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morality, ethics, moral truth

Morality is the effort to guide ones conduct by reason while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual affected by ones decision. Morality comes from Latin "morals" meaning proper behavior of a person in society. It looks into inner motives and intentions of a person.

It is wrong to use people as means to other peoples ends. (It is wrong to kill one person to save another) Moral judgments may be backed by good reasons Morality requires the impartial consideration of each individuals interests. This is the idea that each individuals interest is equally important no one should get special treatment. It forbids the treatment of one person worse than another when there is no good reason to do so.

Those who choose to treat others well deserve good treatment those who choose to treat others badly deserve ill treatment. It is a matter o! treating people as responsible agents who merit particular responses, based on their past conduct.

The "lements o! Moral #hilosophy $th "d., %ames &achels, The Mc'raw()ill *ompanies, Inc. International "dition +,-,

.istinction /egal duties concentrate on e0ternal behavior, while moral duties concentrate on the internal processes o! intention, motive, and conscience. /egal duties are accompanied by corresponding rights. I! somebody violates a legal duty, he or she is punished by the state. /aw is !ormulated by an easily identi!iable authority. The legal verdict in a given situation is black and white, regardless o! how comple0 the issues where.

1 /egal #hilosopy !or 2ilipinos3 4 *ase 5tudy 4pproach *hapter -"6.5 46. "22"*T5 72 /48. Morality.

Law is addressed to e!ternal freedom" and morality to internal freedom. Law speaks to the relations between people in society morality speaks to the struggle within each person between reason and desire. #$ustav %abruch&s theory' That actions and intentions carry different weights in law than they do in morality. Law requires some e!ternal event and relies on intention and internal sentiments as a guide to understanding the meaning of the e!ternal event. 4nglo(4merican #attern o! viewing morality as a set o! rules about what is right and wrong, a code like the legal system but lacking means o! en!orcement.

Two most common arguments !or moral positions are 'od9s *ommand and conventional practice. 'od9s command is based on the belie! that 'od is the ultimate source o! truth. (.ivine *ommand Morality) *onventional practice the authority o! the society e0pressed in a collective judgment.

:7nly the good will, driven by pure reason is e0empt !rom the use o! danger.:

Intention is the inner ;uality o! our actions. /egal relations are characteri<ed by e0ternal compliance with norms the inner mental state at the time o! compliance o! secondary importance !or the law. (Immanuel =ant)

#erception o! right and wrong. 8e must anticipate the conse;uences our actions. 8e are e0pected to be per!ectly altruistic, thinking only about the wel!are o! the entire collective and not ourselves or our loved ones !irst. The critical moral theories aim to challenge ordinary people to reali<e in their lives the ;ualities o! reason, goodness, omnipotence, and benevolence that we attribute to de!ine per!ection.

The in!luence o! Moral thought to legal thinking (legal argument) cannot be determine e0actly how much and in what !orm. The economic principle o! e!!iciency has come to have a vast in!luence in legal thought.

It is the aim o! :moral: argument in the law to re!orm the law by bringing it into line with the :moral code: o! society.

1 /egal "thics 4nnotated +,,>, "rnesto /. #ineda, *entral ?ook 5upply, Inc.

2ilipino concept o! justice3 highly moral concept, intimately related to concept o! rights, e;uity, !airness, and eschews privilege and naked power.

4ristotle9s principle o! :treating e;uals e;ually and une;ual une;ually, but in proportion to their relevant di!!erences:. 1 'row in 'race and 'overn in wisdom, readings in legal philosophy, by *ommissioner &ene @. 5armiento, &e0 ?ookstore +,--

/aw is the distinction between things just and unjust, made in agreement with that primal and most ancient o! all things, nature and in con!ormity to natures standards are !ramed those human laws which in!lict punishment upon the wicked but protect the good. (natural law) ." /"'I?A5 )A6TI6'T76 *4I&65 *7MM"6T 76 *I*"&7

/aw is an ordinance o! reason !or the common good, made by him who has care o! the community, and promulgated. precept o! law3 good is to be done ans ensued, and evil is to be avoided. )uman reason is not the rule o! things3 general rules and measures o! all things relating to human conduct, whereo! the natural reason is the rule and measure, although it is not the measure o! things that are !rom nature. T)" 5AMM4 T)"7/7'I*4 5T. T)7M45 4BAI645

The idea o! e;uity and that i! natural law thus become !actors o! progress in law. *7MM"6T5 ?C %4BA"5 M4&IT4I6 76 5T. T)7M45 4BAI645

?oetius :every whole is greater than its part, and Things e;ual to one and the same are e;ual to one another.: