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By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany
By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany
By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany
By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany
By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany

By: Ahmed Mohamed Emad El-Ghetany

Outline  Introduction  Fick’s law  Diffusivity  Convective mass transfer  Applications
Outline  Introduction  Fick’s law  Diffusivity  Convective mass transfer  Applications
Outline  Introduction  Fick’s law  Diffusivity  Convective mass transfer  Applications
Outline  Introduction  Fick’s law  Diffusivity  Convective mass transfer  Applications

Outline

Introduction

Fick’s law

Diffusivity

Convective mass transfer

Applications

Introduction  Definition  Movement of a scent from one end of a room to
Introduction  Definition  Movement of a scent from one end of a room to
Introduction  Definition  Movement of a scent from one end of a room to
Introduction  Definition  Movement of a scent from one end of a room to

Introduction

Definition

Introduction  Definition  Movement of a scent from one end of a room to the

Movement of a scent from one end of a room to the other

Mass transfer:

Within a medium

Across an interface

Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion

Diffusion

Diffusion
Fick’s law  Considering diffusion of A in B   J A : Flux
Fick’s law  Considering diffusion of A in B   J A : Flux
Fick’s law  Considering diffusion of A in B   J A : Flux
Fick’s law  Considering diffusion of A in B   J A : Flux

Fick’s law

Considering diffusion of A in B

Fick’s law  Considering diffusion of A in B   J A : Flux of

J A : Flux of A into B (kg-moles/m 2 .s)

D AB : diffusivity of A in B (m 2 /s)

c A : concentration of A (kg-moles/m 3 )

x: length along direction of diffusion (m)

A in B (m 2 /s)  c A : concentration of A (kg-moles/m 3 )
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an

Diffusivity

Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an 25

Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an 25°C

Gas

D AB x 10 5 (m 2 /s)

Naphthalene

0.62

Carbon dioxide

1.64

Nitrogen oxide

1.8

Oxygen

2.06

Ammonia

2.8

Hydrogen

4.1

Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure Temperature
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure Temperature
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure Temperature
Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure Temperature

Diffusivity

Diffusivity   Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure Temperature (K)

Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure

Temperature (K)

D AB x 10 5 (m 2 /s)

200

2.12

300

2.54

325

3

350

3.49

375

4.03

400

4.61

Estimation of diffusivity  correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid properties such as molar
Estimation of diffusivity  correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid properties such as molar
Estimation of diffusivity  correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid properties such as molar
Estimation of diffusivity  correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid properties such as molar

Estimation of diffusivity

correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid

properties such as molar volume, molecular weight

and liquid viscosity

Three most used correlations:

Stokes-Einstein correlation

Wilke-Chang Correlation

Polson Correlation

Stokes-Einstein correlation   T: temperature (K)  μ : liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s) 
Stokes-Einstein correlation   T: temperature (K)  μ : liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s) 
Stokes-Einstein correlation   T: temperature (K)  μ : liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s) 
Stokes-Einstein correlation   T: temperature (K)  μ : liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s) 

Stokes-Einstein correlation

Stokes-Einstein correlation   T: temperature (K)  μ : liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s)  V

T: temperature (K)

μ: liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s)

V A : solute specific molar volume (m 3 /kg-mol)

Wilke-Chang Correlation   φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)  M B
Wilke-Chang Correlation   φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)  M B
Wilke-Chang Correlation   φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)  M B
Wilke-Chang Correlation   φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)  M B

Wilke-Chang Correlation

Wilke-Chang Correlation   φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)  M B :

φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)

M B : molecular weight of liquid medium (kg-mol)

Polson Correlation   M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)
Polson Correlation   M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)
Polson Correlation   M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)
Polson Correlation   M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)

Polson Correlation

Polson Correlation   M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)

M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)

Convective mass transfer  c f J A c w
Convective mass transfer  c f J A c w
Convective mass transfer  c f J A c w
Convective mass transfer  c f J A c w

Convective mass transfer

Convective mass transfer  c f J A c w
c f J A c w
c
f
J
A
c
w
Boundary layer  Governing differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c
Boundary layer  Governing differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c
Boundary layer  Governing differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c
Boundary layer  Governing differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c

Boundary layer

Governing differential equation

Boundary layer  Governing differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c w

Boundary conditions

y=0

y

differential equation  Boundary conditions y=0 y ∞ c a =c w c a =c f

c a =c w c a =c f

Solving will result in dimensionless numbers

Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number 
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number 
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number 
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number 

Dimensionless numbers

Sherwood number === Nusselt number

Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===

Schmidt number === Prandtl number

Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===

===

Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===
Dimensionless numbers  Sherwood number === Nusselt number  Schmidt number === Prandtl number  ===
Using dimensionless numbers air P = 1 atm T ∞ = 20 °C V ∞
Using dimensionless numbers air P = 1 atm T ∞ = 20 °C V ∞
Using dimensionless numbers air P = 1 atm T ∞ = 20 °C V ∞
Using dimensionless numbers air P = 1 atm T ∞ = 20 °C V ∞

Using dimensionless numbers

air

Using dimensionless numbers air P = 1 atm T ∞ = 20 °C V ∞ =
P = 1 atm
P
= 1 atm

T = 20 °C V = 2.5 m/s ρ a = 0 kg/m 3 (Dry)

°C V ∞ = 2.5 m/s ρ a ∞ = 0 kg/m 3 (Dry) L =

L = 1 m

At 1 atm, 20 °C

air:

ν= 15.06x10 -6

vapor: D ab =2.4224x10 -5

m 2 /s m 2 /s

20 °C air: ν = 15.06x10 - 6 vapor: D a b =2.4224x10 - 5 m

W = 0.25 m

a: water vapor b: air

20 °C air: ν = 15.06x10 - 6 vapor: D a b =2.4224x10 - 5 m
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor

Using dimensionless numbers

air

Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:

L = 1 m

Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:

W = 0.25 m

a: water vapor b: air

Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Using dimensionless numbers air L = 1 m W = 0.25 m a: water vapor b:
Applications  Drying  Extraction  Absorption
Applications  Drying  Extraction  Absorption
Applications  Drying  Extraction  Absorption
Applications  Drying  Extraction  Absorption

Applications

Drying Extraction

Absorption

Drying  Water transfer from solid to air  Heating  increases the diffusivity of
Drying  Water transfer from solid to air  Heating  increases the diffusivity of
Drying  Water transfer from solid to air  Heating  increases the diffusivity of
Drying  Water transfer from solid to air  Heating  increases the diffusivity of

Drying

Water transfer from solid to air Heating

increases the diffusivity of water in air

decreases the conc. of water vapor in air (relative

humidity)

Heating  increases the diffusivity of water in air  decreases the conc. of water vapor
Extraction  Feed contains a component, i , which is to be removed  Addition
Extraction  Feed contains a component, i , which is to be removed  Addition
Extraction  Feed contains a component, i , which is to be removed  Addition
Extraction  Feed contains a component, i , which is to be removed  Addition

Extraction

Feed contains a component, i, which is to be removed

Addition of a second solvent which is immiscible with feed but component i is soluble in both liquids

Some of component i (solute) is transferred from the

feed to the solvent

After extraction the feed and solvent are called the raffinate and extract

transferred from the feed to the solvent  After extraction the feed and solvent are called
Absorption  Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which
Absorption  Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which
Absorption  Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which
Absorption  Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which

Absorption

Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which they dissolve

Absorption  Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which they