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Restless Earth

Restless Earth
How and why do tectonic plates move?

Convection currents from the hot outer core and mantle move the tectonic plates on the earths surface

Lithosphere Asthenosphere

The Iron in the outer core produces a magnetic field which protects the earth from radiation from space

What are the different types of plate boundary and what hazards are found there?

Restless Earth

Volcanoes in MEDC s and !EDC s


"apan #MEDC$ Mt Sakura ima ! found on a destructive plate "oundar# %apan is a developed countr#& It can afford to spend mone# on prediction' protection and evacuation& (hen Sakura ima does erupt it usuall# does not cause man# deaths& )omes' crops and industries will "e destro#ed "ut most people have insurance and the government will help to repair the damage& Democratic Republic of Con%o #!EDC$ Mt $#iragongo ! found on a constructive plate "oundar# Congo is a developing countr#& *eople cannot afford well+"uilt houses' so the# often collapse& The# do not have insurance& The government is not a"le to provide mone# or resources to the people& Communications are poor' so warnings and evacuations ma# not happen& + %an ,--,. /-- people died 0from poisonous gases and the lava flow1& Earth2uakes destro#ed "uildings& 3ver 4--'--- people "ecame refu%ees& The social costs are much %reater as death tolls are often higher in the developing world 'id The 5nited $ations sent food T6 appeals in the 57 sent mone# to "e used for shelter' clean water and medicines Emergenc# measles vaccinations were carried out "# the (orld )ealth 3rganisation The refugees needed food' shelter and clean water to avoid the spread of diseases like cholera& This is a "ig pro"lem for relief workers as most people left their homes with nothing&

Hi%h economic costs 0financial cost of destro#ing homes and "usinesses1& !ess social costs 0harm to people1 &rediction Seismometers. to monitor earth2uakes as magma rises to the surface Tiltmeters. to monitor the volcano swelling as it fills with magma Aircraft. To measure the amount of gas given off "# the volcano &rotection Concrete channels. To divert dangerous 8lahar mudflows Concrete shelters. To protect people from volcanic "om"s and ash Evacuation routes. Clearl# signposted& *eople also have regular drills

Earth(ua)es in MEDC s and !EDC s Effects


9uildings collapse' killing people 9ridges and roads collapse :ires "reak out from "roken gas pipes Access for emergenc# services is difficult as transport links are "locked Aftershocks are ver# dangerous ;isease can spread with a lack of clean food and water Tsunamis a ma# occur in coastal areas MEDC s li)e "apan ! Long term planning. The# have regular earth2uake drills to educate people& Emergenc# services practice how to rescue people& *eople keep emergenc# kits at home 0torch' food' radio1 Man# "uildings in %apan are earth2uake proof ! deep foundations' strong' fle<i"le steel frames' shock a"sor"ers in the "uildings frame&

Response

Restless Earth

!EDC s li)e Haiti ! The effects are often greater& This is mainl# due to poorl# constructed "uilding which are more likel# to collapse& 3ften followed "# international response ! countries donate mone#& The# also send aid and rescue workers as well as tents' medicines' food and water&