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MANAGING INDONESIAN DEFENCE BORDER POLICY Endah Dewi Purbasari, S.

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Borders are like agents of national security and sovereignty, and physical records of a states past and present relations with its neighbors1

Indonesia as an archipelagic country has a number of islands reached 17.508 islands and waters of the area 5,8 million km2 and a costline length reached 81.900 km.Indonesia as an archipelagic nation state as the number of islands that reaches 17,499 islands and waters of the area 5.8 million km2 and a coastline length reached 81,900 km2. Two-thirds of Indonesia is the ocean, and directly adjacent to 10 countries that isincluding Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, India, Thailand, Vietnam, the Republic of Palau, Australia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea. Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste has a land border with mainland Indonesia and the length of the border as a whole reaches 2914,1 km2.In the land area, Indonesia borders with three countries, namely Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and the length of the border as a whole reaches 2914.1 km2. For Indonesia, the national border issue frequently brings produces a dilemmatic problem. The defence aspect which refers to the ability to overcome various military threats coming from external environment is consequently related to the non military threats like economic, cultural social and political development. Non military threats which are so complicated and tightly related with internal stability and the ability of defence aspect to protect it from any military threat from their external environment. Recently, Indonesia is transforming its border defense policy approach from merely Wetsphalian to the hybrid one, as noted by President Yudhoyono that border defence policy approach will perform by two approah: security and prosperity. The new theory of Indonesia border policy is underpinning the facts that the region South East Asia and south Pacificis becoming a peaceful area in the globe.3
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Indonesia as an archipelagic country has a numbe of islands reached 17.499 (atau 17.508?) islands a waters of the area 5,8 million km2 and a costline length reached 81.900 km2.

Comment [A2]: Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste has a land border with mainland Indonesia and the length of the border as a whole reaches 2914,1 km2

Comment [A3]: Ndah, karena ini lo ngutip sam persis dan 5 baris, harus dikasih . Dan tulisann menjorok ke dalam.

See Kari Laitinen (2004). Reflecting the Security Border in the Post-Cold War Context, in http://www.gmu.edu/academic/ijps/vol6_2/Laitinen.htm, accessed 25 jan 2006. 2 See National Border Management Agency (2011). Grand Design Pengelolaan Batas Wilayah Negara dan Kawasan Perbatasan Tahun 2011-2025. Jakarta: Badan Nasional Pengelola Perbatasan, pp.9. 3 See Riant Nugroho (2012). Defense Border Policy: Ten Years of Indonesia Policy Defence Border Development in Preserving Peace, Security, and Political Integration, pp.20.

Paragraf ini ke paragraph berikutnya kayak nggak ada keterkaitan. Lo gak mau jelasin teori baru tentang kebijakan perbatasan ini? Formatted: Highlight Formatted: Highlight Formatted: Highlight

The level of vulnerabilities in many developing countries increasingly highbecomes higher when the above various problems mixed with other problems such as the limited financial resources, human resources and institutional incapacity ( including the strength of the military forces, National Border Management Agency, Local Government, and all relevant Ministries).The policy of Law 43/2008 about State Territory has two challenges due to defence border issue. First, the law regulates that approach for defence border management is not regarding to defen ce, but welfare, security, and environment. Indonesia defence border policy relies upon the balance of cultural and economic and political approaches. The government need to have more comprehensive policy for non military area like economics, law and social culture. Meanwhile, the second challenge it refers to the aspect of defending the border land from any possible external military threats, maintaining territorial integrity, and state souvereignty4 For this reason, the national border issue and national security issues can not be separated separated is of inseparable from both military and non military threats. As a result, the management of the national territorial border will include various dimensions of military, economic, social-culture, environment and political. The effective management of national territorial boundariesboundary will not only strengthen the nation-state building but also contribute to create a the creation of regional security building. The effective management of national territorial boundariesThis can be achieved by establishing cooperation between military forces, ministry of defence, ministry of foreign affairs, ministry of home affairs, national border management agency, local government, and all relevant ministries and institutions, also with the neighboring states. The basic belief on goodness of border defence policy based on Pancasila as Indonesian state philosophy. Pancasila shows that relationship among countries are in the context of peace, security, and political integration in the region, in which any borders conflict shall resolved in a constructive dialogue and soft diplomacy.But certainlyit is of course, we must be able to involveentangle various dimensions like economic, social, law, politics, and diplomacy in managing our national borders. The policy of Law 43/2008 has two challenges due to the defense border issue. First, the law regulates that has stated that the approach for defense border management is not regarding to defense, but more about welfare, security, and environment. The Indonesia defense border policy relies upon the balance ofon cultural and economics and as well as political approaches. The government need to haveing more comprehensive policy for non military area in the area of non military issues like economics, law and social culture. Meanwhile, the second news obviously refers
Comment [A8]: Ndah, ini gw bingung. Comment [A7]: Diganti jadi The effective management of national territorial boundaries Comment [A6]: Alasan apa ndah? Comment [A5]: Gw agak bingung ndah sama yang ini Comment [A4]: Tentang apa UUnya?

Apakah maksud lo.. Pancasila shows that relationship among countrie are in the context of.. Comment [A9]: Tentang apa UUnya?

Comment [A10]: Gw agak bingung ndah sama yang ini

See. Anak Agung Banyu Perwita, Ph.D (2007), The Management of National Border and Indonesias Security Problems. In Border Management Reform: in Transition Democraties, Jakarta: DCAF & LESPERSSI, pp.14-15.

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to the aspect of defending the border land from any possible external military threats. 5 The second challenge is embracingthat to embrace the possibility of aggressivity from of the neighboring countries. The conflict between Indonesia andwith Malaysia and Indonesia and with Singapore reflects has reflected the seriousness of the issue of managing extension territorialy policy among the neighboring countries. Those challenges assure that the basic belief on goodness of border defense policy the policy on borders defense is based on the Indonesia philosophy of Pancasila as Indonesian state philosophy. Pancasila shows that sees the relationship among countries have to be arrange in a context of peace, security, and political integration in the region, in which any borders conflict shall resolved in a constructive dialogue and soft diplomacy. I want to get my Masters degree in Indonesian Defence University because I want to acquire the knowledge to manage this countrys borders through the defence and welfare approach. My hope to enrich and add scientific knowledge in the field of defence will be realized if I can study in Indonesian Defence University. My desire of Master of Defence Management Program at the Indonesians Defense University is to acquire the necessary knowledge to manage the country's borders through the defense and welfare of the approach. My hope with studying at university this defense will enrich and add to scientific knowledge in the field of defense I am particularly in defense and security in the border region. After college, maybe I will continue my work at the National Border Management. I, in addition, to working I will also continue to improve my science education through the media and writing. I, ifIf I given a chance, I would might be very happy to be a teaching lecture assistant and or a speaker in seminars. My next 10 years target target next 10 years is being a researcher in the field of defensedefence, a lecturer, working for the government, writing books on defensedefence and border security, participate in educating border communities through activities such as socialization, seminars and workshops that are directly useful for the improvement of the concept of nationalism for border communities. Education provided not only national but also an insight into the field of applied education that can provide immediate benefits to the economy and welfare of border communities. I have big dreams to improve the welfare of border communities and build a strong defensedefence that originates from within the border itself, because I believe they are the bulwark of the country. Strengthen the country's defensedefence not only by strengthening its head aloneborder but also by strengthening the border communities because the vulnerable ideological stakes in the
See. Anak Agung Banyu Perwita, Ph.D (2007), The Management of National Border and Indonesias Security Problems. In Border Management Reform: in Transition Democraties, Jakarta: DCAF & LESPERSSI, pp.14-15.
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Comment [A11]: Ndah, ini gw bingung.

Apakah maksud lo.. Pancasila shows that relationship among countrie are in the context of..

Comment [A12]: Mungkin bisa jadi..

I want to get my Masters degree in Indonesian Defence University because I want to acquire the knowledge to manage this countrys borders through the defence and welfare approach. My hope to enrich and add scientific knowledge i the field of defence will be realized if I can study i Indonesian Defence University. Formatted: Not Superscript/ Subscript

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region as well as the defensedefence of the country, with the lack of defensedefence countries in the region will lead to weak defensedefence so as to make the country weak and vulnerable . Not only in terms of physical attack military but through non-military assault as penetration of ideology that would undermine a sense of nationalism border communities, decrease or loss of sense of nationalism would be evidence of the failure of state in protecting its citizens and it is a threat to the integrity of the nation and the state. I would feel very honored if given the chance to study at Indonesian Defence University (IDU) IDU, at this university, because I believe and trust that Indonesian Defense University (IDU) will be able to assist me in realizing my dream to participate in maintaining the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the country, especially in border areas. Indonesia is a great nation and IDU is highly expected by the nation to printcreating the statesmens and experts in the field of
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defensedefence that will be able to leadpush Indonesia to the nation's hHomeland become an increasingly large and respected by the world.

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