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Communication Switching Techniques

P.M.Arun Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of IT, Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore.



Mobile Radio Environment

Mobile Radio Environment

The transmissions over the wireless link are in general very difficult to characterize. EM signals often encounter obstacles, causing reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Mobility introduces further complexity. We have focused on simple models to help gain basic insight and understanding of the wireless radio medium. Three main components: Path Loss, Shadow fading, Multipath fading (or fast fading).

Limitations of Wireless
Channel is unreliable Spectrum is scarce, and not all ranges are suitable for mobile communication Transmission power is often limited
Battery Interference to others

Early Mobile Telephone Services

First introduced in the U.S. by AT&T (1946) Used to interconnect mobile users (in automobiles) to telephone networks. A single powerful transmitter from the BS to cover up to approx. 50 miles radius. Few channels for many people Early Bell Mobile Phone service in New York had 12 channels, serving 543 customer, waiting list of 3,700 and market of 10 million!! - CAPACITY LIMITED Advanced systems for their time but very inefficient, and service was terrible (blocking probabilities as high as 65%).

Advent of Cellular Systems

Noting from the channel model, we know signal will attenuated with distance and have no interference to far users. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, work began on the first cellular telephone systems. The term cellular refers to dividing the service area into many small regions (cells) each served by a low-power transmitter with moderate antenna height.

Cellular Networks

Principles of Cellular Networks

Underlying technology for mobile phones, personal communication systems, wireless networking etc. Developed for mobile radio telephone
Replace high power transmitter/receiver systems
Typical support for 25 channels over 80km

Use lower power, shorter range, more transmitters

Cellular Network Organization

Multiple low power transmitters
100w or less

Area divided into cells

Each with own antenna Each with own range of frequencies Served by base station
Transmitter, receiver, control unit

Adjacent cells on different frequencies to avoid crosstalk

Shape of Cells
Width d cell has four neighbors at distance d and four at distance 2 d Better if all adjacent antennas equidistant
Simplifies choosing and switching to new antenna

Provides equidistant antennas Radius defined as radius of circum-circle
Distance from center to vertex equals length of side

Distance between centers of cells radius R is Not always precise hexagons

Topographical limitations Local signal propagation conditions Location of antennas


Cellular Geometries

Frequency Reuse

Frequency Reuse
The Objective is to use the same frequency band in multiple cells at some distance from one another. the reuse of frequencies is what enables a cellular system to handle a huge number of calls with a limited number of channels.

Frequency reuse

Frequency Reuse
Power of base transceiver controlled
Allow communications within cell on given frequency Limit escaping power to adjacent cells Allow re-use of frequencies in nearby cells Use same frequency for multiple conversations 10 50 frequencies per cell

N cells all using same number of frequencies K total number of frequencies used in systems Each cell has K/N frequencies Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) K=395, N=7 giving 57 frequencies per cell on average

Characterizing Frequency Reuse

D = minimum distance between centers of cells that use the same band of frequencies (called cochannels) R = radius of a cell d = distance between centers of adjacent cells (d = R) N = number of cells in repetitious pattern
Reuse factor Each cell in pattern uses unique band of frequencies

Hexagonal cell pattern, following values of N possible

N = I2 + J2 + (I x J), I, J = 0, 1, 2, 3,

Possible values of N are 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21, D/R= 3N D/d = N

Frequency Reuse Patterns

Frequency Reuse
Frequency Reuse is the core of cellular mobile radio systems. A radio channel using a Frequency f1 in a Cell with a Radius R can be reused at Distance D. Users in both cells can use the same frequency simultaneously. Improper system planning & design can cause unacceptable level of Co-channel Interference.

Frequency Reuse Concept


undesired signal co-channel interference



desired signal

with the concept of Frequency Reuse comes the term Co-channel Interference

Ideal Cells Formation

Base Station

Real Cell Formation

Base Station

Fictitious Cells Formation

Base Station

Frequency Reuse Pattern N=3

2 1 3

Note: some textbooks use K instead of N

Frequency Reuse Pattern N=4

2 1 4 3

Frequency Reuse Pattern N=7

3 6 4 7 5 2 1

Frequency Reuse Pattern N=7

2 1 4 3 6 7 3 6 5 1 4 7 2 5

Cellular Coverage Representation

3-cell reuse pattern (i=1,j=1)

4-cell reuse pattern (i=2,j=0)

7-cell reuse pattern (i=2,j=1)

12-cell reuse pattern (i=2,j=2)

19-cell reuse pattern (i=3,j=2)

Cellular geometry
Cluster Size
Co channel distance in unit radius Co channel reuse ratio

sqrt (i2+j2+i*j) D/R=sqrt (3*N)

where I and j are integers

i 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

j 0 1 2 3 4 2 3

cluster size 1 3 7 13 21 12 19

Co channel reuse ratio 1.73 3.00 4.58 6.24 7.94 6.00 7.55

19-cell reuse example (N=19) To find the co channel interference: Method for locating co channel Cell

Relationship between Q and N

Increasing Capacity (1)

Add new channels
Not all channels used to start with

Frequency borrowing
Taken from adjacent cells by congested cells Or assign frequencies dynamically

Cell splitting
Non-uniform distribution of topography and traffic Smaller cells in high use areas
Original cells 6.5 13 km 1.5 km limit in general More frequent handoff More base stations

Increasing Capacity (2)

Cell Sectoring
Cell divided into wedge shaped sectors 3 6 sectors per cell Each with own channel set
Subsets of cells channels

Directional antennas

Move antennas from tops of hills and large buildings to tops of small buildings and sides of large buildings
Even lamp posts

Form microcells Reduced power Good for city streets, along roads and inside large buildings

Cell Splitting

Operation of Cellular Systems

Operation of Cellular Systems

Base station (BS) at center of each cell
Antenna, controller, transceivers

Controller handles call process

Number of mobile units may in use at a time

BS connected to mobile telecommunications switching office (MTSO)

One MTSO serves multiple BS MTSO to BS link by wire or wireless

Connects calls between mobile units and from mobile to fixed telecommunications network Assigns voice channel Performs handoffs Monitors calls (billing)

Fully automated

Overview of Cellular System

Control channels
Setting up and maintaining calls Establish relationship between mobile unit and nearest BS

Traffic channels
Carry voice and data

Typical Call in Single MTSO Area (1)

Mobile unit initialization
Scan and select strongest set up control channel Automatically selected BS antenna of cell
Usually but not always nearest (propagation anomalies)

Handshake to identify user and register location Scan repeated to allow for movement
Change of cell

Mobile unit monitors for pages (see below)

Mobile originated call

Check set up channel is free
Monitor forward channel (from BS) and wait for idle

Send number on pre-selected channel

MTSO attempts to connect to mobile unit Paging message sent to BSs depending on called mobile number Paging signal transmitted on set up channel

Typical Call in Single MTSO Area (2)

Call accepted
Mobile unit recognizes number on set up channel Responds to BS which sends response to MTSO MTSO sets up circuit between calling and called BSs MTSO selects available traffic channel within cells and notifies BSs BSs notify mobile unit of channel

Ongoing call
Voice/data exchanged through respective BSs and MTSO

Mobile unit moves out of range of cell into range of another cell Traffic channel changes to one assigned to new BS
Without interruption of service to user

Call Stages

Other Functions
Call blocking
During mobile-initiated call stage, if all traffic channels busy, mobile tries again After number of fails, busy tone returned

Call termination
User hangs up MTSO informed Traffic channels at two BSs released

Call drop
BS cannot maintain required signal strength Traffic channel dropped and MTSO informed

Calls to/from fixed and remote mobile subscriber

MTSO connects to PSTN MTSO can connect mobile user and fixed subscriber via PSTN MTSO can connect to remote MTSO via PSTN or via dedicated lines Can connect mobile user in its area and remote mobile user

Mobile Radio Propagation Effects

Mobile Radio Propagation Effects

Signal strength
Strength of signal between BS and mobile unit strong enough to maintain signal quality at the receiver Not strong enough to create too much cochannel interference Noise varies
Automobile ignition noise greater in city than in suburbs Other signal sources vary Signal strength varies as function of distance from BS Signal strength varies dynamically as mobile unit moves

Even if signal strength in effective range, signal propagation effects may disrupt the signal

Time variation of received signal Caused by changes in transmission path(s) E.g. atmospheric conditions (rain) Movement of (mobile unit) antenna

Multipath Propagation
Surface large relative to wavelength of signal May have phase shift from original May cancel out original or increase it

Edge of impenetrable body that is large relative to wavelength May receive signal even if no line of sight (LOS) to transmitter

Obstacle size on order of wavelength
Lamp posts etc.

If LOS, diffracted and scattered signals not significant

Reflected signals may be

If no LOS, diffraction and scattering are primary means of reception

Reflection, Diffraction, Scattering

Effects of Multipath Propagation

Signals may cancel out due to phase differences Intersymbol Interference (ISI)
Sending narrow pulse at given frequency between fixed antenna and mobile unit Channel may deliver multiple copies at different times Delayed pulses act as noise making recovery of bit information difficult Timing changes as mobile unit moves
Harder to design signal processing to filter out multipath effects

Types of Fading
Fast fading
Rapid changes in strength over distances about half wavelength
900MHz wavelength is 0.33m 20-30dB

Slow fading
Slower changes due to user passing different height buildings, gaps in buildings etc. Over longer distances than fast fading

Flat fading
Nonselective Affects all frequencies in same proportion

Selective fading
Different frequency components affected differently

Handoff (or) Handover


When a mobile user travels from one area of coverage or cell to another cell within a calls duration the call should be transferred to the new cells base station. Otherwise, the call will be dropped because the link with the current base station becomes too weak as the mobile recedes. Indeed, this ability for transference is a design matter in mobile cellular system design and is call handoff.



Hard Handoff Soft Handoff

Hard Handoff
the link to the prior base station is terminated before or as the user is transferred to the new cells base station the mobile is linked to no more than one base station at a given time Initiation of the handoff may begin when the signal strength at the mobile received from base station 2 is greater than that of base station 1

Hard Handoff
Hard handoff is used by the systems which use timedivision multiple access (TDMA) and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) such as GSM and General PacketRadio Service (GPRS)

Handover types in GSM

Intra Inter Inter Inter Cell Handover Cell, intra BSC handover BSC, Intra MSC handover MSC handover

Handoff in GSM

Handoff in GSM
Intra Cell Handover : This happens when within a cell, when narrowband interference could make transmission at a certain frequency impossible. The BSC could then decide to change the carrier frequency. (1) Inter Cell, intra BSC handover : This type of handover is a typical handover within the GSM system and occurs when the MS moves from one BTS to another but stays within the control of same BSC. The BSC performs the handover and assigns a new radio channel in the new BTS, then releases the old BTS. (2)

Inter BSC, Intra MSC handover : Since a BSC controls a limited number of BTSs, the GSM system has to perform handovers between BSCs. This form of handover is controlled by the MSC. (3)

Inter MSC handover : A handover could also be required etween two BTSs that belong to two different MSCs, now both MSCs perform the handover together.(4)

Soft Handoff
CDMA uses soft handoff improves performance by using macro diversity In a CDMA system with soft handoff, each mobile user is connected to two or more base stations at a time.

Soft Handoff
The base station with the highest relative strength seen from the mobile is given the control of the mobile users call. Also, because a user in soft handoff is connected to several adjacent base stations, probability of a lost call is reduced.

Handoff Performance Metrics

Handoff blocking probability probability that a handoff cannot be successfully completed Handoff probability probability that a handoff occurs before call termination Rate of handoff number of handoffs per unit time Interruption duration duration of time during a handoff in which a mobile is not connected to either base station Handoff delay distance the mobile moves from the point at which the handoff should occur to the point at which it does occur

Handoff Strategies Used to Determine Instant of Handoff

Relative signal strength Relative signal strength with threshold Relative signal strength with hysteresis Relative signal strength with hysteresis and threshold Prediction techniques

Power Control
Design issues making it desirable to include dynamic power control in a cellular system
Received power must be sufficiently above the background noise for effective communication Desirable to minimize power in the transmitted signal from the mobile
Reduce cochannel interference, alleviate health concerns, save battery power

In SS systems using CDMA, its desirable to equalize the received power level from all mobile units at the BS

Traffic Engineering
Ideally, available channels would equal number of subscribers active at one time In practice, not feasible to have capacity handle all possible load For N simultaneous user capacity and L subscribers
L < N nonblocking system L > N blocking system

Channel assignment strategies

Channel assignment strategies

Fixed Dynamic Fixed channel assignment Each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channels. Any call attempt within the cells can only be served by unused channels in that particular cell. If all the channels in the cell are occupied, the call is blocked and the subscriber does not receive service. Variation includes a borrowing strategy: a cell is allowed to borrow channels from a neighboring cell if all its own channels are occupied. This is supervised by the MSC. Dynamic channel assignment
The voice channels are not allocated to different cells permanently. instead each time a call request is made, the serving base station request a channel from the mobile switching center. Dynamic channel assignment is more complex (real time), but reduces likelihood of blocking.

Channel assignment
What is channel allocation? A given radio spectrum is to be divided into a set of disjointed channels that can be used simultaneously while minimizing interference in adjacent channel by allocating channels appropriately (especially for traffic channels). Channel allocation schemes can be divided in general into
Fixed Channel Allocation schemes (FCA schemes); Dynamic Channel Allocation schemes (DCA schemes); Hybrid Channel Allocation schemes (HCA schemes: combining both FCA and DCA techniques);

Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA)

In FCA schemes, a set of channels is permanently allocated to each cell in the network. If the total number of available channels in the system S is divided into sets, the minimum number of channel sets N required to serve the entire coverage area is related to the frequency reuse distance D as follows: N = D2 / 3R2 Due to short term fluctuations in the traffic, FCA schemes are often not able to maintain high quality of service and capacity attainable with static traffic demands. One approach to address this problem is to borrow free channels from neighboring cells.

Simple Borrowing (CB) Schemes

In CB schemes, cell (acceptor cell) that has used all its nominal channels can borrow free channels from its neighboring cell (donor cell) to accommodate new calls. Borrowing can be done from an adjacent cell which has largest number of free channels (borrowing from the richest) Select the first free channel found for borrowing using a search algorithm (borrow first available scheme) Return the borrowed channel when channel becomes free in the cell (basic algorithm with reassignment) To be available for borrowing, the channel must not interfere with existing calls, as shown in the next figure.

Simple Channel Borrowing (CB) Schemes

Donor Cell for Sector X

Cell 3 1 2 X Y Z A call initiated in the sector X of cell 3 can borrow a channel from adjacent cells 1 or 2.

Impact of Channel Borrowing in Sectored Cell-based Wireless System


c b


c b


c b


c b


c b


c b


c b

X borrows some channels from a

Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)

In DCA schemes, all channels are kept in a central pool and are assigned dynamically to new calls as they arrive in the system. After each call is completed, the channel is returned to the central pool. It is fairly straightforward to select the most appropriate channel for any call based simply on current allocation and current traffic, with the aim of minimizing the interference. DCA scheme can overcome the problem of FCA scheme. However, variations in DCA schemes center around the different cost functions used for selecting one of the candidate channels for assignment.

Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)

DCA schemes can be centralized or distributed. The centralized DCA scheme involves a single controller selecting a channel for each cell; The distributed DCA scheme involves a number of controllers scattered across the network (MSCs). Centralized DCA schemes can theoretically provide the best performance. However, the enormous amount of computation and communication among BSs leads to excessive system latencies and renders centralized DCA schemes impractical. Nevertheless, centralized DCA schemes often provide a useful benchmark to compare practical decentralized DCA schemes.

Centralized DCA
For a new call, a free channel from the central pool is selected that would maximize the number of members in its co-channel set. Minimize the mean square of distance between cells using the same channel.

Distributed DCA Schemes

Based on one of the three parameters:

Co-channel distance - co-channel cells in the neighborhood not using the channel
- sometimes adjacent channel interference taken in to account

Signal strength measurement

- anticipated CIR above threshold

Signal to noise interference ratio

- satisfy desired CIR ratio

Comparison between FCA and DCA

Performs better under heavy traffic Low flexibility in channel assignment Maximum channel reusability Sensitive to time and spatial changes Not stable grade of service per cell in an interference cell group High forced call termination probability Suitable for large cell environment Low flexibility

Performs better under light/moderate traffic Flexible channel allocation Not always maximum channel reusability Insensitive to time and time spatial changes Stable grade of service per cell in an interference cell group Low to moderate forced call termination probability Suitable in microcellular environment High flexibility

Comparison between FCA and DCA

Radio equipment covers all channels assigned to the cell Independent channel control Low computational effort Low call set up delay Low implementation complexity Complex, labor intensive frequency planning Low signaling load Centralized control

Radio equipment covers the temporary channel assigned to the cell Fully centralized to fully distributed control dependent on the scheme High computational effort Moderate to high call set up delay Moderate to high implementation complexity No frequency planning Moderate to high signaling load Centralized, distributed control depending on the scheme

Other Channel Allocation Schemes

Based on different criterion being used as a potential way of optimizing the performance, many other channel allocation schemes have been suggested.
Hybrid Channel Allocation (HCA) Flexible Channel Allocation (FCA) Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA)

1. Wireless communication and networks william stallings, Pearson education,2005 2.