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PY 101-008 Exam III

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Elise is so terrified of enclosed places that she had to quit her new job because her office had no windows. She knows that her fear is irrational, but she can't seem to control her anxiety. In this case, Elise's symptoms are MOST consistent with a. generalized anxiety disorder b. obsessive-compulsive disorder c. a phobic disorder d. a conversion disorder 2. Karen believes she has a rare tropical disease. Her physicians can find no evidence of the disease, yet Karen continues to insist she has it. Karen's condition is best classified as a. a psychosomatic conversion reaction b. a psychotic episode c. a somatoform disorder d. a hypochondriasis 3. Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions associated with the humanistic theory of personality? a. acknowledging the role that internal conflict plays in generating psychological distress b. making the self-concept an important construct in psychology c. focusing attention on what constitutes a healthy personality d. the importance of a person's subjective views 4. After several weeks of feeling gloomy and being socially withdrawn, Marco has suddenly become extremely sociable and talkative. He doesn't seem to need any sleep, and he becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Marco's behavior is consistent with a. schizophrenia b. histrionic personality disorder c. bipolar disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder 5. Lukas does not trust anyone. He is convinced that no one around him is truthful, and everything they say to him is a lie. He is extremely suspicious of other people's motives, and he often flies into a jealous rage when his wife speaks to other men. If Lukas has a personality disorder, his symptoms are MOST consistent with those associated with disorders in the a. neurotic/dissociative cluster b. odd/eccentric cluster c. dramatic/impulsive cluster d. anxious/fearful cluster 6. In learning to crawl, children initially depend on their arms to propel them and later shift to using their legs. This motor development sequence is an example of a. the proximodistal trend b. the cephalopedal trend c. encephalitis d. the cephalocaudal trend 7. The disorder that is characterized by worry and fear, muscle tension, trembling, faintness, and difficulty in concentrating is known as a a. paranoid disorder b. generalized anxiety disorder c. dissociative disorder

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d. conversion disorder The greatest inconsistency between who a person is and the impression he or she creates is likely to be found in a a. sensation seeker b. self-actualizer c. high self-monitor d. person with a realistic self-concept The most widely prescribed class of psychiatric drugs are a. antipsychotic drugs b. neuroleptics c. antidepressant drugs d. antianxiety drugs Charlie cannot tolerate heights. When walking up several flights of stairs, he breaks out in a cold sweat, shakes, and believes he is going to fall and seriously injure himself. Consequently, Charlie avoids any type of height at all costs. Charlie's condition would be diagnosed as a a. conversion disorder b. dissociative disorder c. somatoform disorder d. phobic disorder If you needed a personality inventory capable of measuring a person's degree of psychopathology, you would probably use a. the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory b. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire c. factor analysis d. the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule Which of the following disorders would be LEAST likely to be treated by psychiatrists? a. anxiety disorder b. marital problems c. schizophrenia d. mood disorder Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of bipolar disorder? a. The onset of bipolar disorder is spread evenly across almost all age groups. b. The peak age of onset is usually in early adulthood (age 20 through 29). c. The peak age of onset is during middle or late adulthood (age 40 and on). d. The symptoms tend to be most severe when the disorder has a late onset. The MOST commonly cited side effect associated with antianxiety drugs is a. insomnia b. tachycardia c. drowsiness d. blurred vision Eartha has been experiencing mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions. Her parents schedule an appointment with a therapist to find out if there is something she can take to reduce her symptoms. In this case, the doctor will MOST likely prescribe a. Thorazine b. Prozac c. Nardil d. Xanax In comparison to Eysenck's theory of personality, evolutionary theory a. is more limited in scope b. is less applicable to behavior across cultures

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c. has greater empirical support d. is more popular among behaviorists In regard to psychological disorders, prevalence refers to a. the reliability of the diagnosis of psychological disorders b. the absolute number of people who are experiencing any psychological disorder at a given point in time c. the percentage of a population that has ever been treated for a psychological disorder d. the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period Personality disorders are characterized by a. extremely inconsistent behavior across a variety of situations b. extreme, inflexible personality traits c. hallucinations and delusions d. an inability to function outside of a hospital setting Antipsychotic drugs a. are effective in about 95 percent of psychotic patients b. are often prescribed even for individuals who have no clinical psychotic disorder c. gradually reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions d. tend to produce an immediate, but short-lasting, effect In looking for therapeutic services, keep in mind that a. the therapeutic services available are essentially the same in most American communities b. community mental health centers and human service agencies are good sources of information c. the therapist's professional background should be your number one concern d. most therapists are in private practice Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of depression? a. The symptoms tend to be most severe when the disorder has a late onset. b. The peak age of onset is during middle or late adulthood (age 40 and on). c. The peak age of onset is usually in early adulthood (age 20 through 29). d. The onset of depression can occur at any point in the lifespan. Of the factors that may shape development prior to birth, which is the LEAST understood? a. tobacco use b. fluctuations in maternal emotions c. rubella (German measles) d. excessive alcohol use The __________ is the structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass from the mother to the fetus. a. zygote b. placenta c. uterus d. amnion Using the DSM-IV listings and lifetime prevalence, it is estimated that __________ of the population will experience a psychological disorder at some time in their lives. a. less than 10 percent b. approximately 45 percent c. approximately 25 percent d. close to 60 percent Which of the following disorders is seen ONLY in affluent Western cultures? a. bipolar illness b. schizophrenia c. anorexia nervosa

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d. depression Research findings indicate that, in general, __________ is fairly consistent across cultures. a. conceptions of the self b. the use of defense mechanisms c. self-monitoring d. the trait structure of personality The close, emotional bond of affection between an infant and its caregiver is called a. imprinting b. attachment c. identification d. dependency A friend tells you that he recently responded to a personality inventory with about 550 items which indicated that his level of depression was above normal. He probably took a. the Power Motivation Scale b. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire c. the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory d. the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule Conformity occurs when people change their behavior a. as a result of negative reinforcement b. as a result of positive reinforcement c. after observing a model being reinforced for a particular response d. in response to real or imagined social pressure The bystander effect is the finding that a. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increases b. bystanders' willingness to help depends on the seriousness of the emergency c. a group of witnesses to an emergency will all tend to cooperate to provide help d. the probability that a witness to an emergency will help increases as the number of bystanders increases Which of the following statements about group therapy is LEAST accurate? a. Therapy groups typically consist of 4 to 15 participants. b. The therapist may share his or her personal experiences and feelings with the group. c. Group participants essentially function as therapists for each other. d. Group therapy is typically more expensive than individual therapy. Quinton's father had an irrational fear of railroad crossings and would sometimes spend hours planning family trips so that all railroad crossings were avoided. If Quinton also develops a fear of railroad crossings, the process that would best explain the acquisition of his phobia would be a. classical conditioning b. observational learning c. operant conditioning d. reciprocal stress Compared to traditional antipsychotic drugs, the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs a. are more effective in treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia b. can be used to treat depression and anxiety, in addition to schizophrenia c. seem to produce more severe side effects, but they work much more quickly d. seem to produce fewer unpleasant side effects Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy grew from the a. behaviorist tradition b. humanistic tradition

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c. cognitive tradition d. psychoanalytic tradition Which of the following is NOT one of the main uses of personality scales? a. personnel selection b. college admissions c. psychological research d. clinical diagnosis Resistance a. involves largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy b. refers to the client's reaction to sexual advances from the therapist c. refers to the subtle, primarily unconscious ways in which young children rebel against their parents' demands d. consists primarily of conscious efforts to hinder the progress of therapy Ariana's doctor has recently prescribed a drug that slows the reuptake process at serotonin synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Ariana for symptoms of a. bipolar disorder b. schizophrenia c. depression d. a somatoform disorder Simon recently walked into a hospital emergency room in Florida. He had no identification, and although he didn't appear to be hurt in anyway, he had no idea who he was or where he lived. A check of missing person reports showed that Simon had walked away from his home in Brooklyn ten days earlier. In this case, Simon's symptoms are MOST consistent with a. dissociative fugue b. panic disorder c. generalized anxiety disorder d. dissociative amnesia Researchers have found that depression occurs a. nearly four times as frequently in women as in men b. with equal frequency in women and in men c. nearly twice as frequently in men as in women d. nearly twice as frequently in women as in men A delusion is a. a perceptual experience without a sensation b. the consequence of loosening of associations c. the major symptom associated with dissociative disorders d. a false belief that is maintained even though it is not supported by reality Dr. Nenning is a psychotherapist who is extremely supportive of all his clients. He encourages his clients to talk about their concerns, and he often acts as a sounding board, restating and clarifying the themes that come to the surface as his clients speak freely about their concerns and problems. Dr. Nenning appears to be a. a therapist who uses existential therapy methods b. a therapist who uses a modern psychodynamic approach c. a therapist who uses Beck's cognitive approach to therapy d. a client-centered therapist Today psychoanalysis is MOST likely to be practiced by a. social workers b. psychiatrists c. counseling psychologists d. clinical psychologists

____ 43. Jazmine has just returned home after receiving treatment for schizophrenia. The clinician who is supervising her case is aware that Jazmine's family is high in expressed emotion. Under these conditions, Jazmine a. is likely to develop symptoms of bipolar disorder b. has a low risk of relapse c. has a high risk of relapse d. will need little or no medication because she will have high levels of social support ____ 44. The two major antianxiety drugs or tranquilizers are a. Valium and Xanax b. Thorazine and Haldol c. Prozac and Zoloft d. Elavil and Nardil ____ 45. The major difference between a somatization disorder and a conversion disorder is that a. a somatization disorder involves apparent physical illness, and conversion disorder involves genuine physical illness b. a somatization disorder involves intentional faking of physical illness, while conversion symptoms are unconsciously created c. somatization disorders involve a wide variety of organs and symptoms; conversion disorders involve loss of function in a single organ system d. somatization disorders occur only in adults, while conversion disorders occur only in children ____ 46. When one experiences a loss of use of some part of the body with no accompanying organic problems, the diagnosis is a a. panic attack b. conversion disorder c. somatization disorder d. hypochondriasis ____ 47. Adena has just recovered from her first episode of major depression. Based on the findings from longitudinal studies, the likelihood that Adena will experience or relapse within the next five years is a. less than 10 percent b. approximately 60 percent c. just over 25 percent d. between 40 and 45 percent ____ 48. The theoretical difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist is that a. only the clinical psychologist can prescribe drugs b. the clinical psychologist has a doctorate; the counseling psychologist has a master's degree c. clinical psychologists are trained to provide behavior therapy; counseling psychologists are trained to provide insight therapy d. the clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders; the counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems ____ 49. The concept that abnormal behavior is the result of a disease goes with the a. psychological model b. humanistic model c. behavioral model d. medical model ____ 50. Social loafing refers to a. a tendency to blame others for the group's poor performance b. increases in socializing among members of larger groups c. the reduction of effort by individuals when they work in groups d. the loss of coordination among group members' efforts