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Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management

Treatment Technologies for Industrial Wastewater

Selection of the Wastewater Treatment Process


1. The selection of a wastewater treatment process or a combination of processes depends upon; The characteristics of the wastewater The form of the pollutant i.e. Suspended, colloidal, dissolved The biodegradability, and The toxicity of the organic and inorganic components 2. The required effluent quality 3. The cost and availability of land for any given wastewater treatment problems One or more possible solutions Perform cost analysis of each one-to find the most cost effective

Pre-Treatment
Flotation

Equalization

Neutralization

Coagulation and Precipitation

Sedimentation

Filtration Spill Basin

Equalization

Equalization is the operation aimed at eliminating or minimizing the problems associated with fluctuations in wastewater flow and characteristics.

Purpose of Equalization Basin for Industrial treatment facilities:


To minimize fluctuations in flow rate to the treatment plant. To provide reduction of organic fluctuations in order to prevent shock loading of biological systems. Reduce fluctuations in wastewater pH . To minimize chemical requirements necessary for neutralization. To minimize flow surges to physical-chemical treatment systems and permit chemical feed rates compatible with feeding equipment.

Purpose of Equalization Basin for Industrial treatment facilities:


To provide continuous feed to biological systems over periods when the manufacturing plant is not operating. To provide capacity for controlled discharge of wastes to municipal systems in order to distribute waste loads more evenly. To prevent high concentration of toxic materials from entering the biological treatment plant.

Classification of Equalization Operations


Flow Equalization (elimination or dampening of wastewater flow variations) Concentration Equalization (dampening of concentration fluctuations in wastewater) Flow and Concentration Equalization

Classification of Equalization Operations


Equalization may be either online or offline as shown in figure below:

Equalization
Mixing To ensure adequate equalization and to prevent settleable solids from depositing in the basin Reduction in BOD may be achieved through mixing and aeration Methods Distribution of inlet flow and baffling Turbine mixing Diffused air aeration Mechanical aeration Submerged mixers

Flow Equalization

Flow Equalization
Principle Design Parameter: Size and type of basin varies with quantity of waste and the variability of the wastewater stream

Flow Equalization
Design Consideration

Qin

Qout

Qin= Qout

Constant Volume

Flow Equalization
Design Consideration

High level Low level Qin Qout

Qin= Variable Qout= Constant

Variable Volume

Flow Equalization

Flow Equalization
Numerical

Equalization
Design Consideration The equalization basin may be sized to restrict the discharge to its maximum concentration commensurate with the maximum permissible discharge from subsequent units. Example, If the maximum effluent from an activated sludge unit is 50 mg/l BOD5.the maximum effluent from the equalization basin may be computes and thereby provide a basis for sizing the unit.

Steps for Finding Capacity of Equalization Basin (Concentration Equalization)


1. Calculate the Wastewater volumes entering the equalization tank during each time interval 2. Calculate Wastewater volumes pumping out from the equalization tank 3. Calculate cumulative influent volume 4. Calculate the change in storage during each interval. 5. Calculate the cumulative change in storage from a interval where tank is near to empty 6. The effect of flow equalization of BOD mass loading rate: 7. The necessary computations will start from the interval when the tank is empty.

Concentration Equalization

Q in BOD in

Q out BOD out V start BOD start V end BOD end

Mass- Balance: Input = Output (Q in * BOD in) +(V start * BOD start )= (Q out* BOD out ) +(V end * BOD end )

Concentration Equalization
Numerical