Sei sulla pagina 1di 28

Misure ottiche di frequenza!

Confronto di frequenze ottiche!


Occorre rapportare la frequenza da misurare di modo da portarla nel range accessibile ad un contatore elettronico. ! Oscillatore locale!
! Fino a " 100 GHz:!
oscillatori a microonde (klystron, Gunn oscillators), asserviti in fase ad un oscillatore a quarzo di alta purezza spettrale !

Laser 1 LO ffmw mw

f f1 1 Mixer

! Fino a qualche THz:!


laser FIR moleculari calibrati in frequenza!

Mixer!
! diodi Schottky, ! ! diodi MIM!

Laser 2

ff 2 2

f1 ! f 2 ! nf mw

Propriet del mixer: ! ! ! ! ! !

!mixing bandwith, ! !high-order mixing properties,! !spectral responsivity!

Dalle microonde al visibile


! La catena del PTB !

9 GHz 456 THz!

f1

How to measure the frequency difference between two stabilized lasers in the visible region !

SFG

f2+f1 Mixer

f2

SHG
phase lock

f2-f1 2

Slide dal talk di T. Hnsch a Stoccolma per il conferimento del premio Nobel!

The femtosecond lasers


Fourier transform! Pulse: T"20 fs!

!!

Bandwidth (FWHM) ! "! " 25 THz!

Large spectral gain medium

Ti:sapphire crystal!

!Compensation of group velocity dispersion ! ! # intracavity prism pair or chirped mirrors!

Kerr effect self mode-locking

The pulse rate is exactly constant!


Fourier ! transform!

!!

Frequency comb: ! !mode separation fr=vg/2L , inverse of the round-trip time of the pulse!

How a mode - locked laser works

3 possible modes are shown, these are phased such that they add coherently at the position of the dashed line! The output intensity of the laser is an average over one cycle of the square of the mode. For a single mode, the output is constant in time; for multiple modes, interference forms a pulse train.!

Self-mode-locking indotto da effetto Kerr ottico


! Optical Kerr effect: refractive index n(I)=n0+n2 I,
n(t, r ) = n0 + n2 I (t, r )
Temporal Kerr-effect " Self-Phase-Modulation "
!n(t) = n2I(t)" I I"
E! E!

Spatial Kerr-effect " Self-Focusing "


!n(x,y) = n2I(x,y) " x, y" x, y"

Spettro del cristallo di Ti:zafro!

Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser"

Chirped mirrors!

Intensity (a. u.) "

Wavelength (nm)"

Stabilizzazione della frequenza di ripetizione!


Un circuito di feedback asserve la frequenza di ripetizione ad un riferimento, agendo su un piezoelettrico che controlla la lunghezza della cavit.! ! La stabilit limitata solo dalla qualit del riferimento.! ! Il passo del comb rigorosamente identico su tutto lo spettro (dimostrato sperimentalmente entro 10-17)

Resolution bandwidth dellanalizzatore di spettro: 10 mHz.!

Carrier-envelope phase slips and offset frequency!


CEO: Carrier-envelope offset

Confronto di frequenze ottiche!

nHg+ = 2 x 532 360 804 949 559 (124) Hz,

NIST!

K. R. Vogel, S. A. Diddams, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, R. J. Rafac, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, R. W. Fox, W. D. Lee, J. S. Wells, and L. Hollberg

OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 26, 102 (2001) !

Misura della frequenza della transizione 1S-2S dellidrogeno!


2 466 061 413 187 103(46) Hz
M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, Th. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hnsch, P. Lemonde, G.!Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon and A. Clairon"

Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5496 (2000)!


1/7 dye " CH4 @3.39 m! 4/7 dye il valor medio tra 1/7 dyee dye!

Octave spanning comb!


Sidebands generated by 4-waves mixing:!
f ! = f1 + f 2 " f 3 f !! = f 2 + f 3 " f1 f1 f2 f3

Microstructured optical bers (photonic crystals):! ! high power intensity on the core! ! high non-linearity! ! zero dispersion value in the visible!
Jinendra K. Ranka, et al., Opt.Lett. 25,25 (2000)

David J. Jones,et al.,! Science, 288, 635 (2000)!

Cristalli fotonici!

Dal catalogo Thorlabs"

Self-referenced comb!

#!

All clocks must have a regular, constant or repetitive process or action to mark off equal increments of time. Examples include the movement of the sun across the sky, a pendulum or vibrating crystal, or, in an atomic clock, the natural vibrations of atoms. ! Today's standard atomic clocks vibrate at microwave frequencies, about 9"GHz. Optical atomic clocks oscillate much faster, at about 500,000 GHz, and thus divide time into smaller units. !

Frequency Combs as 'Gears' of a Clock

But no electronic systems exist that can directly count these oscillations. A frequency comb, functioning like the electronics in a conventional clock, can be used to divide the oscillations of optical clocks into lower frequencies that can be linked to microwave standards and counted.!

Misura della transizione 1s-2s con il comb autoriferito!


M. Fischer et al., PRL 92, 2308 02 (2004)!

Misura con il comb autoriferito!


Riferimento: maser a idrogeno stabilit 2 !10-13 @ 1s, ! 4 !10-16 su alcuni giorni! Accuratezza calibrata sul NIST-F1 : 1.6 !10-15 !
Hg+ = 1 064 721 609 899 143 ! 2.4 Hz, Ca = 455 986 240 494 158 ! 26 Hz

"!f Ca % $ ' f Ca ( 8 ) 10 *14 yr -1 # !t &

"!f Hg + % *14 -1 f ( 30 ) 10 yr $ ' Hg + # !t &

Absolute Frequency Measurements of the Hg+ and Ca Optical Clock Transitions! with a Femtosecond Laser Phys.Rev.Lett. 86,4996 (2002)!
Th. Udem, S. A. Diddams, K. R. Vogel, C.W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, W. D. Lee,! W. M. Itano, R. E. Drullinger, J.C. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg!