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EngineeringCFD Specialists In Fluid Dynamics
EngineeringCFD
EngineeringCFD
Specialists In Fluid Dynamics
Specialists
In Fluid Dynamics
Contents
Contents

I. EngineeringCFD

II. Introduction to CFD

III. Capabilities and Scope

IV. Multiphase Examples

V. Case Studies

VI. Summary

Principle Engineer
Principle Engineer

Curtis Marsh

• 13 years design experience for the chemical process industry.

• Expert Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyst.

• Specialising in multiphase and multiphysics simulations.

• Proven technical ability supported by excellent inter-personal skills.

in multiphase and multiphysics simulations. • Proven technical ability supported by excellent inter-personal skills.
in multiphase and multiphysics simulations. • Proven technical ability supported by excellent inter-personal skills.
in multiphase and multiphysics simulations. • Proven technical ability supported by excellent inter-personal skills.
Design Services
Design Services
Rusal Vaudreuil FLSmidth Windalco Equipment Engineering Suppliers Consultancies RioTinto Alcan QAL Chemical
Rusal
Vaudreuil
FLSmidth
Windalco
Equipment
Engineering
Suppliers
Consultancies
RioTinto
Alcan
QAL
Chemical Process
Plants
Yarwin
SKM
Momentum
Cadburys
Fonterra
Hulme Supercars
Project Integration
Project Integration
Project Integration
What is CFD?
What is CFD?

• CFD = Computational Fluid Dynamics

– Computer models that predict how fluids behave

– Uses mathematical models to describe aspects of fluid behaviour

– Use commercial CFD software from ANSYS

– Based on the finite volume approach

Know the basics? Click here to skip
Know the basics?
Click here to skip

Geometry Creation

• Create from 2D drawings

• Import from a range of CAD packages

– Parasolid

– IGES

– STEP

– ACIS

CFD – Step 1
CFD – Step 1
Create from 2D drawings • Import from a range of CAD packages – Parasolid – IGES

• Develop mesh

• Define boundary conditions

CFD – Step 2
CFD – Step 2
• Develop mesh • Define boundary conditions CFD – Step 2

• Setup boundary conditions

• Initialise solution

CFD - Step 3
CFD - Step 3
• Setup boundary conditions • Initialise solution CFD - Step 3

• Iterate to convergence

– Steady state problems

– Transient problems

• Iterate to convergence – Steady state problems – Transient problems CFD – Step 4
CFD – Step 4
CFD – Step 4
• Iterate to convergence – Steady state problems – Transient problems CFD – Step 4

• Post-Process

Results

• Quantify

– Mass flux

– Velocities

– Pressures

– Forces

– Lift/Drag

– Free surface

CFD – Step 5
CFD – Step 5
Results • Quantify – Mass flux – Velocities – Pressures – Forces – Lift/Drag – Free

• Single phase

• Multiple phases

• Chemical species

• Chemical reactions

• Combustion

• Erosion

CFD Capabilities
CFD Capabilities

• Heat transfer

• Mass transfer

• Phase change

• Mechanical movement

• Ventilation

• Solidification

Equipment Types
Equipment Types

• Piping systems

• Pressure vessels

• Cyclones

• Dryers

• Filters

• Calciners

• Furnaces

• Burners

• Tanks

• Flash vessels

• Overflows

• Launders

• Pumps

• Agitators

• Mixing devices

• Choke valves

• Gas dispersion

• Gas lift devices

• Slug catchers

• Pumps • Agitators • Mixing devices • Choke valves • Gas dispersion • Gas lift
• Pumps • Agitators • Mixing devices • Choke valves • Gas dispersion • Gas lift
Multiphase Examples
Multiphase Examples

Free Surface Model

Can be applied to:

Launders/Overflows Sloshing in Tanks Slug Flow Gas-Liquid Separators Water-Oil Separation

Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Link to animation
(engineeringCFD.com)
Sloshing in Tanks Slug Flow Gas-Liquid Separators Water-Oil Separation Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Multiphase Examples
Multiphase Examples

Discrete Phase Model

Can be applied to:

Particle separation Particle impact Sprays Droplets Erosion

Multiphase Examples Discrete Phase Model Can be applied to: Particle separation Particle impact Sprays Droplets Erosion
Multiphase Examples
Multiphase Examples

Granular Solids Flows

Can be applied to:

Cyclones Pneumatic conv. Settling solids

Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Link to animation
(engineeringCFD.com)
Solids Flows Can be applied to: Cyclones Pneumatic conv. Settling solids Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Multiphase Examples
Multiphase Examples

Rotating

Equipment

Can be applied to:

Agitated Tanks Pumps Blowers Compressors

Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Link to animation
(engineeringCFD.com)
Rotating Equipment Can be applied to: Agitated Tanks Pumps Blowers Compressors Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)

• Project examples

Case Studies
Case Studies

– Flashing Flows (Rusal Aughinish)

– Alumina Calciners (FLSM/RioTinto/SKM)

– Segregated Fluids

CASE STUDY: FLASHING FLOWS Rusal Aughinish Ireland Alumina Refinery 1.8 million tonnes pa.

CASE STUDY:

FLASHING FLOWS

Rusal Aughinish Ireland Alumina Refinery 1.8 million tonnes pa.

CASE STUDY: FLASHING FLOWS Rusal Aughinish Ireland Alumina Refinery 1.8 million tonnes pa.
Flashing Flows Complex multiphase flow • Historically difficult to design • Rapid phase change from
Flashing Flows
Flashing Flows

Complex multiphase flow

• Historically difficult to design

• Rapid phase change from liquid to vapour

• Potentially extreme erosion rates

Objective

• Design a balanced system which maintains stable levels within each vessel

Calculation Steps
Calculation Steps

FLUENT

EngineeringCFD

Subroutine

Determine Flow Field Saturation Temp Super Heat Bubble Nucleation Interfacial Area Mass & Energy Transfer
Determine Flow Field
Saturation Temp
Super Heat
Bubble Nucleation
Interfacial Area
Mass & Energy Transfer

Experiment

7.01 kg/s

Calculated

7.12 kg/s

Flow

 

(+1.6%)

Validation
Validation
Experiment 7.01 kg/s Calculated 7.12 kg/s Flow   (+1.6%) Validation
Experiment 7.01 kg/s Calculated 7.12 kg/s Flow   (+1.6%) Validation

• Project scope was to determine the effect of piping modifications

Process Data

910 kg/s

Calculated Flow

980 kg/s

(+8%)

Flash Vessels
Flash Vessels
Orifice Plate
Orifice
Plate
Flash Tank Projects
Flash Tank Projects

Application of the Flashing Flow Model

– Piping design for multiphase flow

– Orifice plate sizing

– Evaluation of proposed vessel modifications

– Development of new inlet nozzles to improve separation within flash vessels.

CASE STUDY: ALUMINA CALCINERS FLSmidth RioTinto Alcan Rusal Aughinish Sinclair Knight Merz Queensland Alumina

CASE STUDY:

ALUMINA CALCINERS

FLSmidth RioTinto Alcan Rusal Aughinish Sinclair Knight Merz Queensland Alumina

CASE STUDY: ALUMINA CALCINERS FLSmidth RioTinto Alcan Rusal Aughinish Sinclair Knight Merz Queensland Alumina
Design Challenges
Design Challenges

• Complex processes

– Combustion / pyrolytic reactions

– High Solids Loading

– Heat Transfer

• And complex problems

– Particle breakdown

– Refractory erosion

– Emission targets

– Limits on production

Complex coupled physical processes

– Combustion

– High Solids Loading

– Calcination process

– Heat Transfer

– Changing gas composition

Calciner Furnaces
Calciner Furnaces
Solids Burners Gas Flow
Solids
Burners
Gas Flow
Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Link to animation
(engineeringCFD.com)
Calciner Furnaces
Calciner Furnaces
Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com) Calciner Furnaces
Projects
Projects

• Many projects have benefited from our modelling expertise

– Development of new furnace geometries

(RUSAL/FLSM)

– Change gas distribution to improve combustion

(RUSAL)

– Modify geometry to increase capacity

(SKM)

– Developed new hydrate feed points

(RioTinto/FLSM)

CASE STUDY: SEGREGATED FLUIDS

CASE STUDY:

SEGREGATED FLUIDS

Segregated Fluids
Segregated Fluids
VOF free surface model VOF Model • Suitable for a wide range of flow regimes
VOF free
surface model
VOF Model
Suitable for a
wide range
of flow
regimes
Liquid Mass Flux
Gas Mass Flux
Fluid Properties
Fluid Properties

• Key Physical Processes

– Surface tension

– Wall contact angle

– Compressibility of gas phase

– Pressure distribution

– Wall/body interaction forces

Pipe Flow Example
Pipe Flow Example
Ideal Gas ρ = 50 kg/m 3 Surface Tension 0.014 N/m Light Liquid ρ =
Ideal Gas
ρ = 50 kg/m 3
Surface Tension
0.014 N/m
Light Liquid
ρ = 700 kg/m 3
Surface Tension
0.1 N/m
Heavy Liquid
ρ = 1200 kg/m 3
Contact Angles
90 degrees
Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com)
Link to animation
(engineeringCFD.com)
Complex Flow
Complex Flow
Link to animation (engineeringCFD.com) Complex Flow
EngineeringCFD
EngineeringCFD

Adding Value to the design process:

• Proof of concept

• Determine key design variables

• Extract key performance data

• Explore the full design envelope

• Problem solving new & existing equipment

EngineeringCFD
EngineeringCFD

Ultimately EngineeringCFD provides:

• Rapid project development

• Risk mitigation

• Reduced commissioning/maintenance costs

• Greater process efficiencies