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CAH (Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis)




Choral (altogether) Response in the classroom is good as students repeat after the teacher. This is bottom up processing, which means that language is taught in parts first and then language is used. Small parts to big parts. Stimulus Response is helpful to let the students know when correct language is used.

It is the differences between the languages

Is congruent with Communicative Language Teaching because student interact to communicate real messages by interaction, game playing and role play. This is top down processing.

The LAD in central to this theory. This is top down processing which means that language is acquired by USING language. Language comes without grammar instruction. Language first and then the grammar will be acquired Chomskys Universal Grammar, which is the innate linguistic knowledge of all grammatical rules of language, plays a role. Krashens Natural Approach is congruent with this theory. TPR is connected with Innatism

Psychological closeness and distance impact language learning.

Cognitive Position on Language Learning/Information processing Language Learning is the development of knowledge systems. Learning is processed through a system like a computer. Intake processing, ouput.


Language is a series of complex connections and teachers need to give lessons and practice that make that connection.

One weakness is that it does not explain why mistakes occur.

Student can give modified interaction to help communicate an important message.

Social Closeness or distance impact learning.

Practice and activities in the classroom help students use language automatically.

Language is learned by the experiences that connect neurons in the brain.

Audio Lingual Method is based on this, BUT with one difference. Audio-lingual teaches grammar inductively. Skinner

It is connected to behaviorism because L1 language was viewed as habit and in L2 Learning the habit must be changed by new habit formation.

Vygotsky and the theory that all learning is social is congruent with this

Does not consider the role of the LAD.

Learners need to engage with the language and have strategies to help them learn Students should learn about and NOTICE specific aspects of the language and connect them to previous learning and experiences.

Learning helps parts of the brain and parts of language to connect. Parts of the language connect to other parts. Based on brain research

Zone of Proximal Development is related to this because students can scaffold each other

Direct Method Teaching is associated with this because the Direct tries to teach language the same way as the mother tongue through context and connection between language and experience. Believes that we have innate abilities to learn language. Basically we were born to use

Repetition is good for memorization of language

Cooperative approach to learning is part of this theory because student learn by communicating

Only a certain amount of language can be processed at

for a purpose. Language is not learned in isolation. Modeling of language is good because the learners need to follow the lead of the teacher.

language and our brains are equipped to do so

time so that it can be NOTICED.

Lots of practice is good. Students should have strategies to learn and connect new learning to old learning.