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DIRECTED READING QUESTIONS pg. 90-93 1.

What are three ways by which living organisms obtain energy from their environment? 2. Distinguish between cellular respiration and breathing, and describe how the two processes are related. 3. Where are the hydrogen atoms of glucose at the end of cellular respiration? 4. Why is the attachment of oxygen atoms to carbon atoms considered oxidation? 5. Why does the transfer of hydrogen atoms to oxygen and the attachment of oxygen atoms to carbon in the oxidation of glucose result in an overall release of free energy? 6. How do living cells trap some of the free energy released from the combustion of glucose? 7. In living cells, why isnt the oxidation of glucose spontaneous at normal body temperature? 8. How do enzymes enable and regulate the reactions of cellular respiration? 9. Name examples of other possible electron acceptors in the oxidation of glucose. 10. Why are obligate aerobes not able to survive without oxygen?

pg. 94-106 1. What are the four stages of aerobic respiration and where does each of the stages take place in eukaryotic cells? 2. What is the goal of cellular respiration? 3. Compare and contrast substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. 4. Describe the process by which NAD+ is reduced to NADH. 5. In the reduction of FAD, how many protons and how many electrons bind to each molecule? How does this differ from the reduction of NAD+? 6. Which stage(s) of cellular respiration are aerobic and which stages are anaerobic? 7. In which of the steps of glycolysis are ATP molecules used and what are they used for? 8. When and how are NADH molecules and ATP molecules produced? What is the energy yield for glycolysis? 9. In glycolysis, how much of the free energy in glucose is transferred to ATP? Where does the rest of the free energy go? 10. What changes does pyruvate oxidation make to a pyruvate molecule? 11. List the final products of pyruvate oxidation. What happens to each of these products? 12. What can acetyl-CoA be used to produce? How do the immediate energy needs of the organism affect how acetyl-CoA functions? 14. What is coenzyme A used for in pyruvate oxidation, and how is it recycled in the Krebs cycle? 13. Describe what happens to the carbon atoms of a single glucose molecule as they move through the first three stages of cellular respiration. 14. How is FADH2 produced in the Krebs cycle? In which steps of the cycle is NADH produced? 15. Describe the formation of ATP in step 5 by substrate-level phosphorylation. 16. What are the components of the electron transport chain? How does the arrangement of these components cause free energy to be released in the process? 17. How is water formed as a product in the electron transport chain? 18. How is the chemical potential energy of electron position converted to electrochemical potential energy of a proton gradient? 19. Distinguish between the two shuttle systems by which electrons from NADH produced by glycolysis are transported to the mitochondrial matrix. 20. How is the energy required for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate obtained?