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Active PFC Boost Rectifier

Power section

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

line

PFC Control

load

CHARACTERISTICS: Input voltage: Output voltage: Output power: Switching frequency: Vin = 90-260VRMS Vo = 380V Po = 600W fs = 70kHz

VALUES: Output capacitor: Inductor: Mosfet: Diode: Controller: C = 680 F L = 600 H IRFP450 RURP1560 L4981A

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Power section and related EMI aspects
High dv/dt wires

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Common mode capacitive coupling

Line

Load

High di/dt loop General Considerations: MOSFET and DIODE are the main noise generators Short wires where high dv/dt Small area of fast di/dt loops Careful Layout Short paths for return currents

Circuit Layout (components)


Input Power stage

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Output

Input filter

Output filter

Control and drive

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Circuit Layout (solder layer)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Circuit Layout (component layer)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Circuit Layout Considerations
Short paths among switching components and filter capacitor
MOS D

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

High dv/dt track is short ...

... and shielded between +Vout and -Vout tracks

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Circuit Layout Considerations

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Shielding tracks connected to reference

Small area of the gate circuit. Snubber close to gate and source terminals

Control

Short (and shielded) track at analog inputs

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Circuit Layout Considerations
Shield plane connected to reference

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Star connection of ground paths

Common mode filter capacitors

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Power section with EMI Filters High CM impedance

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Low CM impedance

i cm
Coupled inductors show high common mode inductance but low differential mode inductance: Ex: 6.8 mH CM, 70 H DM

i dm

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Input filter design - Differential Mode
Ripple amplitude
Lcm = 6.8 mH L dm = 70 H

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

I max =

U out 113 . A 8 fs L

vn

50 50 1 F 2 F

i dm

triangular waveform Differential mode input noise: 70 kHz, (peak values) 140 kHz, 210 kHz, 280 kHz, 350 kHz, 420 kHz,

87 dB V 57 dB V 40 dB V 26 dB V 19 dB V 9 dB V

a suitable margin (20 dB V) is maintained for the commom mode noise and possible resonances

Active PFC Boost Rectifier


Input filter design - Common Mode
i cm
L cm = 6.8 mH 50

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

i cm
100 nF 4.7 nF

4.7 nF 1 F 2 F

Several current return paths are present The main one is on the output side of the PFC High value of filter inductor reduces current term at the input side CM input side current generates DM input noise due to asymmetrical converter topology Adding CM capacitors at the input side reduces input CM voltage noise but the increased CM current causes additional DM noise

Prototype Tests
Input behavior

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

v i

Line Voltage

100 V/div. 2 A/div.

Line current

Prototype Tests
Line Voltage and Inductor Current (peak to peak sampling)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Inductor current switching ripple

iL

Prototype Tests
Gate drive circuit

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

IL+ID threshold

Voltage drop

iL vDS vGS vG iD

IL threshold

Prototype Tests
Gate drive circuit
iL vG vDS vGS

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

iD

IL threshold

Commutation is sloweddown

Prototype Tests
Gate drive circuit
vDS
Drain-Gate coupling

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

iG

vG

iD

vGS

Prototype Tests
Gate drive circuit
vDS iG

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

vG

iD

vGS

Prototype Tests
Modulation of Switching Frequency VDS Spectra

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Modulated

Fixed

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Phase

Neutral

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
Introducing input-side common-mode filter capacitors Differential noise increases (circuit is not symmetrical) and low-frequency behavior is worse A resonance, between input and output CM filter capacitors and the inductances of their connections, appears, modifying the highfrequency behavior

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Added

Line

PFC

10

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
Increased output-side common-mode capacitors Common mode currents are closed on the output side (no additional voltage drop on the input filter occurs) Low-frequency behavior is improved High-frequency behavior becomes worse due to resonance of two CM filter capacitors and their connections

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Added
PFC

Load

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
By connecting the heatsink to the negative rail (capacitive currents are closed near to the Mosfet source): Low-frequency behaviour is improved High-frequency behavior is good (the heatsink shields all circuitry)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

11

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
By inserting a shield, between Mosfet and heatsink, connected to Mosfet source (drain coupled capacitive currents are closed directly to the Mosfet source) Low-frequency behavior is improved (common mode noise is reduced) High-frequency behavior is good (Using the heatsink as shield of the whole circuit gives however better results)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Shield

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
Switching Frequency Modulation Switching frequency harmonic components disappear Measured peak noise remains unchanged Measured average noise is considerably reduced

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Peak Average

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Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
Effect of Diode Reverse Recovery (Disconnecting gate snubber) Low-frequency behavior is almost unchanged High-frequency behavior is heavily worsened

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

iL vG iD

Prototype EMI Tests


Conducted noise (peak measure)
Increasing gate resistor Low-frequency behavior remains unchanged High-frequency behavior is improved (MOSFET commutation slows down)

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

iG 33 72

vG

iD

13

Prototype EMI Tests


By spreading the ac wires close to the input filter (filter inductors inside plastic can) Low-frequency behavior becomes worse (input wires capture leakage magnetic field of filter inductor) High-frequency behavior remains unchanged

Giorgio Spiazzi University of Padova Italy

Line

EMI Filter

PFC

Increased Area

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