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Mochamad Mirza ‘Koming’ mocmirza@gmail.com +1 678 4040067 Presented for: Indonesian Telecom Professionals (I.T.P.)
Mochamad Mirza ‘Koming’
mocmirza@gmail.com
+1 678 4040067
Presented for: Indonesian Telecom Professionals (I.T.P.)
Date: 11 August 2012

LTE Introduction

LTE Interworking

Air Interface

Multiple Antenna Techniques

LTE Key Parameters

LTE Frequency Band

EPS Bearer

Idle Mode

Key Performance Indicator

Random Access

System Information Block

LTE Advanced

Tracking Area

Mobility

HetNet

QoS

CS Fallback

Metrocell

CQI

SON

Hotspot 2.0

UE Classes

Important!

For internal use within ITP members only

Do not share or upload on internet

Some of the materials in this presentation maybe under intellectual property of person or institution

From R99 to LTE

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
R99 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 -LTE - Bearer -300Mbps independent -HSDPA 14Mbps
R99
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
-LTE
- Bearer
-300Mbps
independent
-HSDPA 14Mbps DL
- IMS
DL/75Mbps UL
-OFDM
-All-IP network
-Scalable BW
-VOIP
-HSUPA 5.76Mbps UL
-HSPA+
-Higher order modulation
- MIMO
-LTE Enhancement
-SON improvement
- ITU: “4G”
-LTE Advanced
-Up to 100MHz BW
-2Mbps
- Voice and Data

LTE Goals

LTE Goals This speed is real!! Improving Services: low latency: C-Plane <100ms, U-Plane: <5ms better QoS

This speed is real!!

LTE Goals This speed is real!! Improving Services: low latency: C-Plane <100ms, U-Plane: <5ms better QoS
Improving Services: low latency: C-Plane <100ms, U-Plane: <5ms better QoS control higher data bit rate
Improving Services:
low latency: C-Plane <100ms, U-Plane: <5ms
better QoS control
higher data bit rate 300Mbps DL and 75Mbps UL
mobility: optimized for low speed (15km/h) but
connection maintained up to 350km/h
IRAT mobility: real time delay < 300ms, non-real time
delay < 500ms
Improving Spectral Efficiency: lowering costs, making use of new spectrum and reformed spectrum opportunities
Improving Spectral Efficiency:
lowering costs, making use of new spectrum and
reformed spectrum opportunities
scalable bandwith: 1 4 3 5 10 15 20 MHz
.
,
.
,
,
,
All-IP:
better integration with other open standard such as GSM,
UMTS, CDMA, Wi-Fi
Lower Deployment Cost: no RNC uses existing tower structure
Lower Deployment Cost:
no RNC
uses existing tower structure

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Architecture

E-UTRAN EPC S1- S6a MME Gx Uu HSS S1-U eNodeB MME X2 S11 S1- MME
E-UTRAN
EPC
S1-
S6a
MME
Gx
Uu
HSS
S1-U
eNodeB
MME
X2
S11
S1-
MME
Uu
S5
S1-U
S8
SGI
P-GW
S-GW
eNodeB

PCRF

PDN

S1- MME Uu S5 S1-U S8 SGI P-GW S-GW eNodeB PCRF PDN E-UTRA UE LTE uses

E-UTRA

Uu S5 S1-U S8 SGI P-GW S-GW eNodeB PCRF PDN E-UTRA UE LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency

UE

LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) technology for downlink transmission, and Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC- FDMA) technology for uplink transmission. LTE supports both TDD (Time Division Duplex) and FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) modes of operation.

The 3GPP standards call LTE‟s radio access network the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN). In order to reduce the latency experienced by packets, LTE reduces the UTRAN network to a single node type called an evolved NodeB (eNB). The eNB combines the functions of the Radio Network Controller (RNC) and the Node B, reducing the number of nodes in the network.

EPC consists of the following network elements:

The Mobility Management Entity (MME), which, as the name indicates, is primarily responsible for managing the UE‟s mobility-related context. The MME is also responsible for selection of the PDN Gateway, triggering and enabling authentication, and saving the subscriber profile downloaded from the HSS. The Serving Gateway is responsible for anchoring the user plane for inter- eNB handover and inter-3GPP mobility. The PDN Gateway is responsible for IP-address allocation to the UE. The PDN GW is also the policy enforcement point to enforce Quality of Service (QoS)-specific rules on traffic packets. The HSS is a user database that contains subscription-related information and performs authentication and authorization of the user.

LTE: eNodeB

LTE: eNodeB • Radio Bearer management – this includes Radio Bearer setup & release procedures and

Radio Bearer management – this includes Radio Bearer setup & release procedures and also involves RRM functionalities for initial admission control and bearer allocation. This set of functions is controlled by the MME through the S1 interface during session setup, release and modification phases. Radio interface transmission and reception – this includes radio channel modulation/demodulation as well as channel coding/decoding. Uplink and Downlink Dynamic RRM and data packet scheduling – this is probably the most critical function which requires the eNodeB to cope with many different constraints (like radio-link quality, user priority and requested Quality of Service) so as to be able to multiplex different data flows over the radio interface and make use of available resources in the most efficient way. Mobility management – this function relates to terminal mobility handling while the terminal is in an active state. This function implies radio measurement configuration and processing as well as the handover algorithms for mobility decision and target cell determination. Radio Mobility has to be distinguished from Mobility Management in Idle, which is a feature handled by the Packet Core. User data IP header compression and encryption – this item is the key to radio interface data transmission. It answers to the requirements to maintain privacy over the radio interface and transmit IP packets in the most efficient way. Network signaling security – because of the sensitivity of signaling messages exchanged between the eNodeB itself and the terminal, or between the MME and the terminal, all this set of information is protected against eavesdropping and alteration.

UE Categories

REF 3GPP TS 36.306
REF 3GPP TS 36.306

Rel 8, 9

Rel 10

UE Categories REF 3GPP TS 36.306 Rel 8, 9 Rel 10 • The existing UE categories
UE Categories REF 3GPP TS 36.306 Rel 8, 9 Rel 10 • The existing UE categories

The existing UE categories 1-5 for Release 8 and Release 9. In order to accommodate LTE- Advanced capabilities, three new UE categories 6-8 have been defined.

Mobility Management Entity (MME)

Mobility Management Entity (MME) MME is the entity in the network responsible for authenticating and allocating

MME is the entity in the network responsible for authenticating and allocating resources to the UE when it first connects to the network. To provide additional security to the UE, MME assigns each UE a temporary identity called the “Globally Unique Temporary Identity (GUTI)”, which eliminates the need to send IMSI of the UE over radio channels. The GUTI may be periodically refreshed and changed to prevent unauthorized tracking of the UE.

The MME tracks all UEs present in its service area. The MME will keep tracking the UE‟s location either on an eNB level in case the UE is connected, or at a Tracking Area (TA) level in case the UE is in idle mode.

The MME is also responsible for setting up of resources for the UE. MME does this by retrieving the user profile from HSS and determine what Packet Data Network connections should be allocated to the UE at initial „attach‟ point. MME automatically sets up the default bearer, thereby giving UE the basic IP connectivity including CP signaling with the eNB and the S-GW. MME is also involved in setting up the dedicated bearers for the users.

The MME also participates in control signaling for handover of an active mode UE between eNBs, S-GW‟s or MME‟s. MME is involved in every eNB change, since there is no separate RNC to hide most of these events. In principle the MME may be connected to any other MME in the system. Connectivity to a number of HSSs will also need to be supported. The MME may serve a number of UEs at the same time.

Serving Gateway (S-GW)

Serving Gateway (S-GW) The S-GW is involved mainly in the User Plane (UP) tunnel management, switching

The S-GW is involved mainly in the User Plane (UP) tunnel management, switching and other operations. It is not involved in the Control Plane (CP) operations. S-GW can only handle 12

its own resources and it allocates them based on requests from MME, P-GW or PCRF. An illustration describing S-GW logical interfaces and primary functions is shown in figure 2.4. S-GW can use either GTP tunnels or PMIP tunnels for data flow depending on the data bearer setup. S-GW acts as a local mobility anchor during handovers between eNBs. It can monitor data inside the tunnels for Lawful Interception and Charging purposes.

All S-GW connections are “one-to-many”. One S-GW may be serving only a particular geographical area with a limited set of eNBs, and there may be a limited set of MMEs that control that area. Figure 2.4: S-GW main logical connections and functions [12] The S-GW should be able to connect to any P-GW in the whole network as the P-GW will not change during mobility, while the S-GW may be relocated. For connections related to one UE, the S-GW will always signal with only one MME and the UP points to one eNB at a 13 time. If one UE is allowed to connect to multiple PDN‟s through different P-GW‟s, then the S-GW needs to connect to those separately.

PDN Gateway (P-GW)

PDN Gateway (P-GW) PDN-GW (also often abbreviated as P-GW) is the edge router between the EPS

PDN-GW (also often abbreviated as P-GW) is the edge router between the EPS and external packet data networks. It acts as the highest level mobility anchor in the EPS and as the IP point of attachment for the UE. It performs traffic gating and filtering functions as required by the service in question. Typically, P-GW assigns an IP address to the UE which it uses for communication with external network. The P-GW performs the required Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) functionality.

P-GW is the highest level mobility anchor in the system. When a UE moves from one S-GW to another, the bearers have to be switched in the P-GW. The P-GW will receive an indication to switch the flows from the new S-GW.

Each P-GW may be connected to one or more PCRF, S-GW and external network. For a given UE that is associated with the P-GW, there is only one S-GW, but connections to many external networks and respectively to many PCRFs may need to be supported, if connectivity to multiple PDNs is supported through one P-GW.

Policy Charging and Resource Function

Policy Charging and Resource Function PCRF is the network element that is responsible for Policy and

PCRF is the network element that is responsible for Policy and Charging Control (PCC). It makes decisions on how to handle the services in terms of QoS, and provides information to the PCEF located in the P-GW, and if applicable also to the BBERF located in the S-GW, so that appropriate bearers and policing can be set up. The EPC bearers are then set up based on those. The connections between the PCRF and the other nodes are shown in Figure 2.6. Each PCRF may be associated with one or more AF, P-GW and S-GW. There is only one PCRF associated with each PDN connection that a single UE has.

Home Subscription Server (HSS)

Home Subscription Server (HSS) Home Subscription Server (HSS) is the subscription data repository for all permanent

Home Subscription Server (HSS) is the subscription data repository for all permanent user data. The HSS stores the master copy of the subscriber profile, which contains information about the services that are applicable to the user. It also records the location of the user in the level of visited network control node, such as MME.

For supporting mobility between non-3GPP ANs, the HSS also stores the Identities of those P-GWs that are in use. The permanent key, which is used to calculate the authentication vectors that are sent to a visited network for user authentication and deriving subsequent keys for encryption and integrity protection, is stored in the Authentication Center (AuC), which is typically part of the HSS. In all signaling related to these functions, the HSS interacts with the MME and the HSS will need to be able to connect with every MME in the whole network.

LTE Interworking

LTE Interworking Two interfaces in the LTE network are provided for interworking. The S3 is the

Two interfaces in the LTE network are provided for interworking. The S3 is the reference point, based on the legacy Gn interface. It lies between the SGSN and the MME where it enables user and bearer information exchanges for inter-3GPP access system mobility. The S4 is the reference point, based on the older GTP-based Gn interface in UMTS, between the SGSN in the GPRS core network and the S-GW.

The preferred way to interwork UMTS with LTE is though a Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) upgraded to Release 8. This enhancement deploys the S3 and S4 interfaces that somewhat mimics the strict separation of user data flows from the control plane messages so evident in LTE.

Though the protocol stacks are incompatible with each other, LTE supports interworking with the legacy 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses. The intention is to provide LTE service continuity that is transparent to the access technology. Access independence is one of the requirements of the NGN visions. The idea assumes a generic approach, which decouples the NGN core network and its procedures as much as possible from the access technologies.

LTE Key Parameters

LTE Key Parameters Example how to calculate number of RB: • Lets say 10 MHz BW

Example how to calculate number of RB:

Lets say 10 MHz BW = 10000kHz 1 RB = 12 subcarriers, 1 subcarrier = 15kHz so 1 RB = 180kHz 1MHz for guard band (500kHz each) (10000-1000)/180 = 50RB

subcarriers, 1 subcarrier = 15kHz so 1 RB = 180kHz • 1MHz for guard band (500kHz

LTE Qos Clasess

LTE Qos Clasess REF 3GPP TS 23.203 QoS in LTE Networks Since LTE and UMTS employ

REF 3GPP TS 23.203

QoS in LTE Networks Since LTE and UMTS employ different QoS mechanisms, we need to be able to map between LTE's QCI parameters for EPS bearers and the four QoS categories and associated parameters of Pre-Release 8 PDP Contexts. The 3GPP recommendations provide rules for mapping QoS definitions between the systems. The QoS parameter sets supported within the EPC concern themselves with how packets are handled as they enter, traverse and leave a network. Adding more bandwidth at the edge of a network may resolve some capacity or congestion problems, but it does not resolve jitter, nor can it fix traffic prioritization problems. QoS in an all-IP Environment QoS is the management of the data traffic in a network. Be it a LAN, WAN or wireless, packets are subjected to scrutiny and control. QoS is primarily a layer 3 Internet Protocol (IP) concept. It uses tools that have existed since the early days of IP plus some newer tools and protocols that are designed to aid in the provisioning of precisely defined and predictable data transfers in accordance with certain characteristics. LTE and QoS Each bearer (user data) path in LTE is assigned a set of QoS criteria. In the case a user may have services requiring different QoS criteria, additional bearer paths may be added. LTE identifies a set of QoS criteria with QoS Class Identities (QCIs). These are listed in Figure 2. The critical QoS parameter for any EPS bearer is its QCI, which represents the QoS features an EPS bearer should be able to offer for a Service Data Flow (SDF). Each SDF is associated with exactly one QCI. Network operators may pre-configure all QCI characteristics in an eNB, for example, based on their actual characteristics. The parameters they choose to define these determine the allocation of bearer resources in the E-UTRAN.

EPS Bearer Service – User Plane

EPS Bearer Service – User Plane The term "EPS Radio Bearer Service" describes the overall connection

The term "EPS Radio Bearer Service" describes the overall connection between the UE and the Core Network edge node, PDN-GW. The EPS Bearer carries the end-to-end service and is associated with QoS (Quality of Service) attributes as decided by the operator. For user data, it maps down to a Radio Bearer from the UE to the eNB, and an S1 transport bearer between the eNB and the S-GW in the CN. Between the S-GW and the PDN- GW, a S5/S8 bearer is used to convey the transport between these nodes. The E-RAB is carried by a Radio Bearer between the UE and the RBS, and a user plane S1 Bearer.

Control Plane

Control Plane All services require a Signaling Connection to carry Radio Resource Control (RRC) signaling between

All services require a Signaling Connection to carry Radio Resource Control (RRC) signaling between the UE and eNB and ‘Non Access Stratum’ (NAS) signaling between the UE and MME.

The NAS messages are carried between the UE and the eNB using the Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol on a Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB). They are transmitted between the eNB and the MME using the S1 Application Protocol. The SRBs carrying RRC messages are carried by Logical Channels that are mapped onto a transport channel and scheduled together with the user data onto the physical resources (Radio Link) by the MAC layer,

LTE Air Interface

LTE Air Interface UE eNodeB • Downlink (DL) transmission: uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)

UE

LTE Air Interface UE eNodeB • Downlink (DL) transmission: uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
LTE Air Interface UE eNodeB • Downlink (DL) transmission: uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)

eNodeB

Downlink (DL) transmission: uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple

Access (OFDMA)

Uplink (UL) transmission: uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)

Supports both TDD (Time Division Duplex) and FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) modes of operation.

FDM, MC-FDM, OFDM and OFDMA

FDM, MC-FDM, OFDM and OFDMA FDM: Each user transmits their data on a different subcarrier. To

FDM: Each user transmits their data on a different subcarrier. To avoid interference, guard bands are assigned between subcarriers. Since guard bands do not transmit any information, they introduce spectrum inefficiency.

Multicarrier FDM: the user data is converted from serial to parallel. Then, the parallel data substreams are sent over multiple subcarriers. At the receiver, the parallel data is combined back into a serial data stream. A higher data rate can be achieved by using multicarrier multiplexing.

OFDM: adds the orthogonal feature into multicarrier FDM. Orthogonal means “do not cause interference with each other.” In OFDM, the subcarriers are designed to be orthogonal. This allows subcarriers to overlap and saves bandwidth. Therefore, OFDM obtains both higher data rates and good spectrum efficiency.

OFDMA: allows multiple users to access subcarriers simultaneously. In this example, three users share four subcarriers. At each symbol time, all users can have access. The assignment of subcarriers for a user can be changed at every symbol time. OFDMA provides more flexibility for system design. Different combinations of the number of carriers and symbol times can be allocated.

Cyclic Prefix

The motivation for adding the cyclic extension is to avoid inter-symbol interference (ISI). When the transmitter adds a cyclic extension longer than the channel impulse response, the effect of the previous symbol can be avoided by removing the cyclic extension at the receiver.

The cyclic prefix is added by copying part of the symbol at the end and attaching it to the beginning of the symbol, used to "signal" a break in the transmission or as guard interval and the OFDM symbol seems to be periodic. This guard interval is designed as such that it exceeds the delay spread in the environment caused by multi- path effect. Therefore the aim is to preserve sub-carrier orthogonality by ensuring the time dispersion is shorter than the cyclic prefix length.

the aim is to preserve sub-carrier orthogonality by ensuring the time dispersion is shorter than the

LTE Frame Structure

LTE Frame Structure • The basic type 1 (FDD) LTE frame has an overall length of

• The basic type 1 (FDD) LTE frame has an overall length of 10 ms.

• This is then divided into a total of 20 individual slots.

• LTE Sub-frames then consist of two slots - in other words there are ten LTE sub-frames within a frame.

Physical Resource Block (PRB)

Physical Resource Block (PRB)

How To Calculate Peak Data Rate in LTE?

1. Calculate the number of resource elements (RE) in a subframe with 20 MHz channel bandwidth: 12 subcarriers x 7 OFDMA symbols x 100 resource blocks x 2 slots= 16800 REs per subframe. Each RE can carry a modulation symbol.

2. Assume 64 QAM modulation and no coding, one modulation symbol will carry 6 bits. The total bits in a subframe (1ms) over 20 MHz channel is 16800 modulation symbols x 6 bits / modulation symbol = 100800 bits. So the data rate is 100800 bits / 1 ms = 100.8 Mbps.

3. With 4x4 MIMO, the peak data rate goes up to 100.8 Mbps x 4 = 403 Mbps.

4. Estimate about 25% overhead such as PDCCH, reference signal, sync signals, PBCH, and some coding. We get 403 Mbps x 0.75 = 302 Mbps.

Ok, it is done through estimation. Is there a way to calculate it more accurately? If this is what you look for, you need to check the 3GPP specs 36.213, table 7.1.7.1-1 and table 7.1.7.2.1-1. Table 7.1.7.1-1 shows the mapping between MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme) index and TBS (Transport Block Size) index. Let's pick the highest MCS index 28 (64 QAM with the least coding), which is mapping to TBS index of 26. Table 7.1.7.2.1-1 shows the transport block size. It indicates the number of bits that can be transmitted in a subframe/TTI (Transmit Time Interval). For example, with 100 RBs and TBS index of 26, the TBS is 75376. Assume 4x4 MIMO, the peak data rate will be 75376 x 4 = 301.5 Mbps.

with 100 RBs and TBS index of 26, the TBS is 75376. Assume 4x4 MIMO, the
with 100 RBs and TBS index of 26, the TBS is 75376. Assume 4x4 MIMO, the
with 100 RBs and TBS index of 26, the TBS is 75376. Assume 4x4 MIMO, the

Logical Channels in LTE

Logical Channels in LTE

Transport Channels in LTE

Transport Channels in LTE

Physical Channels in LTE

LTE Physical Channels differ somewhat from their UMTS counterparts, since the majority of LTE Physical Channels are shared resources, carrying information for multiple users. Consequently, Physical Channels generally answer the question, “WHERE is the information to be found?”.

LTE Physical Channels include:

Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

Random Access Channel (PRACH) • Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) • Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

Multiple Antenna Techniques

Multiple Antenna Techniques MIMO/Spatial Diversity Beam Forming Multiplexing Receive Diversity Transmit Diversity
Multiple Antenna Techniques
MIMO/Spatial
Diversity
Beam Forming
Multiplexing
Receive Diversity
Transmit Diversity
SU-MIMO (Single User
MIMO)
MU-MIMO (Multi User
MIMO)
SDMA (Spatial Division
Multiple Access)
Special Case of SU-
MIMO
Multiple path between
transmitter and receiver
created by using multiple
receive antennas
Multiple path between
transmitter and receiver
created by using multiple
transmit antennas

Single User MIMO (SU-MIMO) SU-MIMO (also known as Spatial Multiplexing) sends different sets of data over the transmit antennas, using the same subcarriers. The UE receives both streams at the same time, and performs channel estimation to separate the streams, using the unique reference signals sent from each antenna to determine how the transmitted signals have been affected by the RF environment. Although this technique is very complex and requires a good downlink SINR (Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio), it allows the UE to potentially receive twice as much data (in 2x2 MIMO) or four times as much data (in 4x4 MIMO) as it would get with a single transmit antenna. The primary benefit of SU-MIMO is increased throughput; it has little effect on coverage or capacity.

Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO) MU-MIMO is a form of Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA), which uses beamforming techniques to focus the energy of the transmitted signal at the receiver. Beamforming adjusts the relative phases of the transmitted signals so that they arrive at the receiver in phase, resulting in a stronger signal; the beams may be dynamic (able to respond to the location and movement of the UEs) or fixed (also known as switched beams, similar to very narrow directional antennas). Each UE communicates with the eNodeB over a single beam; this approach allows the same subcarriers to be used simultaneously by multiple UEs with little or no interference, due to the physical separation between the users. The primary benefit of MU-MIMO is increased capacity.

Antenna Multibeam

Antenna Multibeam http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzfUqhbohWc AT&T's multi-beam wireless technology delivers five

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzfUqhbohWc

AT&T's multi-beam wireless technology delivers five times more data capacity, and can be used at large sporting events and concerts. This innovative wireless technology provides users with more reliable, faster mobile coverage.

LTE Frequency Bands

Japan

US

Europe

US

US

LTE Frequency Bands Japan US Europe US US Many different bands are currently available for LTE

Many different bands are currently available for LTE operation. The table shows frequency bands for uplink operation defined in 3GPP TS 36.101. (For the mobile terminal, the uplink band is the band of interest, since this is the transmit frequency.)

While many bands are available, and both FDD and TDD options are shown, the main bands of interest for North America are bands 13 and 14 (700-MHz bands) and band 4 (1710 to 1755 MHz). In Europe, band 7 is expected to be widely used, with operation from 2500 to 2570 MHz. In Japan, it is likely that band 1 (1920 to 1980 MHz) will be deployed first for LTE.

REF 3GPP TS 36.101

Physical Cell Identity (PCI)

Physical Cell Identity (PCI) Read System Info & RS ◦ timing ◦ sequence ◦ frequency shift

Read System Info & RS

◦ timing

◦ sequence

◦ frequency shift

PCI: Primary and Secondary Synchronization

PCI: Primary and Secondary Synchronization • PSS signal 3 different sequences called Physical-Layer Identities (0-2)

PSS signal 3 different sequences called Physical-Layer Identities (0-2)

SSS signal 168 different sequences called Physical-Layer Cell-Identity groups (0-

167)

168 Physical-Layer Cell-Identity groups with 3 Physical-Layer Identities per group 168 x 3 = 504 Physical-Layer Cell Identities

LTE Measurement

RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power RSRQ: Reference Signal Received Quality RSRP RS Reference Signal RSRQ
RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power
RSRQ: Reference Signal Received Quality
RSRP
RS Reference Signal
RSRQ
Signal Received Quality RSRP RS Reference Signal RSRQ 3GPP TS 36.214 In cellular networks, when a

3GPP TS 36.214

In cellular networks, when a mobile moves from cell to cell and performs cell selection/reselection and handover, it has to measure the signal strength/quality of the neighbor cells. In LTE network, a UE measures two parameters on reference signal:

RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power) and RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality).

RSRP is a RSSI type of measurement. It measures the average received power over the resource elements that carry cell- specific reference signals within certain frequency bandwidth. RSRP is applicable in both RRC_idle and RRC_connected modes, while RSRQ is only applicable in RRC_connected mode. In the procedure of cell selection and cell reselection in idle mode, RSRP is used.

RSRQ is a C/I type of measurement and it indicates the quality of the received reference signal. It is defined as (N*RSRP)/(E- UTRA Carrier RSSI), where N makes sure the nominator and denominator are measured over the same frequency bandwidth;

The carrier RSSI (Receive Strength Signal Indicator) measures the average total received power observed only in OFDM symbols containing reference symbols for antenna port 0 (i.e., OFDM symbol 0 & 4 in a slot) in the measurement bandwidth over N resource blocks. The total received power of the carrier RSSI includes the power from co-channel serving & non- serving cells, adjacent channel interference, thermal noise, etc.

The RSRQ measurement provides additional information when RSRP is not sufficient to make a reliable handover or cell reselection decision. In the procedure of handover, the LTE specification provides the flexibility of using RSRP, RSRQ, or both.

LTE System Information Message

System Information have existed since the days of GSM (and probably before) and inform mobile devices about all important parameters of how to access the network and how to find neighboring cells. Here's an overview of those that have been defined for LTE so far. For details see 3GPP TS 36.331 Chapter 6.3.

Compared to GSM and UMTS, the amount of parameters inside seems quite a bit less bloated:

Master Information Block (MIB): Most essential parameters SIB 1: Cell access related parameters and scheduling SIB 2: Common and shared channel configuration SIB 3: Parameters required for intra-frequency cell reselections SIB 4: Information on intra-frequency neighboring cells SIB 5: Information inter-frequency neighboring cells SIB 6: Information for reselection to UMTS (UTRAN) cells if no suitable LTE cell is available SIB 7: Information for reselection to GSM (GERAN) cells if no suitable LTE or UMTS cell is available SIB 8: Information for reselection to CDMA2000 systems (mostly for North America) SIB 9: Home eNodeB name – for future LTE femtocell applications SIB 10 + 11: ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information SIB 12: Commercial Mobile Alerting System (CMAS) information. Never heard about this before!?

UMTS SIB19: Information for reselection to LTE cells

Random Access (RA) Procedure

The random access procedure in LTE is performed at any of the following five events:

1)

initial access of an idle mobile

2)

reestablishment after radio link failure

3)

handover to a different cell

4)

downlink data transmission to a mobile, which is out of time-synchronization

5)

uplink data transmission from an out-of-synch mobile.

Random Access Procedure:

1)

Contention Based Random Access

2)

Non-Contention Based Random Access

mobile. Random Access Procedure: 1) Contention Based Random Access 2) Non-Contention Based Random Access

RA: Contention Based Random Access

1. Random access preamble: sent on a special set of

physical layer resources, which are a group of subcarriers allocated for this purpose

Uses Zadoff-Chu sequence, a CDMA-like coding, to allow simultaneous transmissions to be decoded 6-bit random ID

2. Random access response

Sent on Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)

Sent within a time window of a few TTI

For initial access, conveys at least RA-preamble identifier, timing alignment information, initial UL grant, and assignment of temporary C-RNTI One or more UEs may be addressed in one response

3. Scheduled transmission

Uses HARQ and RLC transparent mode on UL-SCH

Conveys UE identifier

4. Contention resolution: The eNodeB uses this optional

step to end the RACH procedure

UL-SCH • Conveys UE identifier 4. Contention resolution: The eNodeB uses this optional step to end

RA: Non-Contention Based Random Access

In the non-contention based random access procedure, there is no chance of a preamble collision because the code is pre-assigned by the eNodeB.

1. Random access preamble assignment: the eNodeB assigns the 6 bit preamble code

2. Random access preamble: the UE transmits the assigned preamble

3. Random access response

Same as for contention based RA

Sent on PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel)

Sent within a time window of a few TTI

Conveys at least the timing alignment information and

initial Ul grant for handover, and the timing alignment information for DL data arrival. In addition, RA-preamble

identifier if addressed to RA-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel.

One or more UEs may be addressed in one response

identifier if addressed to RA-RNTI on L1/L2 control channel. • One or more UEs may be

CQI Mapping

CQI reports can be •Wideband or per sub-band •Semi static, Higher Layer Configured or UE selected single or multiple sub-bands •CQI only, or CQI plus Pre-coding Matrix Indicator (PMI) / Rank Indicator (RI) •Transmitted on PUCCH for sub-frames with no PUSCH allocation or PUSCH with or without scheduling grant or if no UL- SCH •Depends on spatial multiplexing •Reports can be periodic or aperiodic (when signaled by DCI format 0 with CQI request field set to 1)

•Reports can be periodic or aperiodic (when signaled by DCI format 0 with CQI request field

3GPP TS 36.213

UE States in LTE

UE States in LTE In the RRC_CONNECTED state, the UE is registered with the network and

In the RRC_CONNECTED state, the UE is registered with the network and has an RRC connection with the eNB. In RRC_CONNECTED state, the network knows the cell to which the UE belongs and can transmit/ receive data from the UE.

The RRC_IDLE state is a power-conservation state for the UE, where typically the UE is not transmitting or receiving packets. In RRC_IDLE state, no context about the UE is stored in the eNB. In this state, the location of the UE is only known at the MME and only at the granularity of a tracking area (TA) that consists of multiple eNBs. The MME knows the TA in which the UE last registered and paging is necessary to locate the UE to a cell.

Intra LTE Handover

Handover: UE moves between eNodeB and on dedicated mode There are two types in Intra LTE Handover

1. X2 based handover

Using interface between the source and target eNodeB

2. S1 based handover

When x2 based handover can not be used

Intra LTE Handover: X2 Based

Intra LTE Handover: X2 Based

Intra LTE Handover: S1 Based

Intra LTE Handover: S1 Based

Interim Option for Voice Over LTE

Interim Option for Voice Over LTE

Circuit Switch Fallback (CSFB)

LTE Phase 2 CS Fallback to WCDMA (or GSM) is to enable voice services when on LTE. LTE Phase 3 will support LTE IMS VoIP.

LTE device will reselect to WCDMA (or GSM) when either Paged or a Voice call requested when on LTE network (either Idle/Connected)

This is a temporary solution until we have IMS VoIP capabilities supported on the LTE network. However UE that does not support IMS will continue to perform CSFB after the network support IMS VoIP.

CS Fallback will be the only option for single radio UEs to provide CS services (until VoIP). Some CDMA carriers use Dual Radio technology for CS call that disconnect its RRC connection from the LTE network to answer or initiate a CS call on 1xRTT.

the LTE network to answer or initiate a CS call on 1xRTT. • CSFB adds a

CSFB adds a small delay to the overall call setup; this delay is the time the UE takes to move from the 4G network to the CS network (typically 1-2 seconds).

To support CSFB all the 3G and 2G MSCs, GMSCs and HLR will need CSFB enhancement (new SW) in order to be able to provide adequately circuit switched voice services to the LTE subscribers with LTE voice capable smart phones.

The LTE UE will perform EPS/IMSI combined attach meaning it will be attached to the MSC by the MME once the attach to the LTE network is successful. The MSC that the MME attaches the UE to becomes the serving MSC for that UE.

Incoming call to the LTE subscriber will arrive to the home MSC which will query the HLR to determine and route the call to the serving MSC. The serving MSC will initiate a paging request toward the MME. When the UE responds to the page, the 4G network will request the mobile to relocate to the CS mobile network to receive the call.

As part of CSFB, Mobile Terminating Roaming Retry functionality gets added to the MSC. The MSC which acts as the gateway MSC will be able to reroute the incoming call to the new serving MSC if the UE ends up on a different serving MSC as part of the CSFB IRAT procedure.

Self Organizing Network (SON)

Key Drivers Reduction CAPEX and OPEX Complexity of networks

Components of SON Self Configuration

Validation

Feedb Snaps ack hot Action Smart Algorithm
Feedb
Snaps
ack
hot
Action
Smart Algorithm

Monitor and

Trigger

plug and play functionality where network elements are configured (identity allocation, software upgrade, communication link establishment, etc) automatically.

Self Optimization

more or less continuous adaptation of parameters to meet specified requirements, typically specified at a high level.

Self Healing

algorithms to handle disruptive events and to minimize negative consequences on services.

SON Architecture

Centralized SON In Centralized SON, optimization algorithms are stored and executed from the OAM System. In such solutions SON functionality resides in a small number of locations, at a high level in the architecture. Figure on the right shows an example of Centralized SON. In Centralized SON, all SON functions are located in OAM systems, so it is easy to deploy them. But since different vendors have their own OAM systems, there is low support for optimization cases among different vendors. And it also does not support those simple and quick optimization cases. To implement Centralized SON, existing Itf-N interface needs to be extended.

Distributed SON In Distributed SON, optimization algorithms are executed in eNB. In such solutions SON functionality resides in many locations at a relatively low level in the architecture. Figure on the right shows an example of Distributed SON. In Distributed SON, all SON functions are located in 56

eNB, so it causes a lot of deployment work. And it is also difficult to support complex optimization schemes, which require the coordination of lots of eNBs. But in Distributed SON it is easy to support those cases, which only concern one or two eNBs and require quick optimization responses. For Distributed SON, X2 interface needs to be extended.

Hybrid SON In Hybrid SON, part of the optimization algorithms are executed in the OAM system, while others are executed in eNB. Figure on the right shows an example of Hybrid SON. In Hybrid SON, simple and quick optimization schemes are implemented in eNB and complex optimization schemes are implemented in OAM. So it is very flexible to support different kinds of optimization cases. And it also supports the optimization between different vendors through X2 interface. But on the other hand, it costs lots of deployment effort and interface extension work.

vendors through X2 interface. But on the other hand, it costs lots of deployment effort and
vendors through X2 interface. But on the other hand, it costs lots of deployment effort and
vendors through X2 interface. But on the other hand, it costs lots of deployment effort and

SON: Self Configuration

Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR) Automatic PCI Configuration Automatic IRAT Configuration New Site Self Establishment
Automatic Neighbor Relation (ANR)
Automatic PCI Configuration
Automatic IRAT Configuration
New Site Self Establishment
Self Configuration ad Self Healing eNodeB
ANR for Hetnet

3GPP TS32.501

Self-configuration mechanism is desirable during the pre- operational phases of network elements such as network planning and deployment, which will help reduce the CAPEX. Some Self-Configuration use cases are defined in the following table.

SON: Self Optimization

Coverage and Capacity Optimization (CCO) Interference Reduction Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) Mobility Load
Coverage and Capacity Optimization (CCO)
Interference Reduction
Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO)
Mobility Load Balancing Optimization (MLBO)
RACH Optimization
Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC)
Self Optimization due to Troubleshooting
Continues Optimization due to Dynamic Changes in the Network
Optimization QoS Related Parameters
HetNet Coverage Optimization

Self-optimization mechanism is desirable during the operational stage so that network operators get benefits of the dynamic optimization, e.g., mobility load balancing to make network more robust against environmental changes as well as the minimization of manual optimization steps to reduce operational costs.

SON: Self Healing

System Initializations (at different levels) Reload of a Backup of Software, Activation of a Fallback
System Initializations (at different levels)
Reload of a Backup of Software,
Activation of a Fallback Software Load
Download of a Software Unit
Reconfiguration

3GPP TS 32.541

The purpose of the Self-healing functionality of SON is to solve or mitigate the faults which could be solved automatically by triggering appropriate recovery actions .

For the fault management functionality, appropriate alarms shall be generated by the faulty network entity for each of the detected faults, regardless of whether it is an automatically detected/automatically cleared or an automatically detected/manually cleared fault.

As described above, alarms can be used to trigger Self-healing mechanisms. The Self-healing function continuously monitors these alarms, and when it is able to resolve which alarm/s could be solved automatically, it gathers necessary information, makes a deep analysis of the issue and then according to the derived results, the mechanism will trigger appropriate recovery actions to solve the fault automatically, if necessary.

For some Self-healing functions which are located in NEs and require more rapid response, the trigger of Self-healing can be the detection of a fault. Hence, when a fault is detected, an appropriate Self-healing Process will be triggered to try to heal the fault automatically.

The Self-healing functionality also monitors the execution of the recovery action/s and decides the next step accordingly. After a Self-healing procedure has ended, the Self-healing functionality shall generate and forward appropriate notifications to inform the IRP Manager about the Self-healing result and all the information of the performed recovery actions may be logged.

LTE Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Retainability •Cell downtime Availability •UL/DL throughput •Latency Integrity Mobility
Retainability
•Cell downtime
Availability
•UL/DL throughput
•Latency
Integrity
Mobility

ERAB retainability ERAB drop causes: drop MME, HO, UE lost, transport

Accessibility
Accessibility

RRC ERAB

S1

CS Fallback to GSM/WCDMA Paging

Vendor Specific

System Utilization
System
Utilization

Intra LTE handover Inter LTE handover

3GPP TS 32.450: Key Performance Indicator for E-UTRAN Definitions 3GPP TS 32.451: Key Performance Indicator for E-UTRAN Requirements

KPI: Retainability

The probability that a service, once obtained, continues to be provided under given conditions for a given time duration. Number of ERABs with data in a buffer that was abnormally released, normalized with number of success.

= 1-(ERAB drops / ERAB Success)

Drop call reasons:

drop due to cell downtime (eNodeB) drop due to handover execution failures (eNodeB) o drop due to radio connection with the UE lost (eNodeB) drop due to S1 interface down (transport) drop due to initiated by MME (MME)

d

d

t

ue

h

d

ti

(

N

o

d

B)

e

rop

an over prepara on e

S1 interface down (transport) drop due to initiated by MME (MME) d d t ue h

KPI: Accessibility

Probability for an end-user to be provided with an E-RAB at request.

Probability success rate for E-RABs establishment. Successful attempts compared with total number of attempts for the different parts of the E-RAB establishment.

= RRC Success Rate x S1 Success Rate x ERAB Success Rate

Where,

RRC Success Rate S1 Success Rate

ERAB Success Rate = (ERAB init success + ERAB add success) / (ERAB init atts + ERAN

= RRC success / RRC attempts = S1 success / S1 attempts

add atts)

CS Fallback Paging Success Rate CBRA Success Rate

KPI: Mobility

The capability of the system to allow movement within the LTE RAN.

Intra HO Success Rate = Intra HO Prep Success Rate x Intra HO Exec Success Rate Where,

Intra HO Prep Success Rate = Intra HO Success / Intra HO Prep Attempts

Intra HO Exec Success Rate = Intra HO Success / Intra HO Exec Attempts

Inter HO Success Rate = Inter HO Prep Success Rate x Inter HO Exec Success Rate Where,

I

t

n er

HO P

rep

S

uccess

R

t

a e

= I

t

n er

HO S

uccess

/ I

t

n er

HO P

rep

Att

t

emp s

Inter HO Exec Success Rate = Inter HO Success / Inter HO Exec Attempts

HO Rejections:

Incoming Handover Preparation Failure messages sent by the target eNB due to lack of license for handover.

Handover Preparation Failure messages sent by the target eNB due to license for connected users

being exceeded.

Non-admitted E-RABs at an incoming handover preparation procedure, due to lack of license for RLC

UM.

Non-admitted E-RABs at an incoming handover preparation procedure, due to license for Multiple E- RAB being exceeded.

KPI: Integrity

Service Integrity represents the quality experienced by the end user during the call or session. Common integrity measurements are data throughput and Round Trip Time (RTT). Integrity performance can be divided into three parts:

1)Latency

2)Throughput

3)Packet Loss can be broken down further into:

the rate of congestion related packet losses (e.g. the packets that get dropped due to active queue management functionality); the rate of non-congestion related packet losses (those are packets that get lost in transmission, e.g., discarded by some link layer receiver due to CRC failure).

DL Throughput UL Throughput DL Latency DL Packet Error Lost UL Packet Error Lost
DL
Throughput
UL
Throughput
DL Latency
DL
Packet Error Lost
UL
Packet Error Lost

KPI: Availability

The length of time in seconds that a cell is available for service is defined as cell availability. Cell availability for a cluster of L number of cells during N reporting periods can be calculated using the following formula. The counters are on cell level.

(N x L) – (Cell Downtime Manual + Cell Downtime Auto)

Cell Availability (%) =

N =Number of Cells L = Reporting Periods

(N x L)

KPI: System Utilization

System load KPIs describe the network use by measuring traffic level and capacity resource management, including congestion, admission load control, and license use.

Connected User License Actual Connected Users Connected User License Capacity Ratio Average Number of Simultaneous
Connected User License
Actual Connected Users
Connected User License Capacity Ratio
Average Number of Simultaneous ERABs
Average Downlink Volume per Cell
Downlink PDCP Volume

LTE Advanced

Motivations:

The driving force to further develop LTE towards LTE–Advanced, LTE R-10 is to provide higher bitrates in a cost efficient way, and at the same time completely fulfill the requirements set by ITU for IMT Advanced, also referred to as 4G.

In LTE-Advanced focus is on higher capacity:

to as 4G. In LTE-Advanced focus is on higher capacity: increased peak data rate, DL 3

increased peak data rate, DL 3 Gbps, UL 1.5 Gbps higher spectral efficiency, from a maximum of 16bps/Hz in R8 to 30 bps/Hz in R10 increased number of simultaneously active subscribers improved performance at cell edges, e.g. for DL 2x2 MIMO at least 2.40 bps/Hz/cell.

The main new functionalities introduced in LTE-Advanced are Carrier Aggregation (CA), enhanced use of multi-antenna techniques and support for Relay Nodes (RN).

LTE Advanced: Carrier Aggregation

LTE Advanced: Carrier Aggregation Carrier Aggregation The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add

Carrier Aggregation

LTE Advanced: Carrier Aggregation Carrier Aggregation The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add
LTE Advanced: Carrier Aggregation Carrier Aggregation The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add

The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add more bandwidth. Since it is important to keep backward compatibility with R8 and R9 mobiles the increase in bandwidth in LTE-Advanced is provided through aggregation of R8/R9 carriers. Carrier aggregation can be used for both FDD and TDD. Each aggregated carrier is referred to as a component carrier. The component carrier can have a bandwidth of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz and a maximum of five component carriers can be aggregated. Hence the maximum bandwidth is 100 MHz. The number of aggregated carriers can be different in DL and UL, however the number of UL component carriers is never larger than the number of DL component carriers. The individual component carriers can also be of different bandwidths.

LTE Advanced: High Order MIMO

LTE Advanced: High Order MIMO The major change in LTE-Advanced is the introduction of higher order

The major change in LTE-Advanced is the introduction of higher order MIMO; 8x8 in the DL and 4x4 in the UL. MIMO shall be used when S/N (Signal to Noise ratio) is high, i.e. high quality radio channel. For situations with low S/N it is better to use other types of multi-antenna techniques to improve S/N, e.g. TX-diversity. To be able to adjust the type of multi-antenna technique to use according to e.g. radio environment a number of different Transmission Modes (TM) has been defined. The UE will through RRC signalling be informed about the TM to use. In the DL there are nine different TMs, where TM1-7 were introduced in Release 8, TM8 was introduced in Release 9 and TM9 was introduced in Release 10. In the UL there are TM1 and TM2, where TM1 is the default, and it was introduced in Release 8 and TM2 is introduced in Release 10. The different TMs differ in

- Number of layers (streams, or rank)

- Antenna ports used

- Type of reference signal, Cell Specific Reference (CRS) or Demodulation Reference Signal (introduced in Release 10)

- precoding type

Through the introduction of TM9 8x8 MIMO is supported DL, and through the introduction of TM2 UL use of 4x4 MIMO UL is enabled.

LTE Advanced: Relay Node

LTE Advanced: Relay Node Relay Nodes In LTE advanced, the possibility for efficient heterogeneous network planning

Relay Nodes

In LTE advanced, the possibility for efficient heterogeneous network planning – i.e. a mix of large and small cells - is increased by introduction of Relay Nodes (RNs). The Relay Nodes are low power base stations that will provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges and it can also be used to connect to remote areas without fiber connection. The Relay Node is connected to the Donor eNB (DeNB) via a radio interface, Un, which is a modification of the E-UTRAN air interface Uu. Hence in the Donor cell the radio resources are shared between UEs served directly by the DeNB and the Relay Nodes. When the Uu and Un use different frequencies the Relay Node is referred to as a Type 1a RN, for Type 1 RN Uu and Un utilize the same frequencies. In the latter case there is a high risk for self interference in the Relay Node, when receiving on Uu and transmitting on Un at the same time (or vice versa). This can be avoided through time sharing between Uu and Un, or having different locations of the transmitter and receiver. The RN will to a large extent support the same functionalities as the eNB – however the DeNB will be responsible for MME selection.

LTE Advanced: Timeline

LTE Advanced: Timeline This figure shows the timeline for the development of IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced. At

This figure shows the timeline for the development of IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced. At the top of the figure is the timeline of the ITU-R, which is developing the fourth generation requirements, which are described in more detail in the next section. In March 2008, the ITU-R issued an invitation for proposals for a new radio interface technology (RIT), with a cutoff date of October 2009 for submission of candidate RIT proposals. The cutoff date for submitting the technology evaluation report to the ITU was June 2010. In October 2010 the ITU Working Party 5D (WP 5D) decided that the first two RITs to meet the IMT-Advanced requirements were 3GPP’s LTE-Advanced and IEEE’s WirelessMAN-Advanced, which is also known as 802.16m [4]. WP 5D is scheduled to complete development of radio interface specification recommendations by February 2011. The bottom figure shows the work by 3GPP on LTE-Advanced, which is occurring in parallel with the development of the ITU requirements. With the completion of the documents listed at the bottom of the figure, 3GPP formally submitted LTE- Advanced to the ITU as an IMT-Advanced candidate technology.

Heterogeneous Network (HetNet)

Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) The idea is to have a macro wireless network cooperating with intelligent pico

The idea is to have a macro wireless network cooperating with intelligent pico cells deployed by operators to work together within the macro network and significantly improve coverage and augment overall network capacity. Small cells can also be leveraged to improve coverage and deliver capacity inside buildings. Indoor coverage has long been the bane of mobile operators. Some mobile operators are already leveraging this concept, augmenting their cellular service offering with WiFi access to their subscriber base in order to address the in-building coverage and capacity challenges facing today’s cellular solutions.

Metrocell

Metrocell • Enable mobile service providers (MS Ps) to deliver cost effective capacity to urban hotspots,
Metrocell • Enable mobile service providers (MS Ps) to deliver cost effective capacity to urban hotspots,
Metrocell • Enable mobile service providers (MS Ps) to deliver cost effective capacity to urban hotspots,

Enable mobile service providers (MS

Ps) to deliver cost effective capacity to urban hotspots, as well as affordable coverage to rural locations.

Low-power

Small form factor devices, metro cells can be deployed almost anywhere, both indoors and outdoor

Boost in coverage or capacity

Owned and managed by MSPs which simplifies network planning, maintenance and optimization

Configuration and optimization is automated using self-organizing network algorithms

Advanced interference management

features minimize any impact on macro network performance

network algorithms • Advanced interference management features minimize any impact on macro network performance

Metrocell: Provide More Capacity for Less

Metrocell: Provide More Capacity for Less • A recent study conducted by Bell Labs in North

A recent study conducted by Bell Labs in North America showed that adding capacity with LTE metro cells in planned shared carrier deployment can provide a 31 percent cost savings over macro-only deployments The study also showed that urban hotspots deploying only a single metro cell per macro site in a planned shared carrier deployment could improve the network throughput for a median user by over 190 percent. Deploying 10 metro cells per macro could boost the median user’s throughput by over900 percent

user by over 190 percent. Deploying 10 metro cells per macro could boost the median user’s

Hotspot 2.0

Hotspot 2.0 Task Group:

Network discovery and selection: Mobile devices will discover and automatically select and connect to Wi-Fi networks based upon user preferences and network optimization.

Streamlined network access: Mobile devices will be automatically granted access to the network based upon credentials such as SIM cards, which are widely used in cellular devices today. No user intervention will be required.

Security: Over-the-air transmissions will be encrypted using the latest-generation security technology (Wi-Fi Certified WPA2-Enterprise).

Wi-Fi Certified Passpoint:

Immediate account provisioning: The process of establishing a new user account at the point of access will be simplified, eliminating many user steps and driving a common provisioning methodology across vendors.

Provisioning of operator policy for network selection: A mobile device's connection

manager uses this policy to select the best Wi-Fi network to join when multiple networks are available. In summary, Wi-Fi Certified Passpoint will help ensure authentication and roaming interoperability for equipment vendors and operators.

Appendix

LTE Reference Points

S1-MME Reference point for the control plane protocol between EUTRAN and MME. The protocol over this reference point is eRANAP and it uses Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as the transport protocol S1-U Reference point between EUTRAN and SGW for the per-bearer user plane tunneling and inter-eNB path switching during handover. The transport protocolover this interface is GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User plane (GTP-U) S2a It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between trusted non-3GPP IP access and the Gateway. S2a is based on Proxy Mobile IP. To enable access via trusted non-3GPP IP accesses that do not support PMIP, S2a also supports Client Mobile IPv4 FA mode S2b It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between evolved Packet Data Gateway (ePDG) and the PDN GW. It is based on Proxy Mobile IP. S2c It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between UE and the PDN GW. This reference point is implemented over trusted and/or untrusted non-3GPP Access and/or 3GPP access. This protocol is based on Client Mobile IP co- located mode. S3 It is the interface between SGSN and MME and it enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active state. It is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSNs S4 It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between SGSN and the SGW and is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN. S5 It provides user plane tunneling and tunnel management between SGW and PDN GW. It is used for SGW relocation due to UE mobility and if the SGW needs to connect to a non-collocated PDN GW for the required PDN connectivity. Two variants of this interface are being standardized depending on the protocol used, namely, GTP and the IETF based Proxy Mobile IP solution [3] S6a It enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface) between MME and HSS. S7 It provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) in the PDN GW. This interface is based on the Gx interface S10 Reference point between MMEs for MME relocation and MME to MME information transfer S11 Reference point between MME and SGW SGi It is the reference point between the PDN GW and the packet data network. Packet data network may be an operator-external public or private packet data network or an intra-operator packet data network, e.g. for provision of IMS services. This reference point corresponds to Gi for 2G/3G accesses Rx+ The Rx reference point resides between the Application Function and the PCRF in the 3GPP TS 23.203 Wn* This is the reference point between the Untrusted Non-3GPP IP Access and the ePDG. Traffic on this interface for a UE initiated tunnel has to be forced towards ePDG.

Channel Mapping

Channel Mapping