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Chapter 11: Swede-Mart Case Study

The following description of a fictitious retailer called Swede-Mart is to be used to complete the Activity section at the end of each chapter, applying the concepts discussed therein. Sample solutions for each of the activities are given in Chapter 1 .

11.1 Introduction
Swede-Mart is a rapidly e!panding clothing store head"uartered in #othenburg, Sweden, with $%% stores across the globe, %% of which are in &urope. The retailer targets affluent families who want fashionable clothing, but who are also concerned about price. Swede-Mart has a three-year plan to greatly e!pand its presence in Asia and 'orth America. The goal is to become the largest clothing store in the world in the mar(et of upper-middle-class, young families, as measured by number of stores and revenue. Swede-Mart offers high-"uality products, competitive prices, and a trendy image. )olding on to this image will be (ey as the company e!pands. The target mar(et is very finic(y and will *ump ship "uic(ly if the company+s image does not match their lifestyle.

11.2 Strategy
Swede-Mart has recently gone through a business planning effort and formulated its mission and vision, however, a S-.T /strengths-wea(nesses-opportunities-threats0 analysis has not yet been done. The initial focus of the strategic plan is ensuring customer retention and growth through inventory management, which will allow Swede-Mart to have the right products available at the right location, at the right time, and for the right price. This has been a ma*or part of the company+s mar(eting campaign. This means setting up regional distribution centers which can ship efficiently to the local stores. The company will need to ma(e sure that it can e!ecute this as well at a global level as it has in Sweden. The goal is to reach less than 1 percent out of stoc( of an advertised product over the duration of advertising. 1ear-round inventory should turn eight times per year, currently it is only si! times. Successful improvement of the inventory management system will allow Swede-Mart to increase its rate of growth across the globe, and will also provide cash flow for ac"uisitions and store growth.

11.3 Industry Background

The retail clothing industry has always been a high-ris( industry with fre"uent turmoil. 2t is a very competitive mar(et. -homever has a successful product line can ma(e good profits, but any missteps will be paid for dearly through lower margins and unused inventory. Some products sold can also be bought in many other stores, although some brands are uni"ue to Swede-Mart. The discount mar(et for clothing operates on very thin margins and counts on high volumes and unsold merchandise from other companies. Swede-Mart is considered a mid-range clothing store, competing with the li(es of #ap and )3M. The (ey functions of the business are purchasing products from designers, sourcing the manufacturing of the products, managing the inventory process, and mar(eting and selling the products to the customer. The selection of the right products based on recent trends and finding the right price point is (ey to success in this industry. Competition is fierce and each company must find its image to sell. Swede-Mart+s is fashionable and available in a fun and well-laid-out store. That puts the company+s success in the hands of the buyers and the inventory management system.

The largest costs are space, inventory, and staff. 'ot only must the product be there at the right time, there must also be enough staff there to support the sales. Swede-Mart is famous for having friendly but not overbearing staff.

11.4 Pro ect Background

4oe 4ones is the sponsor of this initiative to enhance the inventory and order processing functions for the distribution centers. 4oe has % years with Swede-Mart and has been in charge of the distribution centers for the last three years. )e is widely assumed to be the ne!t president of the company. 4oe is (nown to want fre"uent, informal communications. )e is .5 with bad news, but he wants it early and he wants ideas on how to fi! it. 2n his general directions to the team he as(ed not to be surprised. )e+s always willing to get involved and help, but he is not a micro-manager, so he will assume that things are .5 unless he is told otherwise

11.! "istri#ution Center$In%entory &perations

The initial focus from the strategic plan will concentrate on reviewing the inventory-management and order-ta(ing areas. 6istribution centers are organi7ed in regions with each region containing one or more distribution centers. &ach distribution center has up to 8 stores that it supports. This may need to be ad*usted as the business grows. .ptimi7ing the inventory levels between the distribution centers and "uic(ly recogni7ing increased demand will be a driver of success.

11.' Product (ines

There are three main product lines9 Seasonal9 These products will change every season, but they are pretty much standard for the season /shorts, winter coats, etc.0. There are good statistics for use, but any unusual weather patterns will cause huge fluctuations. Special fashion9 Changes on a nonseasonal basis. 2s often related to a special event or new fashion. Could be for a sporting event, 'ew 1ear+s &ve, or *ust a brand-new fashion trend. These are short-term events, with not much residual value of the product. :eftover products go to clearance. 1ear-round9 Always in stoc(, always in demand. Soc(s, underwear, suits. ;redictable volumes, competition mainly focused on pricing. The inventory for these items turns over fre"uently. ;roducts are identified by a product code. &ach manufacturer has uni"ue product codes, so Swede-Mart must use its own product codes internally. &ach store has a buyer who can order from the Swede-Mart product catalog. 'ot all products will be in stoc( during all seasons. The distribution center is responsible to determine stoc( levels. Some products can be special ordered, with a longer lead time. This can be done for products not stored by the distribution centers /typically high-priced items0, or for items out of season. 'aturally, the delivery time will be much longer for these types of items. Although many items are purchased directly from the manufacturer, often there is a third party involved, especially for low volume products.

11.) Purchasing
<uyers are assigned to product lines and to vendors. -here a vendor is providing multiple product lines, there is a primary buyer who is responsible for the price negotiations and the general vendor relationship. &ach buyer buys for all the distributions centers. Most of the buyers are at the head"uarters in Sweden, but some are located at the distribution centers around the world. This is li(ely to increase with the global e!pansion over the ne!t few years.

The buyer will get sales and predicted demands from the stores and distribution centers, and then do a sales forecast based on that data. The buyer will negotiate prices with the vendors and loo( out for special discounts or sales from the vendors to ta(e advantage of opportunities as they arise. Stoc(ed items will have a reorder level. This level is set for each stoc(ed product, for each store, and for each distribution center. -hen a product reaches a reorder level, an automatic order will be generated by the system. This reorder level is updated by the distribution center as order patterns change.

11.* +ecei%ing
=endor shipments typically will be shipped to the distribution centers. .ccasionally, special orders may be shipped directly to the stores. >eceiving will match the shipments to purchase orders to ma(e sure the shipment is correct and that it has arrived at the right location. After that, items that are to be stoc(ed in the center are entered into inventory and stored in their bins. ;roducts which are to be reshipped directly to the stores get sent over to Shipping and combined with any other shipments being sent. .n average the distribution centers send one large shipment per wee( to each store. The term ?bin? in the distribution center refers to a specific location where a product is stored. 2t could be a shelf, a bin, a corner of the warehouse. &ach bin is described by its type and si7e and also has information on location /floor number, part of building0. Any changes to a bin location must be immediately reflected to ma(e sure that the warehouse will operate efficiently. A product may be stored in multiple bins and in some cases multiple products will share one bin.

11., -ccounts Paya#.e

=endor invoices are matched to a purchase order. The purchase order is updated by >eceiving when a shipment is received and no invoice will be approved for payment until the shipment has arrived and been approved. The invoice price is compared to the purchase order price, and the payment terms are compared as well. 2f there are discrepancies, those are forwarded to the buyer for resolution. .nce all of this is approved the invoice is mar(ed as payable. The payment date will be based on the terms from the invoice. 2f there are discounts offered for early payments, or penalties for late payments, then those discounts or penalties are annuali7ed and compared to the organi7ation+s cost of funds to determine whether there should be an early or late payment. There must be an ability to find previously paid invoices, to (now their status, including (nowing what the cost of funds were at the time of payment.

11.1/ &rder Processing and Shipping

-hen the stores place orders with the distribution center, products can be shipped to the store for retail sales. Typically, orders are placed once per wee( and then shipped the following wee(. A store can place an emergency order, which will sometimes happen when there+s been an unusual weather pattern or a new product is more successful than e!pected. This type of order can be placed at any time, and is typically shipped out the same day if received before $ p.m. local time. 6epending on the cost of shipping and any other shipments going out, the shipment may be delayed to ma(e it financially viable. The store will always be involved in that decision process and will be responsible for all shipping charges. -hen an order is received from a store, the distribution center chec(s the inventory levels to see if there+s enough inventory. All items that are in stoc( are confirmed and a notice is sent bac( to the store with the e!pected shipping date. 2f there is not enough "uantity in stoc(, then a partial confirmation will be made. 2f no stoc( is available, that line item will be cancelled. The store will have to try to reorder the following

wee( if the product is still wanted. 2f there is a special need to get a product earlier, then the store needs to place a special order. 2f the store order is for a product that isn+t carried in inventory, then a special order to the supplier is placed. .nce a delivery date is received from the supplier, this information is passed on to the store. These products are typically shipped directly to the store. All store orders will typically be from their primary distribution center. .n rare occasions they can place an order with a different distribution center, but that will continue to be handled manually. Stores can continuously chec( on the status of an order and will fre"uently call before placing an order to find out about the inventory situation. .ften they will as( for similar products if the one that they were interested in ordering is not available. The distribution center will invoice the store for the orders shipped, as a way of auditing financial discipline.

11.11 +eporting
There are a number of reports that must be created for this business area. Some of the (ey reports are9 2nvoice report9 Shows payable invoices and payment due date. 2nventory report9 Complete list of products and "uantities. Store order report9 Shows all stores for a distribution center and what they have ordered. This report must be available in multiple sorting se"uences. All reports will be in &nglish, the corporate language.

11.12 Su00ary
The new order management system that will be created for Swede-Mart must be state of the art and must be able to support the aggressive growth goals of the company. Although a timely solution is needed and cost is important, this pro*ect is really focused on doing the right thing. The solution must be fle!ible, accurate, and very responsive. The last few decades are filled with stories of retail companies who have not been able to get the right product to the right place in the right time frame. Swede-Mart is determined not to be another one of those stories.

11.13 Inter%iew with Store Buyer

2 will use the system to chec( on the status of system-generated orders. Sometimes there may be an issue with them and 2+ll have to call the distribution center to ma(e changes. 2 normally chec( if there were any line items that were not in inventory and if there are any e!pected delays in ship dates. 2 also need to be able to loo( up a product and see the inventory levels in our store, at the primary distribution center, and at other distribution centers. This should be displayed so 2 see the centers in se"uence of e!pected shipping times. 2 must be able to place special orders, this normally happens when demand increases une!pectedly or when the system-generated order is not correct. A special order is also placed for products which we carry in our catalogue, but which are not available in our stores. These items are typically high priced and have a very low sales volume.

3.) -cti%ity
>eview the Swede-Mart case study in Chapter 11 and fill out the charter for the pro*ect9
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Project Charter

;ro*ect 'ame9 ;ro*ect Manager9 <usiness need@issue9 ;ro*ect *ustification9

Customer9 ;ro*ect Sponsor9

Critical success factors9 5ey product deliverables and milestones9 .rgani7ational assumptions9 .rgani7ational constraints9

12.3 Chapter 3 -cti%ity So.ution

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Project Charter

;ro*ect 'ame9 Swede-Mart 2nventory ;ro*ect Manager9 Sven Svenson <usiness need@issue

Customer9 =; .perations

;ro*ect Sponsor9 6istribution Center Manager -ith Swede-Marts e!pansion globally and the focus on increasing mar(et share and customer loyalty, a new order and inventory control system must be created. This will support Swede-Mart+s vision of the right product at the right place at the right time. This mar(et is increasingly competitive. Many competitors carry the same brands as we do. 2f we don+t have them in stoc( when the customer needs them, the customer will go elsewhere and probably (eep going there. 'ever run out of inventory on year round items :ess than 1 percent out of inventory of advertised products Ability to tell customers when an out of inventory item will be available Minimi7e cost of inventory .rder processing system 2nventory management system 'o other systems will change Corporate language is &nglish, no multi-lingual support Must be completed in 1A months

;ro*ect *ustification

Critical success factors

5ey product deliverables and milestones .rgani7ational assumptions .rgani7ational constraints

4.1! -cti%ity
>efer bac( to the Swede-Mart case study information in Chapter 11. The pro*ect manager has *ust met with you, the business analyst, and as(ed you to come up with your plan for the analysis phase. >eview the list below to determine what still must be developed. >emember that the focus is the gathering of re"uirements, not the whole pro*ect. 1. . $. C. 8. D. E. A. F. ;ro*ect overview and bac(ground. Scope and deliverables9 2dentify three e!amples of e!clusions. Sta(eholder analysis9 Bill out the sta(eholder analysis for 4oe 4ones. Communications ;lan9 Bill out with two sample communication items. ;ro*ect activities9 Create a -<S with three layers /top layer being analysis phase0 and a total of 18 to 1A activities at the lowest level. >oles and responsibilities9 Assign responsibilities to the activities from Activity 8. >esource ;lan9 Create a list of potential nonhuman resources and sub*ect matter e!perts you may need. >e"uirements >is( ;lan9 <rainstorm four to si! ris(s. Select the top one and create a ris( handling plan. 2dentify who will be responsible for approving changes.

12.4 Chapter 4 -cti%ity So.ution: +e1uire0ents

1. ;ro*ect overview and bac(ground. Swede-Mart is e!panding globally and as they move into new mar(ets they have an increasing need to control material flow. This pro*ect will replace the e!isting inventory and order system with a state-of-the-art model that will ma!imi7e product availability while minimi7ing cost. . Scope and deliverables. 2dentify three e!amples of e!clusions. The Analysis phase scope includes9 Create a plan for the analysis phase and obtain approval Collect re"uirements from the sta(eholders Create a <usiness >e"uirements 6ocument /<>60 =alidate and get approval of the <>6 The following areas are e!cluded9 >e"uirements related to multi-lingual support Gser training Test cases $. Sta(eholder analysis. Bill out the sta(eholder analysis for 4oe 4ones.
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Stakeholder Analysis

;ro*ect 'ame9 Swede-Mart 2nventory pro*ect ;ro*ect Manager9 Sven Svenson Sta(eholder organi7ation9

6ate9 4uly 1, %%E ;ro*ect Sponsor9 4oe 4ones 6istribution centers

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Stakeholder Analysis

Sta(eholder name and contact information9 -hat will this sta(eholder provide to the pro*ectH

4oe 4ones /1 10 888-1 1 Approve changes to the cost and schedule of the analysis phase &scalation point to obtain the correct sta(eholders in the re"uirements sessions

-hat will the pro*ect provide to this sta(eholderH

Status reports <>6 ;roduct

-hat is the impact to this sta(eholder if the pro*ect succeeds or failsH )ot issues for this sta(eholder

=ery important for the success of the sta(eholder+s organi7ation as well as for his personal career. <ad news early 'o surprises <ring ideas not problems Bre"uent communication

C. Communications plan. Bill out with two sample communication items.

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Who (Responsible) :ead analyst

Who (Audience) Sponsor, ;M ;ro*ect team



Wher e 4oe+s office Team room


What -ee(ly Status >eport Team meeting 2nformational, continued support Status, issues, upcoming milestones Monday am Briday am 2n person

;ro*ect Manager

2n person, conference call

8. ;ro*ect activities. Create a -<S with three layers /top layer being analysis phase0 and a total of 18I1A activities at the lowest level. D. >oles and responsibilities. Assign responsibilities to the activities from step 8 /Bigure 1 .10.
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Responsible :ead Analyst <usiness Analysis Team :ead Analyst ;ro*ect Manager, :ead Analyst, :ead Systems Analyst

Create >e"uirements ;lan #ather >e"uirements Create <>6 #et approval of <>6

E. >esource ;lan. Create a list of potential non-human resources and Sub*ect Matter &!perts you may need.
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Need Bacilitator 6ocumentation tool SM& 'o internal candidate, must have superior communication s(ills Must support modeling techni"ues selected 'eed e!pert in inventory optimi7ation

A. >e"uirements >is( ;lan. <rainstorm re"uirements related ris(, either to the re"uirements gathering effort or to the product being developed. Select the top one and create a ris( handling plan.
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+isk -ssess0ent 2or0 34ype: Prod 5 Product +isk6 +e1 5 +e1uire0ents gathering risk7 Probability : ! pact ) Co ent

Risk !" 1

Type ;rod

Risk :ocal legal restriction may ma(e the system not usable )ardware cost may be too much for some stores Some stores may not have &nglish spea(ing staff May not be able to interview sta(eholders from other countries
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Risk Handlin# $or

>is( 269 C >aised <y9 Analysis Team 6ate >aised9 4uly 1, %%E

<usiness Area9 6istribution Centers ;ro*ect 'ame9 Swede-Mart 6istribution Center ;ro*ect Assigned to9 :ead Analyst

>is( 6escription9 2f we cannot interview users in other countries, we are li(ely to miss local legal restrictions and different nuances in how business is conducted. :i(elihood9 M 2mpact 6escription9 The acceptance of the product when rolling it out internationally could be *eopardi7ed and the users may resist using the system, instead resorting to manual orders 2mpact9 )

>ecommended ;reventative Actions9 <ring in a user from each continent to the re"uirements sessions Send prototypes to each distribution center for review

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+isk -ssess0ent 2or0 34ype: Prod 5 Product +isk6 +e1 5 +e1uire0ents gathering risk7 Probability : ! pact ) Co ent

Risk !" 1

Type ;rod

Risk :ocal legal restriction may ma(e the system not usable

>ecommended Contingent Actions9 ;repare to send trainers out at implementation time

F. 2dentify who will be responsible for approving changes. There is a customer change control board that will approve product scope changes. The customer sponsor will approve pro*ect scope changes. The 2T change control board will approve infrastructure changes.

2igure 12.1: Swede-Mart -<S.

!.* -cti%ity
>eview the Swede-Mart case study in Chapter 11. 6etermine how the three main approaches discussed in this chapter can be used for the order systems development. Gsing the table below, identify ris(s with each of the three ma*or approaches discussed and identify ris( mitigation strategies for each. -hat approach will you recommend for Swede-MartH /2t may very well be a recommendation which contains elements of all three approaches.0

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-aterfall 2terative

12.! Chapter ! -cti%ity So.ution

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Approach -aterfall 2terative Agile Customer is not clear on re"uirements .rgani7ation has not done anything similar in the past Must be international consensus 2terative Scope continuously changing Can get analysis paralysis Agile >e"uirements continually changing May be difficult to sub divide pro*ect into manageable components Clearly define the boundaries of the effort 2dentify pieces which can be done agile and combine with a more traditional approach for larger modules Clearly define purpose and deliverables for each iteration =erify with prototype Bormal review of all deliverables Add outside e!pertise team

<ased on the comple!ity and si7e of this pro*ect, a waterfall approach would be the best option. ;ortions of the re"uirements gathering can be done in an iterative approach.

'.1/ -cti%ity
>eview the case study in Chapter 11. 6ocument a re"uirement for each of the following categories9 &!ternal <usiness J Strategic <usiness J Tactical <usiness J .perational Gser Kuality of service Assumption Constraint 2mplementation -hen documenting these re"uirements, focus on ma(ing them specific, unambiguous, and verifiable. There will be a further discussion of how to write good re"uirements in Chapter A. -rite the re"uirements so that they will be meaningful to someone reading them three months from now without having been involved with the development effort. 2f you do that, many misunderstandings will be avoided in the future.

12.' Chapter ' -cti%ity So.ution

Sample re"uirements for the case study9 89terna.: Swede-Mart must operate in accordance to local labor laws. Business:strategic: 2ncrease inventory turn rate to A times per year. Business:tactica.: The distribution centers must be able to do daily trend analysis on inventory to forecast any increase /or decrease0 in demand. Business:operationa.: The store manager must be able to override default shipping in case of near out of inventory condition. ;ser: The buyer in the store must be able to place a special order for a product not carried in inventory. <ua.ity o= ser%ice: A distribution center must be able to process orders from up to 8% stores each day. -ssu0ption: Gsers will be able to dedicate four hours to a training program for the system. Constraint: All order history will be converted to the new system. I0p.e0entation: The turnover from old to new system must be completed in 1 hours or less.

).1, -cti%ity
Ta(e another loo( at the case study in Chapter 11. 2dentify all the sta(eholders from whom re"uirements will be elicited. Some of these sta(eholders may have been identified in the activity for Chapter C. 2nclude those but also add any others that come to mind. 1. 2dentify the best re"uirements elicitation techni"ue for each sta(eholder on the list and document what actions the analyst should ta(e to ma(e the effort more successful with each sta(eholder. This includes actions to ta(e before re"uirements are gathered, during the gathering, and follow-up actions. . Select one area where a discovery session would wor( well. 2dentify which sta(eholders would be invited to the session and create an agenda for what to cover in that discovery session.

12.) Chapter ) -cti%ity So.ution

-cti%ity ).1
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Stakeholder 4oe 4onesJSponsor <uyer in Store

&licitation Approach 2nterview 4ob shadowing 1 or Survey the rest

Special Actions ;repare list of "uestions .btain sign-off on scope and re"uirements &!plain goals of pro*ect Create a survey for postpro*ect evaluation

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Stakeholder 6istribution center inventory staff Shipping

&licitation Approach 6iscovery session Bocus group

Special Actions Meet with each person prior to session )ire a 4A6 facilitator Select modeling techni"ues Select participants who are well respected <rief participants before session Bollow-up with decisions after the session

-cti%ity ).2

"isco%ery Session =or "istri#ution Center In%entory Sta==

Attendees9 2nventory managers from each continent 2nventory optimi7ation SM& 2T group supporting current inventory system Agenda9 5ic(-off by 4oe 4ones Team building activity >eview goals and ob*ectives &stablish ground rules >eview modeling techni"ues to be used Model the inventory flow Capture detail re"uirements =alidate information captured 6ecide ne!t steps

*.1/ -cti%ity
>eview the case study section called ?2nterview with store buyer.? 2f you are using modeling techni"ues different than the ones used in the e!ercise, it may be productive to model this business area using those techni"ues as well. 1. <ased on the interview, what use cases are needed for this business areaH 2dentify three to five use cases. Select one of those use cases and fill out the use case template. . 2dentify the (ey entities that the buyer+s business area deals with, identify attributes and relationships for those entities, and outline an entity relationship diagram. $. ?-rite a re"uirements statement for the ?;lacing special order? re"uirement. Ma(e the statement specific, measurable, and unambiguous.

12.* Chapter * -cti%ity So.ution

;se Case Identi=ication
1. . $. C. ;lace special order 2n"uire on order status 2n"uire on inventory levels .rder from non-primary distribution center

;se Case >1

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?enera. Characteristics

2ntent Scope Author :ast Gpdate Status ;rimary Actor Secondary Actors ;reconditions Assumptions Trigger Success Condition Bailed ;ost Condition Models .verview

To place an order which was not automatically identified and generated by the system. Store buyer placing special order Sven Svenson 4uly 18, %%E Gnder development Store buyer 6istribution center inventory manager System generated order has been created and transmitted <uyer needs to modify system order .ut of stoc( at store, special order at store, forecast changed Special order is confirmed for shipping with a ship date ;roduct can not be ordered, no inventory available or special shipping cost prohibitive -or(flow model store purchasing process A buyer needs to try to ma(e sure that the store does not run out of inventory. 2f the ris( for this is high, they will need to place special orders. Special orders can also be placed when a customer orders a nonstoc(ed item.
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@appy Path

Step S 1

Action Successful order is placed for product in inventory at distribution center The buyer decides to place special order System as(s for product

$ C 8 D

<uyer enters product System displays available inventory <uyer enters "uantity System confirms order and provides shipping date

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Step C

Branching Action 'o inventory available <uyer reviews all distribution centers <uyer evaluates shipping cost from closest distribution center with available inventory <uyer accepts or re*ects alternative distribution center
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+e.ated In=or0ation

;erformance Bre"uency Concurrency .pen issues Buture considerations 6ue date Additional information 1. .

Must be able to perform happy path in less than $% seconds % times per day per buyer Many buyers will be performing this concurrently Approval of orders from non primary distribution centers 'one %%A '@A

2dentify the (ey entities that the buyer+s business area deals with and identify attributes and relationships for those entities and outline an entity relationship diagram /Bigure 1 . 0. Ta(e the re"uirement of ?placing a special order.? -rite a sample re"uirements statement for this which is specific, measurable, and unambiguous. There will be many re"uirements statements for this use case, right now *ust do one as an e!ample9 ?The system must support 8% buyers per distribution center, entering an order at the same time, and be able to complete those orders /assuming happy path0 in $% seconds.?

2igure 12.2: Swede-Mart data model.

,.* -cti%ity

1. 6ocument what components you would include for a <>6 review with the following case study sta(eholders9 Sponsor 6istribution Center Manager =; of .perations <uyer 6eveloper . 6ocument what each one of the sta(eholders main areas of focus should be for the re"uirements pac(age being developed.

1/., -cti%ity
1. . 6escribe three parts of the case study where the customer is li(ely to have a very low ris( tolerance. The following re"uirement was documented for the case study9 The system must verify that the customer has sufficient credit to place an order if the order is above L1,%%% and if the customer does not have an e!isting line of credit with us. -rite two test scenarios that would help verify this re"uirement.


12.1/ Chapter 1/ -cti%ity So.ution

1. 6escribe three parts of the case study where the customer is li(ely to have a very low ris( tolerance. Communication between store and distribution center Accurate trac(ing of inventory levels Any condition increasing out of stoc( on advertised products . The following re"uirement was documented for the case study9 The system must verify that the customer has sufficient credit to place an order, if the order is above L1,%%%, and if the customer does not have an e!isting line of credit with us. -rite test scenarios that would help verify this re"uirement. &!isting customer with line of credit placing an order for above L1,%%% 'ew customer placing an order for above L1,%%%

12.1 Chapter 1 -cti%ity So.ution

The most common answers are9 1. Changing re"uirements . Customers not available $. Customers not (nowing what they want C. 'o repeatable process 8. :ac( of management buy-in D. :ac( of resources E. :ac( of s(illed business analysts A. 'o common language F. 6evelopers do not understand the business 1%. 'o tools

Changing re"uirements Customers not available Customers not (nowing what they want 'o repeatable process :ac( of management buy-in 2mplement a formal change control process &ducate team on the process #ive customers as much lead time as possible #et buy-in from customers to re"uirements gathering Showcase similar products Create prototypes 6efine and implement templates and a simple process to start with >esearch what other organi7ations do >eview charter and scope with management >eview re"uirements plan with management

12.2 Chapter 2 -cti%ity So.ution

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'r#ani(ation 2T Binance Steering committee

Standard System Specification ;ro*ect 4ustification Borm ;ro*ect Charter

Process 'wner 2T 6irector of Binance 'ot sure

!n )se Since At least 8 years 1FF% Bive years


&nhancement >e"uest Borm

6irector of 2T


'ote that this will provide a starting point of forms and templates for the organi7ation. 2t will also identify potentially overlapping forms and activities and help clarify roles and responsibilities.