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Pastor Larry Dela Cruz

EVIDENCE OF THE CRUCIFIXION, DEATH AND RESURRECTION OF CHRIST

CONTENTS
Introduction DID JESUS DIE? DOUBTS ON HIS DEATH DID JESUS RESURRECT? DOUBTS ON HIS RESURRECTION HISTORICAL AND SECULAR AUTHENTICATION Non biblical accounts of New Testament events and/or people An Examination of the Medical Evidence for the Physical Death of Christ Final Word 22 23 29 4 5 12 18 19

INTRODUCTION

faith and salvation are hinged and anchored on the crucifixion, death and resurrection of Christ. If Jesus did not really die for our sins and has not really resurrected from the dead as our Scriptures have claimed then like what Paul said, We are still in our sins and we are the most pitied people in the world. Proving from the Scriptures the accounts of the witnesses and the flow of the events and the circumstances surrounding therein are of utmost important and worthy of consideration. Skeptics and disbelievers try to disprove that Jesus did die and resurrect from the dead. The Quran even teaches that another was crucified in His place and so there was really no resurrection. This version is unfounded and came very late and the crucifixion and the resurrection of Christ happened hundreds of years already before their speculations came out. One cannot change history. The apostles will not give up their lives and many of them were put to death because of their faith in Jesus and they knew the truth. No human being will die for a lie which he knew. The fact that Christ lived, ate and drank with them, has done miracles in their midst, has done no evil and has fulfilled his words to the Jews, Destroy this temple (referring to His body) and in three days I will raise it up are sufficient enough that His disciples also fulfill the commandment the Lord has given them- to preach the good news into all creation and make disciples of all nations preaching His death and resurrection. What are the evidences and proofs we have? We are going to answer these questions and settle the doubts. Did Jesus die? Doubts on His death. Did Jesus resurrect? Doubts on His resurrection.

Christianity, our

DID JESUS DIE?


1. It was written and prophesied Isaiah wrote about His sufferings and death Isa 53:1-12 Who has believed our message? And to whom has the arm of the LORD been revealed? Isa 53:2 He grew up before him like a tender shoot, and like a root out of dry ground. He had no beauty or majesty to attract us to him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him. Isa 53:3 He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like one from whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not esteem Him. Isa 53:4 Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. Isa 53:5 But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. Isa 53:6 All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him. Isa 53:7 He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. Isa 53:8 By oppression and judgment He was taken away; And as for His generation, who considered That He was cut off out of the land of the living For the transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due? Isa 53:9 His grave was assigned with wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth. Isa 53:10 But the LORD was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, 5

He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper in His hand. Isa 53:11 As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; By His knowledge the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities. Isa 53:12 Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors. Rejected by Jewish leaders Ps 118:22 The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief corner stone. Mt 21:42 Jesus said to them, Did you never read in the Scriptures, THE STONE WHICH THE BUILDERS REJECTED, THIS BECAME THE CHIEF CORNER stone; THIS CAME ABOUT FROM THE LORD, AND IT IS MARVELOUS IN OUR EYES? Mt 26:63-66 But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God. Mt 26:64 Jesus *said to him, You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you will see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN. Mt 26:65 Then the high priest tore his robes and said, He has blasphemed! What further need do we have of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy; Mt 26:66 what do you think? They answered, He deserves death! The Sheep scattered Zech 13:7 Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is close to me! declares the LORD Almighty. Strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered, and I will turn my hand against the little ones. 6

Mt 26:31 Then Jesus said to them, You will all be offended and stumble and fall away because of Me this night [distrusting and deserting Me], for it is written, I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered. He was Pierced Ps 22:16 For dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has encompassed me; They pierced my hands and my feet. Zech 12:10 And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. Lk 23:33 When they came to the place called the Skull, there they crucified him, along with the criminalsone on his right, the other on his left. Jn 20:25-27 So the other disciples were saying to him, We have seen the Lord! But he said to them, Unless I see in His hands the imprint of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not believe. Jn 20:26 After eight days His disciples were again inside, and Thomas with them. Jesus *came, the doors having been shut, and stood in their midst and said, Peace be with you. Jn 20:27 Then He *said to Thomas, Reach here with your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand and put it into My side; and do not be unbelieving, but believing. Forsaken Ps 22:1 My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? Far from my deliverance are the words of my groaning. Mt 27:46 About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, ELI, ELI, LAMA SABACHTHANI? that is, MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME?

Ps 31:5 Into Your hand I commit my spirit; Lk 23:46 And Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said, Father, INTO YOUR HANDS I COMMIT MY SPIRIT. Having said this, He breathed His last. Bones not Broken Ps 34:20 He keeps all his bones, Not one of them is broken. Jn 19:33 but coming to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs. Jn 19:36 For these things came to pass to fulfill the Scripture, NOT A BONE OF HIM SHALL BE BROKEN. Crucified with criminals and died Isa 53:12 Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors. Mt 27:38 At that time two robbers *were crucified with Him, one on the right and one on the left. He was with a rich man at His death Isa 53:9 He was assigned a grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.

Mt 27:57-60 When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. Mt 27:58 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. Mt 27:59 And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, Mt 27:60 and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the entrance of the tomb and went away. 2. Jesus foretold His death Jn 12:31-33, Now is the time for judgment on this world; now the prince of this world will be driven out. Jn 12:32 But I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself. Jn 12:33 He said this to show the kind of death he was going to die. Mt 20:18-19 We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death Mt 20:19 and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life! Mk 10:33-34 We are going up to Jerusalem, he said, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will hand him over to the Gentiles, Mk 10:34 who will mock him and spit on him, flog him and kill him. Three days later he will rise. Lk 18:31-33 Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. Lk 18:32 He will be handed over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him and kill him. Lk 18:33 On the third day he will rise again. 3. Events during His crucifixion Jewish leaders put Him to death

Mt 26:59,63-66 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death.
Mt 26:63

But Jesus remained silent. The high priest said to him, I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God. Mt 26:64 Yes, it is as you say,Jesus replied. But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven. Mt 26:65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. Mt 26:66 What do you think? He is worthy of death, they answered. Lk 22:2, 24:20 and the chief priests and the teachers of the law were looking for some way to get rid of Jesus, for they were afraid of the people.
Lk 24:20

The chief priests and our rulers handed him over to be sentenced to death, and they crucified him; Jesus pierced on His side Zech. 12:10 And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. Jn 19:33-34 But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. Jn 19:34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. Not a bone was broken Ps. 34:20 he protects all his bones, not one of them will be broken.

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Jn. 19:31-33 Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath. Because the Jews did not want the bodies left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they asked Pilate to have the legs broken and the bodies taken down. Jn 19:32 The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other. Jn 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. John the beloved a witness Jn 19:35-37 The man who saw it has given testimony, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, and he testifies so that you also may believe. Jn 19:36 These things happened so that the scripture would be fulfilled: Not one of his bones will be broken, Jn 19:37 and, as another scripture says, They will look on the one they have pierced. Pilate confirmed His death Mk 15:39, 44-46 And when the centurion, who stood there in front of Jesus, heard his cry and saw how he died, he said, Surely this man was the Son of God!
Mk 15:44

Pilate was surprised to hear that he was already dead. Summoning the centurion, he asked him if Jesus had already died. Mk 15:45 When he learned from the centurion that it was so, he gave the body to Joseph. Mk 15:46 So Joseph bought some linen cloth, took down the body, wrapped it in the linen, and placed it in a tomb cut out of rock. Then he rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb. Mary and many women witnessed Mt 27:54-56 When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified, and exclaimed, Surely he was the Son of God! Mt 27:55 Many women were there, watching from a distance. They had followed Jesus from Galilee to care for his needs. Mt 27:56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedees sons.

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Joseph of Arimathea took His body and Nicodemus prepared for His burial Jn 19:38-42 Later, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus. Now Joseph was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly because he feared the Jews. With Pilates permission, he came and took the body away. Jn 19:39 He was accompanied by Nicodemus, the man who earlier had visited Jesus at night. Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds. Jn 19:40 Taking Jesus body, the two of them wrapped it, with the spices, in strips of linen. This was in accordance with Jewish burial customs. Jn 19:41 At the place where Jesus was crucified, there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb, in which no one had ever been laid. Jn 19:42 Because it was the Jewish day of Preparation and since the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.

DOUBTS ON HIS DEATH


1. 3 days and 3 nights (not completed) Mt 12:40 For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. Jon 1:17 But the LORD provided a great fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was inside the fish three days and three nights. It is not 24 hours counting On the 3rd day and three days are the same statements. This is not exactly 24 hours counting. Mt 20:18-19 We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death Mt 20:19 and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life! 12

Esther 4:16, Go, gather together all the Jews who are in Susa, and fast for me. Do not eat or drink for three days, night or day. I and my maids will fast as you do. When this is done, I will go to the king, even though it is against the law. And if I perish, I perish. 5:1 On the third day Esther put on her royal robes and stood in the inner court of the palace, in front of the kings hall. The king was sitting on his royal throne in the hall, facing the entrance. 2. Jonah in the belly of the fish and the Son of Man in the heart of the earth (Jonah didnt die so Jesus didnt die) Act 2:27 because you will not abandon me to the grave, nor will you let your Holy One see decay. Eph 4:9 (What does he ascended mean except that he also descended to the lower, earthly regions ? 1Pet 3:18-20 For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit, 1Pe 3:19 through whom also he went and preached to the spirits in prison 1Pe 3:20 who disobeyed long ago when God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built. In it only a few people, eight in all, were saved through water, Heb 2:14 Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might destroy him who holds the power of deaththat is, the devil 3. God saved Him when He prayed Heb 5:7 During the days of Jesus life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with loud cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. Verse 8 confirmed He suffered Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered

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Heb 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. 4. Not will of Jesus to die Jesus will to suffer and accepted the Fathers will Heb 10:5-7 Therefore, when Christ came into the world, he said: Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me; Heb 10:6 with burnt offerings and sin offerings you were not pleased. Heb 10:7 Then I said, Here I amit is written about me in the scroll I have come to do your will, O God. Jn 10:17-18 The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my lifeonly to take it up again. Jn 10:18 No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father. Jn 12:27 Now my heart is troubled, and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour? No, it was for this very reason I came to this hour. Mt 26:28 This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 5. God placed another God gave His Son Is 53:8, 10 By oppression and judgment he was taken away. And who can speak of his descendants? For he was cut off from the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was stricken. Isa 53:10 Yet it was the LORD'S will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will prosper in his hand. 14

Jn 3:16-17 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. Jn 3:17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. Jesus said He shall be killed Mk 10:33-34 We are going up to Jerusalem, he said, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will hand him over to the Gentiles, Mk 10:34 who will mock him and spit on him, flog him and kill him. Three days later he will rise. 6. Each will die for his sins Dt 24:16 Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor children put to death for their fathers; each is to die for his own sin. Ezek 18:20 The soul who sins is the one who will die. The son will not share the guilt of the father, nor will the father share the guilt of the son. The righteousness of the righteous man will be credited to him, and the wickedness of the wicked will be charged against him.

God provides the sacrifice for forgiveness Before animal offerings Ex 30:10 Once a year Aaron shall make atonement on its horns. This annual atonement must be made with the blood of the atoning sin offering for the generations to come. It is most holy to the LORD. Lev 16:5-6, 21-22 From the Israelite community he is to take two male goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering. Lev 16:6 Aaron is to offer the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household.

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Lev 16:21

He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelitesall their sinsand put them on the goats head. He shall send the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. Lev 16:22 The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release it in the desert. And now Christ the ultimate sacrifice for all Heb 10:1-12 The law is only a shadow of the good things that are comingnot the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship. Heb 10:2 If it could, would they not have stopped being offered? For the worshipers would have been cleansed once for all, and would no longer have felt guilty for their sins. Heb 10:3 But those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, Heb 10:4 because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Heb 10:5 Therefore, when Christ came into the world, he said: Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me; Heb 10:6 with burnt offerings and sin offerings you were not pleased. Heb 10:7 Then I said, Here I amit is written about me in the scroll I have come to do your will, O God. Heb 10:8 First he said, Sacrifices and offerings, burnt offerings and sin offerings you did not desire, nor were you pleased with them (although the law required them to be made). Heb 10:9 Then he said, Here I am, I have come to do your will. He sets aside the first to establish the second. Heb 10:10 And by that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. Heb 10:11 Day after day every priest stands and performs his religious duties; again and again he offers the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. Heb 10:12 But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God. 7. Not just for Christ to die The cost of our soul is high Ps 49:7-9 No man can redeem the life of another or give to God a ransom for him Ps 49:8 the ransom for a life is costly, no payment is ever enough 16

Ps 49:9

that he should live on forever and not see decay. We have sinned Rom 5:12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned Gal 3:22 But the Scripture declares that the whole world is a prisoner of sin, so that what was promised, being given through faith in Jesus Christ, might be given to those who believe. And only an unblemished offering is acceptable 1Pet 3:18-20 For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, 1Pe 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. 1Pe 1:20 He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake. It is Gods way Ps 49:15 But God will redeem my life from the grave; he will surely take me to Himself. Mt 19:25-26 When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished and asked, Who then can be saved? Mt 19:26 Jesus looked at them and said, With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible. Jesus is the ransom and it is the truth 1Tim 2:3-6 This is good, and pleases God our Savior, 1Ti 2:4 who wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. 1Ti 2:5 For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,

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1Ti 2:6

time.

who gave himself as a ransom for all menthe testimony given in its proper

DID JESUS RESURRECT?


1. It was written Ps. 16:8-10 I have set the LORD always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken. Ps 16:9 Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices; my body also will rest secure, Ps 16:10 because you will not abandon me to the grave, nor will you let your Holy One see decay. Ps 68:18a When you ascended on high, you led captives in your train; Lk 24:44-46 Now He said to them, These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled. LK 24:45 Then He opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, LK 24:46 and He said to them, Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day, 2. Jesus foretold His resurrection Jn 2:19 Jesus answered them, Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days. Mt 16:21-23 From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life. Mt 16:22 Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. Never, Lord! he said. This shall never happen to you! Mt 16:23 Jesus turned and said to Peter, Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; you do not have in mind the things of God, but the things of men. 18

Mt 17:23 They will kill him, and on the third day he will be raised to life. And the disciples were filled with grief. 3. Many disciples and the apostles witnessed His resurrection And showed Himself for 40 days Act 1:2-3, 22 until the day he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. Ac 1:3 After his suffering, he showed himself to these men and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive. He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God.
Ac 1:22

beginning from Johns baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us. For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 1Cor 15:4-6 that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, 1Co 15:5 and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve. 1Co 15:6 After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep.

DOUBTS ON HIS RESURRECTION


Facts
1. Pilates guard and seal on the tomb Mt 27:62-66 The next day, the one after Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees went to Pilate. Mt 27:63 Sir, they said, we remember that while he was still alive that deceiver said, After three days I will rise again.

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Mt 27:64

So give the order for the tomb to be made secure until the third day. Otherwise, his disciples may come and steal the body and tell the people that he has been raised from the dead. This last deception will be worse than the first. Mt 27:65 Take a guard, Pilate answered. Go, make the tomb as secure as you know how. Mt 27:66 So they went and made the tomb secure by putting a seal on the stone and posting the guard. 2. Burial cloth folded Jn 20:6-9 Then Simon Peter, who was behind him, arrived and went into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, Jn 20:7 as well as the burial cloth that had been around Jesus head. The cloth was folded up by itself, separate from the linen. Jn 20:8 Finally the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went inside. He saw and believed. 3. The apostles first did not understand and doubted Jn 20:9, 24-29 (They still did not understand from Scripture that Jesus had to rise from the dead.)
Jn 20:24

Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve, was not with the disciples when Jesus came. Jn 20:25 So the other disciples told him, We have seen the Lord! But he said to them, Unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it. Jn 20:26 A week later his disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, Peace be with you! Jn 20:27 Then he said to Thomas, Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe. Jn 20:28 Thomas said to him, My Lord and my God! Jn 20:29 Then Jesus told him, Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed. Then they were live witnesses of the resurrection 1Cor 15:14-15, 20 And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith. 1Co 15:15 More than that, we are then found to be false witnesses about God, for we have testified about God that he raised Christ from the dead. But he did not raise him if in fact the dead are not raised. 20

1Co 15:20

But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. LK 24:46-48 and He said to them, Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day, LK 24:47 and that repentance for forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed in His name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. LK 24:48 You are witnesses of these things. Proclaimed and gave their life for it Act 4:2,33 They were greatly disturbed because the apostles were teaching the people and proclaiming in Jesus the resurrection of the dead.
Ac 4:33

With great power the apostles continued to testify to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and much grace was upon them all. Act 7:54-8:1 When they heard this, they were furious and gnashed their teeth at him. Ac 7:55 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. Ac 7:56 Look, he said, I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God. Ac 7:57 At this they covered their ears and, yelling at the top of their voices, they all rushed at him, Ac 7:58 dragged him out of the city and began to stone him. Meanwhile, the witnesses laid their clothes at the feet of a young man named Saul. Ac 7:59 While they were stoning him, Stephen prayed, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. Ac 7:60 Then he fell on his knees and cried out, Lord, do not hold this sin against them. When he had said this, he fell asleep. Ac 8:1 And Saul was there, giving approval to his death.

1Cor 15:3-4, 10-11 For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance : that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 1Co 15:4 that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
1Co 15:10

But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace to me was not without effect. No, I worked harder than all of themyet not I, but the grace of God that was with me. 1Co 15:11 Whether, then, it was I or they, this is what we preach, and this is what you believed. 21

4. Soldiers were bribed for a story that His body was stolen Mt 28:11-15 While the women were on their way, some of the guards went into the city and reported to the chief priests everything that had happened. Mt 28:12 When the chief priests had met with the elders and devised a plan, they gave the soldiers a large sum of money, Mt 28:13 telling them, You are to say, His disciples came during the night and stole him away while we were asleep. Mt 28:14 If this report gets to the governor, we will satisfy him and keep you out of trouble. Mt 28:15 So the soldiers took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story has been widely circulated among the Jews to this very day.

HISTORICAL AND SECULAR AUTHENTICATION


Non biblical accounts of New Testament events and/or people
1. Flavius Josephus (AD 37-101) mentions Jesus - Antiquities, Book 18, ch. 3, par. 3. Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, (9) those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; (10) as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day. 2. Tacitus (A.D. c.55-A.D. c.117, Roman historian) mentions "Christus" who is Jesus - Annals 15.44 "Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular." 22

3. The Jewish Talmud "On the eve of the Passover Yeshu (JESUS) was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, "He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Any one who can say anything in his favor, let him come forward and plead on his behalf." But since nothing was brought forward in his favor he was hanged on the eve of the Passover!" 4. Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, letter to the Trallians (110-115 AD): "Jesus Christ who was of the race of David, who was the Son of Mary, who was truly born and ate and drank, was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, was truly crucified and died in the sight of those in heaven and on earth and those under the earth; who moreover was truly raised from the dead, His Father having raised Him, who in the like fashion will so raise us also who believe on Him."
Slick, Matt. Non biblical accounts of New Testament events and/or people.Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry (CARM). 3 February, 2014.<http://carm.org/questions/about-bible/non-biblical-accounts-new-testamentevents-andor-people>.

An Examination of the Medical Evidence for the Physical Death of Christ


by Brad Harrub, Ph.D. and Bert Thompson, Ph.D.

The crucifixion of Jesus and his ensuing death is an event that occurred during the first century A.D. Jesus Christ was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally executed on a cross. Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' redemptive suffering and death by crucifixion represents a critical aspect of the doctrine of salvation in Christian theology. Christians regard Jesus as the Messiah, and understand his death as necessary for the forgiveness of sins, a doctrine generally known as atonement (and in some cases as substitutionary atonement). Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four gospels, attested to by other contemporary sources, and regarded as a historical event.[1] Christians believe Jesus' suffering was foretold in Hebrew scripture, such as in Isaiah's songs of the suffering servant.[2] According to the New Testament, Jesus was arrested in Gethsemane following the Last Supper with the twelve Apostles, and forced to stand trial before the Sanhedrin, Pontius Pilate, and Herod Antipas, before being handed over for crucifixion. After being flogged, Jesus was mocked by Roman soldiers as the "King of the Jews", clothed in a purple robe, crowned with thorns, beaten and spat on. Jesus then had to make his way to the place of his crucifixion.

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Once at Golgotha, Jesus was stripped and nailed to the beam and hung between two convicted thieves. According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment for some six hours, from the third hour[Mk. 15:25] until his death at the ninth hour.[15:34-37] The soldiers affixed a sign above his head stating "King of the Jews" in three languages, divided his garments and cast lots for his seamless robe, and offered him wine mixed with gall to drink, before eventually piercing his side with a spear to be certain that he had died. The gospels mention a total of seven statements that Jesus made while he was being crucified, as well as several supernatural events that occurred. Following his death, his body was removed from the cross by Joseph of Arimathea and buried in a rock-hewn tomb, with Nicodemus assisting.

SCOURGING AND FLOGGING


Mk 15:15

Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them. He had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified
Jn 19:1

Then Pilate took Jesus and had him flogged. Five times I received from the Jews the forty lashes minus one.

2Co 11:24

The practice of scourging was a legal preliminary to every Roman execution (Hengel, 1977) because it weakened the victim through shock and blood loss. Without scourging, strong, condemned men might live on the cross for several days until exposure, wild animals, insects, or birds resulted in their death. Initial anterior blows undoubtedly would have opened the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue of His chest (Davis, 1965, p. 185). Subsequent blows would have tattered the underlying pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, as well as the medial aspects of the serratus anterior muscle (Netter, 1994, p. 174). Once these layers were ravaged, repetitive blows could fracture intercoastal ribs and shred the three layers of intercoastal muscles, causing superficial and cutaneous vessels of the chest to be lacerated. Then, as the flogging continued, the lacerations would tear into the underlying skeletal muscles and produce quivering ribbons of bleeding flesh. Pain and blood loss generally set the stage for circulatory shock

CROWN OF THORNS
Mk 15:16

The soldiers led Jesus away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium) and called together the whole company of soldiers. Mk 15:17 They put a purple robe on him, then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on him. Mk 15:18 And they began to call out to him, Hail, king of the Jews! 24

Mk 15:19

Again and again they struck him on the head with a staff and spit on him. Falling on their knees, they paid homage to him. The thorns used to form this special crown were more than a few mere briars. Botanists familiar with foliage of the Middle East have suggested that the thorns could have come from the lote treethe Zizyphus spina christi. This tree had thorns averaging one inch in length. It was improbable for anyone to form a wreath-like crown using these thorns without being injured. It would be more probable, therefore, that the crown of thorns was more like a helmet. In fact, it would have been easier to cut off a bush and use it as a helmet of thorns. Unlike the traditional crown, which often is depicted in artists portrayals as an open ring, the actual crown of thorns probably covered His entire scalp (Lumpkin, 1978). The gospel accounts record that following His crowning, Jesus received continued blows to the head. These blows would have driven these thorns deep into the highly vascularized scalp and forehead, penetrating both the frontalis and occipitalis muscles (Netter, p. 21). Perforations of any of the numerous arterial or venous tributaries encircling the craniumsuch as the frontal and parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery and veinwould have caused extensive bleeding. Additionally, branches of the superficial cutaneous nerves of the head, such as, for example, the greater occipital nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve, would have been perforated, causing indescribable pain.

CRUCIFIXION
The Jewish historian Josephus aptly described crucifixion, following the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 66-70, as the most wretched of deaths. Archaeological evidence strongly suggests that criminals during the time of Christ were not forced to carry an entire T-shaped cross as is commonly portrayed in artdeco jewelry or Hollywood films, but rather only the crossbeam (known as a patibulum), which would have weighed between 75 and 125 pounds. It was customary, however, for convicted criminals to carry their own cross from the scourging site to the place of crucifixion. The effects of the scourging on Christs physical condition can be inferred from His severely weakened conditionas demonstrated by the fact that later, Simon of Cyrene would be compelled to carry the patibulum. As a bloodied Christ struggled with that crossbeam, a centurion led the procession, which usually consisted of a full Roman military guard (Barbet, 1953, p. 49; Johnson, 1978, 70:100). One of the soldiers in the procession carried a sign that later would be attached to the top of the cross, denoting the convicted mans name and crime (Johnson, 70:100). Measurements indicate that the distance from the Praetorium to the site of Christs crucifixion was approximately one-third of a mile (600-650 meters) [Davis, 1965, p. 186; Bucklin, 1970; Johnson, 1978, p. 99; Edwards et al., 1986, 256:1456]. The Bible never actually mentions that Christ collapsed under that heavy load. However, 25

consider the possibility that if His hands were tied to the crosspiece and He had fallen, Jesus would have been unable to break the fall. Researchers have speculated that falling under the weight of a crossbeam very likely would have resulted in blunt chest trauma and a contused heart (Ball, 1989, p. 83). Having suffered considerable blood loss from the scourging, almost 30% Jesus likely was in a dehydrated state when He finally reached the top of Golgotha.

Nailing the Hands


Jn 20:25

So the other disciples told him, We have seen the Lord! But he said to them, Unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it.
Jn 20:27

Then he said to Thomas, Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe. Archaeological data indicate that the specific nails used during the time of Christs crucifixion were tapered iron spikes five to seven inches long with a square shaft approximately three-eighths of an inch across (Haas, 1970; Tzaferis, 1970; Clements, 1992, p. 108). Various studies have demonstrated that the bony palms cannot support the weight of a body hanging from them (e.g., Barbet, 1953). The weight of the body would tear quite easily through the lumbricals and flexor tendonsbreaking the metacarpal bones as the nails pulled freeallowing the body to fall to the Earth. However, in ancient terminology, the wrist was considered to be part of the hand (Barbet, 1953, p. 106; Davis, 1965, p. 184; Major, 1999, 19:86). At the base of the wrist bones, the strong fibrous band of the flexor retinaculum binds down the flexor tendons. Iron spikes driven through the flexor retinaculum easily could have passed between bony elements and held the weight of a man. This location would require that the nail be placed through either: (1) the space between the radius and carpal bones (lunate and scaphoid bones); or (2) between the two rows of carpal bones (Barbet, 1953, p. 106; DePasquale and Burch, 1963, p. 434; Lumpkin, 1978; Netter, 1994, p. 426).

Nailing the Feet


The pain Christ must have experienced up to this point would have been excruciating, and yet the Roman soldiers were about to deliver even more. There were many ways to nail the feet to the stipes, but most required the knees to be flexed and rotated laterally. It is likely that the spikes were driven through either the: (1) tarsometatarsal joint (between the metatarsal bones and cuneiform bones); or (2) the transverse tarsal joint (between the calcaneus and cuboid or navicular bones). While this placement undoubtedly would prevent the bones of Christs feet from breaking, it nevertheless would cause severe injury to the deep

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peroneal nerve or lateral plantar nerve (and artery), and certainly would pierce the quadratus plantae muscle (Netter, 1994, p. 509).

Breathing on the Cross


Even though blood poured from His lacerated back, one major pathophysiological impairment Jesus faced during crucifixion was normal respiration (i.e., breathing). Maximum inhalation would have been possible only when the body weight was supported by the nailed wrists of the outstretched arms. When Christ first was lifted onto the splinter-covered surface of the cross, His arms and body were stretched out in the form of a Y. A momentary T position would be required to allow proper support for inhalation. Thus, in order to breathe He was required to lift His body using His nailed wrists for leverage. Exhalation would be impossible in this position, and the immense pain placed on the wrists quickly would become too great; therefore, Christ would have to slump back into a Y position to exhale. Jesus would be forced to continue alternating between the Y and T positions with every breath, trying all the while not to reopen the wounds He had received from the scourging. Fatigued muscles eventually would begin to spasm, and Christ would become exhausted from these repeated tasks, slumping permanently into the shape of a Y. In this position, chest and respiratory muscles soon would become paralyzed from the increased strain and pain. Without strength for breath, Christs body would begin to suffer from asphyxia.

Piercing Christs Side


While death on the cross may have been caused by any number of factors, and likely would have varied with each individual case, the two seemingly most prominent causes of death probably were hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia (DePasquale, 1963; Davis, 1965). Others have proposed dehydration, cardiac arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure with the rapid accumulation of pericardial and pleural effusions as possible contributing factors (Lumpkin 1978; Clements, 1992, pp. 108-109;). The ability of Christ to cry out with a loud voice indicates that asphyxia was probably not the major causative factor. The finality of death upon the cross often was accomplished by the breaking of the legs of the victims, which caused still more traumatic shock and prevented an individual from pushing up in order to fully respire. In an effort to get the bodies off the crosses before the Sabbath day, the soldiers therefore came, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him: but when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: howbeit one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and straightway there came out blood and water (John 19:32-34).

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Much speculation has centered on the exact location of the puncture wound and thus the source of the resulting blood and water. However, the Greek word (pleura) that John used clearly denotes the area of the intercoastal ribs that cover the lungs (Netter, 1994, p. 184). Given the upward angle of the spear, and the thoracic location of the wound, abdominal organs can be ruled out as having provided the blood and water. A more likely scenario would suggest that the piercing affected a lung (along with any built-up fluid), the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, the right atrium of the heart itself, the pulmonary vessels, and/or the aorta. Since John did not describe the specific side of the body on which the wound was inflicted, we can only speculate about which structures might have been impaled by such a vicious act. However, the blood could have resulted from the heart, the aorta, or any of the pulmonary vessels. Water probably was provided by pleural or pericardial fluids (that surround the lungs and heart).

CONCLUSION
It is with both medical and biblical certainty that we know Christ died upon the cross at Calvary. He was laid in a tomb with nail wounds in His hands and feet, and still possessed those scars following His resurrection. The extreme physical insults to Christs body left Him ragged, torn, bleeding, and tormented with pain. Yet He endured willingly all the agony and torment of the cross for each one of us. As Paul wrote: For He Himself is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation, having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two, thus making peace, and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity (Ephesians 2:1416). We would do well to heed the advice of the writer of the book of Hebrews, who said: Let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God (12:2). Oh, the overwhelming love that God showed each one of us when He allowed His only begotten Son to suffer that excruciating (Latin, excruciates, or out of the cross) pain and agonyfor our sake!
Thompson, Bert & Harrub, Brad. An Examination of the Medical Evidence for the Physical Death of Christ. Apologetics Press. 3 February, 2014.<http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=13&article=145>

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FINAL WORD
JESUS CHRIST DIED, ROSE FROM THE DEAD, CONQUERED DEATH AND HELL AND NOW SITED AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD.

It is therefore with certainty and undeniable facts from witnesses, actual events, surrounding circumstances, prophesies, Jesus words and of the Jews and medical science that Jesus indeed was hanged (crucified) on the cross, died and resurrected on the third day. The Disciples have witnessed His death and resurrection. They have given up all their lives together with those who were with them. Jesus is the Son of God who came for us and died and purchased for us salvation and eternal life. Eternal life is now a free gift received through faith in Him. Whoever believes shall be saved and whoever believes not shall perish and be condemned.

BELIEVE IN THE LORD JESUS CHRIST AND YOU SHALL BE SAVED.

And after he brought them out, he said, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" They said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household." Act 16:30-31

Day after day every priest stands and performs his religious duties; again and again he offers the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God. Heb 10:11-12

Christ has risen and when He comes again we shall be like Him.
For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. But each

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in his own turn: Christ, the firstfruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him. 1Cor 15:21-23 while we wait for the blessed hopethe glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, Tit 2:13 Dear friends, now we are children of God, and what we will be has not yet been made known. But we know that when he appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is. 1Jn 3:2 Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For the perishable must clothe itself with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality. When the perishable has been clothed with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality, then the saying that is written will come true: Death has been swallowed up in victory. 1 Cor 15:51-54

We believe that Jesus died and rose again and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep in him. According to the Lords own word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left till the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. 1Thess 4:14-17

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