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IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with

IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

IEEE Power & Energy Society

5ponsored by the Power 5ystem Relaying Committee

IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997 USA

17 September 2012

IEEE 5td C37.90.l'M-2012

(Revision of IEEE Std C37.90.1-2002

IEEE Std C37.90.1T M -2012

(Revision 01 IEEE Std C37.90.1-2002)

IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Sponsor

Power System Relaying Committee ofthe IEEE Power & Energy Society

Approved 30 August 2012

IEEE-5A Standards Board

Grateful acknowledgment is made lhe lnternational Electrotechnical Commission (lEC) for pennission to reproduce infonnation from its International Standards lEC 61000-4-18 Ed. l.l (2011) and lEC 61000-4-4 Ed. 2.1 (2011). AH such extracts are copyright of lEC, Geneva, Switzerland. AH rights reserved. Further infonnation on lhe lEC is available from www.iec.ch. lEC has no responsibility for the placement and context in which lhe extracts and contents are reproduced by lhe author, nor is lEC in any way responsible for the olher content or accuracy lherein. Non-exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free pennission to use this material is granted for world rights distribution, wilh pennission to modifY and reprint in aH future revisions and editions of the resulting draft and approved lEEE standard, and in derivative works based on lhe standard, in aH media known or hereinafter known.

Abstract: Two types of design tests for relays and relay systems that relate to the immunity of this equipment to repetitive electrical transients are specified. Test generator characteristics, test waveforms, selection of equipment terminals on which tests are to be conducted, test procedures, criteria for acceptance and documentation of test results are described. This standard has been harmonized with lEC standards where consensus could be reached.

Keywords:

fast transient test,

withstand capability, SWC

IEEE C37.90.1,

osciflatory test,

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, lne.

3 ParkAvenue, NewYork, NY 10016-5997, USA

relay,

relay systems,

surge

Copyright © 2012 by The InsUMe af Elecmcal and Electronícs Engineers, Ine. AII rights reserved. Published 17 September 2012. Printed in the United States of America.

IEEE is a registered trademar!< in the U.S. Pateot & Trademark Office. owned by The InsUtute 01 Electrical and Electronics

Engineers, Incorporated.

POF:

ISBN 978-0-7381-7305-4

STD97280

Print:

ISBN 978-0-7381-7357-3

STDPD97280

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Patents

Attention is called to lhe possibility lhat implementation of lhis standard may require use of subject matter covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken by the IEEE wilh respect to lhe existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. If a patent holder or patent applicant has filed a statement of assurance via an Accepted Letter of Assurance, lhen the statement is listed on the IEEE-SA Website at http://standards.ieee.orglaboutlsasb/patcomlpatents.html. Letters of Assurance may indicate whether the Submitter is willing or unwilling to grant licenses under patent rights wilhout compensation or under reasonable rates, wilh reasonable terms and conditions lhat are demonstrably free of any unfair discrhnination to applicants desiring to obtain such licenses.

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Essential Patent Claims may exist for whieh a Letter of Assuranee has not been reeeived. The IEEE is not responsible for identifYing Essential Patent Claims for whieh a lieense may be required, for eondueting inqniries into lbe legal validity or seope of Patents Claims, or determining whether any lieensing terms or eonditions provided in eonneetion wilb submission of a Letter of Assuranee, if any, or in any lieensing agreements are reasonable or non-diseriminatory. Users of this standard are expressly advised lbat determination of the validity of any patent rights, and lbe risk of infringement of sueh rights, is entirely their own responsibility. Further information may be obtained from lbe IEEE Standards Assoeiation.

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Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

Participants

At the time this IEEE standard was completed, the 120 Working Group had!he following membership:

Tom Beckwith, Chair Jeff Burnworth, Vice Chair

Barbara Anderson

Bui Dac·Phuoc

MarkSimon

Bob Beresh

Jay Murphy

Veselin Skendzic

Ryan Bares

Mario Ranieri

John Tengdin

Jack Chadwick, Jr.

RogerRay

Murty V. Yally

Norbert Rochow

The following members of!he individual balloting cornmirtee voted on this standard. Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.

William Ackerruan

Jeffrey Gilbert

IuHan Profir

AH Al Awazi

David Gilmer

Mario Ranieri

Jay Anderson

Mietek Glinkowski

RogerRay

G. Bartok

Jalal Gohari

Michael Roberts

Michael Basler

Stephen Grier

Charles Rogers

Philip Beaurnont

Randall Groves

Bartien Sayogo

Thomas Beckwith

AjitGwal

Samuel Sciacca

Robert Beresh

Roger Hedding

Gil Shultz

Steven Bezner

Gary HolIman

MarkSirnon

Wallace Binder

JerryHohn

Veselin Skendzic

Oscar Bolado

Ronald Hotchkiss

James Srnith

Gustavo Brunello

Gerald Johnson

Jererny Srnith

Jeffrey Bumworth

Joseph L. Koepfinger

Jerry Srnith

William Bush

Jirn Kulchisky

Gary Stoedter

Mark Bushnell

Chung.Yiu Lam

Charles Sufana

Suresh Channarasappa

Robert Landrnan

JamesSwank

Arvind K. Chaudhary

Greg Luri

John Tengdin

Bill Chiu

Michael Mayturn

Demetrios Tziouvaras

Stephen Conrad

Ornar Mazzoni

Joe Uchiyarna

Gary Donner

John McDonald

Eric Udren

Michael Dood

Nigel Mcquin

John Vergis

Randall Dotson

Brian Mugalian

John Wang

Neal Dowling

Jerry Murphy

Steven Whalen

Gary Engrnann

R. Murphy

Thomas Wiedman

Dan Evans

Bruce Muschlitz

Philip Winston

Fredric Friend

Michael S. Newman

Murty V. Yalla

John Galanos

Bansi Patel

Jian Yu

Frank Gerleve

Robert Pettigrew

Matthew Zeedyk

vi

Copyright © 2D12 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

When lhe IEEE-SA Standards Board approved tbis standard on 30 August 2012, it had the following membership:

Richard H. Hulett, Chair John Kulick, Vice Chair Robert M. Grow, Past Chair Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary

Satish Aggarwal

Alexander Gelrnan

Oleg Logvinov

Masayuki Ariyoshi

PauIHouzé

Ted ülsen

Peter Balma

JirnHughes

Gary Robinson

William BartIey

Young Kyun Kirn

Jon Walter Rosdahl

TedBurse

Joseph L. Koeptinger*

Mike Seavey

Clint Chaplin

David 1. Law

Yatin Trivedi

Wael Diab

ThomasLee

Phi! Winsgton

Jean-Philippe Faure

HungLing

Yu Yuan

*Member Emeritus

AIso induded are the following nonvoting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons:

Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative Michael Janezic, NI8T Representative

Matthew 1. Ceglia

IEEE Client Services Manager, Professional Services

Michelle D. Tumer

IEEE Standards Program Manager, Document Development

Erin Spiewak

IEEE Standards Program Manager, Technical Program Development

vii

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Introduction

This intraduction is not par! of IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012, IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests

for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus.

Assurance is needed lhat electronic relays and relay systems will operate satisfactorily when installed in lhe harsh environment of a substation or switchyard. Standard surge tests will provide assurance that lhe relays and relay systems will wilhstand a specitied surge level. The use of proper grounding and shielding techniques when installing the equipment will attenuate the actual surge level hnpinging on the equipment. However, even wilh proper grounding and shielding, surges may reach lhe equipment lhat are above lhe test levels specitied in this standard. In such cases, the addition by the user of surge suppression devices extemal to the relay system may be required.

The fIrst standard document to specify an SWC Test was ANSIIIEEE Std C37.90a rn -1974IIEEE Std 472'"- 1974 (redesignated ANSIIIEEE Std C37.90.l-l974), Guide for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests.

Experience with ANSIIIEEE C37.90.1-1974 was good, and in 1978 lhe Guide was incorporated as Clause 9 of ANSI/IEEE Std C37.90'"-1978, IEEE Standard for Relays and Relay Systems Associated wilh Electric Power Apparatus. This meant lhat the oscillatory SWC Test became a required test for relays and relay systems containing semiconducting devices.

From lhe beginning, it was realized that lhe oscillatory SWC test had limitations and did not adequately represent all conducted transients lhat may be experienced in substation environments. The need for a complementary test was recognized and the general type of test required was identitied. The problem lhen became one of a search for a circuit lhat would produce a repeatable, controllable oulput. During lhe search, the IEC showering are test was studied as well as a number of other tests proposed by various organizations. These were not chosen because they were not repeatable or controllable.

The combination of lhe original oscillatory SWC test and lhe fast transient SWC test ensure that relays and relay systems will function at a level of inomunity in the presence of conducted transients that occur in substations. The fast transient test was therefore incorporated into ANSIIIEEE Std C37.90.l-l989, because it is stable, easy to control and can be performed in a minimum time and at a reasonable cost.

A working group was later assembled to harmonize ANSI/IEEE Std C37.90.l-1989 with corresponding IEC standards and to make the standard more understandable through claritications and inoprovements to lhe document. This working group made extensive revisions such that one set of tests are necessary to reach closer harmonization with lhe corresponding IEC standards.

viii

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

Contents

l. Overview

 

1

1.1 Scope

1

1.2 Purpose

1

2. Nonnative references

,

2

3. Defmitions

 

;

2

4. Test wave shapes

 

3

4.1 Oscillatory test wavefonn characteristics (see Figure 1)

 

3

4.2 Fast transient test wavefonn (see Figure 2)

4

5. Test generator characteristics

 

6

5.1

Oscillatory SWC test

6

5.2 Fast transient SWC tesl

 

6

5.3 Common characteristics for al! SWC test generators

 

6

5.4 Veritication oftest generator characteristics

7

6. Equipment to be tested

 

8

6.1

Test intent

8

6.2

System

8

6.3 Application

 

8

6.4 Protective relay communications equipment

 

8

6.5 Test points

 

9

7. Application oftest wave

9

7.1 External connection groups

 

9

7.2 Point ofapplication oftests

9

7.3 Conditions oftest

10

8. Testprocedures

14

8.1

Test types

14

8.2

Common mode tests

14

8.3

Transverse mode tests

14

9. Criteria for acceptance

15

9.1

Application ofcriteria

15

9.2 Conditions to be met

16

9.3 Equipment functioning

16

10. Test records

Annex A (infonnative) Bibliography

16

18

Annex B (infonnative)

Veritication oftest generator characteristics

19

Annex

C (infonnative) Test wavefonn delivery

23

Annex D (infonnative) Balanced/unbalanced (balun) transfonner impedance matching network examples

ix

Copyright © 2D12 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

25

Annex E (nonnative) Communication interface equipment and communication system equipment

27

Annex

F (infonnative) Comparison with IEC Protective Relay Standards

34

Annex

G (infonnative) History oflEEE Std C37.90.l

.36

x

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Standard tor Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests tor Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

IMPORTANT NOTICE: IEEE Standards documents are not intended to ensure safety, health, or environmental protection, or ensure against interference with or from other devices or networks. Implementers of IEEE Standards documents are responsible for determining and complying with all appropriate safety, security, environmental, health, and interference protection practices and all appllcable laws and regulations.

This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These notices and disclaÚners appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the heading "Important Notice" or "Important Notices and Disclflimers Concerning IEEE Documents." They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.orglIPR/disclaimers.l.tml.

1.0verview

1.1 Seope

This standard specifies design tests for relays and relay systems that relate to the immunity of this equipment to repetitive electrical transients. Two types of tests are specified. The oscillatory and fast transient SWC tests are defmed as distinct tests. However, it is not intended to prohibit a combined test, provided aH requirements ofthe individual SWC tests are mel.

The application of SWC tests to equipment other than relays and relay systems is the responsibility ofthose specifying the testiug.

1.2 Purpose

This standard establishes a common and reproducible basis for evaluating the performance of relays and relay systems when subjected to repetitive transients on supply, signal, control, and commuuication lines or connections. This standard establishes that an evaluation is performed during both normal (non-tripped) and abnormal (tripped) relay operating conditions.

1

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

2. Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document (Le., lhey must be understood and used, so each referenced document is cited in text and its relationship to this document is explained). For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, lhe latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or conigenda) applies.

IEEE Std C37.90™, IEEE Standard Relays and Relay Systems Associated wilh Electric Power Apparatus. 1, 2

3. Definitions

For the purposes of this document, lhe following terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards Dictionary Online should be consuIted for terms not defined in lhis clause. 3

calibration: The adjustment of a deYice to haye the designed operating characteristics, and lhe subsequent marking of lhe posilions of the adjusting means, or lhe making of adjustments necessary to bring operating characteristics into substantial agreement with standardized scales or marking.

common (longitudinal) -mode yoltage: The yoltage common to all conductors of a group as measured between that group at a giyen location and an arbitrary reference (usually earth).

communications

interface

equipment:

A

portion

of

a

relay

system

which transmits

or receiyes

information from a communications system; e.g., audio tone equipment or carrier transmitter~receiver

incIuded as an integral par! of the reIay system.

communications system: Any system which transfers proteclion or olher data to or from lhe reIay interface to or from anolher location.

current circuit: An input circuit to which is applied a current of greater lhan or equaI to lOO mA, which is

a measure of primary curren!.

digital data circuit: Any circuit that transfers data in a digitally encoded form that is essential for the proper operation of lhe relay system.

input circuit: Circuits wilh the primary intended function of sensing logical state data, such as circuit breaker position or interlocking commands between relays.

measuring unit: Any analog or digital deYice lhat anaIyzes input currents or yoltages or bolh to produce an oUlput to lhe relay logic.

normal tolerauce: Accuracy of the equipment, specified by the manufacturer as a numeric or percentage "plus or minus" yariation. Tolerances may be general or specific to a giyen application.

autput circuit: A circuit from a relay system that exercises direct or indirect control of power apparatus such as tripping or closing of a power circuit breaker,

I The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks ofIhe Institute ofEleetrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 2 IEEE publications are available from The Institute ofElectrical and Electronics Engineers. 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA (http://standards.ieee.orgD. 3 IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at http://www.ieee.orglportaVinnovate/products/standardlstandardsdictiomuy.html.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capabiiity (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with EJectric Power Apparatus

output: QUlputs convey a state of the equipment under test. They may include: electrical oUlputs such as contacts or trip pulses, mechanical oUlputs such as targets, visual oUlputs such as indicating lights or light- emitting diodes (LEDs), audio oUlputs such as bells or buzzers, message oUlputs in digital or analog form, protective communication signals, and data communication signals in analog or digital formo

power supply circuit: An input circuit to a relay system that supplies power for the functioning of the relay system.

relay interface equipment: An assembly that connects a relay system to other equipment, Le. carrier equipment or instrument transformers. This assembly does not need to be located in the vicinity of the rest ofthe relay system.

relay logic: A logic network that coordinates the oUlput of measuring units and other inputs to energize oUlput circuits when prescribed conditions and sequences have been met.

relay system: An assembly usually consisting of current and voltage circuits, measuring units, logic, and power supplies to provide a specific relay scheme such as line, transformer, bus, or generator protection. A relay system may include connections to other systems such as data logging, alarm, communications, or other relay systems.

signal circuit: Any circuit other than a power supply circuit or an oUlput circuit whose maximum voltage is less than 50 V and maximum current is less than 100 mA.

surge ground: The point of extemal connection to the relay system reference or common bus for surge protection.

transverse (differential) -mode voltage: The voltage between two conductors of a circuit at a given location.

voltage circuit: An input circuit to which is applied a voltage greater than or equal to 50 V, that is a measure ofprimary voltage.

4. Test wave shapes

4.1 Oscillatory test waveform characteristics (see Figure 1)

The test waveform parameters for an open circuit generator condition at the generator terminals shall be as follows:

Wavefoim envelope: A damped oscillatory wave, with the envelope decaying to 50% ofthe peak I value (Pkl) between the Peak 5 (Pk5) and Peak lO (PkIO) points ofthe waveform.

Frequency: I MHz (tolerance ±IO%) Rise time offirst peak: 75 ns (tolerance ±20%), as measured between 10% and 90% ofthe peak value. Test voltage magnitude: Initial crest of 2.5 kV for common mode tests and for transverse tests (tolerance +0 / -10%). Repetition rate: 6-10 bursts per period of the power system frequency. Bursts shall be non- synchronous with the power system frequency. Test duration: 2 s (tolerance + 10% / -0%). For relays with an operating time greater than 2 s, it is recommended that the test be carried out with a minimum time setting. In such cases, the period of application ofthe test signal shall be at least as long as the operating time ofthe relay under test. Polarity ofthe fITst half-period: Positive and negative. Source impedance: 200 n resistive at I MHz (tolerance ±20%).

3

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

NOTE l-Oscillation ftequency is defined as the reciprocal of the period between the first and third zera crossings

after the initial peak. Ihis period is shown as T in Figure 1. 4

NOTE 2-0utput impedanee is ealeulated as open cireuit voltage PKI divided by ,hort eireui! eurrenl PKI.

v 50%- 10%
v
50%-
10%

TI =75ns

divided by ,hort eireui! eurrenl PKI. v 50%- 10% TI =75ns Pk, Pk. "' _ 6-10

Pk,

Pk.

"'
"'
_
_

6-10 bursts per perlad ofthe power system fr&quency

2 sQConds +10M}%

-

Time

Figure 1-0scillatory test waveform

(Reprinted with permission from lEC Copyright © 2011 lEC Geneva, 5witzerland.www.iec.ch)

4.2 Fast transient test waveform (see Figure 2)

The test generator waveform parameters at the generator terminals shall be as follows:

a)

Waveform polarity: Positive and negative

b)

Output type: Coaxial, 50 n.

e)

Repetition rate: The waveform eonsists ofbursts ofpulses that repeat periodically.

d)

Burst duration: 15 ms (toleranee ± ZO%)

e)

Repetition rate during bursts: 5 !<Hz (toleranee ±ZO%)

f)

Burst periodo 300 ms (toleranee ±ZO%)

g)

Test duration: Not less than 1 min, eaeh polarity

h)

Wave shape ofthe pulse

4Notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only and do Dot contain requirements needed to implement

this standard.

4

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. Al! rights reseIVed.

IEEE Std C37.90.1·2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated with Electric Power Apparatus

1)

into 50 n load

i) rise time (10% to 90%) = 5 ns ± 30%

ii) duration (above 50%) = 50 ns ± 30%

iii)

peak voltage = 2 kV ± 10%

2)

into 50 n load

i) rise time (10% to 90%) = 5 ns ± 30%

ii) duration (above 50%) = 50 ns with a toleranee of-15 ns to + 100 ns

iii) peak voltage = 4 kV ± 20%

NOTE-Test resistive load impedances are 50 Q ± 2% and 1000.0 ± 2%, non-inductive, in parallel with:S 6 pF. The

resistance measurement is marle at de and the capacitance measurement is performed using a cornmercially available

capacitance meter.

v

100%+ , Posltlve or 90% Negatlve Polarity 50% lIf·of---so ns ± 30% ---J 100/< Sns±30%
100%+
,
Posltlve or
90%
Negatlve Polarity
50%
lIf·of---so ns ± 30% ---J
100/<
Sns±30%
v l200~±20% -----------Jl JL I 1--'------15 ms± 20% •
v
l200~±20%
-----------Jl JL
I
1--'------15 ms± 20%

t

v -f""ll1W 1- j 15ms±20% ¡.- 300 ms ± 20% ------ 1 minute, each polarlty
v
-f""ll1W
1-
j
15ms±20%
¡.- 300 ms ± 20%
------
1 minute, each polarlty ------_1

Figure 2-Fast transient test waveform characteristics

(Reprinted with penmission from lEC Copyright@ 2011 lEC Geneva, 5wilzerland.www.iec.ch)

5

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated with Electric Power Apparatus

5. Test generator characteristics

5.1 Oscillatory SWC test

5.1.1 Generator output

The test generator shall be eapable of produeing the output test voltage waveform as deseribed in 4.1. It shall also meet lhe requirements of 4.1 regarding frequeney, rise time, magnitude, repetition rate, test duration, polarity, and souree impedanee.

5.1.2 Additional requirements

The generator shall also meet the requirements listed in 5.3.

5.2 Fast transient SWC test

5.2.1 Generator output

The test generator shall be eapable of produeing the output test voitage waveform as deseribed in 4.2. It shall also meet the requirements of 4.2 regarding polarities, pulse rise time, pulse duration, pulse peak voltage, repetition rate, burst duration, and test duration.

5.2.2 Additional requirements

The generator shall also meet lhe requirements listed in 5.3.

5.2.3 Low frequeney and de bloeking

The test generator shall have an internal bloeking eapaeitor of 0.01 ¡¡F to allow applieation of the test to live relay input and output eireuits without shorting or overloading lhe relay ae signal souree or de supply souree during SWC testing.

5.3 Common characteristics for al! SWC test generators

5.3.1 Coupling/deeoupling network

A

suitable network shall be ineluded external to lhe test generator to eouple the test voltage to lhe relay and

to

prevent the SWC test voltage being propagated baek into lhe relay ae signal souree.

5.3.2 Safety ground

The test generator shall have a dedieated safety ground eonneetor terminal.

5.3.3 Test mode eapability

The generator shall be eapable of providing a eommon mode output voltage with one output terminal grounded and a balaneed transverse mode output voltage where bolh output terminals are floating.

6

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capabiiity (SWC) Tests for Reiays and Reiay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

5.4 Verification of test generator characteristics

5.4.1 General

It is necessary to establish a simple test procedure intended to verify and document lhe SWC generator performance prior to its use for lhese tests. Two verification tests shal! be defmed:

a) SWC waveform validity tests

b) SWC test generator performance verification

The detailed test description is given in Annex B.

5.4.2 Waveform validity tests

The waveform validity tests shal! be performed before and after each SWC test per Clause 8, with the results recorded and included with lhe SWC test reporto The tests described in B.2 are intended to verify that lhere i$ no major insulation breakdown, damage, or test system component failure that may have occurred during lhe physical test setup, test application, or prolonged instrument storage. The waveform validity tests shal! include:

a) Measuring system feedthrough test

b) Oscillatory SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

c) Fast transient SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

d) Measurement melhods different from lhose described in the Annex B are acceptable, as long as lhe same level of precision, and lhe same parameters are used to document lhe results.

5.4.3 SWC Test generator performance verification

A

ful! set of SWC test generator characteristics shal! be verified as per manufacturer's reconunendations or

at

least once every year, with lhe test results dated, recorded and included wilh each SWC test reporto These

tests are intended to precisely document the test generator characteristics, and are used to track lhe SWC

generator's compliance wilh this standard. The characteristics to be verified are given in Table 1.

Table 1-Test generator characteristics to be verified

Oscillatorv waveform

Fast transient

Rise time of lbe tir't Deak

Rise time

Peak vollaoe level (no load)

Peak vollaoe level (no load)

Output impedance

Oulput impedance

Wavefonn envelopedecay

Pulse duration

Oscillation freouencv

n/a

Repetition rate

Repetition rate durino lbe bur't

n/a

Burst duration

n/a

Burst period

Test duration

Test duration

Al! performance verification measurements shal! be preceded by conducting an SWC waveform validity test described in B.2.

Measurement methods different from those described in the Annex B are acceptable, as long as the same level of precision, and lhe same parameters are used to document the results.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated

with Electric Power Apparatus

6. Equipment to be tested

6.1 Test intent

The tests deseribed herein are design tests to be applied to any par! of the relay system that can be exposed to conducted or coupled transients under normal installed operating condítions. It is not lhe intent of these tests to test an isolated subassembly oflhe relay system nnless lhat subassembly can be used independently and located more than 2 m from the rest ofthe relay system.

Prefabricated wiring hamesses, connectors or shelfwiring shall not be disrupted.

6.2System

The composition of a relay system will vary from a single relay monnted on a panel to several pieces of eqnipment integrated into a single relay system. A relay system may also include communications interface equipment such as a carrier transmitter/receiver or audio tone equipment.

6.3 Application

These type tests are applied to samples buílt to the fmal design using production methods. It is lhe intent of these tests to prove lhat a given production relay system can operate satisfactoríly wilhout component faílure and without misoperating when subjected to lhe transients defmed in lhis standard.

6.4 Protective relay communications equipment

6.4.1 General

All equipment for lhe purpose of interfacing and transporting lhe protective relay logie signal is to be tested. See Table 2 for specific points of application.

The manufacturer shall state which interfaces comply wilh lhis standard. The manufacturer shall state lhe application method and what form of acceptance criteria was used, for each interface, in lhese tests.

Sorne commnnications system equipment may have both relay protection and general commnnications facilities. When a device has not been specifically engineered for relay protection, or several pieces of equipment are involved, it may be difficult to apply lhese type tests and assure proper protection performance. Eaeh piece of equipment may meet lhis standard when tested separately or may only pass when connected as a system. In these cases lhe equipment should be tested as close as possible to the intended application and the user should work closely with lhe manufacturers with lhe intention ofhaving a system that performs reliably in the substation.

Table 2-Test requirements tor relay communication equipment

System por!

Communications

Communications

interface equ;pment

system equipment

Power supplv inputs

Mandatorv

Mandatorv

Input circuits/outouts circuits

Mandatorv

Mandatorv

Data communications carrving relay logic signals

Mandatory

Mandatory

Data commnnications not earrving relay logic signals

Mandatorv

Mandatory (see 6.4.2)

Simal circuits

Mandatorv

Mandatorv (see 6.4.2)

Power line carríer RF ports (see 6.4.4)

Not required

Not required

Temporarv communications ports (see 6.4.3)

Not required

Not required

8

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Wlthstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

6.4.2 Signal circuits and data communication ports

The acceptance criteria are listed in Clause 9.

6.4.3 Communication ports not permanently connected during normal operation

Testing is not required for ports lhat are intended for use on!y during instaHation or maintenance and are not permanently connected during normal operation.

6.4.4 RF inputs and outputs of power Une carrier

Testing ofpower line carrier RF inputs and outputs is addressed by ANSI C93.5-1997 [BI].' Consequently, IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 does not require power line carrier RF inputs and outputs to be subjected to SWC tests.

6.5 Test points

After the relay system is defined, aH points of connection between lhe relay system and externa! circuits shaH be tested.

7. Application oftest wave

7.1 External connection groups

AH externa! connections to lhe relay system shaH be considered in one of the foHowing seven groups, as defmed in Clause 3:

a)

Current Circuit

b)

Voltage Circuit

c)

Power Supply Circuit

d)

Input Circuit

e)

Output Circuit

f)

Digital Data Circuit

g)

Signa! Circuit

7.2 Point of application of tests

The test voltage shaH be applied to lhe respective extemal connection groups in common or transverse mode according to Clause 8.

'The numbers in brackets correspond 10 those afthe bibliography in Annex A.

9

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

7.3 Conditions of test

7.3.1 General

The tests shall be made under usual service conditions in accordance with IEEE Std C3 7.90. Typical test setups for small and large equipment are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively.

7.3.2 Partíal símulatíon

If lhe relay is par! of a system, or can be connected to auxiliary equipment, lhen the relay shall be tested while connected to a representative configuration of auxiliary equipment necessary to exercise the circuits. The requirements of lhis standard shall include any external protection devices or special installation pracedures clearly specified in lhe manufacturer's instruction manual, unless expressly waived by the manufacturero Any auxiliary equipment, external pratection devices or special installation procedures included in lhe tests shall be documented.

7.3.3 Coupling to test generator

Application oflhe test wave to lhe relay under test shall be done using coupling/isolating networks or capacitive coupling clamps as described in 7.3.3.1 and 7.3.3.2.

7.3.3.1 Coupling/isolating networks

Figure 5 and Figure 6 show common and transverse mode connections where isolation from a nonnal current or voltage SOurce is required. This method shall be used when testing current circuit, voltage circuit, power supply circuit, input circuit, or output circuit external connection groups.

7.3.3.2 Capacitive coupling clamp

The capacitive coupling clamp is intended as a means for coupling test wavefonns to shielded and olher circuits where direct galvanic connection to the equipment under test (EUT) tenninals may impair operation. Typical use ofthe clamp for common mode tests i,; shown in Figure 7. The use ofthe capacitive clamp shall be lirnited to lhose indicated in Table 3 and Table 4.

The capacitive clamp consists of two conductive surfaces (made of galvanized steel, brass, copper, or aluminum) insulated from each other by means of high quality insulating supports. Figure 7 illustrates typical construction details of a capacitive clamp. The coupling effect is established by placing an insulated cable (feeding lhe signals to lhe device under test) through the V-shaped duct on top of the clamp, and subsequently closing lhe clamp as much as possible in order to maximize the coupling capacitance between lhe clamp and lhe cable.

The lower conductive surface oflhe clamp shall be placed on (and solidly connected to) a ground plane with a minimum area of 1m'. The reference ground plane shall extend beyond the clamp by at least 0.1 m on all sides.

The high voltage coaxial connector intended for connection to the test generator may, for convenience, be provided on bolh ends of the clamp. Regardless of the design however, during the test, the generator shall be connected to that end ofthe clamp lhat is nearest to the device under test.

Due to high voltages involved, the external insulation on lhe cable to which lhe transients are being coupled must be capable ofwithstanding a 5 kV 1.2/50 ¡ls pulse.

lO

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

7.3.4 Reference graund plane

A reference ground plane shall be used to get reproducible capacitive coupling conditions. The ground plane shall consist of a metallic sheet (copper or aluminum) of at least 0.25 rnrn thickness. It shall have a minimum size of Ixl m or project beyond the external dimensions of the relay by at least 0.1 m on all sides, whichever is greater. The reference ground plane shall be solidly connected to ground.

7.3.5 Relay placement

The relay shall be tested in its case above a ground reference plane placed on top of a nonconductive table approxirnately 0.8 m high. The relay shall be isolated from the ground reference plane by an insulating support 0.1 m ±0.01 m thick. Floor standing equipment shall be placed on lhe reference ground plane with

lhe interposition of an insulating support, 0.1

m lhicl<, such as dry wood.

7.3.6 Wiring cannectians

Wiring to lhe relay shall be consistent with the manufacturer's recornrnended procedures. When lhere are no recornrnendations given by the manufacturer, all parts to be grounded shall be solidly connected with copper straps of at least 20 rnrn width through lhe shortest possible distance to lhe ground plane. Cables interconnecting lhe various external circuits of lhe relay under test shall be kept at a distance of at least 0.1 m from the ground plane. Leads from the couplinglisolating network to lhe relay or lhe test generator shall be no longer than I m. When using the capacitive coupling clamp, lhe leads from lhe relay shall be extended by 1 m to allow placement along the fulllength of lhe coupling plates. The minirnurn distance between the coupling plates and aH conductive structures other lhan the ground plane shall be 0.5 m.

7.3.7 Valtage and current values

It is lhe intent ofthis test to duplicate as nearly as possible in-service conditions wilh lhe relay in its normal non-transitional state. Where appropriate, the relay system shall be energized with rated voltage and rated curren!. The relay settings shall be chosen such lhat the relay is as close as possible to its transitional state, but not closer lhan the recommended margins for its application function. Input voltage to power supply cireuits shall be within specified limits.

11

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated with Electric Power Apparatus

TEST GENERATOR

COUPLJNG/DECOUPLlNG NETWORK

INPUT/OUTPUT TO TERMINALS UNDER TEST EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST (EUT) INPUT/OUTPUT TO TERMINALS NOT UNOER TEST
INPUT/OUTPUT TO
TERMINALS UNDER TEST
EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST (EUT)
INPUT/OUTPUT TO TERMINALS
NOT UNOER TEST
\.
GROUND REFERENce PLANE
( 1 mx 1 m min., 0.25 mm mino thickness)
INSULATING SUPPORT
(0.1 m thick)
TO GROUNDING SYSTEM
OFTEST ROOM
waOD DR INSULATED lABLE

Figure 3-Example of test setup for small equipment

EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST CEUT) INSULATING SUPPORT ~~~::" DFTESTROOM GROUNO REFERENCE PUNE ( 1 mx 1
EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST CEUT)
INSULATING SUPPORT
~~~::"
DFTESTROOM
GROUNO REFERENCE PUNE
( 1 mx 1 m min., 0.25 mm mino thfckness)

GROUND PER MANUFACTURES RECOMMENDATIONS

PROJECT SEYONO Eur, A MINIMUM

OFO.1m

TO GROUNDING SYSTEM

Figure 4-Example of test setup for large equipment

12

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated

with Electric Power Apparatus

Isolating Reactors

(Ose. test: 10 A,1.5 mH, 2500 V)

/ (Fast Trans: 10 A, >100 ~H, 2500 V) Terminals of EUT /' y y
/ (Fast Trans:
10 A, >100 ~H, 2500 V)
Terminals of EUT
/'
y
y
y
y
y
-
y
r"'
~
y
Surge
Ground
/1'
~
~
/f
Cou pling
Capacitors
(Ose • test: 0.5 ~F,1000 V)
(Fast Trans: 33 nF, 1000 V)
Hi
Low
Test Generator
Chassis
-L
-
-

Ground Reference Plana

Figure 5-Application of common mode tests using coupling/isolating network

Isolating Reactors (Ose. test: 10 A, 1.5 mH, 2500 V) )1' (Fast Trans: 10 A, >100 ~H, 2500 V)

Terminals of EUT

,---------.;/-'------, --.r~--+- ---+-oJ EUT Surge r--;-;--:::--:----:--'----, Ground Une Balancing
,---------.;/-'------,
--.r~--+- ---+-oJ
EUT
Surge
r--;-;--:::--:----:--'----,
Ground
Une Balancing
Transformer T1
(see Annex e)
Hi
Low
Test Generator
Chassis

Coupling Capacitors / (Ose. test: 0.5 ~F, 1000 V) (Fast Trans: 66 nF, 1000 V)

Ground Reference Plana

Figure 6-Application of transverse mode tests using coupling/isolating network

13

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capabiiity (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated

with Electrjc Power Apparatus

~

Signal cables

pass lhrough

here

/••-------1.00 m-------+.¡

"\

0.07 m

JL

0.14 m

•

Coaxial

connector for

connection to

test generator

1------'<----1.05 m----,r--------

Insulating supports

¡

T

0.10 m

1-

Figure 7-Capacitive coupling clamp (Reprinted with permission from lEC Copyright © 2011 lEC Geneva, Switzerland.www.iec.ch)

8. Test procedures

8.1 Test types

The test waves described in 4.1 and 4.2 shall be applied to each external connection group using connnon and transverse modes as shown in Table 3 and Table 4. The voltage of the test waveforms shall be as defmed by Table 3 and Table 4 unless specifically marked otherwise on lbe relay praduct or associated manufacturer's instruction manual. The relay system connections for lbe fast transient wave shapes shall be subjected to both polarities.

8.2 Common mode tests

The inlent of this test is to expose an external connection group to a surge referenced to earth ground. One terminal of lbe test generator shall be connected to all external connections of lbe external connection group to be tested using the couplinglisolating network as shown in Figure 5, or capacitive coupling clamp as shown in Figure 7. The olber terminal oflbe test generator shall be solidly connected to ground.

8.3 Transverse mode tests

The intent of this test is to expose each pair of a given external connection group to a surge across its terminals. Wilbin a given external connection group, one terminal of the test generator shall be connected to one side of an external connection pair, or one side of a logical group of connections, and the olber terminal of the test generator shall be connected to the other side of the external conneetion pair or logical group using the couplinglisolating network as shown in Figure 6. Within a given external connection group, lbe test shall be repeated for other external connection pairs or pairs of logícal groups until each pair has been tested. The required pairs within a given external connection group vary depending on the design of the relay. All external connection groups defined in 7.1 shall be tested in the same manner per Table 3 and Table 4.

14

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard lor Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests lor Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Table 3-Test modes and voltage tor each external connection group - oscillatory test

ExternaI connection group

Test modes

Oscillatory test Volta2e to be applied

Common

Transverse

Current circuit

Yes

Yes

2.5

kV

Voltage circuit

Yes

Yes

2.5

kV

Power supply circuit

Yes

Yes

2.5

kV

Input circuit

Yes

Yes

2.5

kV

Output circuit

Yes

Yes

2.5

kV

Digital data circuit

Yes

No

2.5

kV'

Signal circuit

Yes

No

2.5

kV'

Apphed through capacIttve couplmg clamp

Table 4-Test modes and voltage tor each external connection group - tast transient test

Externa) connection group

Test modes

Fast transieot test

Common

Transverse

Voltage to be aoolied

Current circuit

Yes

Yes

 

4kV

Voltage circuit

Yes

Yes

 

4kV

Power supply circuit

Yes

Yes

 

4kV

Input circuit

Yes

Yes

 

4kV

Output circuit

Yes

Yes

 

4kV

Digital data circuit

Yes

No

4

kV'

Signal circuit

Yes

No

4

kV'

•Applied through capacitive coupling ciamp

9. Criteria for acceptance

9.1 Application of criteria

The criteria below shan apply to the equipment being directiy tested, and any devices linked to the equipment via direct or remote connections. Examples of lhe connections are current loops and voltage circuits (ac, audio, carrier, or microwave). Serial, paranel, optical (tiber or infrared), and radio frequency connections apply as wen.

15

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoclated with Electric Power Apparatus

9.2 Conditions to be met

The equipment shall be considered to have passed the swC tests if - doring, or as a result of, the tests - all ofthe conditions below are met for the equipment and the connected devices:

a)

The specified performance ofthe equipment, ineluding the operating time, does not change, beyond

stated tolerances.

b)

No hardware damage occors.

c)

No change in calibration beyond normal tolerances results.

d)

No loss or corruption of stored memory or data, including active or stored settings, oceurs.

e)

System resets do not oeeor, and manual resetting is not required.

f)

Established eommunications not affeeting proteetion funetions recover within the manufaeturer's

time period, if disrupted.

g)

Communications errors, ifthey occor, do not jeopardize the protective functions.

h)

No loss of digital pulse synehronization oeeors or where the loss of digital pulse synehronization does oeeor, it shall not produce an out oftoleranee eondition.

i)

No changes in the states of the eleetrical, mechanical, or communication status outputs oceor. This ineludes alarms, status outputs, or targets.

j)

No erroneous, permanent change of state of the visual, audio, or message outputs results. Momentary ehanges ofthese outputs during the tests are permitted.

k)

No error outside normal tolerances ofthe data communication signals (SCADA analogs) occurs.

9.3 Equipment functioning

Doring and after the tests, the equipment and the conneeted devices shall be completely and aeeurately funetional as designed, unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer, for the equipment to be eonsidered as having passed the SWC tests.

10. Test records

The test program shall be recorded and made available upon request. The report shall be adequate to gnide another person to duplicate the test programo The record shall inelude the following:

a)

Product model and revision number for the produet under test (serial number ifapplieable).

b)

Details of produet settings, inputs, and operating conditions for each individual test.

e)

Diagrams, sehematics or photographs showing the deviee under test, any externally conneeted equipment, and related cabling.

d)

Deseription ofthe SWC test generator and its calibration date and ofthe eoupling networks used.

e)

Waveform validity test results per B.2.

f)

A tabulation for each test performed. The tabulation of each test shall inelude the following:

16

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoelated with Electric Power Apparatus

A list of eaeh point Ibat is eleetrieally eonneeted to the SWC test generator andlor eoupling networks, with

referenee to sehematies or diagrams as neeessary. The list shall indude the method of eoupling for eaeh point tested.

The settings of the SWC test generator for Ibe particular test, for example, Ibe voltage level, whether the test is oseillatory or fast transient, ete.

A deseription of how the deviee under test was monitored to ensure that any failure was deteeted; Ibat ¡s,

whieh output lines, indieators or other features ofthe d~viceunder test were monitored.

The test results (pass/fail).

17

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Reiay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

AnnexA

(informative)

Bibliography

Bibliographical referenees are resourees that provide additional or helpful material but do not need to be understood or used to implement this standard. Referenee to these resourees is made for informational use only.

[B!]

Carrier TransmitterlReeeiver Equipment. 6

ANSI C93.5-l997, American National Standard Requirements for Single Funetion Power-Line

[B2] Gilles, D. A., and Ramberg, R.C., "The Effeets of Transient Voltages on Measurements Within a Switehyard," Pacifie Northwest Instrumentation Conferenee, ISA

[B3]

Gottlieb, I. M., Practical RF Power Design Techniques, MeGraw-Rili lne., PA, 1993.

[B4]

lEC 60255-22-1 Ed. 3.02007-10, MeasUring reiays and proteetion equipment - Part 22-1: Eleetrieal

disturbanee tests - 1 MHz burst immunity tests. 7

[B5]

lEC 60255-22-4 Ed. 3.0 2008-04, MeasUring relays and protection equipment - Part 22-4 Eleetrieal

disturbanee test - Eleetrieal fast transient/burst irnmunity test.

[B6]

measurement teehniques - Damped oseiliatory wave irnmunity test.

[B7]

measurement teehniques - Eleetrieal fast transient/burst immunity test.

IEC 61000-4-18 Ed. 1.I 2011-03-30, Eleetromagnetie eompatibility (EMC) - Part 4-18: Testing and

IEC 61000-4-4 Ed. 2.1 2011-03-30, Eleetromagnetie eompatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and

[B8]

IEEE 10QTM, The Authoritative Dietionary ofIEEE Standards Terros, Seventh Edition. 8

[B9]

IEEE Std 487™_2007, Reeommended Praetiee for the Proteetion of Wire-Line Communieation

Facilities Serving Eleetrie Power Stations.

[BIO] IEEE Std 1613™_2009, Standard Environmental and Testing Requirements for Communications Networking Deviees lnstalled in Eleetric Power Substations.

[Bll] Kotheirner, W. C.,"The Nature and Souree ofTransient Surges," Paper lSPD 76-16 IEEE Industry Applieations Society, Mareh 1977.

[BI2] Malewski, R., Coreoran, R. P., Feser, K., MeComb, T. R., Nellis, C., Nourse G., "Measurements of the Transient Electric and Magnetic Field Components in HV Laboratories," IEEE Transaetions Vol. PAS-

101,pp.4452,1962.

[BI3] Rotholz, E., "Transmission-Line Transformers", IEEE Transaetions on Mierowave Theory and Teehniques, April 1981.

[BI4] Sonneman, W. K., "Transient Voltages in Relay Control Cireuits," AlEE paper 61-925, Deeember,

1961.

[BI5] Tirnperley, J. E., "Construetion and Applieation of a SWC Generator," IEEE Conferenee Paper C 72 040-9 presented at the IEEE PES Winter Meeting New York, NY January 30 - February 4, 1972.

[B 16]

Shows Benefits," Computer Applieations in Power January 1989, pp. 21-27.

Urden, Erie A., and Delivannides, John S., "Integrated System for Substation Relaying and Control

6 ANSI publications are available fram the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 2S West 43rd Street, 4th Floor,

New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.orgl).

1 lEC publications are available from the Intemational Electrotechnical Commission websíte http://www.iec.ch/. 8 IEEE publications are avaílable Crom The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331,

Piscataway, NI 08855-1331, USA (http://standards.ieee.orgl).

18

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex B

(informative)

Verification of test generator characteristics

8.1 Measuring system requirements

All tests are performed using a wide bandwidth digital oscilloscope wilb a suitable wide bandwidlb voltage divider (shielded high voltage probe, a high voltage coaxial attenuator, or a current probe based alternative scheme described in B.4) intended to reduce the measured generator output voltage to a level which can be safely applied to lbe oscilloscope input. The voltage calibration and transient response of the measuring system shall be verified prior to measuring lbe generator output. For lbe Oscillatory SWC Test generator, lbe measuring system shall have a frequency bandwidth of 50 MHz or better. The measuring system shall have a frequency bandwidth of at least 500 MHz for lbe fust transient SWC Test generator.

8.2 SWC waveform validity tests

8.2.1 General

The Waveform Validity Tests shall be performed before and afier each SWC test session, with the results recorded and included with the SWC test reporto These tests are intended to verify lbat there is no major insulation break down, damage or component failure that may have occurred during lbe physical test setup, test application, or prolonged instrunient storage between lbe test sessions. The waveform validity tests shall include:

a) Measuring system feedthrough test

b) Oscillatory SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

c) Fast transient SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

8.2.2 Measuring system feedthrough test

This test is performed by shorting the high voltage input of the voltage divider to ground and connecting lbis point to lbe SWC test generator output ground terminal. Then wilb the test generator operating at maximum voltage output, the oscilloscope waveform display should not deviate from a straight horizontal line more than 1% of lbe generator output voltage. This test verifies lbat there is a minimum of extraneous voltage pickup in lbe measuring system. For feedthrough check the oscilloscope setting for vertical and horizontal calibration should be the same as stated in the sections below for each specified SWC test. Whenever possible, a separate trigger channel should be established, enabling precise measurement of lbe undesired feedthrough signal magnitude.

If it is not possible to obtain a good feedthrough check with the voltage divider selected, lbe alternative voltage measuring scheme described in B.4 may be used.

19

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capablllty (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

8.2.3 Oscillatory SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

The high voltage terminal of the measuring system voltage divider is connected to the high voltage oulput terminal ofthe test generator. The oscilloscope horizontal scale is set to 2 Ils/div and the vertical scale is set to l kV/div, with 'div' denoting oscilloscope screen division. This scale shall include the voltage divider ratio. For example ifthe divider ratio is 1000/1 then the scope vertical scale would be set to 1 V/divo The horizontal sweep trigger of the oscilloscope is adjusted to display one oscillatory burst waveform on the screen starting from the initial voltage rise from zero. The specified generator oulput voltage waveform is then recorded.

A second recording is made with the horizontal scale set to 50 ns/div. This will display the initial rise time

ofthe waveform.

A final recording of the generator voltage is made with the divider input paralleled by a non-inductive

resistor equal to the test generator source hnpedance. The waveform amplitude should drop to one half its original value. This checks the value of the generator source impedance. All other parameters of the test wave shall remain within the original generator specifications.

8.2.4 Fast transient SWC test generator open circuit voltage waveform test

These tests are performed similar to the Oscillatory SWC tests except for the oscilloscope horizontal scale setting which should be set to 20 ns/div for the total waveform check and 5 ns/div for the initial rise time check.

8.3 SWC test generator performance verification

8.3.1 General

The full set of SWC test generator characteristics shall be verified as per manufacturer's recornmendations or at least once every year, with the test results included with each SWC test reporto The characteristics to be verified are specified in 5.4.3, and are repeated in Table B.I for convenience:

Table 8.1- SWC test generator characteristics to be verified

Oscillatorv waveform

Fast transient

Rise time 01 lhe tirst neak

Rise time

Peak voltage level (no load)

Peak voltage level (no load)

Output impedance

Output impedance

Waveform envelone decav

Pulse duration

Oscillation freauencv

n/a

Repetition rate

Repetition rate during the burst

n/a

Burst duration

n/a

Burst perlod

Test duration

Test duration

All measurements in this seclion shall be preceded by conducting an SWC waveform validity test (see B.2). The addition of any components that are used during testing shall be incorporated into !he verification of the generator (Le., coupling and isolating networks).

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

8.3.2 SWC waveform validity test

The performance verification measurements shall start by conducting the SWC waveform validity tests described in B.Z. In addition to the required waveform plots, individual numbers for the following parameters shall be measured and documented:

a) Rise time ofthe frrst peak (oscillatory test)

b) Waveform rise time (fast transient test)

c) Peak voltage level with no load (R L <: 1000 n)

d) Waveform envelope decay (oscillatory test)

e) Pulse Duration (fast transient)

A copy of all recorded waveforms shall be included in the reporto

8.3.3 Test generator output impedance measurement

The generator output impedance shall be obtained by measuring the output voltage that the generator produces with two different load impedances. The voltage measurements shall be conducted in accordance with B.2.3 (for the oscillatory SWC test) and B.ZA (for the fast transient SWC test).

Load impedance shall be resistive across the measurement bandwidth (B.I) and shall include impedance contribution ofthe voltage divider used in the measurements. It shall be known to within ±5% actual value.

The exact impedance value selection is arbitrary as long as the precision of the fmal generator impedance estimate remains within ±IO%, and one of the values selected is close to the expected generator output

n, 2 L2 =ZOO n, and for 2 0 =50 n would

impedance 2 0 , A good seleetion for 2 0 =ZOO n wouid be 2 L ,=1000

be 2 L1 =ZOO n, 2[2=50 n.

The generator impedance shall be calculated according to Equation (B.I):

Zo = ZLI ZL2(VLl -VLZ)

VL2ZLI-VLlZL2

Where:

Z o is the generator output impedance

ZLI is the load impedance applied in the frrst test

Z L2 is the load impedance applied in the second test

V LI is the peak voltage measured with impedance Z Ll

V L2 is the peak voltage measured with impedance Z L2

(B.I)

8.3.4 Oscillatory SWC test generator repetition rate measurement

The generator repetition rate measurement shall be conducted in accordance with B.Z.3 with the oscilloscope horizontal scale set to l ms/div. The period between the oscillatory bursts shall be documented and compared with the value specified in 4.1.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012

IEEE Standard for Surge Wilhstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Syslems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

8.3.5 Fast transient SWC test generator repetition parameter measurement

Three fast transient repetition parameters shall be measured: the fast transient repetition rate during bursts, individual burst duration and burst periodo The measurements shall be performed in accordance with B.2.4 with lhe horizontal scale set to 0.1 ms/div for measuring the repetition rate during bursts, and 50 msldiv for measuring the individual burst duration and the burst periodo The parameters shall be documented and compared with the values specified in 4.2.

8.4 Alternative voltage measuring scheme

Tbis scheme replaces lhe voltage divider by a 1000 n resistor and a wide frequency bandwidlh current transformer. The resistor shall be non-inductive and be able to dissipate 4 W. It is connected across the output of the SWC test generator. The current transformer is used to measure the current through the resistor connections which are passed through its primary window. Several wide-band current transformers are available commereíally, wilh one typical device having a ratio of IV/lA and a flat frequency response from 900 Hz to 900 MHz when used wilh a special signal cable and a termination resistor which are included. When used to measure the current in lhe 1000 n resistor, it is equivalent to using a 1000/1 voltage divider. The oscilloscope vertical calibration should be set to 1.0 V/div.

This method willload lhe test generator somewhat and lhe voltage measured will appear less lhan its !Tue value. The !Tue voltage can be estimated by multiplying the measured voltage by a correction factor, Kc:

Zo

K c =1+--

1000

(B.2)

Where Zo is the output impedance oflhe SWC test generator measured in 8.3.3.

Because lhis measuring scheme inductively couples the current in lhe resistor, it eliminates the direct connection between the oscilloscope signal ground and lhe test generator. Therefore stray transient ground currents which can produce large errors are significantly reduced.

¡flhe transient signal feedthrough problem persists, it may be necessary to replace the oscilloscope wilh an altemate unit meeting minimum shieldingjnoise immunity requirements.

All measurements in this clause shall be preceded by a measuring system feedthrough test specified in

B.2.2.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capabiiity (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex e

(informative)

Test waveform delivery

C.1 Waveform delivery principies

Delivering a high quality test waveform to lhe system under test may represent a ehallenge if all faetors involved in signal transmission are not taken into aeeoun!. This aunex gives a brief deseription of the teehniques needed to ensure test repeatability. The waveform delivery eomponents eonsidered are:

a)

Cable eouneeting lhe generator to lhe eoupling network

b)

Coupling network

e)

Balaneed / unbalaneed transformer

d)

Impedanee matehing network

It is innportant to reeognize that the SWC test load impedanee eaunot be implieitly eontrolled and will be determined by the eireuit under test To avoid eomplieated evaluation of different installation conditions, the following are required:

1)

The cable counecting the generator to the coupling network should be a transmission line with its characteristic impedance matched to lhe SWC generator output impedance.

2)

The coupling network by itself should not introduce additional waveform distortion or rise time degradation.

,,·3) AIl tests requiring transverse mode signal delivery (line to line tests) should use a wideband balanced / unbalanced transformer network. The transformer should be placed innmediately in front of the coupling network, and should be implemented in the form of a transmission line. An example describing such a network is given in D.2.

In lhe case where lhe generator output impedance may be different lhan the standard output impedance required by the SWC test, a suitable wideband innpedance transformation network should be used to provide lhe matehing. An example describing such a network is given in D.3.

4)

The introduction of the impedance transformation network makes it possible to build an SWC generator with a single output impedance set to 50 n unbalanced, for both lhe Fast Trans!ent, and the I MHz Oscillatory SWC tests. The signal should be delivered by using a coaxial output counector, followed by I m of the 50 n coaxial cable. The cable end can be counected to a capacitive clamp, an appropriate couplinglisolation network (in case of the fast transient test), or a 50/200 n innpedance transformer followed by an appropriate couplinglisolation network (for a cornmon mode I MHz Oscillatory SWC test). It should be noted, that due to lhe voltage transformation (1:2), generator output voltage required for the oseillatory SWC test will be one half in the case of a 50 n system followed by a 50/200 n transformer, lhan the one found in a 200 n system.

The transverse mode tests should be conducted by adding a balancedlunbalanced transformer network.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Reiays and Relay Systems Assoclated with Eleetric Power Apparatus

C.2 Verification of the waveform delivery system characteristics

The perfonnance of ilie components used for wavefonn delivery should be verified by using ilie test procedures described in Annex B with ilie main difference being iliat the tests should be perfonned at the following output points:

a) For ilie common mode oscillatory and fast transient SWC tests, ilie measurements should be perfonned between the surge ground and ilie surge output tenninal of the couplinglisolating network assembly. Any impedance transfonnation network required to meet ilie output impedance specifications given in Clause 4 should be included in ilie measurements.

b) For a transverse mode oscillatory SWC test, ilie measurements should be perfonned between the couplinglisolating network surge output tenninals, and between eaeh ofthe tenninals and ilie SWC generator ground (balance test). Any impedance transfonnation network required to meet the output impedance specifications given in Clause 4 should be included in the measurements.

c) For a common mode fast transient SWC test wiili the capacitive clamp coupling network, the measurements should be perfonned between the output tenninals ofilie coaxial connector nonnally feeding the capacitive clamp, with the clamp assembly disconnected.

The measurement should be perfonned aboye a reference ground plane specified in 7.3.4 with ilie generator connected to a coup.linglisolating network by means of a 1m long transmission line, the impedance characteristic of which should be equal to ilie output impedance of ilie SWC generator. The balanced/unbalanced and impedance transfonnation networks should be inserted in ilie circuit as required by ilie SWC generator manufacturero There should be no oilier loads connected to the output.

Wiili ilie connections described aboye, the wave shape measured on ilie output of ilie wavefonn delivery system should comply wiili all specifications given in 4.1 and 4.2.

In addition to ilie aboye, it is necessary to verify ilie common mode rejection properties of the balancing network used for transverse mode testing. The test is perfonned by connecting the voltage divider across ilie balanced couplinglisolation network outputs. The output connected to ilie grounded side of ilie divider should further be connected directly to ilie surge generator ground tennina!. After measuring the open circuit voltage wavefonn in accordance with B.2.3, ilie couplinglisolation network tenninals should be swapped,and the measurements repeated.

The resulting output voltage wavefonns should remain within ilie original standard specifications, with less than ± 10% difference between any two points on the wavefonns recorded during the two measurements.

24

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Reiay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex D

(informative)

Balanced/unbalanced (balun) transformer impedance matching network examples

0.1 Introduction

As indicated in 5.3.3, the test generator must be capable of generating both common mode and transverse mode output voltages. Due to their internal construction, sorne test generators may be inherently limited to producing only common mode transients (one output terminal referenced to ground). This problem can conveniently be corrected by adding an external balancedlunbalanced transformer network folIowed by an appropriate coupling/isolation network connected in series at each of the output terminals. Description of this network is given in D.2 below. The method for verifying the correct operation of the balancedlunbalanced transformer network is described in C.2, with the typical coupling/isolation network connections shown in Figure 6.

D.3 describes the construction ofa 4:1 impedance matching transformer capable oftransforming generator output impedance from 50 n to 200 n. In most instances, the use of this network should not be necessary due to the fact that most commercialIy available generators already support correct output impedance settings.

0.2 Balanced/unbalanced transmission line transformer

A simple transmission line transformer providing the balanced to unbalanced mode transformation is shown in Figure D.!. The transformer was realized with 10 turns ofa RG 58 NO 50 n type coaxial cable

with solid dielectric wonnd on a Type 43 ferrite core toroid (¡.¡," 800 @ 25°C). The core dimensions were:

irmer

diameter ~ 35 mm, outer diameter = 61 mm, core thickness ~ 12.7 mm.

Unbalanced

Balanced

Figure 0.1- Balanced/Unbalanced transmission Une transformer example

0.3 Transmission line based impedance matching transformer

A simple 4: I transmission line based impedance matching transformer is shown in Figure D.2. The transformer was realized with 10 tums of a RG 58 NO 50 n type coaxial cable with solid dielectric wound

25

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoclated with EJectric Power Apparatus

on a Type 43 ferrite core toroid ().lf" 800 @ 25 oC). The core dimensions were: iooer diameter = 35 mm, outer diameter = 61 mm, core thickness = 12.7 mm.

Ideally, the impedance of the transmission line used in a 4: I transformer design should be equal to lhe geometric mean oflhe desired input and oUlput impedance (for a 50 Q input), as shown in Equation (DI).

.JSOx200 =1000

(D.I)

In actual practice, however, the impedance may vary from its ideal value without significantly affecting lhe device bandwidlh and transformation ratio. If more convenient, the transmission line can be constrncted by substituting lhe coaxial cable with a simple twisted wire pairo

ZIN

Unbalanced

cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une
cable with a simple twisted wire pairo ZIN Unbalanced ZOUT= ZIN*4 Unbalanced Figure 0.2- Transmission Une

ZOUT= ZIN*4

Unbalanced

Figure 0.2- Transmission Une based impedance matching transformer example

26

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex E

(normative)

Communication interface equipment and communication system equipment

E.1 General

The logical services performed by the protective relay communication equipment can be provided by way of several mechanisms. The relay system may interface with communication interface equipment that can either provide services directly or in conjunction with a communication system. In some cases the protective relay may have some form of communication facilities built in. All equipment providing transfer

trip, directional comparison, pennissive communications services, transport or similar protective functions,

shall comply with this standard. The communication interface equipment covered by this standard can connect to the relay logic by any means including direct wiring or data networking as long as protective functions are involved.

In many cases, such as with audio tone (direct on a telephone circuit) and power line carrier, the communication interface equipment and the communication system is the same device. However, when audio tone is connected to, for example a TI channel baJik or microwave multiplexer, the audio tone is considered the communication interface equipment and the TI equipment or microwave is considered to be the communication system. It is possible to have more than one device perform the function of the communication system such as when a TI channel baJik is connected to an add/drop multiplexer and then a Sonet multiplexer.

In all cases, equipment under test shall meet the acceptance criteria established in Clause 9. In some cases other standards may refer to IEEE Std C37.9Ü.l using their own acceptance criteria. It is outside the scope of this standard to address these situations. Please consult the appropriate standards that govern these

situations.

E.2 Examples of protective communication configurations

Table 2 of 6.4 identifies points where testing is required for relay communication equipment. Additional testing requirements may be established in other standards.

The following represents some example configurations and the tests required to comply with this standard. Since equipment varies among manufacturers and application, these examples may not be entirely applicable but will act as a starting point in determining the required test points for similar designs.

Points that shall be tested and are common to all examples include:

a)

Keying

equipment.

and output

connection between

the

relay

system

and the

communication

interface

b) Alarm and auxiliary l/O connections.

c) Permanently connected substation computers.

d) The power supply inputs to each device.

e) In the situations involving multiplexers that are transporting non-protection logic signals, the non· protection inputs are to be tested with observations made on the protection logic signals.

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Wlthstand Capabillty (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoclated with Electric Power Apparatus

f) Conneclions between connnunicalion inlerface and connnunicalions syslem equipmenl shall be lesled unless lhe manufacturer(s) stales lhal lhese conneclions musl be less lhan 2 m in length as permilted in 6.1.

As described in Clause 6, lesling is nol required for the following:

1)

Temporary connecled mainlenance compulers per 6.4.3.

2)

Conneclions lhal, as slaled by lhe manufacturer, musl be less than 2 melers in length per Clause

6.1.

3)

Non-metaIlic conneclions, such as tiber oplic cable.

E.2.1 Example Configurations

1)

Example 1: Audio lone connecled lo a leased telephone circuil (see Figure E.I)

The 4-wire audio conneclion shall be lesled.

NOTE- The equipmenl manufaclured lo comply wllh IEEE Std 487™.Z007 [39], need only meel the requlrements of lhat standard, however the current IEEE Std 487-2007 only detalls passlve

equipment. If active equipment is used, 6.4 applies, since it is being used ror the purpose of interfacing and transporting the protective relay logic signal.

2)

Example 2: Power line carrier connecled to a hybrid (see Figure E.2)

Per 6.4.4, lesling of power line carrier RF ports is nol required by this standard and is addressed by ANSI C93.5-1997 [Bl].

3)

Example 3: Transfer trip module in a TI/Sonel shelf(see Figure E.3)

NOTE- In applieations using a TI shelf, tesling oflhe TI conneetlon ltselfls excluded per 6.1 as long as its length ls kept less lhan 2 m.

4)

Example 4: Audio lone connecled lo a microwave mulliplex card or a PCM ehannel bank card in a TI/Sonel shelf(see Figure E.4)

The 4·wire audio conneclion shall be lesled.

5)

Example 5: A Currenl Differenlial relay connecled lo a channel bank card via a tiber oplic cable (see Figure E.5)

NOTE- In applieations uslng a TI shelf, testing oflhe TI conneelion ltself ls excluded per 6.1 as long as lts length is keplless lhan 2 m.

6)

Example 6: A proleclive relay connecled lo a modem, where the modem transports lhe proleclive logic signal (see Figure E.6)

The 4-wire audio conneclion shall be lesled.

NOTE- The equipmenl manufactured to comply wilh IEEE Std 487·2007 need only meet lhe

requirements of lhat standard, however lhe current IEEE Sld 487-2007 only detaUs passive equipment. Ir active equipment is used, it shall comply with this standard as required by 6.4 since it is being used for the purpose of interfacing and transporting the protective relay logic signal.

7)

Example 7: A proleclive relay wilh an Elhernel inlerface, where the Ethernel is used lo transport the proleclive logic signal (see Figure E.7)

28

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Assoeiated

with Electric Power Apparatus

Any metallie eonneetion to the hub shall be tested. This ineludes power supply inputs, alarms and ports utilizing balaneed twisted pair inputs.

8)

Example 8: A Phase Comparison relay eonneeted to frequeney shift keying (FSK) interface equipment and an analog microwave system (see Figure E.8)

Any metallie eonneetion between the phase eomparison relay and lhe baseband equipment shall be tested if that eonneetion is over 2 m in length.

Pennanently Connected

Substation Computer

Temporary Connected

Maintenance Computer

Laptop computer
Laptop
computer
Temporary Connected Maintenance Computer Laptop computer 4-wire Audio Direct Transfer Trlp Audio Tone Equipment

4-wire Audio

Direct Transfer Trlp Audio Tone Equipment

Telephone Company Network
Telephone
Company Network

Alarms, Auxiliary 110

Figure E.1- Audio tone and leased telco circuit

29

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

PermanenUy Connected

Substation Computer

Temporary Con nec ted Maintenance Ca mputer i Relay l- Jil l I i System
Temporary Con
nec
ted
Maintenance Ca
mputer
i
Relay
l-
Jil l
I
i
System
11
Keying
,"d
laptop
,
Qulput
11
compute
Dlrect Transfer Trlp Audio Tone
Equipment
Alanns, Auxillary t/O
Transmlt Coax
Receive Coax
Hybrid
To Une Tuner

Figure E.2- Power Une carrier and hybrid

Permanently Connected

$ubstatlon Computer

Temporary Con noc" d Maintenanca e amputer i E;;B E'>J g E5 Retay System ~I~I~I~
Temporary Con
noc"
d
Maintenanca e amputer
i
E;;B
E'>J
g
E5
Retay
System
~I~I~I~
0000000
Keying
ond
Laptop
Culput
I1
computer
I
Transfer Trip Can:lln a
SoneUT1 Shelf
Alarms, Auxlliary IJO
Laptop
computer
Fiber Optic Cable
or Metallic Ti Cable

Figure E.3- Transfer trip card in a SonetIT1 shelf

30

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

PennanenUy Connected

Substatlon Computer

Temporary Connected

Malntenance Computer

Substatlon Computer Temporary Connected Malntenance Computer System ~ :;:5~---.J--~J Relay Laptop computer KeYIO~9~
Substatlon Computer Temporary Connected Malntenance Computer System ~ :;:5~---.J--~J Relay Laptop computer KeYIO~9~

System

~ :;:5~---.J--~J Relay

Laptop

computer

KeYIO~9~

and

Output ifiit=:=:::;----¡

Olrect Transfer Trlp Audio Tone

Equipment

4·wlre Audio

Alarms, Auxlliary l/O

Temporary Connected

Malntenance Computer

Auxlliary l/O Temporary Connected Malntenance Computer Laptop c o m p u t e r FlberOptic

Laptop

computer

FlberOptic

Cable

Audio to Sanet

Equipment

Alanns, AuxiIJary l/O

Cable Audio to Sanet Equipment Alanns, AuxiIJary l/O Figure E.4- Audio tone connected to a multiplex

Figure E.4- Audio tone connected to a multiplex card

Temporary Connected

Malntenance

Computer

card Temporary Connected Malntenance C o m p u t e r Correo!DlffereoUalRelay -- ~~;:;;;;;OfJ---R Laptop

Correo!DlffereoUalRelay

--

~~;:;;;;;OfJ---R

Laptop

rT:;a-c:-::-e¡~-:~I:

Pennanently Connected

I!I

Substation Computer

r----lii¡

11.,

,[J

l

computer,,====:c:o:o:o:ec:tl:o:ori~ri=F===1

Non-Protectlon ¡nputs

Digital Data Interface Jn a SonetIT1 Shelf
Digital Data Interface
Jn a SonetIT1 Shelf

Fiber Optlc Cable or

Metalllc 11 Cable

Alanns, Auxillary 110

Figure E.5- Current differential and fiber optic channel bank card

31

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capabiiity (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Permanently Connected

Substatlon Computer

Temporary Connected

MaintenanC9 Computar

Computer Temporary Connected MaintenanC9 Computar Relay Systern Transmit and~lIIIIIlIIIIlIIlIlillllll Laptop
Computer Temporary Connected MaintenanC9 Computar Relay Systern Transmit and~lIIIIIlIIIIlIIlIlillllll Laptop

Relay

Systern

Transmit and~lIIIIIlIIIIlIIlIlillllll

Laptop

computar

Recelve Metalllc

Data connect;;oin~~~iliif:==;-

IIIDXI

Modern

4-wlre Audio

IIIDXI M o d e r n 4-wlre Audio l Alarms, Auxillary UO Telephone Company Network

l

Alarms, Auxillary UO

Telephone

Company Network

Figure E.G- Protective relay using a modem tor teleprotection

Permanently Connected

Substation Computer

teleprotection Permanently Connected Substation Computer Laptop computar LAN '--------- Alanns, Auxillary 110 LAN

Laptop

computar

LAN

Connected Substation Computer Laptop computar LAN '--------- Alanns, Auxillary 110 LAN Connections lo

'---------

Alanns, Auxillary 110

LAN Connections lo Other Substations Oevlces

Figure E.7- Protective relay using Ethernet tor protection logic and tripping output signaling

32

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard lor Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests lor Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Eleetric Power Apparatus

and Relay Systems Associated with Eleetric Power Apparatus Laptop computer Permanently Connected Substatlon Computer

Laptop

computer

Permanently Connected

Substatlon Computer

Laptop computer Permanently Connected Substatlon Computer Alarms, AuxlJlary l/O Non·Protectlon Volee Channels

Alarms, AuxlJlary l/O

Non·Protectlon Volee Channels

Non·Protectlon

Volee Channels

Dlrect on Baseband FSK Equlpment

Volee Channels Dlrect on Baseband FSK Equlpment Mlcrowave Radio Equipment ¡ Figure E.8- Phase comparison

Mlcrowave Radio

Equipment

¡
¡

Figure E.8- Phase comparison equipment using analog microwave via an FSK interface

33

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IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Sys!ems Assoelated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex F

(informative)

Comparison with lEC Protective Relay Standards

Beloware details in whieh IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 differs froro the corresponding lEC standards for the oseillatory - lEC 60255-22-1 Ed. 3.02007-10 [B4] and lEC 61000-4-18 Ed. 1.1 2011-03-30 [B6] and fast transient - lEC 60255-22-4 Ed. 3.0 2008-04 [B5] and lEC 61000-4-4 Ed. 2.1 2011-03-30 [B7].

Table F.1-IEC 60255-22-1 Ed. 3.0 2007-10 and lEC 61000-4-18 Ed.1.1 2011-03-30

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012- Oseillatory

lEC 60255-22-1 Edition 3.0 2007-10 and lEC 61000-4-18 Ed. 1.12011-

Comments

 

03-30

Subclause 4.1 Oseillato!)' test

lEC 61000-4-18, Subelause 6.1.1 -

IEEE Std C37.90.l-2012 lhe power

waveform - Repetition rate is 6-10 bursts per period of the power system

frequeney. Bursts shall be non-

Characteristics and performance of the slow damped oscillatory wave Generator - specifies a repetition rate

frequency range is greater than the

lEC range, and eneompasses the lEC 400/see rate. Sinee the lEC rate was

synchronous with the power system

of 400/see

± 10 %

selected as a compromise and not based upon a specific system occurrence. the prior IEEE Std

C37.90.1-2012 rate.was retained.

frequeney (360/see - 600/see).

 

Subelause 4.1 Oseillato!)' test

lEC 60255-22-1, Clause 7- Test

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 provides a

waveform - Test duration is 2 s (tolerance + 10% / - 0%) orlong enough to satisf)r the operating time

ofthe relay under test.

procedure - specifies a periad of at

+10% tolerance where lEC does not

least2 s.

provide a limit for a time greater than 2 s. lt is preferable to speei!), a test time limit, when applicable, for

 

imDroved testin. reoeatabilitv.

Subclause 7.3.6 Wiring connections ~

lEC 60255-22-1, Clause 6- Test set-

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 requires lhe

Test Ieads from the eoupling/isolating

up . specifies that the test leads

use of shorter 1 m leads to assure minimum line impedance to the EUT

network to the relay or the test

between the EUT and lhe eoupling/deeoupling network shan not be IOMer than 2 m.

generator shall be no longer than 1 m.

for improved test repeatability.

Clause 8 Test proeedures, Table 3 - Magnitude ofinitial erest are 2.5 kV

for both eommon and transverse mode tests.

lEC 60255-22-1, Clause 4 - Test

IEEE Std C37.90.I-2012 is more

severity levels - speeifies the initial erest is 2.5 kV for eommon mode and

1 kV for Differential mode.

severe and does not allow a lower erest value for a differential mode test. Equivalent transverse and eommon mode erest exist within a

proteetlve relay system.

 

34

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII righ!s reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

Table F.2-IEC 60255-22-4 Ed. 3.0 2008-04 and lEC 61000-4-4 Ed. 2.1 2011-03-30

IEEE Std C37.90.¡TM-2012 - Fast

 

lEC 60255-22-4 Ed. 3.0 2008-04 and lEC 61000-4-4 Ed. 2.1 2011-03-30

Cornrnents

Transieot

Subclause 4.2 Fast transieot test waveform . Repetition rate is 5 kHz

lEC 60255-22-4, Clause 4 - Test

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 utilizes the standard 5 kHz repetition rate only. lEC 60255-22-4

severity level- Table 1 specifies a

(tolerance ±20%).

repetition rate of either 5 kHz or 100

kHz (Toleranee +/-10%). Note; Use of

identifies the 5 kHz rate as traditional. Based upon this

5 kHz rates is traditional

statement, the prior IEEE C37.90.1 rate was retained.

Subc1ause 6.4.3 Communication ports

lEC 60255-22-4, Clause 4 -Test

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012

not permanently connected during normal operation . Excludes the application of test waveforms to cornmunication inputs not norrnally used.

severity level- exc1udes testing port

¡Deludes requirements to test aH

inputs with cable lengths of less than

communication ports

3

m.

pennanently connected during normal operation. Pennanent disruption of a normally connected communications port may cause a failure ofthe oroteetion system.

Clause 8 Test procedures, Table 4 -

lEC 60255-22-4, Clause 4 - Test severity level- Table 1- Class Po. specifies 4 kV (+/- 10%) except

communications ports are tested at

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 requires 4 kV for aIl test

applications, including communication ports.

Magnitude for aIl points to be tested is 4 kV.

2

kV.

Test is more severe than

 

lEC 60255-22-4.

Clause 8 Test procedures, Table 4 -

lEC 60255-22-4, Subclause 6.1 and Clause 7 - Test procedure -lEC 60000- 4-4 forward and Subc1ause 6.2.1

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012

Wavefonn is applied for both common and transverse mode for aH input types

specifies the test to be applied in both common and transverse modes, excluding tests of signal and digital data circuits. Test is

except for digital data signa! and signal circuits.

specifies the application of the fast

transient in eommon mode only.

 

more severe than lEC 60255-22-

4.

35

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reseIVed.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays and Relay Systems Associated with Electric Power Apparatus

Annex G

(informalive)

History of IEEE Std C37.90.1

G.1 Introduction

A few years after the invention of the transistor in 1948, sorne transistor designs becarne available that

could withstand the typical extreme temperature variations in electric utiiity substations. TheIr capabiiity as

solid state amplifiers was very attractive to the designers of protective relays, as the search was always on for more sensitive and faster, yet secure designs for transmission line reiaying. These products were sometimes called "solid state relays" or "static terminals," and were often applied to EHV (345 kV and 500 kV) transmission lines to reduce fault clearing times. Relays for other functions, such as transformer differential protection and automatic synchronizing, also used transistors.

G.2 The high voltage substation environment

In the 1960s, the semiconductor components in sorne of these statie terminals installed in the relay houses

or control rooms of EHV substations were faiiing, and apparently not in connection with faults on an EHV line or bus. As early as 1961, AlEE, IEEE and ISA conference papers [B2], [[BI2], and [BI4] were published describing the transients generated in these substations when EHV disconnect switches were closed or opened. These transients, now referred to as the oscillatory SWC transients, were found and recorded on CT, VT and control cables in the high voitage yard. Note: It was found that switch closings created more severe transients than opening due to the inrush current when energizing a bus section's capacitance to ground and of its connected apparatus (Le. bushings, coupling capacitor potential devices, grading capacitors in EHV cIrcuit breal<ers). In sorne cases, a ground potential rise of over 40 kV was measured in adjacent cable trenches.

In a 1977 paper, "The Nature and Source ofTransient Surges" [BII], Kothemier, W.E, wrote:

"Sources of transient"

"The transient surges found in protective and control cIrcuits originate in high voltage power cIrcuits and also in low voltage and auxiiiary power and control cIrcuits. For the purpose of this paper, these are classified simply as high voltage sources and low voltage sources."

36

Copyright © 2012 IEEE. AII rights reserved.

IEEE Std C37.90.1-2012 IEEE Standard for Surge Withstand Capability (SWC) Tests for Relays.and Relay Systems Associated

with Electric Power Apparatus

"A. High voltage sources"

"The high voltage power circuits in an electrie power substation consist of al! the high voltage buses and power circuits, the primary circuits of current and potential transformers, lhe line-to-ground paths of al! capacitor deviees such as capacitance voltage transformers (CVTs), carrier couplers and apparatus bushings, and include the station ground grid and al! equipment grounds. They form a large cage-like structure as shown in Figure G.I (Figure I of [B liD."

H.V. Bus

as shown in Figure G.I (Figure I of [B liD." H.V. Bus :: ,"'" - Equip.

::

,"'"

-

Equip. Cap. to Gnd :~#:5~~~~;~~~~~~~;~;;:::;;;¡

.,,:::

- Equip. Cap. to Gnd :~#:5~~~~;~~~~~~~;~;;:::;;;¡ .,,::: -- - - - -L Control Cable Figure G.1-

--

---

-L

Control Cable

Figure G.1- The high-voltage structure

"Note that a protective or control cable may traverse through lhis region which, during disturbances, can be a region of intense transient electromagnetic fields. These fields induce or couple lhe transient surges into lhe protective and control circuits. Typical high voltage sources of surges are:

a) Switching of a bus section by an air break isolator or disconnect switch

b) Switching capacitor bank, and paral!eled power transformers and capacitor bank

c) Circuit breaker re-striking during line dropping

d) Circuit breaker re-striking during interruption oftransformer exciting current

e) Fault interruption

f) Gap flashover

g) Cable switching

h) Lightning

i) Pre-striking of breakers during load pickup

The coupling ofsurges generated by lhe high voltage circuits to lhe control circuits can be by inductive or magnetic flux coupling, electric, Le. capacitive coupling, and in some cases direct conductive coupling. When one considers lhat switching transients can be equal or greater than rated system voltage, a coupling factor of even one percent will give rise to asevere transient surge in the protective system in an extra high voltage substation."

37