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TECHNIQUE OF QUESTIONING USED BY THE LECTURER OF CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH (CAR) CLASS IN MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY

By : Dewi Kartikasari Nova Amida Mutiarani (2010-32-012) (2010-32-042)

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY
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2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, I would like to explain: reason for choosing topic, statement of the problems, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, and definition of the terms. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Interaction is the collaborative exchange of toughts feelings, or ideas between two or more people, resulting in a reciprocal effect on each other (Brown) in Hamnah (2012:1). In the classroom, a lecturer will do communication with the students. For example, when the lecturer explains the material to the students, he/she will interact the students by asking questions. The students will respond by answering or giving opinions. From this description, we know that interaction in classroom potensially occurs between the lecturer and the students. If the lecturer does not have a good interaction especially in questionning, the students will not have good response. The effect is they will not understand the material. Based on the explanation above, the use of question in interaction in the classroom is very important, but in fact, nowadays most of the lecturers do not know the types of questioning and the basic questioning skill components. Based on the reason, I would like to analyze the technique of questioning used by the lecturer. The use of questions can be found in every classes. In this research, I choose Classroom Action Research class. Classroom Action Research class is one of subject
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in English Educational Department of Muria Kudus University that is taught in the sixth semester which has 4 credits system (SKS) which takes time around 200 minutes/meeting. In EED there are 6 classes of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class. I choose Classroom Action Research (CAR) D class which is taught by Mrs. Dra. Sri Endang Kusmaryanti, M.Pd because she teaches 4 classes from 6 classes of Classroom Action Research class that I assume she has more variative questions. Based on the background above, I decide to do my research with the title: Technique of Questioning Used by The Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS Based on the background of the study, I determine the statements of the problem as follows : 1. What are the types of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University? 2. What are the basic questioning skill components used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University? 3. 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Based on the statement of the problems, I determine the objectives of the study are : 1. To find out the types of questioning used by the lecturer of Muria Kudus University in CAR class.

2.

To describe the basic questioning skill components used by the lecturer of Muria Kudus University in CAR class.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY I hope this research can give benefits to all the readers, especially for: 1. For the lecturers It is hoped that by reading the result of this study, the lecturers will know technique of questioning and can apply it in the learning process. 2. For the readers By reading this research, it is hoped that the readers will know the technique of questioning used by the lecturers. 3. For the researchers This research can contribute information to inform the other researchers who wants to conduct further researches related with the technique of questioning. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY I focus this research on the types of question and 9 basic questioning skill components. I collect and analyze the data of technique of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class of sixth semester in Muria Kudus University in the academic year 2013/2014. There are 6 classes of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class that is taught by Mrs. Dra. Sri Endang Kusmaryanti, M.Pd and Mrs. Rusiana, S.Pd, M.Pd but I conduct this research only in Classroom Action Research (CAR) D class who is taught by Mrs. Dra. Sri Endang Kusmaryanti, M.Pd.

1.6 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS There are some terms which are necessary to clarify briefly, those are : 1. Technique of questioning is technique that used by the lecturer to reach the students attention to help students learn the material by using questions. 2. Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University is lecturer who is teaching Classroom Action Research (CAR) subject in the sixth semester in Muria Kudus University.

CHAPTER II REVIEW TO RELATED LITERATURE

I design this chapter to describe teaching English in English Educational Department of Muria Kudus University, Technique of Questioning, Review of Previous Research, and Theoretical Framework. 2.1 Teaching English in English Educational Department of Muria Kudus University Muria Kudus University is one of universities which is located in Kudus. It has many faculties. One of the faculties is Teacher Training and Education Faculty which has three departments. One of them is English Educational Department. English Educational Department is the department that prepare the students to be professional English teacher. Therefore, the form of course in English Educational Department is in English form. The curriculum that is used in Muria Kudus University is CBC (Competence Based Curriculum) that focus on students-centered learning. 2.2 Teaching Classroom Action Research (CAR) in English Educational Department CAR is one of courses in English Educational Department of Muria Kudus University that is taught in the sixth semester. It has 4-credits system (SKS) which takes the time around 200 minutes/meeting. In this research, I choose Mrs. Dra. Sri Endang Kusmaryanti, M.Pd class because she teaches 4 classes from six clases of Classroom Action Research (CAR) subject. Here, I choose Classroom Action Research (CAR) D class which is held on Friday morning. The purpose of Classroom Action Research (CAR) is to make the students be able to write the proposal of Classroom Action Research.
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2.3

Technique of Questioning Brown in Hamnah (2012:11) states that technique is all tasks and activities which are always planned deliberately. It means technique is an activity that has been prepared by lecturer before going to the classroom. Technique of questionings are the technique that used by the teacher to focus students attention on the critical aspects of the object of learning, create the context that will help the students to make sense of the object of learning, and open up the space for exploration of answer (Marton and Amy) in Hamnah (2012:11).

2.3.1 Types of Question Instructional Deparment stated in Hamnah (2012:12) explains that there are two types of question, as follows: 1. Closed Question A closed question is one in which there are a limited number of acceptable answers. This type of question is calling for one word or one input answer. Example: "Can you bring my bag? Do you borrow my book? Is she a student?

2. Open Question An open question is one in which there are many acceptable answer. This type of question is calling for opinions, views, feelings, or experience since open questions are designed to give information. Example: What do you think about that picture? What is the characterisctic of young leaners?
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What is your opinion about that person?

2.3.2 Basic Questioning Skill Components Turney cited in Hamnah (2012:13) states that there are 9 components of basic questioning skills. They are structuring, phrasing, focusing, re-directing, distributing, pausing, reacting, prompting, and changing the level of cognitive demand. 1. Structuring According to Turney cited in Hamnah (2012:13), structuring in the context of basic questioning skills refers to: a) Teacher statement which signal the purpose and direction of a questioning sequence. b) The teachers profession of relevant information before a questions or series of question to assist students formulate apprpriate answer. c) Teachers comments during a question and answer sequence which summarize or extend students answer, so providing information to facilitate student involvement in the next question or series of questions. Teacher can do structuring by: a) Providing a frame of reference for student thinking, b) Giving specific information, c) Making the purpose of questions clear, d) Using the board to draw ideas together. Example of structuring: What will you answer if your friend asks you about your hobby?

The purpose of the question above is to give feedback to the students about the material. 2. Phrasing Phrasing is related to the way the questions are phrased to make sure that wording is clear and unambiguous. In pointing out the need for questions to be carefully worded, Davis, cited in Turney (1983) suggested several important aspects to consider when preparing questions. They should be simple, well defined with a clear focus, be pitched at a reasonable level, be relevant to the matters being discussed, and they should be thought-provoking. Phrasing can be done by using language that is clear, appropriate to the level of students, using short questions easy to follow and making judicious use of specific leading questions (Turney cited in Wahyuni, 2005:107). If the teacher give question What is your choice about those? and the other question Which one do you choose, quantitative or qualitative?. The first question will be ambiguous for the students, because the question is confusing. While the second question is phrasing because it is clear for students. 3. Focusing The language of a lecturers questions should not only be clear but also have sharp focus. Hyman stated in Hamnah (2012:15) suggested that there are five main types of focus questions: a) Questions whose function is to provide the general topic area for discussion; b) Questions which serve to introduce a topic and indicate to the participants the intended direction of a discussion; c) Questions which serve to re-focus or sharpen a discussion that has wandered a little;
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d) Questions which serve to change the sub-topic of discussion; e) Question which used to switch the discussion from its originally intended direction. The activity of focusing as stated by Turney in Hamnah (2012:16), can be done by carefully defining the scope of a question, asking questions which centre on a single task, and not asking double barreled questions. Example: What is recount text? The question above is focus on the definition of recount text. 4. Re-directing In a class disdussion, teachers sometimes ask the same questions to some students. This activity is called as re-direction. Re-direction refers to the technique of asking the same question of several different students is squence, with either minimal or no teacher comments intervening (Wright and Nuthall) in Hamnah (2012:16). The purpose of this strategy is to minimize teacher instruction into the discussion and to heighten the possiblity of students reacting to and buliding on one anothers responses. Example : When the teacher asks to A What do you know about recount text? Then the teacher asks to B with tha same question so it is called re-directing. 5. Distributing Distributing refers to the way in which teachers distribute questions to the students. In distributing questions, teacher should carefully select students to respond to questions. Distributing can be done by asking questions of students

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located in all parts of the room and and posing questions to the whole class and then to the individuals. Example: Anybody knows about imperative sentence? How about you, Dani, what is imperative sentence? 6. Pausing Pausing can occur both after a question has been asked and before a student respond the question. The importance of pausing is stated by Rochester in Hamnah (2012:17), it is particularly necessary to pause after questions which require opinions, interpretations or more complex levels of taught from students. Teachers can do pausing by giving students adequate time to think about a question before answering the question. Example: What is the social function of recount text? I will give you time to think about it. 7. Reacting Reacting refers to the teachers reactions to students answers and provides clues for effective practice. Reacting can be done by accepting answer with warmth and enthuasiasm, using students answer to build up the lesson, and incorporating students ideas into lesson summaries. Example : Well, Danis answer is very great. Do you agree with him students? 8. Prompting

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Prompting refers to the way a teacher responds to a student who fails to articulate an answer or gives an inadequate answer. Prompting can be done by assisting the student who fails to give an adequate answer, rephrasing question which have been difficult, offering simplerquestions before returning to those that have caused difficulty, and backtracking to draw attention to relevant information. Example : If you cant catch about procedure text, I will give you a clue again, have you ever watch Ala Chefs Program? 9. Changing the level of cognitive demand In this component of basic questioning, teachers change the level of cognitive demand by balancing questions requiring factual recall with more difficult questions, establishing a gradual progression from more simple question related to concrete examples to questions requiring higher levels of tought, preparing question carefully to assist progression in questioning, using graphs, diagrams, documents, apparatus to assist in varying the level of cognitive demand, and asking students questions about their feelings and emotional responses to situation. Example : Dani, what is recount text? when Dani can answer it, the lecturer will ask more questions about the material. 2.4 Review of Previous Research Based on the previous research that is done by Siti Hamnah (2012) entitled TECHNIQUE OF QUESTIONING USED BY THE ENGLISH TEACHERS OF MA DARUL MALA WINONG PATI IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012 the

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result of the research is closed questions are more used by the teachers. And the basic questioning components that are more used is structuring. My research has similarity and differences with the previous study above. The similarity is we analyze the technique of questioning. While the differences are the subject of the research and the place of the research. 2.5 Theoretical Framework Interaction in the classroom will run well if the lecturer uses the appropriate technique of questioning. By using questions, the students will not be bored in the class because they will respond the questions from the lecturer. According to Marton and Amy in Hamnah (2012:11), technique of questionings are the technique that used by the teacher to focus students attention on the critical aspects of the object of learning, create the context that will help the students to make sense of the object of learning, and open up the space for exploration of answer. Based on Instructional Deparment stated in Hamnah (2012:12) there are two types of question, they are closed question and open question. The writer also uses the theory from Turney. Turney in Hamnah (2012:13) states that there are 9 components of basic questioning skills. They are structuring, phrasing, focusing, re-directing, distributing, pausing, reacting, prompting, and changing the level of cognitive demand. While Classroom Action Research (CAR) is one of courses in English Educational Department of Muria Kudus University that is taught in the sixth semester. It has 4-credits system (SKS) which takes the time around 200 minutes/meeting.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

This chapter contains the explanation about method of research that consists of design of the research, data and data source, data collection, data analysis. 3.1 DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH Research design is strategy planning for gathering and analyzing the research so that it can be done effectively and accurately according to the aim of the research. The aim of the the research is to solve the problem scientifically, systematically, and logically (Ali, 1984:5). Deciding the design of the research is important thing because it will be a guide to do this research. . There are two kinds of of research: qualitative and quantitative. In this research, I use qualitative research, exactly content analysis. Ali (1984:12) states that the descriptive research is used to solve the current problem by collecting, classifying, and analyzing the data found with the main purpose of describing certain phenomenon abjectively. Whereas, Moleong (1991:33) states that qualitative research is a type of research which doesnt include only calculation or enumeration because the data are produced in the form of word. Moreover, qualitative research is always descriptive for the data that is analyzed and the result is in descriptive phenomenon, not in number or coefficient variable and the collected data are in words, not numbers, Bodgan and Biklen (cited in Amiruddin, 1990:16).

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In this case, this research describes the technique of questioning used by the lecturer of Muria Kudus University in CAR class. It is qualitative because the result will be descriprive data in written form. 3.2 DATA AND DATA SOURCE Sudaryanto (1998:73) says that data are the materials that are used in the researches. The data in qualitative research consists of words or picture (Creswell 2009:57). In this research, the data are the utterance of the technique of questioning used by the lecturer of Muria Kudus University in CAR class, while the data source which refers to the subject, from which the data are gained, as Arikunto (2002:107) says, is the transcript of technique of questioning used by the lecturer of Muria Kudus University in CAR class. 3.3 DATA COLLECTION The data of the study is document data in the form, of written data from the lecturers utterances on basic questioning, so recording is the proper way to get the data. Video recorder was used to get the data because it is easier and simpler to apply. In collecting the data, I took several steps as follows : 1. Asking permission to the lecturer of CAR D class. 2. Recording the activity in the CAR D class once. 3.4 DATA ANALYSIS After collecting the data, I continue to analyze the data use descriptive analyzing technique. The steps in analyzing the data are as follows: 1. Transcribing the lecturers utterance.
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2. Identifying the data. Since this study analyzed the lecturers utterance on basic questioning, so the lecturers utterance were identified. Example: Lecturer Students Lecturer Students Lecturer : Morning. : Morning, Mam. : Hows life? : Im fine, thank you. And you? : Fine, thank you for asking.

3. Classifying the lecturers utterance. In this step, the utterance were classifying according to the use of the types of questions, and basic questioning. I make code to fracture the data and re-arrange them into categories that facilitate the comparison of the data within and between categories of technique of questioning. The codes are CQ (Closed Question), OQ (Open Question). For the basic questioning skill components, they are ST (Structuring), PR (Phrasing), FC (Focusing), RD (Re-directing), DT (Distributing), PA (Pausing), RE (Reacting), PRO (Prompting), CL (Changing the level of cognitive demand).

Table 3.4.1 The Example of Classifying Types of NO. Transcript Questioning CQ 1. Would V OQ ST PR

Questioning Component Skills

FC

RD v

DT

PA

RE

PRO

CL

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you help me prepare the LCD as usual? Dani, would you? 2. May know why you are late? 3. Do you V v I v v to

want me to tell you all the

activity? 4. What the significan ce of the research? Subtotal 3 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 is v V

4. Calculating the percentage of types of questioning and basic questioning skill components used by the lecturer by using the formula: = x 100 %

Note:
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= The total of percentages. n= The total number of each type of technique of questioning. N= The total number of all technique of questionings. 5. Discussing the technique of questioning contextually and functionally in a narrative way based on the result of the previous research. The function is to explain the result in a detailed discussion.

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CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING

This chapter presents the data of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University in the academic year 2013/2014. This chapter is the answer of the statement of the problems that the researcher explains before. It consists of finding about the types of questioning and basic questioning skill used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University. I make a code of each types. For the type of questioning, there are two types, they are closed question (CQ), it is the type that need a simple answer. The second types is open question (OQ), it needs an explanation answer. The second question is about the basic questioning skill components. I make a code, they are structuring (ST), phrasing (PR), focusing (FC), re-directing (RD), distributing (DT), pausing (PA), reacting (RE), prompting (PRO), changing the level of cognitive demand (CL). All of the codes and the data will be served in the table below to make easier to understand. Table 4.1 Types of NO. Transcript Questioning CQ 1. Would you help me prepare the LCD to v OQ ST PR -

Questioning Component Skills

FC -

RD v

DT -

PA

RE -

PRO -

CL

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as usual? Dani, would you? 2. What does mean? 3. How are v you this v it v v -

morning? 4. Who absent today? 5. Do you v v is v v -

miss me? 6. May know why you are late? 7. Do you v v I v v -

submit your assignme nt? 8. Do you v v -

want me to tell you all that

activity?

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9.

Do

you v

have any question? of course not. 10. Do you v v -

still have some problems to understan d the

material? 11. Yes? What is v v -

it? Let me know. 12. Do get late you v up this v -

morning? 13. Why you are late? 14. May punish you? Can you sing a song? 15. Any other v questions v I v v v v -

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? 16. Did you v v -

copas this proposal in SAR? 17. Is your close friend? 18. What the significan ce of the research? 19. Do you v v is v v that v v -

understan d? Or I am faster? 20. Is it clear v for Any question? Subtotal 15 5 2 0 4 8 1 0 5 0 0 you? v too

Based on the table above, it was found 20 utterances. It is divided into 2 parts, the firs part is type of questioning and the second one is basic questioning skills component. For the type of questioning, there are 15 close questions and 5 open questions. While for the basic

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questioning skill component, there are 5 utterances of reacting, 4 utterances of focusing, 2 utterances of structuring, 8 utterances of re-directing and 1 utterance of distributing. From the findings above, I make percentage from the data. The lecturer uses 75 % close questions and 25 % open questions. She used 10 % structuring, 0 % phrasing, 20 % focusing, 40 % re-directing, 5 % distributing, 0 % pausing, 25 % reacting, 0 % prompting, and 0 % changing the level of cognitive demand.

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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION

In this chapter, I explain the data in a detailed discussion. This discussion refers to the findings of technique of questioning that I make in the previous table in chapter IV. They cover the answer of my research questions. 5.1 The Types of Techniques of Questioning Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University After categorizing the data of technique of questioning, I answer my first research question which refers to the types of technique of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University. Table 4.1 shows us that the lecturer has 20 utterances which belong to questioning for teaching. Below, I explain the two types of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University. 5.1.1 Close Questions Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University In Classroom Action Research (CAR) class, the lecturer uses 75% close questions by using 15 questions as bellows: 1. Would you help me to prepare the LCD? Dani, would you? This question is in the form of close question because the lecturer asks the students to confirm her question. 2. How are you this morning?
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This question is in the form of close question because the lecturer asks the students to confirm her question whether the students are fine or not. 3. How about you, Mom? This question is in the form of close question because the lecturer asks the students to confirm her question whether the lecturer is fine or not 4. Do you miss me? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a simple answer from the students. 5. Do you submit your assignment? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the students. 6. Do you want me to tell you all that activity? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a short answer from the students. 7. Do you have any questions? Of course not. This question is in the form of close question because the lecturer does not need the answer from the students. 8. Do you still have some problems to understand the material? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the students. 9. Do you get up late this morning? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a short answer from the students.
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10. May I punish you? Can you sing a song? This question is in the form of close question because the lecturer does not need the answer from the student. 11. Any other questions? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the students. 12. Did you copas this proposal in SAR? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the student. 13. Is that your close friend? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the student. 14. Do you understand? Or I am too faster? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the students. 15. Is it clear for you? Any questions? This question is in the form of close question because it needs a confirmation from the students. 5.1.2 Open Questions Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 25% open questions by using 5 questions as bellows:

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1. What does it mean? This question is in the form of open question because the lecturer needs explanation from the student. 2. May I know why you are late? This question is in the form of open question because the lecturer needs reason from the student. 3. Yes? What is it? Let me know. This question is in the form of open question because the lecturer needs explanation from the student about what she does not know. 4. Why you are late? This question is in the form of open question because the lecturer needs reason from the student. 5. What is the significance of the research? This question is in the form of open question because the lecturer needs explanation from the students. Based on the data above, I conclude that the most frequent type of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class is close questions. 5.2 Basic Questioning Skill Components Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University This part is as the answer of my second research question about the basic questioning skill components used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University. For more detail explanations, I discuss them as stated below.
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5.2.1 Structuring Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 2 utterances of structuring. They are: 1. Do you miss me? It belongs to structuring because the lecturer makes the students think whether they miss her or not. 2. Do you want me to tell you all that activity? It belongs to structuring because the lecturer makes the students think whether they want to hear her story or not. 5.2.2 Phrasing Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer uses 0% phrasing. It means she did not use any utterance of phrasing when she was teaching the students. 5.2.3 Focusing Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 2 utterances of focusing. They are: 1. What does it mean? From the question above, the lecturer gives question to the students that focus on one aspect, not in other aspects.

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2. How are you this morning? From the question above, the lecturer gives question to the students that focus on one aspect, not in other aspects. 3. Who is absent today? From the question above, the lecturer gives question to the students that focus on the absent, not in other aspects. 4. What is the significance of the research? From the question above, the lecturer gives question to the students that focus on the significance of the research, not in other aspects. 5.2.4 Re-directing Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 8 utterances of re-directing. They are: 1. May I know why you are late? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 2. Do you submit your assignment? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 3. Yes? What is it? Let me know. It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 4. Do you get up late this morning?

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It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 5. Why you are late? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 6. May I punish you? Can you sing a song? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 7. Did you copas this proposal in SAR? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 8. Is that your close friend? It belongs to re-directing because the lecturer asks the question to the certain student. 5.2.5 Distributing Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 1 utterance of distributing. That is: Would you help me to prepare the LCD? Dani, would you? It means that the lecturer distributes the question in the class. The question is posed to the all of students in the class, then into individually. 5.2.6 Pausing Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer uses 0% pausing. It means she did not use any utterance of pausing when she was teaching the students.

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5.2.7 Reacting Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class uses 5 utterances of reacting. They are: 1. Do you have any questions? Of course not. This question elaborates the lecturers reaction to students answer and provides clues for effective practice. 2. Do you still have some problems to understand the material? This question elaborates the lecturers reaction to students answer and provides clues for effective practice. 3. Any other questions? This question elaborates the lecturers reaction to students answer and provides clues for effective practice. 4. Do you understand? Or I am too faster? This question elaborates the lecturers reaction to students answer and provides clues for effective practice. 5. Is it clear for you? Any questions? This question elaborates the lecturers reaction to students answer and provides clues for effective practice. 5.2.8 Prompting Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University
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The lecturer uses 0% prompting. It means she did not use any utterance of prompting when she was teaching the students. 5.2.9 Changing the Level of Cognitive Demand Used by the Lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) Class in Muria Kudus University The lecturer uses 0% changing the level of cognitive demand. It means she did not use any utterance of changing the level of cognitive demand when she was teaching the students.

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CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This is the last chapter that consists of conclusion and suggestion. The conclusion takes out based on the analysis doing by the writer. Here, I also give suggestion to everyone who read this research. 6.1 Conclusion Based on the entire previous chapter, I declare the conclusion as stated below: 1. The types of questioning used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University are close questions and open questions. Here, the most dominant types of questioning used by the lecturer is close question, which has the persentage 75%. 2. Basic questioning skill components used by the lecturer of Classroom Action Research (CAR) class in Muria Kudus University are structuring, focusing, redirecting, distributing and reacting. The most dominant basic questioning skill components use by the lecturer is re-directing, which has the persentage 40%. 6.2 Suggestion After finding out the result of this research I propose some suggestions. The suggestions are: 1. For the lecturers It is better for the lecturers when they teach the students they apply the technique of questioning because it will give many advantages in teaching and learning process. 2. For further researchers

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It is hoped that the other analyzis of technique of questioning will be more innovative than this one. So, it can be used as reference for the next research about technique of questioning.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ali Muhammad. (1984). Penelitian Kependidikan. Bandung: Angkasa. Arikunto, suharsimi. (1998). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Creswell, John W. (2008). Pragmatis and Discourse, A Resource Book for Students. Abindon: Routledge. Hamnah, Siti. (2012). Technique of Questioning Used by The English Teachers of MA Darul Mala Winong Pati in the Academic Year 2011/2012. Kudus: Muria Kudus University Press. Marton, Ference and Amy, B. M tsui. (2004). Classroom Discourse and The Space of Learning. New Jersey, London Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah. Moleong, Lexy J, MA. (1991). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. Wahyuni, Sri. (2005). Technique of questioning carried out by novice teachers. Eternal English Teaching Journal, 10 (01), 100-113.

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APPENDIX

Lecturer Students Lecturer

: Good morning. (Enter the class). : Good morning. : Well. Would you help me to prepare the LCD as usual? Dani, would you? (One of Students switch on the LCD) (One of Students claps the hand).

Lecturer

: Well. What does it mean? (Wait the lecturer to prepare the microphone and laptop). Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

Students Lecturer Students Lecturer Students Lecturer Students Lecturer Students Lecturer Students Lecturer

: Waalaikumsalam Wr.Wb. : Good morning, Studentss. : Good morning, Mam. : Nice to see you again. : Nice to see you too. : How are you this morning? : Fine. Thank you. How about you, Mam? : Very well. Who is absent today? : No one, Mam. : Do you miss me? : Yes, of course. : I miss you too. (Students 1 comes late).
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Lecturer Student 1

: Morning. May I know why you are late? : Yes, Mam? (Students 1 did not answer, just smile).

Lecturer Student 1 Lecturer

: Do you submit your assignment? : Yes. : Have a sit, please. (Lecturer chit chat the activity last week. It was about out bond).

Lecturer Students

: Do you want me to tell you all that activity? : Yes, Mam. (Lecturer tells that activity).

Lecturer

: OK, now Students. Do you have any question? of course not. Do you still have some problem to understand the material?

Student A Lecturer Student A Lecturer

: Yes, Mam : Yes? What is it? Let me know. : (Ask the lecturer about the material). : (Lecturer answers the question of Students A). (Students 2 comes late).

Student 2 Lecturer Student 2 Lecturer Student 2 Lecturer

: Assalamualaikum. : Waalaikumsalam. Hello. : Sorry, Mam. I come late. : Yes. Do you get up late this morning? : No, Mam. : OK, please.
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(Lecturer starts to teach next material). Student 3 Lecturer : Good morning, Mam. : Good morning. Why you are late? May I punish you? Can you sing a song? Student 3 Lecturer Students Lecturer : No, Mam. : OK, please. Any other questions? : No, Mam. : Well. Today, we have two presentations to present your proposal itself. Who will be the first? Student B Lecturer : I am, Mam. : OK, please. The floor is yours. (Students B presents her proposal). Lecturer : Please, the next presentation. (Students C presents her proposal). Lecturer : Thanks for the presenter. (Correction their proposal together). Did you copas this proposal in SAR? Student B Lecturer Student B Lecturer Students : No, Mam. I just discussing with my friend in SAR. : Is that your close friend? : No. : So, Studentss. What is the significance of the research? : Manfaat, Mam.

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Lecturer

: Imagine that the significance is your scripsi. What is the significance of your scripsi. Do you understand? Or I am too faster?

Students Lecturer Students Lecturer

: No, Mam. : Is it clear for you? Any question? : No, Mam. : Well, now I will explain you about Chapter IV. And after this you must analyze scripsi about Chapter IV. (Lecturer explains Chapter IV). OK. You can analyze after this class and next week you must submit to me. Wassalamualaikum Wr.Wb.

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