"e pond for t"e production. Stoc#ing of fis" depends upon t"e carrying capacity of t"e pond and fis" culture system. ,"e carrying capacity varies on different system of fis" farming. &t varies from 3999 fingerlings in 13
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

e<tensive fis" farming6 3999@196999 in semi intensive and 19999@10999 in intensive system per "ector of area. )earing fis" a*ove carrying capacity retards t"e gro/t" rate of fis". &n stagnant /ater stoc#ing density of t"e fis" s"ould furt"er lo/ *ecause of limitation of dissolved 2% in morning. !roduction of p"ytoplan#ton also caused tur*idity /"ic" directly influences stoc#ing density. Num*er of fis" species per "ector according to system of fis" culture. S$ste" ><tensive Semi intensive &ntensive !oly culture &ntegrated )ice fis" farming Cage fis" farming Fr$ 3999 19999 10999 @ @ 0999 @ Fingerlings @ 3999 19999 @ @ @ 19 m3 Adults @ @ @ 4999 4999 @ @

4%a"ple of fish stoc-ing a. On the basis of feeding niche5 species 'a:or Stoc#ing Common 10@%9 CC +C SC ot"ers 19@10 10@%9 19@10 19 SC $8C()o"u +rass carp %9 %9 10 Naini 39 carp +rass carp 10@%9 $ig "ead 19@10 carp 2t"ers 19 Sil er carp percenta ge -%@09 species B. H C percentage species -9@09 Naini.CC percenta ge -0 species )o"u percentag e -9

$"a#ur %4@39 +rass carp %@0

Pre stoc-ing handling According to t"e season6 mar#et demand and prefera*ility of fis" in mar#et /e must *e sure to stoc# t"e proper type of fis" species. For stoc#ing6 t"e fis" compati*ility6 fis" feeding "a*it and t"eir "a*itat s"ould *e /ell #no/n and replacement of one fis" can *e done on t"e *asis of same feeding "a*it6 same "a*itat and /ater conditions. >.g. Naini and common carp can *e interc"ange *ecause t"ey *ot" are omnivorous and *ottom feeder. ,"ere s"ould *e proper liming and t"e pond must *e free from insects and predators. ,"ere must *e 10 days gap in liming and fertili;ation and stoc#ing.

14

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

Handling and care at stoc-ing ti"e 5e must *e careful at t"e time of fis" stoc#ing in t"e pond. Fis" fingerlings or fry from one "a*itat to ot"er ta#es time to ad:ust in t"e ne/ /ater and temperature. 5e s"ould not stoc# t"e fingerlings(fry more t"an t"e carrying capacity of t"e pond. Same si;ed6 /eig"t and "ealt" condition fingerlings s"ould *e used. ,"e proper time of t"e stoc#ing is *efore 19 am. 'ore t"an 09c temperature may cause t"e mortality so acclimati;ation must *e done *y #eeping t"e pac# of fingerlings in t"e /ater for O "our *efore stoc#ing. Dipping t"e fingerlings in potassium permagnet solution may reduce t"e parasite attac#. Do not put directly from t"e a*ove *ut release t"e fingerlings in t"e /ater surface gently *y opening t"e mout" of pac#. Post stoc-ing care and "anage"ent &mmediately after releasing t"e fingerlings into t"e pond t"e inlet and outlet s"ould *e c"ec#ed /ell. !rovision and availa*ility of *ot" artificial and natural food s"ould *e in proper time. )egular c"ec# up s"ould *e done if t"e fis" is not proper feeding or not6 rate of mortality6 predators attac# and ot"er management s"ould *e done for t"e fis" stoc#ed in t"e pond.

3.8.Fish predators and their control


Fis"es are attac#ed *y t"e num*ers of predators. !redators are t"ose /"ic" prey and feed on t"e ot"er. Fis" are "ig"ly attac#ed *y t"ose creatures and are t"e serious t"reat for t"e production. !redators feed regularly on t"e fis" species if are not managed properly in time. Some of t"e fis" predators and t"eir control are discussed in t"is c"apter.

a.

6nsect predator

$ug is "ig"ly predatory and t"ey attac#ed t"e carps "atc"lings and fry *y piercing t"e *ody /it" t"eir s"arp *ea# and suc# out t"e *ody fluid. ,"e *eetles are nonsense to t"e fis" pond as t"ey damage t"e spa/n. Similarly nymp" dragon fly are aquatic and "ig"ly predatory on carps young fingerlings. Control !ond must *e #ept out of aquatic insects al/ays *efore stoc#ing. Sometimes insect can *e controlled *y using net or /ire net in inlet and outlet. =iming *efore stoc#ing "as positive effect on t"e insect predator control. 17
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

b.

/eptilian predator

5ater sna#e and tortoise are t"e common reptiles t"at occur in fis" pond generally. ,"ey directly attac# on fingerling and even ta*le fis" and significant num*er of fis" species can *e reduced *y reptiles. Among t"e reptiles sna#e is t"e ma:or t"reat in fis" culture. Control Sna#e can *e controlled *y ma#ing sna#e traps. ,"e sna#e are led into and in closure t"roug" graded entrance /"ere escaping is very difficult for sna#e. ,"e ot"er /ay to control t"e sna#e is *y placing *am*oo stic#s around t"e di#e /"ere /e can trap /it" t"e *am*oo volume. c. A"phibian predators and their control

,"ese are num*er of *ird species /"ic" preys on various stages of fis" and create t"e serious pro*lem on fis" farming. Among t"em most "armful are #ingfis"er6 cranes6 sea@gull etc. Control For t"e control of predatory *irds different met"ods "ave *een practiced over t"e /orld. Some of t"e practices are *oating drums6 using ro*ot li#e structure6 scarecro/6 /"istling6 using *alloons6 using different colors ri**ons producing sounds. d. )a""alian predators and their control 5"ic" t"e e<ception of "uman *eings t"ere is only serious mammalian predators t"at is PotterL. ,"ey stay on t"e vicinity of t"e pond and preys on t"e fis". Control A /ire fence is installed and t"e perip"ery of fis" pond is #ept clean and *us" free. ,"ese mammalian also can *e controlled *y using traps near di#es.

2.3.Conser ation and management of fish and fisheries


Nepal as t"e land loc#ed country *ut "ave large num*er of /ater resource. 'any rivers flo/ from t"e "ig" 8imalayas /it" cold /ater containing. ,"ese rivers possess t"e different ecological regions during t"eir flo/ /"ic" contains t"e different types of species of t"e fis". At present 11 order6 31 families6 37 genera and 141 fis" species "ave *een identified in Nepal. No/adays6 environmental pollution and /ater pollution is increasing day *y day due to "ap"a;ardly use of t"e c"emicals in t"e agriculture6 /ater resource and river*an#s. %9
'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal &nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939

,"e

Class Notes on Aquaculture

Diploma in Agriculture (3rd year)

industrial /aste and seepage from t"e large cities flo/s to t"e river ma#ing t"e river polluted. Similarly use of t"e poison and *om*s and electronic current in t"e fis"ing cause negative effect on production6 reproduction and in many cases destroys many species of fis"eries. ,o discourage t"e illegal activities and fis"ing practices and to conserve t"e fis"eries6 FAquatic conservation Act %913G /as esta*lis"ed and rectified in %900 $.S. according to t"e act aquatic organisms li#e asla6 tortoise6 crocodile6 dolp"in etc /ould not *e captured6 "aunted and any #ind of in:ury to t"ese animals /ill *e prosecuted. ,"ere is strict pro"i*ition for t"e fis"ing *y using c"emical6 electronic current. For t"e proper management and conservation /e s"ould do t"e follo/ing !roper #no/ledge for t"e care and management of fis"eries to t"e local people s"ould *e given. ,"ere s"ould *e strictly pro"i*ition to t"e illegal activities suc" as fis"ing *y using electric current6 poison. =ocal people and clu*s s"ould *e functional on conservation practices.

%1

'adan $"andari 'emorial Academy6 Nepal

&nstructor $i*e# Ac"arya6 %939