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The Punjab: Moving Journeys (Part One) Introduction The Punjab Daily life on Expedition The British in Punjab

Development of the Punjab Introduction

The polar huts

The huts the men built were home for the shore party for the duration of the expedition. It was here that all of the Expeditions life could be found. You would see the m en repairing and checking equipment, writing up diaries and papers, collecting scientific records, playing cards, smoking, having a hair cut from Anton - the ponies groom - or simply occupying their time. Here are the tenements, the five bunks which were home to Cherry-Gerrard (l), Bowers (standing), Oates (middle), Mears (top r), and Atkinson (bottom r). In 2005, Sirmany Neil Cossons, English Heritage, visited they Scotts huts. He writes, I to different people." "There are Punjabs Chairman and manyof definitions of the Punjab; mean different things was struck by how timeless they are. Their timber walls were never built to last and are Member from the Sangat Group, 2008 showing signs of the harsh environment. Yet they still stand proud as one of the few human landmarks on Antarctic landscape. It was in these huts that Scotts men lived, worked and relaxed during the long Polar winter - in preparation for the journey South. A hundred years ago you would have smelt bread baking, heard the piano or watched one of Pontings slide shows. And today, as you face the untouched shelves of familiar foods Tate and Lyle sugar and Colemans Mustard - you are simply transported back into another time.

Bakshi Mulray (Governor of Gilgit) & Mehal Singh (Commanding Radur Regiment). Image taken during the 'Gilgit Mission' of 1885-86.

The name Punjab is derived from the Persian words of Punj, meaning five and aab, meaning water. They refer to the Photographer: Unknown five rivers that join to form the River Indus that flows through this region. Historically recognised as a single Indian region, the Punjab is now divided into two. Two thirds of this region is located in eastern Pakistan. The remaining third is split across three north western Indian states. The Societys work on its Punjabi collections was initiated in partn ership with the Anglo Sikh Heritage Trail. This exhibition explores the Punjab through the differing perspectives of the following UK based community groups that Fooda connection to the region. have
Thomas Clissold, Expeditions cook, is baking bread surrounded by his supplies. In the polar Cartwright Hall the Young Ambassadors, Bradford, a group of yo ung people from Pakistani and English backgrounds; huts the men dined on a wide variety of foods. For example,of the menu for the dinnerwomen; to Muslim Womens Welfare Association, Ilford, consisting Pakistani and Indian celebrate Midwinters Day 1911 ran to several childrens courses. This was in stark contrast to the North Hertfordshire Sikhin Education Councils group; monotonous rations eaten by the sledging teams, an unchanging of biscuits, and Sangat Group, London, a group of Punjabi academics, artists, diet musicians and tea historians; pemmican (preserved meat). UK Punjab Heritage Associations adult members; Undivided India Ex-Servicemens Associations group of veterans. Menu for the Midwinters Day 1911 Cape Evans McMurdo Sound Consomme - Seal Roastbeef & Yorkshire pudding Horse Radish Sauce

These groups took part in workshops using the Societys photographs, maps, books and documents dat ing from 1830 onwards. They discussed the complex and turbulent history of the Punjab; the diverse heritage that resulted from this; nostalgia for a Punjab lost; Punjabi identity and how different Punjabi groups relate to each other in Britain today. This exhibition covers aspects of the Punjab spanning the pre-partition period, partition itself and post partition period to the present. The exhibition includes: Contemporary commentary from community groups Historical quotes from diaries and publications found in the Societys collection Note: The spelling of Punjab used in the exhibition is the Europeanised version that features in many of the historical materials and is commonly used today. Panjab spelt with an a reflects the regional pronunciatio n of the name and is often considered more appropriate.

The Societys archive collection

This is my journey; searching myself...who we are, where are we fromthat is why these archives are vital. We have to co-operate in the modern world; the more I discover about my Punjabiness, the easier it is to live with other cultures and relate to them. Member from the Sangat Group, 2008 The Societys collection of maps, photographs, books, documents and journals reflect the views of 19th century Britons. Condescending and often derogatory in tone, these views sought to categorise Indian people, religions and cultures and frequently misrepresented them. Some of these Victorian travellers and officials were also Society Fellows. A C Yates served with the British government from 1875 - 1905 and set up the Indian Branch of St Johns Ambulance. Another Fellow, R G Woodthorpe worked as a surveyor; first with the Royal Engineers and then the Indian Survey department. His obituary from the Societys Journal from 1898 st ates: He was speedily drafted off to some of the wildest and most inaccessible districts of the Indian borderland on survey dutyand fell into the habit of illustrating his wanderings. The community groups recognised and appreciated the Victorian origi ns of the Societys collection, even if much of it misrepresented aspects of their heritage and history: Muslims wore turbans, Hindus wore turbanseveryone wore them because of the climate, it wasnt a religious thing. Member from the UK Punjab Heritage Association, 2008

Gancobo Seng. Surgeon of the Radur Regt. of army of Maharajah of Kashmir by unknown photographer, 1865-66

This archive is important and valuable for having the pre Partition maps. When I was looking for a map of undivided Punjab I had to come to the Royal Geographical Society. Member from the Sangat Group, 2008

Section of Map of the North Western Frontier of British India ... Sikh States, Lahore, Cashmeer, Cabul, Herat, Candahar. Publisher: Calcutta Oriental Lithographic Press, 1838

The Punjab
A historical overview
The diversity of the Punjab and its location on the Silk Route made it a melt ing pot for all these different communities and thats reflected in some of these photographs. Member from the UK Punjab Heritage Association, 2008 The Punjabs rich, yet turbulent history has been influenced by its landscape and location. The Punjabs flat, fertile land led to the dominance of an agricultural community and the rivers played an important part in the development of the region under British rule in the 1800s. The region was part of the Silk Route that connected Asian regions which bought foreign settlers, traders and invaders, and their respective cultures. Renowned Punjabi castes such as the Jats and Rajputs are a product of the movements and interactions of Persians (Iranians), Turks, Afghans, Arabs and the local population. When I see the map of the Punjab, I see a cultural and geographic entityall the layers and layers of invaders who added to the language, to the culture and the religions. Member from the Sangat Group, 2008 The diverse peoples of the Punjab share many cultural values. Many Muslims and Sikhs trace their ancestry back to a Hindu lineage. Language is a crucial feature connecting people, and Punjabi writers such as Waris Shah and Sufi poets Bullhe Shah and Baba Farid transcended religious boundaries. The mystical songs of Sufism and the folk music of the Punjab have also connected generations of Punjabi's. Key events in the Punjabs history: 2500 1600 BC 1500 1000 BC Harappa civilisation - one of the earliest that covered most of the Punjab region Aryans migrate from the west and settle in the region and beyond. The Rig Veda and Upanishad texts are written during this phase; they are regarded as the oldest texts in Indo-European languages and the basis for Hindu philosophy The Persians invade from the west of the Indus River Alexander the Great invades Mauryan Empire lead by Chandragupta Maurya (Jain Empire) Mauryan Empire lead by Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya (Buddhist Empire) Scythian tribes invade from Central Asia Gupta Empire led by Chandra Gupta; this period is defined by advances in literature, art, mathematics and philosophy (Hindu Empire) The Huns invade north India Islam first arrives in the Sind region, south of the Punjab The Turko-Afghan Ghaznivads invade north India Life of Guru Nanak - the first Sikh Guru and founder of the Sikh faith Emperor Timurid Babur (descendant of Genghis Khan) the first Mughal Emperor: marks start of the Mughal Empire (Islamic Empire) Emperor Akbar (Islamic Empire) The East India Company gains the Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I to trade with India Emperor Jahangir (Islamic Empire) Emperor Shah Jehan (Islamic Empire) Emperor Aurangzeb - the last of the Mughul emperors (Islamic Empire) Shivaji from Maharastra invades and the Punjab (1674 1680) and it becomes part of the Martha Empire (Hindu Empire) Durrani Empire led by Ahmed Shah Durrani of Afghanistan (Islamic Empire) Maharaja Ranjit Singhs rule (Sikh Empire) First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Annexation of the Punjab: British rule in the region sees development of infrastructure, agriculture and large scale recruitment of Punjabis into the Indian Army (British Rule and 'Christian' period)

550 515 BC 326 BC 322 298 BC 273 232 BC 5BC - 1AD 320 550 AD 500 AD 711 AD 997 AD 1469 1539 AD 1526 1556 AD 1556 1605 AD 1600 AD 1605 1627 AD 1628 1658 AD 1658 1707 AD 1674 1818 AD 1747 1773 AD 1799 1839 AD 1845 1846 AD 1848 1849 AD 1849 1947 AD

1857 AD

1858 1900 AD 1885 AD 1906 AD 1919 AD 1919 1922 AD 1940 1942 AD 1940 AD 1947 AD

1966 AD

The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Indian (Sepoy) Mutiny, in Bengal against the East India Company prompts the British Crown to assume direct control of British India and implement political restructuring Rise of organised Indian nationalist movements across India Indian National Congress established. Notable members and leaders include Mohandas Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Jawaharlal Nehru All-India Muslim League is established and Mohammad Ali Jinnah becomes a member in 1913 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Amritsar, marks the turning point for British Rule in India and the rise of Gandhi on the national scene Non-Cooperation Movement spearheaded by Gandhi Quit India Movement gains momentum nationally Passage of Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League under the guidance of Mohammed Ali Jinnah proclaims Muslims to be a nation and not a minority India is partitioned based on religious lines on independence from British rule. The Punjab is divided into two; the western part forming West Pakistan and the eastern part remaining in India (Bengal in east India was also partitioned to create East Pakistan, which in 1971 became Bangladesh.) Indian Punjab further divided into three states on a linguistic basis into Haryana, Himachal and Punjab

The Sikh State

Maharajah Ranjit Singh The Punjab region has seen many rulers over the centuries. Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), a Sikh, is responsible for the large-scale unification of Sikh territories and other smaller principalities to form the first Sikh kingdom in 1801. He named his kingdom the Lahore Sarkar (government) after his empires' capital. Approximately 10% of its population was Sikh. Ranjit Singh continued to expand his empire beyond the Punjab, to include parts of Kashmiri and Afghan territories. Peshawar, conquered in 1834, is considered one of his greatest successes. January 18th 1832: By the desire of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, we paid a visit to his highness in the afternoonsuch a fine tent he held his Darbar (court). He came a few paces forward to receive us; he placed Mr Barnes and Dr Gerard on golden chairsHe is a good chiefhe gave me a sum of money which Mr Barnes allowed me to keep. His highness conversation makes it appear that he is an intimate friend of the British Government. From the book Journal of a tour through the Punjab, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Khorasan and part of Persia, in company with Lieut. Barnes and Dr Gerard, by Munshi Mohan Lal, 1834 In 1809 Ranjit Singh signed a treaty of friendship with the British. On his death in 1839, a power vacuum formed and the opportunity for the British to acquire the Punjab led to two wars in 1846 and 1849. Independent Punjab came to an end in 1849 when it was annexed by the British. The British almost lostRanjit Singhs army didnt have cannons but they almost won and after 1849 the British were the rulers. In the Sikh (Ranjit Singhs) army there were Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Sikhsthe training in artillery was from the generals of Spain, Italy, Germany, France, and America (employed by Ranjit Singh). Ranjit Singh paid his sepoys (soldiers) more than the British. Member from the Undivided India Ex-Servicemens Association, 2008

Lahore - with a view of Ranjit Singhs Samadhi (mausoleum) by Walter Collector Carter, 1918-20

The British in Punjab

Interestingly on these maps, you will find it is all to do with business and trade, there are cultural centres but none of them are on the map; only business. Member from the Sangat Group, 2008 The British steadily encroached on Indian territory to form its Empire. From modest beginnings as traders, via the East India Companys interests in the east Indian ports of Bengal, the British made their way west ac ross India. This is one of the reasons why the Punjab, following the British victory in the second Anglo Sikh War (1848-49), was one of the last regions of the Indian subcontinent to fall. Following Punjabs annexation in 1849, the British recruited soldiers from the Punjab to suppress the Indian Rebellion (1857) during which the sepoys (soldiers) of the Bengal army revolted. After this event, the British government assumed direct control of India from the East India Company, marking a new stage of British rule in India. After the Mutiny, the British selected people who would protect their state, and that they could control the British took the place of these Sikh rulers, and kept up the Sikh army tradition of taking Amrit (Sikh equivalent of baptism). They liked certain aspects of the Sikh way, they wanted to mould these traditions very smart from the British perspective. Member from the UK Punjab Heritage Association, 2008

Officers of the Gilgit Mission. Image taken during the 'Gilgit Mission' of 1885-86

Christian missionaries
I used to live near a church in Jehlum but never saw the church building there because it is surrounded by trees and the gate locked. Member from the Muslim Womens Welfare Association, 2008 Under British rule India was for the first time led by a Christian power. British Christian missionaries helped to shape the Punjab and many of their accounts reveal Victorian attitudes towards this region and its people. Christianity had been present in southern India well before the arrival of British missionaries in the 19th century. In 1813, British missionaries were allowed to enter the areas of India controlled by the East India Company. Christianity did flourish in India but this was not straightforward; missionary activity increasingly led to confrontation with local beliefs and increased tension with the local population. The Christian presence in the Punjab began with John C Lowrie who arrived in Ludhiana in 1834. He came to serve the British Christian community with no intention of converting local people to Christianity. However, later missionaries representing different Christian denominations came specifically to convert the Punjabi population. The Christian community increased from 3,912 in 1881 to 395,629 in 1931 in the Punjab region. The missionaries added to the categorisation of other peoples that was prevalent in the Victorian period. Missionaries recorded the rituals and practices of indigenous faiths - often to maintain the moral superiority of the British and discredit local beliefs. These reports later played a part in the profiling of the Punjab before partition in 1947. The Sikh is more independent, more brave, more manly than the Hindu and no whit less industrious and thrifty; while he is less conceited than the Musulman (Muslim). From the publication The Missions of the Church Missionary Society and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in the Punjab and Sindh, by Reverend R Clark, 1904 This photograph shows a Christian clock tower next to the Sikhs most sacred religious site, t he Golden Temple in Amritsar. Built by the Church Missionary Society in 1862, to symbolise British dominance, the towers proximity to the temple offended the local population. It was demolished in 1945, just prior to Indian independence and the partition of the Punjab.

Golden Temple, Amritsar by E N H Cameron, 1914

Development of the Punjab

The Punjab was important as a frontier state and for the economic benefits the region presented. The British invested heavily in infrastructure, such as roads, rail links, irrigation and the postal and telegraph system. These were vital for linking markets; transport and communications, which eventually led the Punjab to become the granary of India during British rule.

Irrigation subordinates and Sutlej boatman at work by G P Tate, 1903

It was necessary for the British to control the movement of goods. The country is so big they had to develop the railway. Punjabis were even sent to Africa to develop the railways there. Member from the Undivided India ExServicemens Association, 2008

Development India-wide:
The British presence in India was primarily motivated by trade and profit, leading to investment in the road, rail and canal networks. This allowed the transportation of goods and army personnel internally and of raw materials to ports. The opening up of the Suez Canal in 1869, which reduced shipping times between Britain and India, created further opportunities for trade with India. Roads The Grand Trunk Road is an ancient and important trade route that runs from Kolkata (Calcutta) in the east, up to Delhi and on to Peshawar in the west (now in Pakistan). It is one of the longest continuous roads in the world and the British started improvements on this route in 1839. The 1940s saw large-scale road construction projects to link the main cities of India. Rail A lasting legacy established by the British is the rail network. By the 1880s 13,680 km (8,500 miles) of track had been laid; this increased to 40,235 km (25,000 miles) by 1900 and up to 56,325 km (35,000 miles) by 1914.

Punjab specific developments

Agriculture The development of the agricultural sector was of vital importance to the British. The lack of rivers and wells and the unpredictability of the monsoon rains in the Punjab led to the development of irrigation projects. These projects became one of the most elaborate and ambitious undertaken by the British. It transformed a vast wasteland in south west Punjab into some of the richest agricultural land in the world. From the mid-1880s the Punjab experienced rapid growth and social change driven in part by the development of large scale irrigation schemes. Vast areas of uncultivated lands in the doabs (Persian for land found between two rivers) of south west Punjab were transformed including places such as Lyallpur (Faisalabad), Montgomery (Sahiwal) and Jhang which now lie in Pakistan. Irrigation projects completed between 1860 and 1920 created 404,700 hectares (10 million acres) of cultivated land - one third of the Punjab - and produced vast quantities of cotton and grain. The Chenab Colony was the largest of the canal colonies, formed of 809,500 hectares (2 million acres) and had the most extensive irrigation system in India. It was started in1892 and continued expanding till the1930s. Lyallpur (Faisalabad) became the headquarters of the Colony and became an important market centre.

Turnip gathering, Lahore by P E Vernon, 1926