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Outline

Introduction

Fick’s law

Diffusivity

Convective mass transfer

Applications

Introduction

Definition

Movement of a scent from one end of a room to the other

Mass transfer:

Within a medium

Across an interface

Diffusion

Fick’s law

Considering diffusion of A in B

J A : Flux of A into B (kg-moles/m 2 .s)

D AB : diffusivity of A in B (m 2 /s)

c A : concentration of A (kg-moles/m 3 )

x: length along direction of diffusion (m)

Diffusivity

Diffusion coefficient of some gases in air at 1 atm pressure an 25°C

 Gas D AB x 10 5 (m 2 /s) Naphthalene 0.62 Carbon dioxide 1.64 Nitrogen oxide 1.8 Oxygen 2.06 Ammonia 2.8 Hydrogen 4.1

Diffusivity

Diffusion coefficient of water vapor in air at 1 atm pressure

 Temperature (K) D AB x 10 5 (m 2 /s) 200 2.12 300 2.54 325 3 350 3.49 375 4.03 400 4.61

Estimation of diffusivity

correlations link diffusivity to solute and liquid

properties such as molar volume, molecular weight

and liquid viscosity

Three most used correlations:

Stokes-Einstein correlation

Wilke-Chang Correlation

Polson Correlation

Stokes-Einstein correlation

T: temperature (K)

μ: liquid medium viscosity (kg/m.s)

V A : solute specific molar volume (m 3 /kg-mol)

Wilke-Chang Correlation

φ: association parameter of liquid medium(2.6 for water)

M B : molecular weight of liquid medium (kg-mol)

Polson Correlation

M A : molecular weight of solute (kg-mol)

Convective mass transfer

c
f
J
A
c
w

Boundary layer

Governing differential equation

Boundary conditions

y=0

y

c a =c w c a =c f

Solving will result in dimensionless numbers

Dimensionless numbers

Sherwood number === Nusselt number

Schmidt number === Prandtl number

===

Using dimensionless numbers

air

P
= 1 atm

T = 20 °C V = 2.5 m/s ρ a = 0 kg/m 3 (Dry)

L = 1 m

At 1 atm, 20 °C

air:

ν= 15.06x10 -6

vapor: D ab =2.4224x10 -5

m 2 /s m 2 /s

W = 0.25 m

a: water vapor b: air

Using dimensionless numbers

air

L = 1 m

W = 0.25 m

a: water vapor b: air

Applications

Drying Extraction

Absorption

Drying

Water transfer from solid to air Heating

increases the diffusivity of water in air

decreases the conc. of water vapor in air (relative

humidity)

Extraction

Feed contains a component, i, which is to be removed

Addition of a second solvent which is immiscible with feed but component i is soluble in both liquids

Some of component i (solute) is transferred from the

feed to the solvent

After extraction the feed and solvent are called the raffinate and extract

Absorption

Solutes are removed from a gas by contact with a liquid in which they dissolve