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HVDC Station Layout, Equipment LCC & VSC and Integration of Renewables using HVDC

Dr. Dietmar Retzmann Siemens AG dietmar.retzmann@siemens.com

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Overview

1. Introduction 2. HVDC Station Layout and Equipment LCC 3. HVDC Station Layout and Equipment VSC 4. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources using HVDC 5. Conclusions

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

1.

ntroduction
3 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

HVDC Green Energy HVDC Security of Supply


Cigr Tutorial 2012

Reuters: Wind Power & HVDC January 26, 2011

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Electric Power Markets they need HVDC Increasing Demand for Power Generation* from 3,620 GW in 2000 to 5,324 GW in 2010 and to 9,669 GW in 2030 Strong Environmental Constraints Limitation on Power Plant Expansions Natural Energy Resources far away from the Load Centers Severe Right-of-Way Constraints
A crucial Issue in many Countries, in Europe in particular
5 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

* Source: Siemens E ST, 2011 Cigr Tutorial 2012

2.

S tation Layout
10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

Equipment LCC

and

Cigr Tutorial 2012

High-Voltage Direct Current

HVDC
Configuration Possibilities

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Configurations Bipolar

Bipolar, Metallic Return System needs three Lines !

Bipolar, Ground Return System with two Lines


8 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Configurations Monopolar *

* Examples with one Pole out of Service

Monopolar, one DC Line and Ground Return

Monopolar, Metallic Return


9 10-2011

Monopolar, two DC Lines and Ground Return


DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Multiterminal HVDC
Terminals in series

Terminals in parallel

Parallel: Parallel:the theStandard StandardVersion Version

10

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC Back-to-Back Station AC


System 1

AC

AC
System 2

Controls, Protection, Monitoring 1 AC Switchyard 2 AC Filters, C-Banks 3 Converter Transformers


AC Filter AC Filter

4 Thyristor Valves

5 Smoothing Reactors

11

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Bipolar HVDC Station LDT with OHL AC


System 1

AC

AC
System 2
To/ from other Terminal

Controls, Protection, Monitoring

1 AC Switchyard 2 AC Filters, Capacitor Banks

DC filter

Pole 1

3 Converter Transformers 4 Thyristor Valves

AC filter DC filter Pole 2

5 Smoothing Reactors and DC Filters

6 DC Switchyard

12

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC Basic Design: Arrester Arrangement

8 AC-Filter Bus 1 C1 3 AC-Bus L1 Fachv L2 4 FacIv C2 Arr A 2 7 Arr B4 Arr B3 6 Arr B2 Arr B1 10 Lsmooth

DC Line Arr D

Arr C

Fdc

Fdc

AC-Filter

Arr E1 Neutral

Arr E2 11

13

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC Thyristor Valves Principle Circuit of a 12-Pulse Group


Valve Tower Arrangement
12-Pulse Group
Neutral

4 3
Multiple Valve Unit (Quadruple Valve)

A B C

2 1 A
14

B
10-2011

Valve Arm
to DC Line: + or DC Station Layout & GA

Example 500 kV
Cigr Tutorial 2012

LDT Configurations Monopolar/Bipolar

With Monopolar System, only Ground Return available

Option to use the 2nd Conductor for Metallic Return

15

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

DC Overhead Lines and Tower Configurations


Nominal DC Voltage Description
Suitable Power Rating DC System Configuration No. of Conductors per Pole Economical Transmission Distance of Line Required Right-of-Way Minimum Required Ground Clearance (Subject to local Regulations) Typical Suspension Tower Outline (not to scale)

Unit
MW Bundle km m m

300 kV
600 ~ 1,000 Monopolar / Bipolar 2x / 3x / 4x 300 -750 40 8.50

400 kV
1,000 ~ 2,000 Monopolar / Bipolar 2x / 3x / 4x / 6x 500 ~ 1,000 45 ~ 50 10.00 11.00

500 kV
1,500 ~ 3,000 Monopolar / Bipolar 4x / 6x / 8x 700 ~ 1,500 55 ~ 70 11.00 13.00

800 kV
3,000 ~ 7,500 Monopolar / Bipolar 6x / 8x 1,500 ~ 5,000 85 ~ 90 16.00

Range of Tower Heights Typical Insulator Type

m -

25 ~ 40 Cap & Pin / Porcelain Longrod / Composite 4.34 (Porcelain Cap & Pin) / 3.60 (Composite)

Practicable Length of Suspension Insulator String

Lattice Tower: 36 ~ 51 / Monopole: 49.18 ~ 48.18 Cap & Pin / Porcelain Longrod / Composite 5.06 (Composite) / 6.18 (Porcelain)

31 ~ 51 Cap & Pin / Porcelain Longrod / Composite 7.33 (Composite Longrod)

39 ~ 93

Cap & Pin / Porcelain Longrod 12.94 (Cap & Pin)

16

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Basslink HVDC: remote Infeed of Green Energy

Hydro Plants for: Base Load and Pump Storage

Benefits of HVDC: Clean Energy CO2 Reduction

flexible

Plus Wind Power


fuzzy

no additional Thermal Plants Cost Reduction

Base Covering Demands 10-2011 and Peak-Load 17 DC Station Layout & GA

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10-2011

DC Station

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Basslink HVDC: Converter Arial View


Example of HVDC Classic

500 MW 2006

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Basslink HVDC AC Filters

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Basslink HVDC DC Wall Bushing and DC Reactor

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Optimization of the Transmission System


Loy Yang 3.2 km 57.4 km McGaurans Beach 6.4 km 295 km Five Mile Bluff 1.7 km 8.9 km Georgetown 2.1 km

Bass Strait

Converter Station 500 kV Substation

Underground Cable

Underground Cable

Converter Station 220 kV Substation


10 hrs Overload

Sea Cable Transition Station Transition Station


System Data:

Commercial Operation: 2006


21 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

Transmission Capacity: 500 / 600 MW DC Voltage: 400 kV Cigr Tutorial 2012

Examples of DC Lines Basslink 400 kV


From Small to Large Line

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Basslink 400 kV DC Line: Right-of-Way

For Comparison: 300 kV DC Tower


23 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

From DC Line to Cable Basslink HVDC

Welcome great Outdoors !

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC Cable Options


MI: Insulated with special Paper, impregnated with High-Viscosity Compound SCFF: Insulated with special Paper, impregnated with Low-Viscosity Oil Extruded: Insulated with extruded Polyethylene-Based Compound
Mass Impregnated
Voltages up to 600 kV DC. Conductors up to 2,700 mm2
25 10-2011

Self-Contained Fluid Filled


Voltages up to 600 kV DC. Conductors up to 3,000 mm2
DC Station Layout & GA

Extruded
Voltages up to 320 kV DC. Conductors up to 3,000 mm2 (Al)

Photos: Prysmian Cables and Systems, 2009 Data: Status 2011 Cigr Tutorial 2012

DC Cable Laying
Cable Termination

Source: Prysmian Cables and Systems, 2008

Joints

Maximal Length of the Cable Sections


Sea Cable: Land Cable:

100 km
26 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

1 km only !
Cigr Tutorial 2012

300 MW TNB-EGAT HVDC Interconnection

GURUN HVDC CONVERTER STATION

Hotel DC

Adaptation to the local Architecture


Source:
27 10-2011 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

2001
Cigr Tutorial 2012

Europe HVDC Moyle Interconnector


The Task: Sea-Cable Transmission

World's first HVDC with LTT and wafer-integrated BOD


Operated by: Moyle Interconnector Ltd., Northern Ireland System Data: Rating 2 x 250 MW Voltage 250 kV DC Thyristor 8 kV LTT Cable Length 64 km

2001

Auchencrosh Ballycronan More

Power Exchange by Sea Cable Sharing of Reserve Capacity

Benefits
28 10-2011

No Increase in Short-Circuit Power


Cigr Tutorial 2012

DC Station Layout & GA

HVDC Moyle Interconnector An Arial View

Example of HVDC Classic

29

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

New DC Cable Link Neptune RTS, USA

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Neptune HVDC Station Sayreville

660 MW 2007

Example of HVDC Classic


31 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Neptune HVDC Station Duffy Avenue


Snapshots from the Inauguration on 10-11-2007

32

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Neptune HVDC Station Duffy Avenue


Snapshots from the Inauguration on 10-11-2007

33

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

DC Station Neptune with DC Cable 500 kV


Valve Hall DC Hall Control Building Transformers

AC Switchgear

AC Filters

34

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Europe The HVDC Portfolio is growing

Storeblt

Customer: Energinet.dk System Data: Rating 600 MW Voltage 400 kV DC Thyristor 8 kV LTT Cable Length 56 km

2010

BritNed
Customer: BritNed Developm. Ltd. System Data: Rating 2 x 500 MW Voltage 450 kV Thyristor 8 kV LTT Cable Length 260 km
35 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

2011
Power Exchange by Sea Cable Sharing of Reserve Capacity No Increase in Short-Circuit Power
Cigr Tutorial 2012

Storeblt: Station Herslev DC Yard

2010 600 MW

36

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Storeblt: Station Fraugde DC Converter

37

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

BritNed: Station Maasvlatke AC Yard

2011 2 x 500 MW

38

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

BritNed: Station Maasvlatke AC Yard

39

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Sustainability in Transmission HVDC in India: East-South Interconnector and Ballia-Bhiwadi DC versus AC

2010 *2,500 2,500MW MW


India

2 x 3-ph AC 400 kV 1 x +/- 500 kV


Example of HVDC Ballia-Bhiwadi:

800 km

1,450 km

too long for 400 kV AC

Reduction in CO2: 688,000 tons p.a. through 37 % less Transmission Losses at*
40 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

2,000/2,500 MW 2003/2007
Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC Ballia-Bhiwadi, India DC Yard

2010 2,500 MW

41

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Sustainability in Transmission HVDC in Europe: COMETA, Spain-Mallorca DC Interconnector


Customer: Red Elctrica de Espaa System Data: Rating 2 x 200 MW Voltage 250 kV DC Thyristor 8 kV LTT Cable Length 250 km

Reduction in CO2: 1.2 m tons p.a. (52 %) by using Energy-Mix from the Mainland

2011

versus local Supply with a new Oil-fired Power Plant on the Island
42 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

COMETA, Spain-Mallorca DC Interconnector Indoor AC Yard and Converter Halls

400 MW 2011
Example of HVDC Classic

43

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

COMETA, Spain-Mallorca DC Interconnector Transformers mounted

44

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

More Power out of the Grid

plus CO2 Reduction

Technology Issues for UHV DC Transmission


45 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Overview of an 800 kV DC Transmission System


DC Wall Bushing
- 800 kV D C

Line Arresters Voltage Divider


- 400 kV
+ 400 k V DC

DC

DC Filters Disconnectors & Grounding Switches

Bypass Switches Smoothing Reactors


+ 800 kV DC

DC Wall Bushing

46

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Air-Core, Air-cooled Smoothing Reactor and Converter Transformer The Dimensions are huge
500 kV DC in Pictures have meanwhile been extended to 800 kV DC

Mostly an Issue of Mechanics but not only


47 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

UHV DC Reactor in Test Field


4.6 m

800 kV DC 3,125 A 75 mH 28 tons !


14.3 m

48

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

800 kV HVDC Transformers under Construction 250/244 MVA Single-Phase* Transformers

48** Transformers for the Yunnan-Guangdong UHV DC Project


Core Design: 3 Limbs & 2 Return Limbs L x W x H: 26 x 6.4 x 15.2 m Total Weight: 512 tons
* for Transportation Reasons ** plus 8 Spare Units

Test Voltages
49 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

DC (2 hrs) 1,175 kV AC (1 min) 1,020 kV PR (90/90/45 min) 935 kV SI 1,790 kV LI (FW/CW) 2,080/2,320 kV
Cigr Tutorial 2012

Snapshots from DC Transformer Testing


at Transformer Factory Test Lab Nuremberg, Germany

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Valve Hall Configuration for UHV DC

DC Neutral

400 kV Valve Hall

LV 12-Pulse Bridge

400 kV DC

Each Valve Group can be bypassed n-1 Criterion

400 kV DC
HV 12-Pulse Bridge
51 10-2011 10-2011

to 800 kV DC Line

Ready for Transmission


Power Cigr Transmission Cigr Tutorial Tutorial 2012 Solutions 2012

800 kV Valve Hall DC Station Layout DC Station & GA Layout & GA

Testing of UHV DC Bypass Switches


800 kV DC
6.2 m

400 kV DC

9.5 m

Test Set-up

at Siemens High-Voltage Test Lab Berlin, Germany

52

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Testing of UHV DC Disconnectors

800 kV DC

53

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Disconnectors Data and Dimensions


2m

Technical Data
Rated Voltage: 816 kV DC Operating Voltage: 800 kV DC Withstand Voltage: 1,200 kV DC Switching Impulse Voltage:1,790 kV Lightning Impulse Voltage: 2,205 kV Operating Current: 5,000 A DC Short-Circuit Current: 50 / 20 kA 1 s Creepage path: 38,746 mm No. of Operating Cycles: 2,000 CO Weight: 6,000 kg
54 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

11.4 m 13 m

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Capacitor-controlled Wall Bushing


Technical Data
Rated Voltage: Operating Voltage: AC Test Voltage: DC Test Voltage: Creepage Path Outdoor: Creepage Path Indoor: Rated Current: Weight: 816 kV DC 800 kV DC 1,100 kV 1,455 kV DC 42,500 mm 26,630 mm 3,700 A DC 5,600 kg

20.8 m

Test Set-up

Special Challenges
Two Resin-Paper Capacitor Windings with a total Weight of 4,000 kg Design of the Windings and Production with no Shrinkage Holes

55

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Testing of UHV DC Bushing, DC Arrestor and Voltage Divider


12.8 m

10.6 m

800 kV DC

9m

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10-2011

DC DCStation StationLayout Layout& &GA GA

Cigr Cigr Tutorial Tutorial 2012 2012

All Tests are completed

and the Power is flowing


- 800 k V DC

+ 400

- 400

kV D

kV DC

+ 80

0 kV

DC

57

10-2011

DC DCStation StationLayout Layout& &GA GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

More Power out of the Grid

Yunnan-Guangdong

plus CO2 Reduction


Worlds first 800 kV HVDC 5,000 MW In China Southern Power Grid
58 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Single-Line Diagram of Yunnan-Guangdong HVDC System

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Yunnan-Guangdong from 3D Models

60

10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

to Reality: Sending Station Chuxiong

Worlds first 800 kV UHV DC 5,000 MW

Example of HVDC Bulk

2009/2010
61 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Back to Germany: All UHV DC Transformer Tests completed, ready for Shipping to China

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Clearance underneath Bridges in Germany a crucial Issue

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Arrived in China, small Roads Transformers just fitting well, as expected

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Yunnan-Guangdong UHV DC Valve Hall


800 kV DC

DC Side
65 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

UHV DC Sending Station: from indoor to outdoor

800 kV DC

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Station Chuxiong Disconnector & DC Filter

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Yunnan-Guangdong 800 kV DC Line

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

800 kV DC Towers

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

800 kV DC Overhead Line Welcome great Outdoors !

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

For Comparison UHV AC Transmission Towers 1,000 kV Pilot Project

For Redundancy - 2 Lines:


System 1 System 2

Sources:
71 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

More Power out of the Grid

In Co-Operation with

Fulong Converter Station HVDC Transformers & Thyristor Valves with new 6-inch Thyristors

plus CO2 Reduction


Xiangjiaba-Shanghai
Worlds biggest and longest UHV DC in Operation
72 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Schematic Arrangement of Xiangjiaba-Shanghai Converters

73

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Arrangement of 800 kV Converters for Fulong Station

Double Valve Towers of a Fulong 6-Pulse Bridge at the 800 kV Converter End
74 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Arrangement of 800 kV Converters for Fulong Station

Two HV and two LV Valve Towers for Fulong Converter Station during Erection for the dielectric Type Tests in Xihari HV Test Field in Xian, China (Arresters not yet connected)
75 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Design of Thyristor Valves for Fulong Station: Latest Development of Power Thyristors: 6-ETT

DC Current Capability of more than 4,500 A Optimum Blocking Voltage of 8.5 kV Joining of the Silicon Pellet to a Molybdenum Carrier Disk using low-Temperature highPressure Sintering Excellent thermal Coupling Low thermal Resistance Outstanding Short-Circuit Current Capability: > 80 kA High Reliability, Failure Rate < 10 fit
76 10-2011

6 high-Power Thyristor compared with 4 and 5 Elements


Cigr Tutorial 2012

DC Station Layout & GA

From of UHV DC to EHV DC

The Solution for Bulk Power Transmission up to 4 GW


Standard:
500 kV DC
PDC 3 GW PDC 4 GW

New Level:
660 kV DC

Increase in Transmission Capacity and Reduction in Losses


Cigr Tutorial 2012

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Ningdong-Shandong: Worlds first EHV DC at 660 kV

Indoor EHV DC Switchyard

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Yinchuan Dong Sending Station: 660 kV DC Line

79

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

High-Voltage Direct Current

HVDC
Types of Electrodes

80

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DC Station Layout & GA

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Types of HVDC Electrodes

Sea Electrodes Shore (Pond) Electrodes Shore (buried) Electrodes Ground (Land) Electrodes Deep Hole Electrodes

81

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Solutions for HVDC Electrodes Summary

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DC Station Layout & GA

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3.

S tation Layout
10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

Equipment VSC

and

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Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC PLUS with MMC Basic Scheme


Converter Arm Power Module Electronics (PME)
PM 1 PM 2 PM 1 PM 2 PM 1 PM 2

Converter Module

Power Module (PM)


PM n PM n PM n

Converter Reactors

Vd
ud

PM 1

PM 1 PM 2

PM 1 PM 2

IGBT1

D1

PM 2

D2 IGBT2

PM n

PM n

PM n

Phase Unit
84 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

The Result: MMC a perfect Voltage Generation

AC and DC Voltages controlled by Converter Arm Voltages:


+Vd /2 VConv.

VAC

- Vd /2

85

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HVDC PLUS: Trans Bay Cable Project, USA

Energy Project of the Year American Society of Civil Engineers, Region 9; Sacramento, 9th March 2011
Elimination of Transmission Bottlenecks

P = 400 MW Q = +/- 170-300 MVAr


86 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

Dynamic Voltage Support


Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC PLUS: Trans Bay Cable Project, USA

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DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

HVDC PLUS Options for Converter Modules and Building Arrangements

A highly flexible Design

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DC Station Layout & GA

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Benefits of HVDC PLUS

Space Saving

HVDC PLUS Example 400 MW

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HVDC Classic DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Example of HVDC PLUS Station: 2 x 100 MW

Options:

C D a)

s e l b Ca
b C D )

B 2 B

85 m
(279 feet)

96 m
(315 feet)

90

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DC Station Layout & GA

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HVDC PLUS Station Option for 100 MW B2B

(148 feet)

Half the Width by vertical Arrangement: 2 Reactors and 2 Converter Modules on Top of each other
91 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Layout of a 400 MW Converter Station

Footprint: 150 x 110 m


(492 x 361 ft)

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DC Station Layout & GA

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Onshore Station Layout Example 400 MW, +/- 200 kV


Converter Reactors Converter Hall
90
0m 13

DC Switchyard Cable Sealing End

DC Chopper

AC Busbars

Converter AC Yard, Insertion Resistors Neutral Reactors Converter Transformer 3-Phase / ODAN

Control & Protection Auxiliaries, Spares

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4.

I ntegration
10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

RES using HVDC


Cigr Tutorial 2012

of

94

Green Energy: EUs Offshore Programme EEPR

2030: Up to

350 GW

of Wind Power !

CE Installed Capacity: 631 GW


Source: EEPR-Meeting 2011-03-15&16, Brussels

95

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DC Station Layout & GA

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Integration of large Offshore Wind Farms into the Main Grid the German Prospects
VSC HVDC for Onshore Grid Access & Offshore DC Multiterminal

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

= = =

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10-2011

HVDC Classic for Load & E DC T Station PS S/Re Layout & Sharing GA Generation Reserve

= = = = = =

= = =

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Green Energy needs Grid Enhancement HVDC Example of Germany

Strengthening the AC Grid with DC Overlay Grid


Source: DENA Study II Nov. 2010
97 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Solutions for Grid Access: AC and DC with SVC PLUS and HVDC PLUS

DC Solution for Grid Access 33 kV AC

HVDC PLUS
132 kV AC 320 kV DC

132 kV AC
33 kV AC

HVDC PLUS SVC PLUS


33 kV AC AC Solution for Grid Access

132 kV AC

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Turnkey Responsibility: First and crucial Steps


99

Definition of most economic Wind Farm Network and Grid Connection (AC versus DC). Define Layout and specify Components of the entire Grid Connection. Load-Flow Studies and Short-Circuit Calculations of the whole System. Define the System Grounding Concept and perform Insulation Coordination for the entire Grid Connection. Verification the static and dynamic Performance and Design of Reactive Power Compensation and / or DC System. Evaluation of System Resonance Behavior driven by the Cables, Transformers, Reactors and Wind Generators. Prove the Conformity with the GRID CODE. Design of Protection, Control (SCADA) and Communication System. System Efficiency: Evaluation of overall losses for various Scenarios. Evaluation of electro-magnetic Interferences for the Grid Connection. Optimization of System Reliability and Availability.
10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Example of System and Design Studies: Dynamic Modeling of a big Number of Wind Generators

System Resonances and System Interactions

Grid Code & Power Quality:


Source: EWIS Interim Report June-2008

Fault-Ride Through and Reactive Power Injection Voltage Dip Compensation

100

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HVDC PLUS and WIPOS: SylWin1, Germany Worlds first Offshore MMC with 864 MW, BorWin2 and HelWin1&2
WIPOS Siemens Wind Power Offshore Substation
Siemens offers a Family of WIPOS Designs with the Flexibility to meet a Variety of Offshore Weather, Tide, and Seabed Conditions with three main Configurations:
WIPOS self-lifting Solution WIPOS Topside Solution (Topside/Jacket) WIPOS floating Solution

+/- 320 kV 864 MW

2014 2015
+/- 320 kV 690 MW

+/- 300 kV 800 MW

=
The Modular Multilevel Converter Technology (MMC) reduces Complexity and therefore the Space 10-2011 101 required for Installation
101 DC Station Layout & GA

HelWin1

+/- 250 kV 576 MW

BorWin2
=

2013
~

2013

SylWin1

HelWin2

= =

== ~ = ~ =

Cigr Tutorial 2012

Prospects and Locations of Tennets Offshore Projects one with AC and all others with DC Links

Source:

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Prospects and Locations of Tennets DC Offshore Projects Example of

Source: http://www.tennet.eu/
103 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Prospects and Locations of Tennets DC Offshore Projects Example of

Source: http://www.tennet.eu/
104 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA Cigr Tutorial 2012

Grid Access of Green Energy with HVDC PLUS: WIPOS Advanced self-lifting Offshore Platform Layout

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DC Station Layout & GA

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HVDC in China: Bulk Power Transmission of Green Energy

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Super Grid for DESERTEC with HVDC


Source: DESERTEC Foundation
An Initiative of the Club of Rome

Siemens has a commitment in the Desertec Industrial Initiative (DII). The objective of this initiative is to develop over the mid-term a technical and economic concept for solar power from Africa. Work will also focus on the clarification of legal and political issues.

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5.

onclusions
108 10-2011 DC Station Layout & GA

The Position of HVDC in Comparison with AC


Cigr Tutorial 2012

Solutions for Smart & Bulk Power Transmission


Solutions with Overhead Lines
Note: Power AC @ 1 System 3 , Power DC @ Bipole +/-

High-Voltage DC Transmission: HVDC Classic with 500 kV (HV) / 660 kV (EHV) 3 to 4 GW

HVDC Bulk with 800 kV (UHV) 5 GW to 7.6 GW


For Comparison: HVDC PLUS (VSC) 1,100 MVA

Option UHV DC 1,100 kV: 10 GW

AC Transmission: 400 kV (HV) / 500 kV AC (EHV) 1.5 / 2 GVA 800 kV AC (EHV) 3 GVA 1,000 kV AC (UHV) 6 to 8 GVA

The Winner is HVDC !

Solutions with DC Cables *

* Distances over 80 km: AC Cables too complex

500 / 600 kV DC per Cable, Mass Impregnated: 1 GW to 2 GW (actual - prospective)

Solutions with GIL Gas Insulated Lines

** Reference: Bowmanville, Canada, 1985 - Siemens *** Reference: Huanghe Laxiwa Hydropower Station,
China, 2009 - CGIT (USA)

400 kV AC (HV) 1.8 GVA / 2.3 GVA (directly buried / Tunnel or Outdoor) 500 kV AC (EHV) 2.3 GVA / 2.9 GVA (directly buried / Tunnel or Outdoor) 550 kV AC (EHV) Substation: Standard 3.8 GVA / Special 7.6 GVA ** 800 kV AC (EHV) Tunnel: 5.6 GVA ***
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Summary: Features and Benefits of HVDC HVDC High-Voltage DC Transmission: It makes P flow
Three HVDC Options available: PLUS (VSC), Classic and Bulk With DC, Overhead Line Losses are typically 30-50 % less than with AC For Cable Transmission (over 80 km), HVDC is the only Solution HVDC can be integrated into the AC Systems HVDC supports AC in Terms of Stability System Interconnection with HVDC and Integration of HVDC: DC is a Firewall against Cascading Disturbances Bidirectional Control of Power Flow quite easy Frequency, Voltage and POD Control available Staging of the Links with DC quite easy No Increase in Short-Circuit Power DC is a Stability Booster
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Thank You for Your Attention

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10-2011

DC Station Layout & GA

Cigr Tutorial 2012