Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

bl

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 1 of 9

ECE458 LAB REPORT DUE: 10/21/2013


TERM FALL 2013 LAB SECTION 2PM 5PM, MONDAY LAB INSTRUCTOR NIKHIL KUMAR nkumar22@uic.edu | SEO 1339 Office hours: 2pm 4pm Thursdays AUTHORS: AHSAN SHAHID ashahi3@uic.edu UIN: 676354101 ERIC NORTH enorth2@uic.edu UIN: 677632613 THOMAS JUOCEPIS tjuoce2@uic.edu UIN: 672920728

Oct. 21st, 2013 DATE SUBMITTED

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 2 of 9

Purpose To investigate the methods of determining percent of efficiency of a transformer at .8 lagging power factor loads; to determine methods for establishing coil polarity; to verify transformer coil markings; to verify correct connection of coils in multi-coil transformer types.

Summary of the procedure Connect the transformer according to the schematics. Take desired readings, calculate power factor to be 0.8 and note the corresponding readings for voltages and currents. Calculate efficiency. Repeat the process for reactive load.

Comments about the tasks We used a Hampden Transformer (ET-100, T-100A, T-100-3A) We used a Hampden RLC-100 resistance-reactance load We used a 120 volt AC power source We used a 240 volt AC power source We used a 0-150 volt AC voltmeter We used a 0-300 volt AC voltmeter We used two 0-1 amp AC ammeters We used two 0-150 watt AC wattmeters

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 3 of 9

Results

LAB PART 1
Circuit schematic:

Circuit Schematic of transformer connected to a resistive and reactive load Measurements & Calculations: Resistive Load 1 240 V 0.28 A 90 W 105.7 V 0.7 A 80 W 86.98 Reactive Load 1 220 V 0.3 A 93.5 W 107.1 V 0.925 A 82.5 W 86.74

Vin (Measured) Ain (Measured) Pin (Measured) Vout (Measured) Aout (Measured) Pout (Measured) % Eff (Calculated) Calculations: = = 0.8

( )( )() ( & ) % ( )( )()

Core loss & copper loss based on previous lab: 7 W Resistive Load 1 Percent efficiency = Reactive Load 1 Percent efficiency =
(240 0.28 0.8)7 240 0.28 0.8 (220 0.3 0.8)7 220 0.3 0.8

100 = 86.98 %

100 = 86.74 %

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 4 of 9

Vin Ain Pin Vout Aout Pout % Eff Resistive Load 2 Percent efficiency= Reactive Load 2 Percent efficiency =

Resistive Load 2 207.5 V 0.25 A 80 W 99.7 V 0.625 A 70 W 83.13


(207.5 0.25 0.8)7 207.5 0.25 0.8 (225 0.3 0.8)7 225 0.3 0.8

Reactive Load 2 225 V 0.3 A 98 W 109.8 V 0.8 A 88 W 87.04 100 = 83.13 %

100 = 87.04 %

Secondary Current vs Secondary Voltage


87.5 87 86.5 Reactive Load 1 Resistive Load 1 Reactive Load 2

Secondary Current (A)

86 85.5 85 84.5 84 83.5 83 82.5 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 Secondary Voltage (V) Resistive Load 2

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 5 of 9

Percent Efficiency vs Secondary Voltage


87.5 87 86.5 Resistive Load 1 Reactive Load 1 Reactive Load 2

Percent Efficiency (%)

86 85.5 85 84.5 84 83.5 83 82.5 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 Secondary Voltage (V) Resistive Load 2

LAB PART 2
Discussion of Transformer Polarity: The polarity of a power transformer winding refers to the polarity of the voltage at one end of the winding relative to the voltage at the opposite end of the winding, at any given instant. The polarity of a power transformer winding has no meaning in itself. It is only meaningful in relation to the polarity of the other windings. When one end of two windings of a transformer are of the same polarity, it means that the polarity of the voltage at this end, with respect to the voltage at the other end of the winding, is the same for both windings, and thus, that the ac voltages across these windings are in phase. Conversely, when one end of two windings of a transformer are of opposite polarity, it means that the polarity of the voltage at this end for one winding is opposite that of the voltage at the end of the other winding, and thus, that the ac voltages across these windings are 180 out of phase. The polarity of transformer windings is thus crucial when connecting windings in series or in parallel. Markings are generally used to identify the polarity of power transformer windings. These markings come in a variety of types, but one of the most common in schematic diagrams is to put a dot beside the ends of the transformer windings that have the same polarity. This can be seen from the fig. below:

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 6 of 9

In the fig. above, when the voltage at terminal 1 is positive with respect to (i.e., higher than) the voltage at terminal 2, then the voltages at terminals 3 and 6 are also positive with respect to the voltages at terminals 4 and 5. Conversely, when the voltage at terminal 1 is negative with respect to (i.e., lower than) the voltage at terminal 2, then the voltages at terminals 3 and 6 are also negative with respect to the voltages at terminals 4 and 5.

Circuit Schematics using Voltage and Current Values: Step 1

0 Volts between H1 and X1 Step 2

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 7 of 9

A voltage appears between H1 and X7

Step 3

Voltage: 50 V Step 4

Current: 0 A

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 8 of 9

Voltage: 4.2 V Step 5

Current: 0.3 A

Voltage: 232 V Step 6

Voltage: 0 V

Ahsan Shahid Eric North Thomas Juocepis

ECE 458
MAHSHID AMIRABADI (LAB: 2 PM, MONDAYS)

LAB 3
REPORT Page 9 of 9

Questions and Answers: 1. The polarity was subtractive because the net voltage was zero. 2. Dot convention is followed for marking polarity of transformer coils. 3. For series connection of transformers, we can have either of the aiding connection (additive) or opposing-connection (subtractive). Both figures 23A and 23B can be termed as series connections as they are additive and subtractive, respectively. 4. For parallel connection of transformers, polarity of each windings should be respected. That is to connect the marked end with the marked end and on-marked end with nonmarked end so that secondary current flow and secondary voltage can be measured. Hence fig. 23A is applicable to parallel connection. 5. Fig. 23A measures some potential difference across the secondary terminal while fig. 23B have 0 potential difference across the secondary terminal.

Conclusions In this experiment, transformer coil markings and polarity conventions have been studied. In addition, different test with resistive and reactive load are performed at PF 0.8 and efficiency of transformer is calculated.