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2K visualizzazioni160 pagineits a note for general flight dynamics

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Introduction

1.1 Opening remarks

The normal operation of a civil transport airplane

involves take-off, climb to cruise altitude,

cruising, descent, loiter and landing (Fig.1.1).

In addition, the airplane may also carry out glide

(which is descent with power off), curved flights

in horizontal and vertical planes and other flights

involving accelerations.

3

Fig 1.1 Typical flight path of a passenger airplane

4

Apart from the flights during controlled operations,

an airplane may also be subjected to disturbances

which may cause changes in its flight path and

produce rotations about its axes.

The study of these motions of the airplane – either

intended by the pilot or those following a

disturbance–forms the subject of Flight Dynamics.

Flight Dynamics: It is a branch of dynamics

dealing with the forces acting and the motion of an

object moving in the earth’s atmosphere.

In this course our attention is focused on motion of

the airplane. Helicopters, rockets and missiles are

not covered . 5

At this stage it may be helpful to recapitulate the

anatomy of the airplane . Fig.1.2a and b show

the major components of an airplane.

(From Ref.1.10, chapter 2) 6

Fig 1.2b Control surfaces and flaps on an airplane

(From Ref.1.10, chapter 2)

7

The features that make flight dynamics a separate

subject are :

i. The motion of an object in flight can take

place along three axes and about three axes.

This is more complicated than the motions of

machinery and mechanisms which are

restrained by kinematic constraints, or those

of land based or water based vehicles which

are confined to move on a surface.

ii. The special nature of the forces, like

aerodynamic forces, acting on the object

(Fig 1.3) whose magnitude and direction

changes with the orientation of the airplane ,

relative to its flight path. 8

iii. The system of aerodynamic controls used in flight

(aileron, elevator, rudder).

1.2 Body axes system

To formulate and solve a problem in dynamics we

need a system of axes. To define such a system we

note that an airplane is nearly symmetric in

geometry and mass distribution about a plane which

is a called the plane of symmetry. This plane is used

for defining the body axes system. Figure 1.4b shows

a system of axes (OXbYbZb) fixed on the airplane

(body axes system) which moves with the airplane.

The origin ‘O’ of the body axes system is the center

of gravity (c.g.) of the body which, by assumption of

symmetry , lies in the plane of symmetry (Fig.1.4a) .

The axis OXb is taken positive in the forward

direction. The axis OZb is perpendicular to OXb in the

10

plane of symmetry , positive downwards .

Fig 1.4 a Plane of symmetry and body axis system

11

Fig 1.4b. Body axes system, forces , moments and

linear and angular velocities

12

(Adapted from Ref.1.2d, chapter 1)

The axis OYb is perpendicular to the plane of

symmetry such that OXbYbZb is a right handed

system.

Figure 1.4b shows the forces and moments

acting on the airplane and the components of linear

and angular velocities. The quantity V is the

velocity vector. The quantities X,Y,Z are the

components of the resultant aerodynamic force,

along OXb, OYb and OZb axes. L’ , M, N are the

rolling moment, pitching moment and yawing

moment respectively about OXb, OYb and OZb; the

rolling moment is denoted by L’ to distinguish it

from lift (L) . u,v,w are the components , along

OXb, OYb and OZb of the velocity vector (V). The 13

angular velocity components are indicated by p,q,r.

1.3 Forces acting on an airplane

During the analysis of its motion the airplane

will be considered as a rigid body. The forces acting

on an object in flight are

– Gravitational forces

– Aerodynamic forces

– Propulsive forces.

The aerodynamic forces and moments arise due to

motion of airplane relative to air. The aerodynamic

forces are the drag, the lift and the side force. The

moments are the rolling moment, the pitching

moment and the yawing moment.

The propulsive force is the thrust produced by 14

the engine or the engine propeller combination.

In the case of an airplane, the gravitational

force is mainly due to the attraction of the earth.

The magnitude of the gravitational force is the

weight of the airplane (in Newtons).

W = mg; where W is the gravitational force, m is

the mass of the airplane and g is the acceleration

due to gravity.

The line of action of the gravitational force is

along the line joining the centre of gravity (c.g.)

of the airplane and the center of the earth. It is

directed towards the center of earth (see next

section for further discussion). 15

The value of the acceleration due to gravity (g)

decreases with increase in altitude (h) . It can be

calculated based on it’s value at sea level (g0), and

using the following formula:

(g/g0) = [R / (R + h)]2 ( 1.1)

Where R is the radius of the earth,

R = 6400 km (approx.) and g0 = 9.81ms-2

However for typical airplane flights (h<20 km) , g

is generally taken to be constant.

16

1.4 Flat earth and spherical earth models

In flight mechanics, there are two ways of

dealing with the gravitational force, namely the

flat earth model and the spherical earth model.

In the flat earth model, the gravitational

acceleration is taken to act vertically

downwards (Fig 1.5).

When the distance over which the flight takes

place is small, the flat earth model is adequate.

See Miele (Ref 1.1) for details.

Flight path

W=mg

Gravitational force

17

Fig.1.5.Flat Earth Model

In the spherical earth model, the gravitational

force is taken to act along the line joining the

center of earth and c.g. of the airplane. It is

directed towards the center of the earth

(Fig. 1.6).

The spherical earth model is used for accurate

analysis of flights involving very long distances.

18

Fig 1.6. Spherical earth model

Remark :

In this course we use the flat earth model. This

is adequate for the following reasons.

(a) The distances involved in flights with

acceleration are small and the gravitational

force can be considered in the vertical direction

by proper choice of axes.

(b) In un-accelerated flights like level flight we

consider the forces at the chosen instant of

time and obtain the distance covered etc. by

integration. This procedure is accurate as long

as we understand that the altitude means

19

height of the airplane above the surface of the

earth and the distance is measured on a sphere

of radius equal to the sum of the radius of earth

plus the altitude of airplane. This type of

analysis is also called point performance

analysis

1.5 Approach

The approach used in flight mechanics is to apply

Newton’s laws to the motion of objects in flight.

Let us recall these laws:

Newton’s first law states that every object at rest

or in uniform motion continues to be in that state

20

unless acted upon by an external force.

Newton’s second law states that the force acting

on a body is equal to its rate of change of

momentum.

Newton’s third law states that to every action,

there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton’s second law can be written as:

F = ma ; a = dV/dt; V = dr/dt. (1.2)

Where F = sum of all forces acting on the body,

m= mass, a= acceleration, V= velocity, r= the

position vector of the object and t= time.

(quantities in bold are vectors)

21

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and

velocity is the rate of change of position vector.

To prescribe the position vector, we need to have

a co-ordinate system with reference to which the

position vector/displacement is measured.

1.6 Frame of reference

A frame of reference (coordinate system) in

which Newton’s laws of motion are valid is known

as a Newtonian frame of reference.

Since Newton’s laws deal with acceleration, a

frame of reference moving with uniform velocity

with respect to a Newtonian frame is also a

Newtonian frame or inertial frame.

22

However, if the reference frame is rotating

with some angular velocity (ǔ), then, additional

accelerations like centripetal acceleration

{ǔ x (ǔ x r)} and coriolis acceleration (v x ǔ)

will come into picture.

For further details on non-Newtonian reference

frame, see Ref 1.2a.

In flight mechanics, a co-ordinate system

attached to the earth approximates a Newtonian

frame (Fig.1.7).

The effects of the rotation of earth around

itself and around the sun on this approximation

can be estimated as follows. 23

Fig 1.7 Earth fixed and body fixed co-ordinate

systems 24

We know that the earth rotates about itself once per

day. Hence

ǔ = 2 S/ (3600x24) = 7.27x10-5s-1;

Since r equals 6400 km; the maximum centripetal

acceleration (ǔ2r) equals 0.034 ms-2.

The earth also goes around the sun and completes

one orbit in approximately 365 days. Hence

ǔ = 2 S / (365x3600x24) = 1.99x10-7s-1;In this case

the radius would be the mean distance between the

sun and the earth which is 1.5x1011m. Consequently

ǔ2R = 0.006 ms-2.

Thus we note that the centripetal accelerations due

to rotation of earth about itself and around the sun

25

are small as compared to acceleration due to gravity.

These rotational motions would also bring

about coriolis acceleration (v x ǔ). However its

magnitude, which depends on the flight velocity,

would be much smaller than the acceleration due

to gravity in flights up to Mach number of 3.

Hence the influence can be neglected.

Thus, taking a reference frame attached to the

surface of the earth as a Newtonian frame is

adequate for the analysis of airplane flight.

Figure 1.7 shows such a coordinate system.

26

1.7 Equilibrium

The above three types of forces (aerodynamic,

propulsive and gravitational) and moments govern

the motion of an airplane in flight.

If the sums of all these forces and moments are

zero, then the airplane is said to be in equilibrium

and will move along a straight line with constant

velocity (see Newton's first law). If any of the forces

is unbalanced , then the airplane will have a linear

acceleration in the direction of a unbalanced force.

If any of the moments is unbalanced, then the

airplane will have an angular acceleration about the

axis of the unbalanced moment.

27

The relationship between the unbalanced forces

and the linear accelerations and those between

unbalanced moments and angular accelerations are

provided by Newton’s second law of motion. These

relationships are called equations of motion.

28

1.8 Equations of motion

To derive the equations of motion we need to

know the acceleration of a particle on the body. The

acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and the

velocity is the rate of change of position vector with

respect to the chosen a frame of reference.

The minimum number of coordinates required to

prescribe the motion is called the number of degrees

of freedom. The number of equations governing the

motion equals the degrees of freedom. As an

example we may recall that the motion of a particle

moving in a plane is prescribed by the x- and y-

coordinates of the particle at various instants of time

and this motion is described by two equations. 29

Similarly the position of any point on a rigid

pendulum is describe by just one coordinate namely

the angular position (Ǉ) of the pendulum (Fig.1.8). In

this case we have only one equation to describe the

motion . In yet another example , if a particle is

constrained to move on a sphere, then its position is

prescribed by the longitude and latitude . This motion

has only two degrees of freedom.

To describe its motion we treat the airplane as a

rigid body. It may be recalled that in a rigid body the

distance between any two points is fixed. Thus r in

Fig. 1.9 does not change during the motion. To decide

the minimum number of coordinates needed to

prescribe the position of a point on a rigid body which

30

Fig. 1.8 Motion of a single degree of freedom system

31

Fig 1.9 Position of a point on a rigid airplane 32

is translating and rotating, we proceed as follows.

A rigid body with N particles may appear to have

3N degrees of freedom, but the constraint of rigidity

reduces this number . To arrive at the minimum

number of coordinates we approach the problem in a

different way. Following Ref.1.2b, we can state that to

fix the location of a point on a rigid body we do not

need to prescribe its distance from all the points, but

only need to prescribe its distance from three points

which do not lie on the same line (Fig.1.10a). Thus if

the positions of these three points are prescribed with

respect to a reference frame , then the position of any

point on the body is known. This may indicate nine

33

degrees of freedom . This number is reduced to six

because the distances r12, r23 and r13 in Fig.1.10a are

constants .

Another way of looking at the problem is to

consider that we prescribe the three coordinates of

point 1 with respect to the reference frame. Now the

point 2 is constrained, because of rigid body

assumption, to move on a sphere centered on point 1

and needs only two coordinates to prescribe its motion.

Once the points 1 and 2 are determined, the point 3 is

constrained , again due to rigid body assumption, to

move on a circle about the axis joining points 1 and 2.

Hence only one independent coordinate is needed to

prescribe the position of point 3. Thus the number of

34

independent coordinates is six (3+2+1).

C

reference points

35

(Adapted from Ref.1.2b, Chapter 4)

From the above discussion it is clear that the

coordinates could be lengths or angles.

In mechanics the six degrees of freedom

associated with a rigid body, consists of the three

coordinates of the origin of the body with respect to

the chosen frame of reference and the three angles

which describe the angular position of a coordinate

system fixed on the body (OXbYbZb) with respect to the

fixed frame of reference (EXeYeZe) as shown in

Fig.1.10b. These angles are known as Eulerian angles.

These will be discussed in ch.4 of flight dynamics- II .

See also Ch.4 of Ref.1.2b.

Remarks:

i) The derivation of the equations of motions in 36

a

general case with six degrees of freedom (see Ref 1.1)

Fig 1.10b Coordinates of a point on a rigid body

37

is rather involved and would be out of place here.

ii) Herein, we consider various cases separately and

write down the equations of motion in each case.

The subject of flight dynamics is generally divided

into two main branches viz.

Performance Analysis and Stability and control.

In performance analysis, we generally

consider the equilibrium of forces only. It is

assumed that by proper deflections of the controls,

the moments can be made zero and that the

changes in aerodynamic forces due to deflection of

controls are small. The motions considered in

38

performance analysis are steady and accelerations,

when involved, do not change rapidly with time.

The following flights are included in performance

analysis

-Unaccelerated flights

• Steady level flight

• Climb, glide and descent

-Accelerated Flights

• Accelerated level flight and climb

• Take-off and landing

• Turn, loop and other flights along curved paths

which are called maneuvers.

39

Roughly speaking, the stability analysis is

concerned with the motion following a disturbance.

Stability analysis tells us whether an airplane, after

being disturbed, will return to it’s original flight

path or not.

Control analysis deals with the forces that the

deflection of the controls must produce to bring to

zero the three moments (rolling, pitching and

yawing) and achieve a desired flight condition. It

also deals with design of control surfaces and the

forces on control wheel/stick /pedals.

Stability and control are linked together and are

generally studied under a common heading.

40

Flight dynamics I of this course deals with

performance analysis. By carrying out this analysis

we can obtain variation of performance items such

as maximum level speed, minimum level speed,

rate of climb, angle of climb, distance covered ,

with a given amount of fuel called ‘Range’ , time of

flight called ‘Endurance’ , minimum radius of turn,

maximum rate of turn, take off distance, landing

distance etc. The effects of flight conditions namely

the weight , altitude and flight velocity of the

airplane can also be examined. This study would

also help in solving design problems of deciding the

power required, thrust required , fuel required

etc. for given specifications like maximum speed, 41

maximum rate of climb, range, endurance etc.

Remark:

Alternatively, the performance analysis can be

considered as the analysis of the motion of flight

vehicle considered as a point mass, moving

under the influence of applied forces. The

stability analysis similarly can be considered as

motion of a vehicle of finite size, under the

influence of applied forces and moments.

42

1.10 General Remarks

i) Attitude :

As mentioned in section 1.8 the instantaneous

position of the airplane , with respect to the

earth fixed axes system (EXe Ye Ze) , is given

by the coordinates of the c.g. at that instant of

time. The attitude of the airplane is described

by the angular orientation of the OXbYbZb

system with respect to OXeYeZe system or the

Euler angles mentioned in section 1.8 (see

Ref.1.2c, chapter 10 for details) . Let us

consider simpler cases. When an airplane

climbs along a straight line its attitude is given

43

by the angle ‘ J ’ between the axis OXb and

and the horizontal (Fig.1.11a ). When an airplane

executes a turn, the projection of OXb axis , in the

horizontal plane , makes an angle ƺ with reference

to a fixed horizontal axis (Fig.1.11b) . When an

airplane is banked the axis OYb makes an angle ĭ

with respect to the horizontal (Fig.1.11c).

ii) Flight path:

In the subsequent sections, the flight path,

also called the trajectory, means the path or the

line along which the c.g. of the airplane moves.

The tangent to this curve at a point gives the

direction of flight velocity at that point on the flight

path. The relative wind is in a direction opposite to

that of the flight velocity . 44

Fig 1.11a Airplane in a climb 45

Fig 1.11b Airplane in a turn-view from top

46

Fig 1.11c Angle of bank (ĳ)

(Adapted from Ref. 1.11, chapter 3) 47

iii) Angle of attack and side slip

While discussing the forces acting on an airfoil,

we take the chord of the airfoil as the reference

line and the angle between the chord line and the

relative wind as the angle of attack(Į). The

aerodynamic forces viz lift (L) and drag (D) ,

produced by the airfoil, depend on the angle of

attack (Į) and are respectively perpendicular and

parallel to relative wind direction (Fig.1.11 d).

In the case of an airplane the flight path, as

mentioned earlier , is the line along which c.g. of

the airplane moves . The tangent to the flight

path is the direction of flight velocity (V). The

relative wind is in a direction opposite to the 48

flight velocity. If the flight path is confined to the

Fig 1.11d Angle of attack and forces on a airfoil

49

plane of symmetry, then the angle of attack would

be the angle between the relative wind direction

and the fuselage reference line (FRL) or OXb axis

(see Fig.1.11e) . However in a general case the

velocity vector (V) will have components both

along and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry.

The component perpendicular to the plane of

symmetry is denoted by ‘v’ . The projection of the

velocity vector in the plane of symmetry would

have components u and w along OXb and OZb axes

(Fig.1.11f) . With this background we define the

angle of sideslip and angle of attack .

50

Fig 1.11e Flight path in the plane of symmetry 51

o

definition of angle of attack and sideslip

(Adapted from Ref.1.2d , chapter 1)

52

The angle of sideslip (ǃ)is the angle between the

velocity vector (V) and the plane of symmetry i.e.

ǃ = sin-1 (v/ |V|); where |V| is the magnitude of V.

The angle of attack (Į) is the angle between the

projection of velocity vector (V) in the XB-ZB plane

and the OXb axis or

1 w 1 w 1 w

D tan sin sin

u 2

| V | v 2

u2 w2

Remark:

velocity (V) , then

u = V cos Į cos ȕ , v= V sin ǃ; w= V sin Į cos ǃ .

53

iv) By definition, the aerodynamic drag (D) is

parallel to the relative wind direction. The lift force

lies in the plane of symmetry of the airplane and is

perpendicular to the direction of flight velocity.

v) Simplified treatment in performance

analysis

In a steady flight, there is no acceleration

along the flight path and in a level flight, the

altitude of the flight remains constant. A steady,

straight and level flight, generally means a flight

along a straight line at a constant velocity and

constant altitude.

Sometimes, this flight is also referred to as

unaccelerated level flight. To illustrate the simplified54

treatment in performance analysis, we consider the

case of unaccelerated level flight.

The forces acting on an airplane in

unaccelerated level flight are shown in the Fig.1.12.

They are:

Lift (L)

Thrust (T)

Drag (D) and

Weight (W) of the airplane.

It may be noted that the point of action of the thrust

and it’s direction depend on the engine location.

However, the direction of the thrust can be taken

parallel to the airplane reference axis.

55

Fig 1.12 Forces acting in steady level flight

56

The lift and drag, being perpendicular to the relative

wind, are in the vertical and horizontal directions

respectively, in this flight.

The weight acts at the c.g. in a vertically

downward direction.

In an unaccelerated level flight, the components

of acceleration in the horizontal and vertical directions

are zero.

Hence, the sums of the components of all the

forces in these directions are zero. Resolving the

forces along and perpendicular to the flight path

(see Fig.1.12.), we get the following equations of

force equilibrium:

57

T cos Į – D = 0 (1.3)

T sin Į + L – W = 0 (1.4)

that the moment about the y-axis to be zero, i.e.,

Mcg = 0

Unless the moment condition is satisfied, the

airplane will begin to rotate about the c.g.

Let us now examine how the moment is

balanced in an airplane.

The contributions to Mcg come from all the

components of the airplane.

As regards the wing , the point where the

resultant vector of the lift and drag intersects the58

plane of symmetry is known as the centre of

pressure. This resultant force produces a moment

about the c.g. However, the location of the center

of pressure depends on the lift coefficient and

hence the moment contribution of wing changes

with the angle of attack as the lift coefficient

depends on the angle of attack. For convenience,

the lift and the drag are transferred to the

aerodynamic center along with a moment (Mac).

Recall that moment coefficient about the a.c.

(Cmac) is, by definition, constant with change in

angle of attack.

Similarly, the moment contributions of the

fuselage and the horizontal tail change with the angle

of attack. The engine thrust also produces a moment

59

about the c.g. which depends on the thrust required.

Hence, the sum of the moments about the c.g.

contributed by the wing, fuselage, horizontal tail and

engine changes with the angle of attack. By

appropriate choice of the horizontal tail setting (i.e.

incidence of horizontal tail with respect to fuselage

central line ) , one may be able to make the sum of

these moments to be zero in a certain flight

condition, which is generally the cruise flight

condition. Under other flight conditions, generation of

corrective aerodynamic moment is facilitated by

suitable deflection of elevator (See Fig.1.2b for

location of elevator). By deflecting the elevator , the

lift on the horizontal tail surface can be varied and

the moment produced by the horizontal tail balances

60

the moments produced by all other components.

The above points will now be illustrated with the

help of an example.

Example 1.1

A jet aircraft weighing 60,000 N has it’s line of

thrust 0.15 m below the line of drag. When flying at

a certain speed, the thrust required is 12,000 N

and the center of pressure of the wing lift is 0.45 m

aft of the airplane c.g.. What is the lift on the wing

and the load on the tail plane whose center of

pressure is 7.5 m behind the c.g.? Assume

unaccelerated level flight and the angle of attack to

be small during the flight.

61

Solution:

The various forces and dimensions are presented in

Fig.1.13. The lift on the wing is LW and the lift on

the tail is LT. Since the angle of attack (Į) is small,

one may take cos Į = 1 and sin Į = 0. Thus, from

the force equilibrium (Eqs. 1.3 and 1.4), we get:

T–D=0

LW + LT – W = 0

i.e. D = T = 12000 N and LT + LW = 60000 N

From Fig.1.13., the moment equilibrium about the

c.g. gives:

T (zd + 0.15) – D.zd – 0.45.LW – 7.5.LT = 0

62

Fig. 1.13 Forces acting on an airplane in steady level

63

flight

where zd is the distance of drag below the c.g..

Solving these equations, we get,

LW = 63574.47 N and LT = -3574.47 N

It is seen that

A) The lift on the wing is about 63.6 kN while the

lift on the tail is only 3.6 kN, in the downward

direction.

B) The contribution of tail to the total lift is thus

small, in this case, about 6% and negative. This

negative contribution necessitates the wing lift to

be more than the weight of the airplane. This

increase the lift results in additional drag called

trim drag. 64

C) The distance zd is of no significance in this

problem as the drag and thrust form a couple

whose moment is equal to the thrust multiplied

by the distance between them.

D) Generally, the angle of attack (Į) is small.

Hence, sin Į is small and cos Į is nearly equal to

unity. Thus, the equations of force equilibrium

reduce to

T – D = 0 and L – W = 0. (1.5)

E) It is assumed that the pitching moment

equilibrium i.e. ƶMcg=0 is achieved by appropriate

deflection of the elevator. The changes in the lift

and drag due to elevator deflections are generally

small and in performance analysis, as stated

65

earlier, these changes are ignored and one

considers the simplified picture as shown in Fig.1.14.

an airplane in level flight. 66

1.11 Course content

Some background material is required for

performance analysis. We know that:

L = (1/2) Ǐ V2 S CL

D = (1/2) Ǐ V2 S CD

Where CL and CD are the lift and drag coefficients.

S is the area of the wing.

CL and CD depend on Į, Mach number (M = V / a)

and Reynolds number (Re = Ǐ V l /μ ) i.e.

CD = f(CL,M, Re)

The relation between CLand CD at given M and Re is

known as the drag polar of the airplane.

67

Similarly, the density of air (Ǐ) depends on the

flight altitude. Further the Mach number depends

on the speed of sound, which in turn depends on

the ambient air temperature. Thus, for

performance analysis, we need to know the

variations of pressure, temperature, density,

viscosity etc. with altitude in earth’s atmosphere.

For evaluation of performance we also need

to know the engine characteristics such as,

variations of thrust/ power and fuel consumption

with the flight speed and altitude.

68

3.1. Introduction

performance of an airplane we need to know as

to what will be the drag coefficient of the airplane

(CD) when the lift coefficient (CL) and Mach

number are given.

The relationship between the drag coefficient and

the lift coefficient is called drag polar.

The usual method to estimate the drag of an

airplane is to add the drags of the major

components of the airplane and then apply

correction for the interference effects.

2

The major components of the airplane which

contribute to drag are wing, fuselage, horizontal

tail, vertical tail, nacelles and landing gear.

Thus,

D = Dwing + Dfuse + Dht + Dvt + Dnac + Dlg +

Detc + Dint (3.1)

where Dwing, Dfuse , Dht, Dvt and Dlg denote drag

due to wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, vertical tail

and landing gear respectively.

Detc includes the drag of items like external fuel

tanks, bombs, struts etc..

3

Dint is the drag due to interference. This arises

due to the following reasons.

While estimating the drag of wing, fuselage and

other components we consider the drag of the

component when it is free from the influence of

any other components. Whereas in an airplane

the wing, fuselage, and tails lie in close

proximity of each other and flow past one

component is influenced by that past the other.

As an illustration let us consider an airfoil kept

in a stream of velocity V. Let the drag be 5 N.

Now consider a small plate whose drag at the

same speed of be 2 N.

4

Then the drag of the airfoil and the plate as a

combination (Fig. 3.1) would, in general, be

higher than the sum of individual drags. i.e.

D airfoil+plate> (5+2)=(5+2)+Dint

It is evident that Dint will also depend on the

place where the plate is located on the airfoil.

Remarks

i) Ways to reduce interference drag

A large number of studies have been carried out

on interference drag and it is found that Dint can

be brought down to 5 to 10% of the sum of the

drags of all components, by giving proper fillets

at the junctions of wing and fuselage and tails

5

and fuselage ( Fig 3.2 ).

Fig 3.1 Interference drag

6

Fig 3.2 Reduction of interference drag using fillets

(Adapted from Ref.3.1, pp. 181)

7

ii) Favorable interference effect

The interference effects need not always

increase the drag . The drag of the airfoil plus

the plate can be lower than the drag of the

airfoil when a thin plate is attached to the

trailing edge of the airfoil which is called splitter

plate. The birds flying in formation flight

experience lower drag than when flying

individually.

(iii) Contributions to airplane lift

The main contribution to the lift comes from

wing-fuselage combination and a small

contribution from the horizontal tail i.e. :

L = Lwing + fuselage + Lht (3.2) 8

For airplanes with wings having aspect ratio

greater than six, the lift due to the wing-fuselage

combination is roughly equal to the lift produced

by the gross wing area. The gross wing area (S)

is the planform area of the wing, extended into

the fuselage, up to the plane of the symmetry.

iv) Contributions to airplane pitching moment

The pitching moment of the airplane is taken

about its center of gravity and denoted by Mcg.

Main contributions to Mcg are from wing, fuselage,

nacelle and horizontal tail i.e.

Mcg = Mwing + Mfuselage + Mht + Mnac (3.3)

9

(v) Non-dimensional quantities

coefficient (CD), lift coefficient (CL) and pitching

moment coefficient (Cmcg) the reference quantities are

the free stream dynamic pressure (½ ȡV2) ,the gross

wing area (S) and the mean aerodynamic chord of the

_

wing ( c ). Consequently ,

D L M cg

CD = 1 2

; CL = 1 2

; Cmcg = 2

(3.4)

U U 1

2 Vf S 2 Vf S 2 UVf Sc

of the individual components are based on their

own reference areas i.e.

10

(a) For wing, horizontal tail and vertical tail the

reference area is their planform area.

such other bodies the reference area is either the

wetted area or the frontal area. The wetted area is

the area of the surface of the body in contact

with the fluid. The frontal area is the maximum

cross-sectional area of the body.

(c) For other components like landing gear the

reference area is given along with the definition

of CD.

11

Note:

(I) The reference area, on which the CD and CL of an

individual component is based, is also called

proper area and denoted by SS; the drag

coefficient based on SS is denoted by CDS.

(II)The reference areas for different components are

different for the following reasons. The aim of

using non-dimensional quantities like CD is to be

able to predict characteristics of many similar

shapes by conducting computations or tests on a

few models. For this to be effective, the

phenomena causing the drag must be taken into

account. In this context the drag of streamline

shapes like wing and slender bodies is mainly due12

to skin friction and depends on the wetted area.

Whereas the drag of bluff bodies like the fuselage

of a piston-engined airplane , is mainly the

pressure drag and depends on the frontal area.

It may be added that for wings, the usual

practice is to take the reference area as the

planform area because it is proportional to the

wetted area.

(III) At this stage the reader is advised to the revise

the background on aerodynamics (see for

examples references 1.7 & 1.8 ).

Following the above remarks we can express the

total drag of the airplane as :

13

D 1

2 U Vf2 S CD

wing

12 UVf2 S fuseCD fuse

(3.5)

12 U Vf2CDlg Slg 12 U Vf2 Setc CDetc Dint

It may be recalled that Setc and CDetc referred to areas

and drag coefficients of other items like external fuel

tanks , bombs , struts etc..

D

Or C D 2

1

2 U V f S

S fu s e S ht S vt

C D w in g C D fu s e C D ht C D vt

S S S

S nac S lg S e tc

C D nac C D lg C D e tc C D in t (3.6)

S S S 14

The data on drag lift and pitching moment, compiled

from various sources, is available in references

1.7,1.8,1.9 and 3.1a to 3.7.

15

3.2. Estimation of Drag Polar – Low Speed Case

of an airplane can be obtained by summing-up the

drags of individual components and then adding 5 to

10% for interference drag. This exercise has to be

done at different angles of attack. A few remarks are

mentioned before obtaining the drag polar.

Remarks

i) Angles of Attack:

For defining the angle of attack of an airplane,

the fuselage reference line is taken as the airplane

reference line (Figs. 1.9,3.3). However the angles of

attack of the wing and tail are not the same as that16

of the fuselage.

The wing is fixed on the fuselage such that it makes

an angle, iw, to the fuselage reference line (Fig 3.3).

The angle iw is generally chosen such that during the

cruising flight the wing can produce enough lift when

fuselage is at zero angle of attack. This is done

because the fuselage produces least drag when it is at

zero angle of attack and that is what one would like

to have during cruising flight, i.e. during cruise the

wing produces the lift required to balance the weight

whereas the fuselage being at zero angle of attack

produces least drag.

The tail is set on fuselage at an angle it (Fig. 3.3)

such that during cruise the lift required from the tail,

17

Fig 3.3 Wing setting and tail setting

18

to make the airplane pitching moment zero, is

produced by the tail without elevator deflection.

This is because, the drag, at low angles of attack,

is least when the required lift is produced without

elevator deflection.

ii) Drag coefficient of wing

The drag coefficient of a wing consist of the (a)

profile drag due to airfoil (Cd) and (b) the induced

drag due to the finite aspect ratio of the wing

(CDi). The profile drag of the airfoil consists of the

skin friction drag and the pressure drag. It may be

recalled that an element of airfoil in a flow

experiences shears stress tangential to the surface

19

and pressure normal to it . The shear stress

multiplied by the area of the element gives the

tangential force. The component of this

tangential force in the free stream direction when

integrated over the profile gives the skin friction

drag. Similarly the pressure distribution results in

normal force on the element whose component in

the free stream direction, integrated over the

profile gives the pressure drag. The pressure

drag is also called form drag. The sum of the skin

friction drag and the pressure drag is called

profile drag. The profile drag depends on the

airfoil shape, Reynolds number, angle of attack

and surface roughness.

20

The chord of the wing varies along the span and

further the shapes of the profiles may also

change along it (span). Hence for the purpose of

calculation of profile drag of the wing , a

representative airfoil may be chosen with chord

S

equal to the average chord ( avg

C ); where S is

b

the wing area and b is the wing span.

As regards the generation of induced drag it may

be recalled that a wing has a finite span. This

results in a system of trailing vertices and

induced angle due to these vertices tilts the

aerodynamic force rearwards. This results in a

component in the free stream direction which is

called induced drag. The induced drag 21

coefficient is given by :

CL2

CDi (1 G ) (3.7)

SuA

Where A is the wing aspect ratio (A=b2/S) and į

is a factor which depends on wing aspect ratio,

taper ratio and sweep.

When a flap is deflected, there will be increments

in lift and both profile drag and induced drag.

A similar procedure can be used to estimate

drags of horizontal and vertical tails. However

contributions to induced drag can be neglected

for the tail surfaces.

22

iii) Drag coefficient of fuselage

The drag coefficient of a fuselage (CDf) consists

of the drag or the fuselage at zero angle of attack

(CD0)f plus drag due to angle of attack. It can be

expressed as :

CDf=(CD0)f+K(Į)2 (3.8)

For a streamlined body (CD0)f is mainly skin

friction drag and depends on (a) Reynolds

number, based on length of fuselage (lf),(b)

surface roughness and (c) fineness ratio (Af).

The fineness ratio is defined as:

Af=lf /de (3.9)

23

where de is the equivalent diameter given by:

(ʌ/4)de2 = Afmax

where Afmax equals the area of the maximum cross-

section of fuselage.

When the fineness ratio of the fuselage is small for

e.g. in case of general aviation airplanes , the

fuselage is treated as a bluff body. In such cases the

drag is mainly pressure drag and the drag coefficient

is based on the frontal area (Afmax).

The drag coefficients of other bodies like engine

nacelle, external fuel tanks, bombs can also be

estimated in a similar manner.

iv) The drag coefficients of other components like

24

landing gear are based on areas specific to the

component. They should be obtain from the sources

of drag data mentioned earlier.

3.2.1 Drag polar

To obtain the drag polar by adding the drag

coefficients of individual components at

corresponding angles of attack , needs a large

amount of detailed data about the airplane

geometry and drag coefficients. A typical drag polar

obtained by such a procedure or by experiments on

a model of the airplane appears as shown in

Fig. 3.4a. When this curve is replotted as CD vs.

CL2 (Fig.3.4b), it is found that over a wide range

of CL the curve is a straight line and one could

write.

25

CD=CD0 + KCL2 (3.10)

Fig 3.4a Typical drag polar of a piston – engined airplane

26

CD0 is the intercept of the straight line and is

called zero lift drag coefficient or parasite drag

coefficient (Fig.3.4b).

The term KCL2 is called induced drag coefficient

or more appropriately lift dependent drag

coefficient. K is written as:

1

K

S Ae

(3.11)

the changes in drag due to angle of attack of the

wing, the fuselage and other components

(Refs.1.9, Chapter 2 & 3.3, Chapter 2).

27

Fig 3.4(b) Drag polar- CD vrs.CL2

28

It may be added that in the original definition of

Oswald efficiency factor only the contribution of

wing was included.

Remarks:

i) The reason why an expression like Eq.(3.10) fits

the drag polar is because the lift dependent drags

of wing and fuselage are proportional to the

square of the angle of attack.

ii) The drag polar given by Eq.(3.10) is called

parabolic drag polar.

iii) It found that CD0 is roughly equal to the sum of

the minimum drag coefficients of various

components plus the correction for interference . 29

iv) Parasite drag area and equivalent skin

friction coefficient

The product CD0 x S is called parasite drag area.

For streamlined airplanes the parasite drag is

mostly skin friction drag plus a small pressure

drag. The skin friction drag depends on the

wetted area of the surface. The wetted area of

the entire airplane is denoted by Swet and the

equivalent skin friction coefficient (Cfe) is defined

as :

CD0 x S = Cfe x Swet

S wet

or CD0 C fe

S

30

Reference 3.7 , Chapter 12 gives values of Cfe

for different types of airplanes.

v) The factor ‘e’ lies between 0.8 to 0.9 for

airplanes with unswept wings and between 0.6

to 0.8 for those with swept wings.

See Refs.3.3 & 3.4 for estimating CD0 and K.

vi) The parabolic polar is an approximation . It is

inaccurate near CL =0 and CL= CLmax (Fig.3.4b).

It is should not be used beyond CLmax .

A quick estimate of the drag polar is carried out

in example 3.1.

31

Example 3. 1

An airplane has a wing of planform area 51.22 m2

and span 20 m. It has a fuselage of frontal area

3.72 m2 and two nacelles having a total frontal

area of 3.25 m2. The total planform area of

horizontal and vertical tails is 18.6 m2 . Obtain a

rough estimate of the drag polar in a flight at a

speed of 430 kmph at sea level (s.l.). when

landing gear is in retracted position.

32

Solution :

Flight speed is 430 kmph = 119.5 m/s.

Average chord of wing = S/b = 51.22/20=2.566 m.

Reynolds number (Re) based on average chord is:

1 1 9 .5 u 2 .5 6 6

21 u 106

1 4 .6 u 1 0 6

Re would be 0.0054 (See Reference 3.4).

Since the frontal area is specified, the fuselage is

treated as a bluff body; (CDmin)fuselage can be taken

as 0.08 (Ref.3.4).

33

The nacelle generally has a lower fineness ratio

and (CDmin)nac can be taken as 0.10.

(CDmin)tail for the tail surfaces is taken as 0.006,

which is slightly higher than that for wing as

the Re for tail surfaces would be smaller. The

results are presented in Table 3.1.

Part SS (m2) CDS CDSSS (m2)

Fuselage 3.72 0.080 0.300

Nacelles 3.25 0.1 0.325

Tail surfaces 18.6 0.006 0.112

Total 1.013

Table 3.1 Rough estimate of CD0 34

Adding 10% for interference effects, the total

parasite drag area (CDSSS ) is:

1.013 + 0.1013 = 1.1143 m2. Hence

CD0= 1.1143/51.22 = 0.0216

Wing aspect ratio is 202/51.22=7.8

Taking e = 0.83 (see reference 3.4, page A119

for details) we get the drag polar as

1

CD 0.0216 C L2

S X 7.8 X 0.83

35

Remarks:

Cherokee airplane is presented in appendix A.

subsonic airplanes are given in Table 3.2.

36

Type of CD0 A e Typical polar

airplane

Low speed 0.022 to 6 to 8 0.8 to

0.025 + 0.055CL2

(M <0.3) 0.04 0.9

speed 0.020 to 0.9

0.019 + 0.04CL2

(M around

0.5)

High 0.015 to 6 to 8 0.6 to

subsonic 0.017 0.75 0.016 +0.06CL2

(M around

0.8, Swept

wing)

37

Table 3.2 Typical values of CD0, A ,e and polar

Note:

Table 3.2 shows that for low speed airplanes CD0 is

higher than in other cases. This is because these

airplanes have exposed landing gear, bluff fuselage

and struts. They also have only moderate aspect

ratio (6 to 8) so that wing-span is not large and the

hanger-space needed for parking the plane is not

excessive.

The CD0 for high subsonic airplanes is low due to

smooth surfaces, thin wings and slender fuselage. It

may be added that during the design process, the

values of airfoil thickness ratio, aspect ratio and

angle of sweep for the wing are obtained from

considerations of optimum performance. 38

3.3 Drag polar at high speeds

background on compressible aerodynamics and

gas dynamics (see Refs.1.7 & 1.8). Some

important aspects are brought out in the

following remarks.

(1) When the Mach number roughly exceeds a

value of 0.3, the changes in the fluid density

within the flow field become significant and the

flow needs to be treated as compressible.

(2) In a compressible flow the changes of

temperature in the flow field may be large and

hence the speed of sound (a= J RT ) may vary

39

from point to point.

(3) When the Mach number exceeds unity, the flow is

called supersonic.

(4) When a supersonic flow decelerates, shock waves

occur. The pressure, temperature, density and Mach

number change discontinuously across the shock.

The shocks may be normal or oblique. The Mach

number behind a normal shock is subsonic; behind

an oblique shock it may be subsonic or supersonic.

(5) When supersonic flow encounters a concave corner,

as shown in Fig 3.5 (a), the flow changes the

direction across a shock. When such a flow

encounters a convex corner, as shown in Fig 3.5.(b)

the flow expands across a series of Mach waves. 40

(a) (b)

Fig 3.5 Supersonic flow at corners

a) Concave corner (b) Convex corner

(From Ref.1.7,chapter 5) 41

(6) A typical flow past a diamond airfoil at

supersonic Mach number is shown in Fig 3.6.

If the Mach number is low supersonic (i.e. only

slightly higher than unity) and the angle ș , as

shown in Fig 3.6, is high then instead of the

attached shock waves at the leading edge, a bow

shock wave may occur ahead of the airfoil. A

blunt-nosed airfoil can be thought of an airfoil

with large value of ‘ș’ at the leading edge and

will have a bow shock at the leading edge as

shown in Fig 3.7. Behind a bow shock there is a

region of subsonic flow ( Fig 3.7) .

42

Fig 3.6 Supersonic flow past a diamond airfoil

(From Ref.1.9, chapter1) 43

Fig 3.7 Bow shock ahead of blunt-nosed airfoil

44

( Adapted from Ref.1.7, chapter 5 )

(7) Transonic flow

This type of flow occurs when the free stream

Mach number is around unity. The changes in the

flow and hence in the drag occurring in this range

of Mach numbers can be appreciated from the

following statements.

(I) In subsonic flow past an airfoil the flow has zero

velocity at the stagnation point. Then the flow

accelerates, it reaches a maximum value (Vmax)

and later attains the free stream velocity (V).

The ratio Vmax /V is greater than unity and

depends on (a) shape of airfoil (b) thickness ratio

(t/c) and ( c ) angle of attack (Į)

45

(II) As (Vmax/ V ) is greater than unity, the ratio

of the maximum Mach number on the airfoil

( M max) and free stream Mach number (M)

would also be more than unity. However

( Mmax/M ) would not be equal to (Vmax /V )

as the speed of sound varies from point to

point on the airfoil.

(III) Critical Mach number

As M increases, Mmax also increases. The free

stream Mach number for which the maximum

Mach number on the airfoil equals unity is

called critical Mach number (Mcrit).

46

(IV) When M exceeds Mcrit , a region of supersonic

flow occurs which is terminated by a shock wave.

The changes in flow pattern are shown in Fig 3.8.

(V) As free stream Mach number increases the

region of supersonic flow enlarges and this region

occurs on both the upper and lower surfaces of

the airfoil (Figs. 3.8 c & d).

(VI) At a free stream Mach number slightly higher

than unity, a bow shock is seen near the leading

edge of the airfoil ( Fig. 3.8 e).

(VII) At still higher Mach numbers the bow shock

approaches the leading edge and if the leading

edge is sharp, then the shock waves attach to the

47

leading edge as shown in Fig 3.6.

Fig 3.8 Flow past airfoil near critical Mach number

48

(Adapted from Ref. 1.9,chapter 1)

(VIII) Transonic flow regime

When M is less than Mcrit the flow every where

i.e. in the free stream and on the body is

subsonic.

It is seen that when Mcrit < M < 1, the free

stream Mach number is subsonic but there are

regions of supersonic flow on the airfoil ( Figs.

3.8 c & d ) .

Further When M is slightly more than unity i.e.

free stream is supersonic, there is bow shock

ahead of the airfoil resulting in subsonic flow near

the leading edge.

When the shock waves are attached to the

leading edge ( Fig. 3.6 ) the flow is supersonic 49

every where i.e. in the free stream and on the

airfoil.

The above flow features permit us to classify the

flow in to three regimes.

(a) Sub-critical regime when the Mach number is

subsonic in the free stream as well as on the

body ( M < Mcrit ).

(b) Transonic regime when the regions of subsonic

and supersonic flow are seen within the flow field.

(c) Supersonic regime when the Mach number in the

free stream as well as on the airfoil is supersonic.

The extent of the transonic regime is loosely

stated as between 0.8 to 1.2. However the actual

50

extent is between Mcrit and the Mach number at

which the flow becomes supersonic everywhere.

The extent depends on the shape of the airfoil

and the angle of attack.

(8) In the transonic regime the lift coefficient and

drag coefficient undergo rapid changes with Mach

number ( Fig.3.9).

For a chosen angle of attack the drag coefficient

begins to increase near Mcrit and reaches a peak

around M =1.

Drag divergence Mach number

When the change in Cd with Mach number is

studied experimentally, we can notice the effect

of appearance of shock waves in the form of

increase in drag coefficient . The beginning of the

transonic region is characterized by drag 51

divergence Mach number (MD) at which the

Fig 3.9 Schematic variations of Cl and Cd of an

airfoil in transonic regime.

(Adapted from Ref. 1.9, chapter1) 52

increase in the drag coefficient is 0.002 over the

value of Cd at sub-critical Mach numbers. It may

be added that for a chosen angle of attack the

value of Cd remains almost constant at sub-

critical Mach numbers. As mentioned earlier the

increase in the drag coefficient in the transonic

region is due to appearance of shock waves and

hence it is also called wave drag.

The drag divergence Mach number of an airfoil

depends on its shape, thickness ratio and the

angle of attack.

(9) The drag divergence Mach number of a wing

depends on the drag divergence Mach number of

the airfoil used, and the aspect ratio. It can be 53

increased by incorporating sweep ( ȁ ) to the

wing. The geometrical parameters of the wing

are shown in Fig.3.10. The beneficial effects of

sweep on (a) increasing MD , (b) decreasing

peak value of wave drag coefficient (CDpeak)

and (c ) increasing Mach number at which

CDpeak occurs are shown in Fig.3.11.

54

Fig 3.10 Geometric parameters of a wing55

Fig 3.11 Effect of wing sweep on variation of CD

with Mach number.

(Adapted from Ref.1.9, chapter 1) 56

(10) Drag at supersonic speeds

At supersonic Mach numbers also the drag of a

wing can be expressed as sum of the profile drag

of the wing section plus the drag due to effect of

finite aspect ratio . The profile drag consists of

pressure drag plus the skin friction drag . The

pressure drag results from the pressure

distribution caused by the shock waves and

expansion waves (Fig.3.6) and hence is called

wave drag. At supersonic speed the skin friction

drag is only a small fraction of the wave drag. The

wave drag of a symmetrical aerofoil (Cdw) can

be expressed as (Ref.1.7 , chapter 5 ):

57

4

Cdw [D 2 (t / c) 2 ]

M f2 1

can also be expressed as KCL2 ( see Ref.1.7 ,

chapter 5 for details). However in this case K

depends on free stream Mach number (M ), aspect

ratio and leading edge sweep of the wing (see

Ref.1.7 for details).

(11) It can be imagined that the flow past a

fuselage will also show that the maximum velocity

(Vmax) on the fuselage is higher than V.

Consequently, a fuselage will also have a critical

Mach number (Mcritf ) which depends on the fineness

58

ratio of the fuselage. For the slender fuselage,

typical of high subsonic jet airplanes, Mcritf could

be around 0.9. Above Mcritf, the drag of the

fuselage will be a function of Mach number in

addition to the angle of attack.

59

3.3.1 Drag polar of at high speeds

The drag polar of an airplane, which is obtained

by the summing the drag coefficients of its

major components, will also undergo changes as

Mach number changes from subsonic to

supersonic. However it is found that the

approximation of parabolic polar is still valid at

transonic and supersonic speeds, but CD0 and K

are now functions of Mach number i.e. :

CD = CD0(M) + K(M)CL2 (3.12)

Detailed estimation of the drag polar of a

subsonic jet airplane is presented in Appendix B

60

Remarks:

i) Guidelines for variations of CD0 and K for a

subsonic jet transport airplane

Subsonic jet airplanes are generally designed such

that there is no significant wave drag up to cruise

Mach number ( Mcruise ). However to calculate the

maximum speed in level flight (Vmax) or the

maximum Mach number (Mmax ), we need guidelines

for increase in CDo and K beyond Mcruise .Towards this

end we consider the data on B727-100 airplane.

Reference 3.8 gives drag polars of B727-100 at

M=0.7,0.76,0.82,0.84,0.86 and 0.88. Values of CD

and CL corresponding to various Mach numbers

were read and are shown in Fig. 3.12 by symbols.

61

Following the parabolic approximation, these polars

were fitted with Eq.(3.12) and CD0 and K were

obtained using least square technique. The fitted

polars are shown as curves in Fig. 3.12. The

values of CD0 and K are given in Table 3.3. and

presented in Figures 3.13 (a) & (b).

M CD0 K

0.7 0.01631 0.04969

0.76 0.01634 0.05257

0.82 0.01668 0.06101

0.84 0.01695 0.06807

0.86 0.01733 0.08183

0.88 0.01792 0.103

62

Fig 3.12 Drag polars at different Mach numbers

63

for B727-100

Fig 3.13 (a) Parameters of drag polar -CD0 for B727-100

64

Fig 3.13 (b) Parameters of drag polar- K for B727-100

65

It is seen that the drag polar and hence CD0 and

K are almost constant up to M=0.76. The

variations of CD0 and K between M=0.76 and

0.86, when fitted with polynomial curves give

the following equations (see also Figures 3.13 a &

b).

CD0=0.01634 -0.001( M-0.76)+0.11 (M-0.76)2 (3.13)

K= 0.05257+ (M-0.76)2 + 20.0 (M-0.76)3 (3.14)

Note: For M 0.76 , CD0= 0.01634 , K=0.05257

Based on these trends the variations of CD0 and K

beyond Mcruise but up to Mcruise+0.1 can be

expressed by Eqs. (3.13a) and (3.14a) and

treated as guideline for calculation of Mmax and 66

range of an airplane (see also Appendix B )

CD=CD0cr -0.001 ( M-Mcruise)+0.11 (M-Mcruise)2 (3.13 a)

K=Kcr+ (M-0.76)2 + 20.0(M-0.76)3 (3.14 a)

Where CD0cr and Kcr are the values of CD0 and K at

cruise Mach number. It may be pointed out that the

value of 0.01634 in Eq.(3.13) has been replace by

CD0cr in Eq.(3.13a). This has been done to permit use

of the equation for different types of airplanes which

may have their own values of CDcr (see Appendix B).

Similar is the reason for using Kcr in Eq.(3.14a).

(2) Variations of CD0 and K for a fighter airplane

Reference 1.8 has given drag polars of F-15 fighter

airplane at M=0.8,0.95,1.2,1.4 and 2.2.These are

shown in Fig 3.14.

These drag polars were also fitted with Eq.(3.12) and

CD0 and K were calculated. The variations of CD0 and

67

K are shown in Figs.3.15 (a) & (b). It is

interesting to note that CD0 has a peak and then

decreases, whereas K increases monotonically

with Mach number. It may be recalled that the

Mach number, at which CD0 has the peak value,

depends mainly on the sweep of the wing.

68

Fig 3.14 Drag polars at different Mach numbers for F15

(Adapted from Ref.1.8, chapter2)

Please note : The origins for polars corresponding to69

different Mach numbers are shifted.

Fig 3.15(a) Typical variations of CD0 with Mach

number for fighter airplane

70

Fig 3.15(b) Typical variations of K with Mach

number for a fighter airplane

71

3.4 Drag polar at hypersonic speeds

the changes in temperature and pressure behind

the shock waves are large and the treatment of

a flow has to be different. Hence the flows with

Mach number greater than five are termed

hypersonic flow. Reference 3.8 may be referred

to for details. For the purpose of flight

mechanics it may be mentioned that the drag

polar at hypersonic speeds is given by the

following modified expression (Ref. 1.1).

CD=CD0(M)+K(M)CL3/2 (3.15)

72

Note that the index of CL term is 1.5 and not 2.0

indicator of the aerodynamic efficiency of the

design of the airplane. For parabolic polar CL/CD

can be worked out as follows.

CD=CD0 +KCL2

Hence CD/CL = (CD0/CL) +KCL (3.16)

Differentiating Eq.(3.16) with CL and equating to

zero gives CLmd which corresponds to minimum

of (CD/CL) or maximum of (CL/CD).

73

CLmd = (CD0/K)1/2 (3.17)

1

(L/D)max = (CLmd/CDmd) = (3.19)

2 CD0K

Note:

To show that CLmd corresponds to minimum of

(CD/CL ), take second derivative of the right hand

side of Eq.(3.16) and verify that it is greater than

zero.

74

3.6 Other types of drag

friction drag, pressure drag (or form drag),

profile drag , interference drag , parasite drag,

induced drag, lift dependent drag and wave drag.

Following additional types of drags are mentioned

briefly to complete the discussion on drag.

I) Cooling drag: The piston engines used in

airplanes are air cooled engines. In such a

situations when a part of free stream air passes

over the cooling fins and accessories, some

momentum is lost and this results in a drag

called cooling drag.

75

II) Base drag: If the rear end of a body terminates

abruptly , the area at the rear is called a base.

The abrupt ending causes flow to separate and a

low pressure region exists over the base. This

causes a pressure drag called base drag.

III) External stores drag: Presence of external

fuel tank, bombs, missiles etc. causes additional

parasite drag which is called external stores drag.

Antennas, lights etc. also cause parasite drag

which is called protuberance drag.

IV) Leakage drag: Air leaking into and out of gaps

and holes in the airplane surface causes increase

in parasite called leakage drag. 76

V) Trim drag: In example 1.1 it was shown that

to balance the pitching moment about c.g. (Mcg),

the horizontal tail produces a lift (-Lt) in the

downward direction. To compensate for this , the

wing needs to produce a lift (LW) equal to the

weight of the airplane plus the downward load

(LW = W+Lt) . Hence the induced drag of the wing,

which depends on Lw , would be more than that

when the lift equals weight. This additional drag is

called trim drag as the action of making Mcg equal

to zero is referred to as trimming the airplane.

77

3.7 High lift devices

3.7.1 Introduction

From earlier discussion we know that:

1

L U V 2 SC L (3.20)

2

Further for an airplane to take-off , the lift must

at least be equal to the weight of the airplane , or

1

L W UV 2 SCL (3.21)

2

Hence 2W

V (3.22)

U SCL

stalling speed (Vs) as:

78

2W (3.23)

Vs

U SCL max

The take-off speed (VTo) is actually higher than the

stalling speed. It is easy to imagine that the take-

off distance would be proportional V2To and in turn

to Vs2. Thus to reduce the take-off distance we

need to reduce Vs. Further the wing loading (W/S)

is decided by other consideration like cruise. Hence

CLmax should be high to reduce take-off and landing

distances. The devices to increase CLmax are called

high lift devices.

79

3.7.2 Factors limiting CLmax

Consider an airfoil at low angle of attack (Į).

Figure 3.16a shows a flow visualization picture of

the flow field . Boundary layers are seen on the

upper and lower surfaces. As the pressure

gradient is low, the boundary layers are attached.

The lift coefficient is nearly zero. Now consider

the same airfoil at slightly higher angle of attack

(Fig.3.16b). The velocity on the upper surface is

higher than that on the lower surface and

consequently the pressure is lower on the upper

surface as compared to that on the lower surface.

The airfoil develops higher lift coefficient as

80

compares to that in Fig.3.16a.

3.16a Flow past an airfoil at low angle of attack.

Note: The flow is from left to right

(Adapted from Ref. 3.10 , chapter 3) 81

3.16b Flow past an airfoil at moderate angle of attack.

Note: The flow is from right to left

(Adapted from Ref. 3.11 , part 3 section II B)82

However the pressure gradient is also higher on

the upper surface and the boundary layer

separates ahead of the trailing edge (Fig.3.16b) .

As the angle of attack approaches about 150 the

separation point approaches the leading edge of

the airfoil (Fig.3.16c). Then the lift coefficient

begins to decrease (Fig.3.16d) and the airfoil is

said to be stalled. The value of Į for which Cl

equals Clmax is called stalling angle (Įstall). Based

on these observations , delay of stalling is an

important method to increase Clmax. Since stalling

is due to separation of boundary layer, many

methods have been suggested for boundary layer

control. In the suction method the airfoil 83

3.16c Flow past an airfoil at angle of attack near stall.

Note: The flow is from left to right

(Adapted from Ref. 3.10 , chapter 3) 84

3.16d Typical Cl vrs Į curve

85

surface is made porous and boundary layer is

sucked (Fig.3.17a) . In the blowing method, fluid

is blown tangential to the surface and the low

energy fluid in the boundary layer is energized

(Fig.3.17b). This effect (energizing ) is achieved

in a passive manner by a leading edge slot

(Fig.3.17c) and a slotted flap (section 3.7.3) .

See Ref.3.13, chapter 11, for other methods of

boundary layer control and for further details.

86

Fig. 3.17 Boundary layer control with suction and

87

blowing (Adapted from Ref.3.12, section 9)

3.7.3. Ways to increase Clmax

Beside the boundary layer control, there are two

other way to increase Clmax viz. increase of camber

and increase of wing area. These methods are briefly

described below .

I) Increase in Clmax due to change of camber

It may be recalled that when camber of an airfoil

increases, the zero lift angle (Įol) decreases and the

Cl vrs Į curve shifts to the left (Fig.3.18) . It is

observed that Įstall does not decrease significantly

due to the increase of camber and a higher Clmax is

realized (Fig.3.18). However, the camber of the

airfoil used on the wing is chosen such that minimum

drag coefficient occurs near the lift coefficient 88

Fig. 3.18 Increase in Clmax due to increase of camber

89

corresponding to the cruise or the design lift

coefficient . One of the ways to achieve the increase

in camber during take-off and landing is to use flaps.

In a plain flap the rear portion of the airfoil is hinged

and is deflected when Clmax is required to be increased

(Fig.3.19a) . In a split flap only the lower half of the

airfoil is moved down (Fig.3.19b) . To observe the

change in camber brought about by a flap deflection,

draw a line in-between the upper and lower surfaces

of the airfoil with flap deflected. This line is

approximately the camber line of the flapped airfoil.

The line joining the ends of the camber line is the new

chord line . The difference between the ordinates of

the camber line and the chord line is a measure of 90

camber.

Fig. 3.19 Flaps, slot and slat

91

(Adapted from Ref.3.7 , chapter 12)

II) Increase in Clmax due to boundary layer

control

In a slotted flap (Fig.3.19c) the effects of camber

change and the boundary layer control are

brought together. In this case when the flap is

deflected a gap is created between the main

surface and the flap (Fig.3.19c) . As the pressure

on the lower side of airfoil is more than that on

the upper side, the air from the lower side of the

airfoil rushes to the upper side and energizes the

boundary layer on the upper surface. This way the

separation is delayed and Clmax increases

(Fig.3.20). The slot is referred to as a passive

boundary layer control , as no blowing by external92

source is involved in this devise.

Fig.3.20 Effects of camber change and boundary layer

control on CLmax 93

After the success of single slotted flap , the double

slotted and triple slotted flaps were developed

(Figs.3.19 d and e).

III) Increase in Clmax due to change in wing area

Equation (3.20) shows that the lift can be increased

when the wing area (S) is increased. An increase in

wing area can be achieved if the flap, in addition to

being deflected, also moves outwards and effectively

increases the wing area. This is done in a Fowler flap

(Fig.3.19 f) . Thus a Fowler flap incorporates three

methods to increase Clmax viz change of camber,

boundary layer control and increase of wing area. It

may be added that while defining the Clmax in case of

Fowler flap, the reference area is the original area 94

of the wing and not that of the extended wing.

A zap flap is a split flap where the lower portion also

moves outwards as the flap is deflected.

IV) Leading edge devices

High lift devices are also used near the leading edge

of the wing. A slot near the leading edge (Fig.3.19 g)

also permits passive way of energizing the boundary

layer. However a permanent slot has adverse effects

during cruise. Hence leading edge slat as shown in

Fig.3.19h is used . When deployed it produces a slot

and increase Clmax by delaying separation.

On high subsonic speed airplanes , both leading

edge and trailing edge devices are used to increase

Clmax(Fig.3.2.). 95