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Teorias e Princpios da Aquisio de Segunda Lngua Prof.

Maria da Glria Guar Tavares


Edio 2014.1
Coordenador da Disciplina

Disciplina

Copyright 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edio ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poder ser reproduzida, transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrnico, por fotocpia e outros, sem a prvia autorizao, por escrito, dos autores. Crditos desta disciplina Coordenao Coordenador UAB Prof. Mauro Pequeno Coordenador Adjunto UAB Prof. Henrique Pequeno Coordenador do Curso Prof. Smia Alves Carvalho Coordenador de Tutoria Prof. Joo Tobias Lima Sales Coordenador da Disciplina Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Contedo Autor da Disciplina Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Setor Tecnologias Digitais - STD Coordenador do Setor Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno Centro de Produo I - (Material Didtico) Gerente: Ndia Maria Barone Subgerente: Paulo Andr Lima / Jos Andr Loureiro Transio Didtica Dayse Martins Pereira Elen Cristina S. Bezerra Enoe Cristina Eliclia Lima Gomes Ftima Silva e Souza Jos Adriano de Oliveira Hellen Pereira Karla Colares Kamille de Oliveira Formatao Camilo Cavalcante Damis Iuri Garcia Elilia Rocha Emerson Oliveira Francisco Ribeiro Givanildo Pereira Lukas Pequeno Matos Sued de Deus Publicao Joo Ciro Saraiva Design, Impresso e 3D Andrei Bosco Andr Lima Vieira Eduardo Ferreira Fred Lima Gleilson dos Santos Iranilson Pereira Luiz Fernando Soares Marllon Lima Onofre Paiva

Gerentes Audiovisual: Andrea Pinheiro Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Sumrio
Class 01: Opening words on Second Language Acquisition ................................................................. 01 Topic 01: Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 01 Topic 02: Defining key terms in Second Language Acquisition ........................................................... 04 Class 02: Some Early Theories of SLA ................................................................................................... 08 Topic 01: Behaviorism ........................................................................................................................... 08 Topic 02: Behaviorism: Key elements ................................................................................................... 09 Topic 03: Main criticisms on Behaviorism ............................................................................................ 12 Topic 04: Krashens Monitor theory ...................................................................................................... 14 Class 03: Interlaguage Theory and Universal Grammar ...................................................................... 18 Topic 01: Interlaguage Theory .............................................................................................................. 18 Topic 02: Behaviorism: Key elements ................................................................................................... 21 Class 04: Information processing and Sociocultural theory ................................................................. 24 Topic 01: Behaviorism ........................................................................................................................... 24 Topic 02: Criticisms on Information Processing.................................................................................... 27 Topic 03: Sociocultural Theory.............................................................................................................. 28 Class 05: Final remarks ............................................................................................................................ 31 Topic 01: Second Language Acquisition Hypotheses............................................................................ 31 Topic 02: Final considerations on Second Language Acquisition ......................................................... 34

TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 01: OPENING WORDS ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
TOPIC 01: INTRODUCTION

MULTIMDIA
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VERSO TEXTUAL

Welcome Acquisition"!

to

the

course

"Theories

of

Second

Language

The complex process of acquiring/learning a second/foreign language can be approached from a variety of perspectives, according to the different theories and hypotheses that have been proposed to explain such a fascinating process. The purpose of this course is to present and discuss some of the mainstream theories existent to explain how individuals learn a second /foreign language, which are: Behaviorism, the Monitor Theory, Universal Grammar, Information processing, and Sociocultural Theory. In addition, the following hypotheses will also be addressed: input, output, interaction, and noticing. At the end, I will draw some considerations on the theories and hypotheses presented. Studying theories of Second Language Acquisition may be fruitful for future teachers once it may help us reflect upon the processes involved in learning as well as upon our own teaching practice.

We will study authors such as Chomsky, Krashen, McLaughlin, Ellis, Lantolf, among others. What about getting to know a little about these
authors? Click on the following pictures to learn a bit about each one of them.

1. Noam Chomsky 2. Stephen Krashen 3. Barry McLaughlin 4. James P. Lantolf 5. Rod Ellis

Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, and political activist. He is an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the 1950s, Chomsky began developing his theory of generative grammar, which has undergone numerous revisions and has had a profound influence on linguistics. His approach to the study of language emphasizes "an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans" known as universal grammar. Image: jackbran.pro.br

Stephen Krashen is professor emeritus at the University of Southern California,[1] who moved from the linguistics department to the faculty of the School of Education in 1994. He is a linguist, educational researcher, and activist. He has developed a model of second language acquisition called The Monitor Model, and has published several books on second language acquisition. Image: Treleasse-on-reading-com

Barry McLaughlin (Ph.D. Harvard University) is Professor Emeritus in the Program in Cognitive Psychology at the University of California, Santa Cruz (Psychology, Social Science II; Santa Cruz, CA. 95064). His research interests include second-language acquisition in adults and children. He has carried out intensive research on cognitive aspects of second language acquisition. Image: xtimeline.com

James P. Lantolf (1974, Ph.D. in Linguistics, The Pennsylvania State University) is Greer Professor of Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics in the Department of Applied Linguistics. His research focuses on a wide number of theoretical issues in sociocultural theory and second language learning. Image: sctresearch.org

Professor Rod Ellis is a Professor in the Department of Applied language studies and Linguistics at University of Auckland, New Zealand. In addition Professor Ellis is a TESOL Professor and Chair of
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the Graduate School of Education at Anaheim University in Anaheim, California where he teaches various online courses in the Master of Arts in TESOL. Professor Ellis has authored several books and articles on second language acquisition. Image: kourosh-lachini.com

The course is divides in five classes:


Class 1

Opening words on Second Language Acquisition.

Class 2 Class 3

Behaviorism and The Monitor Model. Interlanguage Grammar. and Universal

Class 4

Information Processing Sociocultural Theory. Second Hypotheses. language

and

Class 5

acquisition

Each class consists of topics, portfolios and forums. Reflections and curiosities are also part of the course so that you will have opportunities to reflect upon important themes as well as venture through websites, articles and videos in order to learn more about the topic.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 01: OPENING WORDS ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
TOPIC 02: DEFINING KEY TERMS IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Before we start talking about Theories of Second Language Acquisition, some questions merit an answer: 1. What is SECOND language and what is FOREIGN language? 2. What is learning and what is acquisition? 3. What is a theory? Lets answer each one of these questions.

WHAT IS SECOND AND WHAT IS FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING?


Ellis (1994) distinguishes the terms second language and foreign language.
SECOND LANGUAGE

As for

SECOND

language learning, the language plays an

institutional and social role in the community. For example, a Brazilian or a Mexican student learning English in the United States. In this case, English plays a social and institutional role in the community, it is the official language of the country.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE

In contrast, FOREIGN language learning takes place in settings where the language plays no major role in the community and is primarily learnt only in the classroom (p.11). For example, a Brazilian learning French in Fortaleza. In this case, French has no major role in Fortaleza. People in the city may have an interest in learning French, but it is not a major language for living in Fortaleza.
A NEUTRAL TERM

Ellis (1994) also claims for the need of a

NEUTRAL TERM, which is in

line with common usage, he uses the term second language. Therefore, from now on, following Ellis (1994), both second and foreign language will be referred to as L2 in the course. In other words, I will refer to both SECOND and FOREIGN language as L2. Whenever necessary, the distinction between second and foreign learning contexts will explicitly be made.

WHAT IS LEARNING AND WHAT IS ACQUISITION?


In Class 2, we will study the difference between learning and acquisition. This distinction was proposed by Krashen. Although, there is a difference between learning and acquisition, in this course we will refer to both terms interchangeably. In other words, we will use learning an dacquisition as synonyms. We will make this distinction only in class2 when we study Krashen.
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WHAT IS SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION?


Second language acquisition (SLA) may refer to the process of learning and L2. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) may refer to the science, the filed that studies how people learn an L2.

WHAT IS A THEORY?
According to Van Patten and Williams (2007) theories are set of statements about observable phenomena that explain why these phenomena happen the way they do.

Now that we have defined Theory, you may be thinking observable phenomena set of statementswhat are these? Well, observable phenomena are things that confront us every day such as: the sun rises, babies cry, people sleep, the earth goes around the sun, people learn languages, people read texts, etc. So, a theory is a set of sentences that try to explain why these things happen the way they do. In other words, a theory seeks to answer questions such as: Why does the sun rise the way it does? Why do babies cry the way they do? Why do people learn languages the way they do? Lets think of the way we learned Portuguese, our mother tongue. Do you remember your first words in Portuguese? Do you remember the very first sounds you produced? None of us remember. Lets watch the following video.

MULTIMEDIA

Para assistir o vdeo http://www.youtube.com/embed/3nQhV_n6IQM What do we see in this video? A baby Someone is talking to the baby
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acesse

The baby tries to produce sounds These sounds change as time passes by

Most of us have learned our first language like the baby on the video. The job of first language acquisition theories is to explain why these processes take place the way they do.

REFLECTION
Stop for a second and think about the way you learn English (think about your classes, the board, your books, the way you study, how you memorize words and grammar rules, etc... Why do you think you learn English the way you do? Can you explain that? Theories of Second Language Acquisition try to explain why people learn second languages the way they do.

EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE 1: Research on L2 acquisition has observed different learners and has discovered that learners may have different levels of learning. In other words, some learners learn better (or faster) than others. One theory that seeks to explain why learners differ in their levels is the theory of individual differences in language learning. For instance, research tends to show that highly motivated learners tend to learn more. On the other hand, anxious learners tend to present learning difficulties.

EXAMPLE 2: Research on Cognitive Psychology has shown that people differ on how well they comprehend written texts. In other words, some people have better reading comprehension than others. One theory that has tried to explain this phenomenon is the theory of memory. That is to say, some people read better because they have more memory to store words and process information.

PRACTICE
Write T (True) or F (FALSE): 1. Second language is a neutral term for both second and foreign language. 2. Theories are set of statements about observable phenomena that explain why these phenomena happen the way they do. 3. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) refers only to the processes involved in learning and L2.
CHECK YOUR ANSWERS

1. TRUE 2. TRUE 3. FALSE. SLA refers both to the processes involved in learning an L2 as well as to the field of study, the science that studies how people learn an L2.

FORUM
Do you think studying theories of SLA is important for you as a teacher? Why?

REFERENCES
Krashen, S. (1981) Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. VanPatten, B. and Willians, J (2007) Theories of Second Language Acquisition. An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. New Jersey.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 02: SOME EARLY THEORIES OF SLA
TOPIC 01: BEHAVIORISM

Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human behavior proposed by B. F. Skinner. This theory seeks to explain learning based on external factors present in the environment. The goal of behaviorism is to describe what could be observable, not the mental processes behind it. In other words, Behaviorism focuses on explaining leaning from elements present in the environment.

REFLECTION
Behaviorism is a Theory. What is a theory? Do you remember from Class 1? Behaviorism explains learning based on elements present in the environment. What is learning environment? What are some elements present in the learning environment?
SEE SOME POSSIBILITIES

A Theory of SLA is a set of statements that seek to explain how people learn an L2. Behaviorism tries to explain L2 learning based on elements present in the environment. Learning environment is the context of learning, for example, a classroom. In the case of a classroom, elements present in the learning environment may be the teacher, other students, what the teacher does and say, what other students do and say, etc.

FURTHER READING
Check the following websites to read about Behaviorism: BF Skinner, Behaviorism, & Language Behavior [1] Behaviorism [2]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/cogrev_skinner. htm 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 02: SOME EARLY THEORIES OF SLA
TOPIC 02: BEHAVIORISM: KEY ELEMENTS

For Behaviorism, all learning is seen as the acquisition of a new behavior. Behaviorist theory states that second language acquisition is a matter of habit formation. We have to develop the right habits so as to learn a second language.

HOW DOES BEHAVIORISM EXPLAIN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION?


According to behaviorism all learning is initiated by imitation of a correct model. In addition, repetition, reinforcement and punishment are also necessary for learning. Children learn by imitating adults. ( e.g. parents, older siblings, teachers, etc.) Learning is also facilitated when adults
reinforce right behavior and punish inappropriate behavior so that a set of appropriate habits will be formed.

Take a look at the following picture. What can we see in the picture? Can this picture represent a learning moment? My answer is YES! This picture may indeed symbolize a learning moment. We can see in this environment that there is a child, there is an adult (a model for the child), there are colorful toys, a colorful box (stimuli for the child). The child may be learning how to play freely, how to touch toys, how to put them in the box. This is an example of a learning experience. The child may start learning by imitating the mother several times. How about second language acquisition? Lets imagine a second language class. Students in a language class start by imitating the teacher who is the correct model. Learning is initiated by imitation of the correct model. Also, imitation has to take place several times. In other words, frequency (repetition) is essential for learning. In addition, the appropriate behavior will be learned when it is reinforced by the teacher. On the other hand, inappropriate behavior should be avoided as much as possible through correction and punishment.

EXEMPLE
Lets try to think of examples from the language class:

IMITATION
1. The teacher uses the simple present correctly and says: I go to the beach, Ana goes to the beach. 2. The student imitates: I go to the beach, Ana goes to the beach. According to Behaviorism this is how second language learning is initiated, by imitation of a correct model.

REPETITION (FREQUENCY)
Imitation is the first step. Repetition is also essential. Students learn by imitating the correct behavior several times. 1. The teacher says: I go to the movies, She goes to the movies. 2. Students repeat: I go to the movies, she goes to the movies. 3. The teacher says: I go to the bank, she goes to the bank. 4. Students repeat again: I go to the bank, she goes to the bank. Imitation of correct models has to happen repeatedly. Repetition (frequency) is essential for learning. For learning to take place, students engagement in this imitation repeatedly is fundamental.

REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT


1. When students use the language correctly and the teacher reinforces this behavior, learning is likely to happen. My mother goes to the bank (student) Very good! Excellent! You will get two scores for this correct sentence. (teacher) According to Behaviorism, reinforcement of correct behavior is beneficial for learning. Learners will associate praise from the teachers with the correct response. 2. When students make a mistake and the teacher immediately corrects (or punishes) the student, it is beneficial for learning. For example: My mother go to the bank. (student) No!! My mother goes to the bank. You will not get any scores for this sentence. (the teacher). According to Behaviorism, punishment is necessary so that incorrect behavior can be avoided and correct habits can be formed. Learners will associate correction or punishment with the incorrect response and will not repeat this response anymore. In summary, Behaviorism explains second language acquisition based on how the individual responds to the stimuli present in the environment. The second language acquisition process is a matter of habit formation. In order to develop a set of habits, repeated engagement in the target behavior is crucial. The process is initiated by imitation of correct models repeatedly. Correction of inaccurate forms and reinforcement of accurate forms will facilitate the process. In other words, correct utterances should be encouraged whereas incorrect ones should be avoided or punished.

CURIOSITY

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1. One very influential language teaching method, The Audiolingual Method, was based on Behaviorism. The method advocated the ideas of repetition, reinforcement and punishment as important techniques for teaching a second language. 2. The Audiolingual Method was also called the Army Method. It became very popular after World War II broke out heightening the need for people to become fluent in the language of their allies and enemies. The US military provided funds for intensive language courses in order to improve communication skills of soldiers. 3. On behaviorist grounds, the SLA process was influenced by L1 habits. In other words, our first language habits could disturb second language learning. For example, the way we mispronounce a word in English may be caused by the way we pronounce words in Portuguese. 4. Depending on the distance between the L1 and the L2, transfer could be positive or negative. For example, we may guess the meaning of a word in Spanish because of its similarity to Portuguese.

FURTHER READING
To read more about Behaviorism and the audiolingual method, click on the following links: Audio-lingual method [1] A Teoria Behaviorista da Aquisio da Linguagem [2]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio-lingual_method 2. http://www.profala.com/arteducesp71.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 02: SOME EARLY THEORIES OF SLA
TOPIC 03: MAIN CRITICISMS ON BEHAVIORISM

As mentioned earlier in Topic 2, The Behaviorist theory was extremely influential in language teaching methodologies, particularly the Audiolingual Method. Nevertheless, in the 1960s and 1970s, a rejection towards behaviorist approaches started to emerge in the fields of Psychology and Linguistics. What are some of the criticisms towards Behaviorism?
1

The theory has a very negative approach towards errors. Learners errors are seen as a negative element in the learning process. Pit Corder (1967) wrote a paper The significance of learners errors. The paper argued that errors are an essential part of the learning process. Learners learn from their errors. Consequently, the negative behaviorist approach towards errors was criticized.
2

Pit Corder (1967) wrote a paper The significance of learners errors. The paper argued that errors are an essential part of the learning process. Learners learn from their errors. Consequently, the negative behaviorist approach towards errors was criticized.
3

Behaviorism considered only aspects of the environment, ignoring learners internal (mental) processes.

STOP AND CHECK


The criticism towards Behaviorism, however, does not mean that the all tenets within the theory were completely disregarded. It still has influences on other theories that seek to explain the SLA process, as we will see later in this course.

FURTHER READING
Click on the following link to read about Pit: "The significance of learners' errors" [1]

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Read the following tenets from behaviorism and from Corders views of learners errors:
I. ACCORDING TO BEHAVIORST THEORY (SKINNER)

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Errors are not beneficial for learning and should be avoided as much as possible by immediate correction and/or punishment.

II. ACCORDING TO CORDER (1967)

Errors are significant in three ways: - to the teacher: they show a students progress - to the researcher: they show how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner uses. - to the learner: he can learn from these errors. When a learner has made an error, the most efficient way to teach him the correct form is not by simply giving it to him, but by letting him discover it and test different hypotheses. It is suggested that the learner should find the correct linguistic form by searching for it. Answer the following questions and post them as Class 1 Activity 1: 1. Concerning learners errors, do you agree with the views of Behaviorism or Corders? Why? 2. In your opinion, we should correct students by: a) Giving them the right answer or b) Helping them discover the right answer Justify your choice.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.proz.com/translation-articles/articles/633/1/SecondLanguage-Acquisition%3A-Learners'-Errors-and-Error-Correction-inLanguage-Teaching/print/633
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 02: SOME EARLY THEORIES OF SLA
TOPIC 04: KRASHENS MONITOR THEORY

While behaviorist theory was based on a general theory of animal and human behavior, the Monitor Theory The theory proposed by Krashen in the 1970s and early 1980s, was developed specifically to explain the Second language acquisition process.
THE

MONITOR THEORY

According to VanPatten and Williams (2007), not all authors refer to Krashens monitor as a theory, it can be sometimes referred to as a model. In this class, I will follow Vanpatten and Williams (2007) who refer to it as a theory.

WHAT IS THE STARTING POINT OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ACCORDING TO KRASHEN?


MULTIMEDIA
Watch the following video. Krashen explains the starting point of his theory. He states his answer to the question How do people acquire language? In the video Krashen presents two quick lessons in which he teaches some parts of the body in Germany: Stephen Krashens comprehensible [1]

PRACTICE
In the video lesson, Krashen states that the starting point in second language acquisition is: ( ) Learning grammar ( ) Understanding messages ( ) Memorizing words

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Correct answer: b. According to Krashen people acquire languages by understanding messages. This is what he calls comprehensible input.

Krashens Theory is broad in scope and consists of five hypotheses. We will focus on three of them: The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis, The input Hypothesis, and The Affective Filter Hypothesis. THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING HYPOTHESIS

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The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis makes a distinction between acquisition and learning. Acquisition tends to take place naturally, outside of consciousness, and occurs spontaneously when learners engage in interaction whose focus is on meaning. Learning tends to take place intentionally when the L2 is an object of study and involves explicit knowledge of rules and patters. Krashen has made a distinction between acquisition and learning:
ACQUISITION

According to krashen, ACQUISITION takes place naturally when individuals engage in normal interaction and usually it takes place without consciousness. For example, a Brazilian student and a French student try to communicate in English as they have coffee together. In this case, acquisition will probably take place.
LEARNING

Learning, on the other hand, takes place more explicitly and consciously when the learner gains explicit knowledge of rules of the language. For example, when a brazilian is trying to use the present perfect to answer questions from the teacher. One strong criticism to Krashens distinction between learning and acquisition is that he does not explain exactly what is conscious, or how is it possible to measure what is conscious and what is not conscious in second language learning. COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT Input is any the language that a learner is exposed to: oral language, written language, visual aids, etc. The Input Hypothesis postulates that humans acquire languages by understanding messages in the input, that is, by being exposed to comprehensible input. Moreover, Krashen (1981) specifies that i + 1 input is optimal for acquisition to take place. In other words, input which one level beyond learners actual level is ideal. Although the Input Hypothesis may be appealing to language teachers, Krashen does not define precisely how i or 1 are identified. According to Krashen, input will contain i, i +1, i -1, or i +2. The most important is not to pursue very complex language delivered at a fast pace when dealing with beginner or intermediate learners. As long as it does not happen, it is likely that comprehensible input will take place.

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One strong criticism to Krashen comprehensible input hypothesis is that it is very difficult to know what is i +1. Imagine a classroom of 25 learners. How can teachers know exactly what is i + 1 to each one of these students? This concept of i + 1 cannot be measured. THE AFFECTIVE FILTER Finally, the Affective Filter Hypothesis postulates that when anxiety and inhibition are controlled in a learning environment, learners will keep their affective filter low and have a positive attitude, allowing access to comprehensible input. This hypothesis is congruent with humanistic approaches to the SLA process, which also highlight the importance of setting favorable conditions in the learning environment to help learners feel comfortable. According to the Affective filter hypothesis, when learners are nervous and anxious, these feelings may be harmful for their learning. Therefore, learners need a favorable environment when anxiety is kept low.

MULTIMEDIA
Watch the following video and see some strategies on how to keep the affective filter low: Affective Filter [2]

PRACTICE
Based on the strategies suggested to keep the affective filter low described in the video, write T (TRUE) or F (FALSE): a) Students should work in groups. b) Teachers should force students to participate. c) Teachers should never ask how students feel.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS

a) T b) F c) F

FORUM
Discuss the following questions with your classmates.

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1. Based on what you have read, on Krashens video, and on your experience, what are some strategies we can use to make our messages comprehensible to our students? 2. Since the Affective filter is supposed to be low, what can we do to promote a favorable class atmosphere for our learners?

REFERENCES
Corder, P. The Significance of Learners errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics. 5: 161-9. Krashen, S. (1982). Second language Acquisition and second language learning. VanPatten, B. and Willians, J (2007) Theories of Second Language Acquisition. An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. New Jersey.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4K11o19YNvk 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHBFN-xyrDE&feature=related
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 03: INTERLAGUAGE THEORY AND UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR
TOPIC 01: INTERLAGUAGE THEORY

The term interlanguage was first used by Selinker (1972) to describe the linguistic stage second language learners go through during the process of mastering the target language. One question to be asked is: What is interlanguage? Interlanguage is the language of the learner. It is a system that is not like the learner's L1, but it is not the L2 yet. It is a system in development.
Learning is a gradual process from L1 towards L2. At every stage of learning learners have rules of grammar which are not perfect yet, but they

are not L1 rules (they are something between, that is, interlangauge). In other words the learner creates a structured system of language at any stage in his development (i.e. interlanguage). Each system is gradually revised, it evolves, the rules become more and more complex. It means the learner travels along the interlanguage continuum towards L2 (L1 being the starting point of the development). According to Selinker we need to understand the learner's language as a system in its own right because learners go through a series of interlanguages in systematic and predictable ways. That is to say, learners' interlanguages are organized systems and we can try to study and observe them.

STOP AND CHECK


WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN ERROR AND A MISTAKE?

According to Gass and Selinker (2001), "Mistakes are akin to slips of the tongue. That is, they are generally one-time-only events. The speaker who makes a mistake is able to recognize it as a mistake and correct it if necessary. An error, on the other hand, is systematic. That is, it is likely to occur repeatedely and is not recognized by the learner as an error". For example, a student that has not studies the negative in english may say "I no like you, I no have money". The student does not know how to use the negative, yet. The students is not aware that this is wrong and is not able to correct the sentence. However, a student that has learned the simple present third person may forget and say "She go to the bank", then, the student may perceive the problem and correct the sentence "She goes to the bank". How does second language acquisition take place? In other words, how does the learner develop an interlanguage? It has been suggested that interlanguage takes place as a gradual process and that there are some distinct stages along this continuum:
1 - RANDOM ERRORS 2 - EMERGENT STAGE
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3 - SYSTEMATIC STAGE 4 - STABILIZATION STAGE


1. RANDOM ERRORS

When the learner is only vaguely aware there might be some systems, but has got little idea. (Usually beginners)
2. EMERGENT STAGE

When the learner has begun to identify a system and internalize the rules. These rules may not be correct (not the same as the L2 rules) but they are the best the learner has at this stage. At this stage we got a lot of backsliding, which means that learners seem to have learned the rule, then forget it. For example, when the learner uses present continuous instead of present simple, or uses the simple past instead of present perfect; at this stage the learner can't self- correct very frequently.
3. SYSTEMATIC STAGE

The learner has built a stronger system of rules nearer to L2. More mistakes than actual errors.
4. STABILIZATION STAGE

The learner makes very few errors, mostly just mistakes. It is important to highlight that learners' language problems may be fossilized, that is, they may be automatized in learners' production and it may be difficult to overcome such fossilized problems. According to Selinker, there are a number of basic processes - but, particularly in his later work, he insists upon learning strategies - that is, activities that the learner adopts in order to help him/her acquire the language, such as language transfer and overgeneralization. Language transfer The learner uses her own L1 as a resource. For example, a Brazilian learner of English may produce the following sentence: "I no have money". Sentences like the one above used to be considered a mistake. Currently, it is believed that the learner is trying to produce the L2 based on what is right in his L1. Exemple: In Portuguese we say "Eu no tenho dinheiro". It is a mistake, but it is a necessary step for learning because the learner IS thinking and trying to discover how the L2 works. Overgeneralization The learner uses an L2 rule in situations in which a native speaker would not. Examples: learners use the word 'chicken' to refer to goose and turkey. Learners use the simple past to refer to the past and future. Learners use the 's' to form all plurals. These are all examples of overgeneralization. Interlanguage theory helps us realize that students' errors are an important step for learning and also a precious resource for the teacher. Learners' errors inform teachers about learners' interlanguage development, what learners are capable of producing and what they are not. Similarly to Pit Corder, Selinker also recognizes learners' errors from a more positive perspective.

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FURTHER READING
Click here to read more about INTERLANGUAGE THEORY [1]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/ OldLectures/L7_Interlanguage.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 03: INTERLAGUAGE THEORY AND UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR
TOPIC 02: BEHAVIORISM: KEY ELEMENTS

Universal Grammar (UG) was proposed by Noam Chomsky. It is a theory of linguistics which postulates principles of grammar common to all languages. From this generative perspective, humans are born with an innate facility (the Language Acquisition Device) for learning languages. In other words, humans are born with 'something' in their minds, which is
Fonte [1]

'programmed' for learning languages. This claim was motivated by the logical problem in L1 acquisition. What is the logical problem? The logical problem is that L1 knowledge goes far beyond the input received. Input alone is not able to provide evidence for all a child learns to produce. In other words, we learn a lot more than the L1 input we received. So, it is not logical that we learn, but we learn because we possess a language acquisition device that is 'programmed' for learning languages. The theory was not proposed to explain second language acquisition; it was proposed to explain first language acquisition. Later, it was also applied to explain second language acquisition. Since the logical problem also applied to L2 acquisition, that is, we learn a lot more than what is present in the input, UG also operates in second language acquisition. There are three positions whether UG mediates L2 acquisition:
POSITION 1

UG operates in L2 language acquisition the same way it operates in L1 acquisition. In other words, we also have a language acquisition device for L2.
POSITION 2

L2 learning is completely different from L1 learning, which means that there is no Language acquisition device for L2.
POSITION 3

UG mediates only the L2 parameters that are similar to the L1 parameters.

PRACTICE
Look at the following pictures and answer the questions.

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1. What theory of L1 acquisition is the picture symbolizing? Can this theory be applied to L2 acquisition?

2. Angela is an English teacher and she thinks it is important to have this sentence on the top of the black board. What theory of Second language acquisition seems to be congruent with teachers' sentence?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. The picture represents Universal Grammar. Explanation: humans possess a language acquisition device for learning languages. So, there is no need to be surprised because the baby is talking. Yes. UG can be applied for L2 acquisition. 2. Interlanguage theory is congruent with the teacher's sentence. Explanation: Errors are seen as part of language development in interlanguage theory.

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Write TRUE or FALSE after each statement. Correct the statements you consider FALSE. Save your answers as Class 2, act. 2. 1. Behaviorism and interlanguage theory are similar in the

sense that both take a positive perspective towards learners' errors. Universal grammar and Krashen's input hypothesis 2. emphasize that input is essential for L2 acquisition. Behaviorism explains L2 acquisition based on how the 3. learner responds to stimuli present in the learning environment. For Behaviorism, L2 acquisition is a matter of habit formation. Krashen's Affective filter hypothesis postulates that 4. learning is likely to take place in a relaxed atmosphere where anxiety and inhibition are kept low.

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5.

Universal Grammar minimizes the role of input since it

emphasizes learners' innate capacity for learning beyond the input received. Krashen distinguishes learning from acquisition. Learning 6. takes place more consciously and acquisition happens in spontaneous engagement in the target language. Krashen has been able to precisely explain the difference between conscious and unconscious and has not been criticized on that issue. Some of the processes through which learners develop their 7. interlanguages are language transfer and generalization. On the other hand, Imitation, repetition, reinforcement and punishment are some of the elements in Behaviorism.

FORUM
Discuss the following question with your friends: 1. According to interlanguage theory, why are learners' errors important?

REFERENCES
Krashen, S. (1982). Second language Acquisition and second language learning. Selinker, L. (1972) Interlangauge. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209-231. VanPatten, B. and Willians, J (2007) Theories of Second Language Acquisition. An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. New Jersey.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://grammar.about.com
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 04: INFORMATION PROCESSING AND SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
TOPIC 01: BEHAVIORISM

So far we have studies four theories of second language acquisition:

All theories try to explain second learning acquisition from a different perspective. Behaviorism focuses on how the learner responds to external
factors present in the environment. Krashen's theory emphasizes the role of input. Universal Grammar focuses on learners' innate capacity for learning languages. Interlanguage theory focuses on the linguistic stages learners go through during the process of mastering the target language.

HOW ABOUT INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY? WHAT PERSPECTIVE DOES IT TAKE TO EXPLAIN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION?
Information Processing Theory tries to explain second language acquisition by focusing on learners' mental (cognitive) processes. The main assumption is that humans mental processes exist, they are lawful, systematic, and can be studied scientifically. Differently from Behaviorism, Information Processing theory does not view humans as passive individuals simply responding to the environment around them. Information processing views humans as actively responding to the environment on the basis of their mental activity. From an information processing perspective, learning an L2 is learning a complex cognitive skill (McLaughling, 1987). The development of any complex cognitive skill involves control processing, practicing, automatic processing, and restructuring. Humans are limited processors of information which means that there is a limit amount of information that we can focus on at the same time. Our attentional resources are limited. In other words, paying attention to a Math explanation, watching TV, talking on the phone and cooking AT the same time is unlikely to be possible because our attentional resources are limited, there is a limited amount of information that we can focus on simultaneously.

EXAMPLE
Let's imagine that we are learning how to drive a car. Control processing is any kind of mental activity that requires a lot of attention. A typical example is when someone is learning how to drive a car. At the very beginning, we have to think about every single task we are supposed to do: start the car key, step on the pedals, move the shift, move the wheel to the left or right. We have to focus a lot of attention to all aspects of driving. The only way to become a skillful driver is to practice. In other words, it is
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necessary to drive several times. The more we practice the better the chances of achieving automatic processing. What is automatic processing? Automatic processing is any mental activity that takes place fast and does not require focused attention as control processing.

Going back to the driving example, when we learn how to drive it becomes so automatic that we can even talk to someone while we drive. It is not necessary to think of our feet on the pedals, our hands on the wheel. Rather, we focus on the traffic and other aspects. As explained through the driving example, learning goes from control processing to automatic processing through practicing.

HOW ABOUT SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION?


Information processing theory explains second acquisition as involving control processing, practicing, automatic processing and restructuring. As we start learning a second language we think of words, grammar rules and sentences in order to produce language. We have to devote attention to all aspects of language. As we practice the language over and over again, we start to produce language more automatically, and it is not necessary to pay conscious attention before production. As we continue to learn, new information has to be integrated into existing information.

STOP AND CHECK


1. Most automatic processes demand a considerable amount of practice to fully develop. Nevertheless, once developed, automatic processes take place fast and in parallel as well as they are difficult to change. 2. Controlled processing, on the other hand, is relatively easy to assemble, alter, and apply to a novel situation.

What are the pedagogical implications of these characteristics of controlled and automatic processing? Automatic processes are difficult to change, but controlled processes are relatively easy to alter. It means that if learners automatize inappropriate or incorrect language, it will be difficult to change and help learners overcome language problems. It is more suitable to be aware of learners' inappropriate language use since the very beginning of the learning process so that we can correct them and try to help them automatize correct language use.

FURTHER READING
1. Click on the following link to see a slide presentation on Information Processing Theory: Second Language Acquisition [2]

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Click on the following link to read more about information processing theory [3]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://www.slidefinder.net/c/cas_400_second_language_acquisition/1 2252639 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_processing_theory
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 04: INFORMATION PROCESSING AND SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
TOPIC 02 : CRITICISMS ON INFORMATION PROCESSING

1. Information processing theory places too much emphasis on learners' mental processes; 2. Information processing theory does not taking into consideration that such processes are socially constructed. The social context in which learning takes place also needs to be considered.

FORUM
Discuss the following questions with your friends. 1. Automatic processes are difficult to change, but controlled processes are relatively easy to alter. So, when should we start giving feedback (correcting) our students? 2. From the perspective of information processing theory (controlled processing, automatic processing), why is practice an important element in second language acquisition?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 04: INFORMATION PROCESSING AND SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
TOPIC 03: SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Based on the work of Vygotsky, the Sociocultural Theory proposed by Lantolf (2000) explains the SLA process taking the social context into account. The Theory views language learning as dialogically based. That is, L2 learning takes place in interaction. Language is taken as the means and the goal. In other words, language learning involves learning how to use language itself to mediate language learning. The relevant elements of the theory are: mediation, zone of proximal development, imitation, and internalization.

MEDIATION
Mediation can occur externally, when a learner has assistance from a teacher, a peer, or anyone who is an expert in the task being performed or internally, when the learner uses his/her own resources to exert control over a task demands.

Examples: when a teacher helps a learner providing a vocabulary item the learner has forgotten; when a classmate helps a learner understand a task; when the learner plans an oral task (making list of words, checking grammar, etc) in order to perform better.

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT


The zone of proximal development refers to the distance between learners' own development when performing a task individually and learners' potential development when performing a task under guidance or collaboration with more advanced peers (Vygotsky, 1978). The following picture illustrates Zone of proximal development:

The zone of proximal development (sometimes abbreviated ZPD), is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.

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INTERNALIZATION
Internalization is a negotiated process through which a second language takes on a psychological function, it is the mechanism through which over we achieve our brains, our thought. I will use a metaphor to help you understand. Internalization is when information we learn finds a home in our minds. When information finds a home in our minds, it means we have learned. According to sociocultural theory, learning starts in the interpersonal domain (interaction). Then, it moves to the intrapersonal domain (mind). The key for internalization is imitation of other human beings. However, imitation is not related to a passive stimulus response, as in the case of Behaviorism. Rather, it involves goal directed cognitive activity that can lead to transformations of the original pattern. For example, learners may imitate a sentence they hear, but they can change one word or another in the attempt to elaborate and create a new sentence.

MULTIMEDIA
Watch the following video to see an illustration of the Zone of Proximal Development. In the video, a teacher is teaching a child how to count from 1 to 17: Vygotsky's developmental theory: an introduction [1]

FURTHER READING
Click on the following link to read more about Sociocultural Theory: Sociocultural Approaches Vygotskian Framework [2] to Learning and Development: A

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Read the following characteristics from teachers. What theory is the base for these teachers' procedures? Write the name of the theory and save them as Act. 3 Class 4. 1. Paul is an English teacher. He provides lots of opportunities for practicing/producing the language through the extensive use of drills. He usually corrects learners immediately after a mistake takes place either by praising or providing the correct response. What SLA theory is mainly informing his teaching approach?

2. Ann is really concerned about providing a favorable atmosphere for learning in her classrooms. She tries to make students feel comfortable and avoids pressuring and/ or embarrassing students. What hypothesis

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from the Monitor Theory is informing Ann's approach to L2 teaching and learning?

3. Pamela always organizes her teaching procedures from controlled practice to free production. She starts by making students use a language item in a more controlled fashion, then, she provides extensive practice on these items. Finally, she provides opportunities for more free production so that students can use the language more spontaneously and automatically. What theory of SLA seems to inform Pamela's teaching approach?

4. Molly always provides opportunity for interaction because she believes learning takes place in interaction. Moreover, she always walks around the classroom to provide any assistance her learners may need. She believes that the L2 learning process takes place from learners having extensive help from teacher to learners being able to do things on their own or with very little support. On what SLA theory is Molly's teaching approach grounded?

REFERENCES
Lantolf, J. P. (2000). Introducing sociocultural theory. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.) Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mclaughghlin, B. (1987). THEORIES OF SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING. London: Edward Arnold, 1987, Pp. viii+184. Mclaughghlin, B. Heredia, R. Information processing approaches to research on second language acquisition and use. In W. Ritchie, & Bhatia, T. (Eds.), Handbook fo second language acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 213-228. VanPatten, B. and Willians, J (2007) Theories of Second Language Acquisition. An introduction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. New Jersey. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: the development of highr psychological processes (Ed. By M. Cole, V. John Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hx84h-i3w8U&feature=related 2. http://nateweb.info/johnsteiner.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 05: FINAL REMARKS
TOPIC 01: SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION HYPOTHESES

We will start by defining what a hypothesis is. In class 1 we learned that a theory is a set of statements that explain why phenomena take place the way they do. Bearing this in mind, the goal of a theory of second language acquisition is to explain why people learn second languages the way we do. So, theories try to explain several aspects (input, learning stages, mental processes, environment, etc). Theories generate hypotheses.

A Hypothesis is less ambitious than a theory because it is more limited in scope. A hypothesis focuses on only one phenomenon at a time. In the case of second language acquisition, for example, a hypothesis will focus on one aspect of the process.

INPUT HYPOTHESIS
Input is a variable of high status in the research on L2 learning. Learners need input. No one learns with zero input. As already mentioned in Class 1, input refers to the language learners are exposed to, and in all theories that attempt to explain the L2 learning process, input is an essential component. Input serves as the basis for hypothesis formation about the L2 being learned. We have several hypotheses related to input. In Class 2, we studied krashen's input hypothesis:

VERSO TEXTUAL

FOR KRASHEN (1982) Input has to be comprehensible. FOR SHAREWOOD SMITH (1986) Input has to be modified in order to be comprehensible. How can input be modified? Teachers can speak slow, louder, for example. When writing on the board, teachers can use highlighting, bold, underlining, etc. All these techniques are believed to make input more salient for the learners. FOR NICK ELLIS (2002) Input has to be frequent. In other words, language will be learned if it is frequently exposed to learners. For example, learners will learn vocabulary if they have opportunity to see and use these words frequently (listening, reading, games, etc).

All in all, the input hypothesis (Gass, 1979; Sharewood-Smith, 1986; Ellis, 2002) states that L2 learning will take place when there is input, and when input is comprehensible, modified, enhanced, and frequent.

NOTICING HYPOTHESIS
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Schmidt's noticing hypothesis adds that L2 learning can only take place if input is noticed consciously by learners. Thus, he postulates that attention to input is necessary and only input that learners pay attention to and notice consciously will be learned. In other words, paying attention is important.

OTPUT HYPOTHESIS
On one hand, input is the language the learner is exposed to. On the other hand, output is the language generated by the learner, the language the learner produces (written or oral language). Some authors believe that when the learner produces language it is because they have already learned. However, some other authors believe that output may help learners learn a second language. How?

There are four ways in which output (language production-oral or written) may lead to learning:
1. PRACTICE

Practice: When learners speak or write they are practicing the language, and practice is essential for learning. For example, when learners speak or write they may practice vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar rules, etc. As we have studied in this course, practice is essential for learning.
2. NOTICING GAPS

When learners try to speak or write, they may notice that they don't know something. For example, a learner tries to tell what he did during the weekend and suddenly notices that he does not know how to use the simple past. Noticing a gap is an important step in learning because the learner may try to do something about it. When a learner notices that he does not know how to use the simple past, he may ask the teacher, or search in a book and learn how to use the past.
3. TESTING HYPOTHESES

Language production may represent learners' hypotheses about how the target language functions. It is important to highlight that these hypotheses are implicit, they are not conscious. In this sense, output itself is the hypothesis. Hence, what learners speak or write may represent their best guesses about how something should be said in the target language (Swain, 1985, 1995). When a learner says "I don't can go". This represents learners' hypotheses about how to use the negative. When this happens, learners have opportunities for feedback (correction) from the teacher or classmates.
4. METALINGUISTIC REFELCTION

Whenever learners engage in communication (interaction) for the purpose of discussing and reflecting upon how the target language works, output is, then, leading learners to generate explicit hypotheses about the language. In this sense, this third function of output is actually a metalinguistic function. For example, when learners interact about the
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language "Say she goes, do I say she can or she cans?" "She can is the right to say". In this interaction, learners are engaged in metalinguistic reflection.

THE INTERACTION HYPOTHESIS


The interaction hypothesis (Long, 1996; Gass, 1997, 2003), attempts to account for the L2 learning process through learners' exposure to language, production of language, and feedback on that production. Through interaction, learners receive information about language, correctness of their utterances, and incorrectness of their utterances. All these steps are believed to be crucial in the L2 learning process. The interaction hypothesis is related to the output hypothesis, learners need to produce language in order to interact.

STOP AND CHECK


It is important to highlight that The Output and Interaction hypotheses Hypothesis do not deny the relevance of input. They complement and reinforce input based approaches to language acquisition.

FURTHER READING
The noticing hypothesis [2] 'Noticing' in SLA: Is it a valid concept? [3]

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noticing_hypothesis 3. http://tesl-ej.org/ej23/a2.html
Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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TEORIAS E PRINCPIOS DA AQUISIO DE SEGUNDA LNGUA


CLASS 05: FINAL REMARKS
TOPIC 02: FINAL CONSIDERATIONS ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

In this course we have studied six mainstream theories of second language acquisition: Behavirism, Krashen's motitor, Interlanguage, Universal Grammar, Information Processing and Sociocultural theory. According to Greg (1995), the SLA field must seek a unified theory. Up to now, SLA does not have a unified theory. One question that may be on your mind now is: Why are there so many theories to explain how second languages are learned? One possible reason is that SLA is a complex process and different theories try to explain such processes from different perspectives.
BEHAVIORISM

Tries to explain L2 acquisition based on how learners respond to the environment.


KRASHEN'S MONITOR THEORY

Tries to explain L2 acquisition based on input.


INTERLANGUAGE

Tries to explain L2 acquisition based on gradual and systematic development.


UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR

Tries to explain L2 acquisition based on humans' innate capacity for learning.


INFORMATION PROCESSING

Tries to explain L2 acquisition based on learners' mental (cognitive) processes.


SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY

Tries to explain L2 acquisition as a socially constructed process. Another possible reason is that in the SLA field is interdisciplinary in nature. SLA interacts with other fields of study. Consequently, in order to explain how individuals learn a second language, we must seek to understand elements of Psychology, Sociology, Cognitive science, anthropology, Education, etc. SLA interacts with other fields of study. Until the SLA field finds its unified theory, it is useful to understand that no theory is better than the other. Rather, they complement one another and shed some light on several aspects involved in the complex, fascinating process of learning a second language.

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Answer the following questions. Save them as Act.5 Class 4. 1. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
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2. How can output promote learning? 3. How can input be enhanced and become more salient to the learners?

FORUM
Discuss the following question with your friends. 1. We have studied six theories: Behaviorism, Krashens theory, Universal grammar, Interlanguage, Information process, and Sociocultural theory. In your opinion, which one is the most interesting? Why?

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Responsvel: Prof. Maria da Glria Guar Tavares Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

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