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WIRELINEWIRELINE LOGLOG 1. WHAT IS WELL LOGGING: 1. WELL LOG IS A CONTINUOUS RECORD OF
WIRELINEWIRELINE LOGLOG
1.
WHAT IS WELL LOGGING:
1. WELL LOG IS A CONTINUOUS RECORD OF MEASUREMENT MADE IN
BORE HOLE RESPOND TO VARIATION IN SOME PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF ROCKS THROUGH WHICH THE BORE HOLE IS
DRILLED.
2. TRADITIONALLY LOGS ARE DISPLAY ON GIRDED PAPERS SHOWN IN
FIGURE.
3. NOW A DAYS THE LOG MAY BE TAKEN AS FILMS, IMAGES, AND IN
DIGITAL FORMAT.
2.
WIRELINE LOGGING IS PERFORMED WITH A SONDE LOWERED INTO THE
BOREHOLE OR WELL
3.
2 TYPES OF WIRELINE LOGGING :
1. OPEN HOLE LOGGING
2. CASED HOLE LOGGING
4.
INTERPRETATION METHODS
1. QUALITATIVE
2. QUANTITATIVE
1. MANUAL
2. COMPUTERIZED

LOGLOG INTERPRETATIONINTERPRETATION

LITHOLOGY

TOP SAND

LOG LOG INTERPRETATION INTERPRETATION LITHOLOGY TOP SAND SAND THICKNESS SAND PROSITY PERMEABILITY FLUID SATURATIONS IS

SAND THICKNESS

SAND PROSITY PERMEABILITY FLUID SATURATIONS

IS A PROCESS OF USING WELL LOGS TO EVALUATE THE CHARACTERISTIC OF FORMATION :

STORAGE CAPACITY porosity,

fluid saturations and net pay thickness

FLUID PROPERTIES density, fluid

type, fluid contacts, API gravity, water resistivity & salinity, temperature, GOR

GEOLOGICAL SETTING

structural/dip/fracture, geologic environtment, facies characteristic, top/bottom reservoir, heterogeneities, distribution

PRODUCTIVITY : permeability, water cut, GOR and rate (estimated)

LOGLOG INTERPRETATIONINTERPRETATION

Log interpretation should provide answers to questions on:

LOG LOG INTERPRETATION INTERPRETATION Log interpretation should provide answers to questions on:

LOGLOG INTERPRETATIONINTERPRETATION

IS PART OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION PROCESS WHICH SHOULD BE INTEGRATED WITH THE FOLLOWING SURVEY AND ANALYSIS:

DRILLING OPERATION LOGS:

CUTTING ANALYSIS, MUD ANALYSIS, DRILLING DATA COLLECTION (PRESSURE, GAS READING, PENETRATION RATE ETC.) AND ANALYSIS.

CORRING & CORE ANALYSIS :

SIDE WALL CORE & FULL HOLE CORE

VISUAL LITHOLOGY DESCRIPTION, HYDROCARBON SHOWS, POROSITY, PERMEABILITY, FORMATION FACTOR, SATURATION ETC.

PRODUCTIVITY TEST :

RFT, MDT, DST, PRODUCTION TESTS

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICAL :

SURFACE GEOLOGY, SEISMIC SURVEY & INTERPRETATION ETC.

RESERVOIRRESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATIONCHARACTERIZATION

RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION
RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION
RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION
RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION
RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION
RESERVOIR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION CHARACTERIZATION

LOGGINGLOGGING UNITSUNITS

LOGGING UNIT CONTAINS:

logging cable

winch to raise and lower the cable in the well

self-contained 120-volt AC generator

set of surface control panels

set of downhole tools (sondes and cartridges)

digital recording system

Open Hole Logging :

1. The traditional wireline logging

2. Logging While Drilling

3. Logging on drill pipe

system Open Hole Logging : 1. The traditional wireline logging 2. Logging While Drilling 3. Logging
LOGGING UNIT
LOGGING UNIT

WIRELINE

SONDE / TOOL

LOGGING UNIT WIRELINE SONDE / TOOL WELL WELL LOGGING LOGGING Logging Job Sequences : Rig-up logging

WELLWELL

LOGGINGLOGGING

Logging Job Sequences :

Rig-up logging unit

 

Check Tool and system

Wellsite Geologist (WG) will

perform system & tool quality control Safety meeting

Tool run in hole

The system is on but never be used for log interpretation

Pull-out and logging

 

WG is the witness, checks the

logging speed and quality. WG has authority to stop, refuse and re-logging when necessary

Rig-down the logging unit.

Print the result

WG signs the services ticket containing type of services and charges

SP

SP G R RHOZ AIT NPHI DT SAMPLE SAMPLE : : OPEN OPEN HOLE HOLE LOG
SP G R RHOZ AIT NPHI DT SAMPLE SAMPLE : : OPEN OPEN HOLE HOLE LOG

GR

RHOZ

SP G R RHOZ AIT NPHI DT SAMPLE SAMPLE : : OPEN OPEN HOLE HOLE LOG
AIT NPHI DT
AIT
NPHI
DT

SAMPLESAMPLE ::

OPENOPEN HOLEHOLE LOGLOG

SP,SP, GR,GR, AIT,AIT, SONIC,SONIC, DENSITYDENSITY && NEUTRONNEUTRON

1. SP SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG

2. GR GAMMA RAY LOG

3. ELECTRICAL LOG INDUCTION, LATERAL, SPHERICAL FOCCUSS, MICRO LATERAL ETC

4. NEUTRON LOG CNL, SNP

5. DENSITY LOG LDT

6. SONIC LOG BHC

7. OTHERS : FMI (DIPMETER & IMAGING), NMRI (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Immaging, TEMPERATURE LOG, CALLIPER LOG, ETC.

SS PP

SP results from electric currents flowing in the drilling mud.

There are three sources of the currents, two electrochemical and one electrokinetic.

Membrane potential - largest.

Liquid - junction potential.

Streaming potential - smallest.

and one electrokinetic. Membrane potential - largest. Liquid - junction potential. Streaming potential - smallest.

SPSP LOGLOG READINGREADING

SP SP LOG LOG READING READING • The SSP is the quantity to be determined. •

The SSP is the quantity to be determined.

It is the deflection seen on the SP from the Shale Base Line (zero point) to the Sand Line (max. deflection)

SPSP USESUSES

Differentiate potentially porous and permeable reservoir rocks from impermeable clays.

Define bed boundaries, top & bottom of the layer.

For geological correlation

Give an indication of shaliness (maximum deflection is clean; minimum is shale).

Indicate vertical grain size distribution

Determine Rw (formation water resistivity) in both salt and fresh muds.

R mfe SSP = − k log R we
R
mfe
SSP
=
k
log
R we
• Determine Rw (formation water resistivity) in both salt and fresh muds. R mfe SSP =

SHALE BASE LINE

SP scale

-

+

SPSP DEFLECTIONSDEFLECTIONS CORRESPONDCORRESPOND TOTO RmfRmf && RwRw VALUESVALUES

SP SP Borehole Borehole Effects Effects • Baseline shifts: These can o ccur when there

SPSP BoreholeBorehole EffectsEffects

Baseline shifts: These can occur when there are beds of different salinities separated by a shale which does not act as a perfect membrane.

SPSP SurfaceSurface EffectsEffects

The SP can be affected by a number of surface effects as it relies on the fish as its reference electrode.

Power lines, electric trains, electric welding, close radio transmitters:

All these create ground currents which disrupt he "fish“ reference causing a poor, sometimes useless, log.

• All these create ground currents which disrupt he "fish“ reference causing a poor, some times

GRGR -- PrinciplesPrinciples

The Gamma Ray log is a measurement of the formation's natural radioactivity.

Gamma ray emission is produced by three radioactive series found in the Earth's crust.

Potassium (K40) series.

Uranium series.

Thorium series.

Gamma rays passing through rocks are slowed and absorbed at a rate which depends on the formation density.

Less dense formations exhibit more radioactivity than dense formations even though there may be the same quantities of radioactive material per unit volume.

than dense formations even though there may be the same quantities of radioactive material per unit
GR GR USES USES • Bed definition top, bottom, thickness • Shalliness content and net

GRGR USESUSES

Bed definition top, bottom, thickness

Shalliness content and net thickness, The minimum value gives the clean (100%) shale free zone, the maximum 100% shale zone.

content and net thickness, The minimum value gives the clean (100%) shale free zone, the maximum

NEUTRONNEUTRON TOOLSTOOLS

The first neutron tools used a chemical neutron source and employed a single detector which measured the Gamma Rays of capture. They were non-directional. The units of measurement were API units where 1000 API units were calibrated to read 19% in a water-filled limestone. The tool was badly affected by the borehole environment.

The second generation tool was the Sidewall Neutron Porosity (SNP). This was an epithermal device mounted on a pad.

The current tool is the Compensated Neutron Tool (CNT). The latest tool is the Accelerator Porosity Sonde (APS), using an electronic source for the neutrons and measuring in the epithermal region.

NEUTRON NEUTRON USES USES • POROSITY & LITHOLOGY with density log • HYROCARBON INDICATION The

NEUTRONNEUTRON

USESUSES

POROSITY & LITHOLOGY with density log

HYROCARBON INDICATION The tool measures hydrogen index

DENSITYDENSITY

The Density Tools use a chemical gamma ray source and two or three gamma ray detectors.

The number of gamma rays returning to the detector depends on the number of electrons present, the electron density, ρe.

The electron density can be related to the bulk density of the minerals by a simple equation.

ρe = ρ( 2Z/A )

Where Z is the number of electrons per atom and A is the atomic weight.

DENSITY DENSITY Uses Uses • The density tool is extremely useful as it has high

DENSITYDENSITY

UsesUses

The density tool is extremely useful as it has high accuracy and exhibits small borehole effects.

Major uses include:

Porosity.

Lithology (in combination with the neutron tool).

Mechanical properties (in combination with the sonic tool).

Acoustic properties (in combination with the sonic tool).

Gas identification (in combination with the neutron tool).

DensityDensity PorosityPorosity

ρ

b

=

ρ

φ

f

=

φ

+

ρ

ma

(1

ρ

ρ

ma

ma

ρ

ρ

b

f

φ

)

There are two inputs into the porosity equation: the matrix density and the fluid density.

The fluid density is that of the mud filtrate.

The sonic tools create an acoustic signal and measure how long it takes to pass through a rock. By simply measuring this time we get an indication of the formation properties. The amplitude of the signal will also give information about the formation.

SONICSONIC TOOLTOOL

SONICSONIC --BHCBHC

A simple tool that uses a pair of transmitters and four receivers to compensate for caves and sonde tilt.

The normal spacing between the transmitters and receivers is 3' - 5'.

It produces a compressional slowness by measuring the first arrival transit times.

Used for:

measuring the first arrival transit times. • Used for: – Correlation. – Porosity. – Lithology. –

Correlation.

Porosity.

Lithology.

Seismic tie in /

time-to-depth

conversion.

ARRAYARRAY SONICSONIC

Multi-spacing digital tool.

First to use STC processing.

Able to measure shear waves and Stoneley waves in hard formations.

Used for:

Porosity.

Lithology.

Seismic tie in /

time-to-depth conversion.

Lithology. – Seismic tie in / time-to-depth conversion. – Mechanical properties (from shear and compressional).

Mechanical properties (from shear and compressional).

Fracture identification (from shear and Stoneley).

Permeability (from Stoneley).

PorosityPorosity 11

It reacts to primary porosity only, i.e. it does not "see“ the fractures or vugs.

The basic equation for sonic porosity is the Wyllie Time Average:

Δ t = φ Δ t + ( 1 − φ ) Δ t log
Δ t
=
φ
Δ
t
+
(
1
φ
)
Δ t
log
f
ma
Δ t − Δ t log ma φ = Δ t − Δ t f
Δ
t
Δ
t
log
ma
φ
=
Δ
t
Δ
t
f
ma

PorosityPorosity 22

Raymer Gardner Hunt.

This formula tries to take into account some irregularities seen in the field.

The basic equation is:

( 2 ) 1 1 − φ φ = + Δ t Δ t Δ
(
2
)
1
1
φ
φ
=
+
Δ
t
Δ
t
Δ
t
c
ma
f

A simplified version used on the Maxis is:

Δ t − Δ t log ma φ = C Δ t log
Δ
t
Δ
t
log
ma
φ
=
C
Δ
t
log

DETECTINGDETECTING OVERPRESSUREDOVERPRESSURED ZONEZONE WITHWITH THETHE SONICSONIC LOGLOG

OVERPRESSURED ZONE

DETECTING DETECTING OVERPRESSURED OVERPRESSURED ZONE ZONE WITH WITH THE THE SONIC SONIC LOG LOG OVERPRESSURED ZONE

LithologyLithology && PorosityPorosity DeterminationDetermination

© Schlumberger 1999

LithologyLithology ToolsTools

Most tools react to lithology - usually in conjunction with the porosity.

Major lithology tools are:

Neutron - reacts to fluid and matrix.

Density - reacts to matrix and fluid.

Sonic - reacts to a mixture of matrix and fluid, complicated by seeing only primary porosity.

NGT - identifies shale types and special minerals.

Geochemical logging, identifies 10 elements; K, U, Th, Al, Si, Ca, S, Fe, Gd, Ti

From these the exact mineralogy can be computed.

•

Crossplot Solution

Porosity and Lithology Determination

from Litho-Density* Log and CNL*

(Compensated Neutron Log)

Schlumberger Chart

The plot is a straight line from the matrix point to the 100% porosity, water point. It is scaled in porosity.

2.48 12
2.48
12

Porosity 13 % 75% sand & 25% limestone

ELECTRICALELECTRICAL RESISTIVITYRESISTIVITY LOGSLOGS

ResistivityResistivity TheoryTheory

The resistivity of a substance is a measure of its ability to impede the flow of electrical current.

Resistivity is the key to hydrocarbon saturation determination.

Porosity gives the volume of fluids but does not indicate which fluid is occupying that pore space.

does not indicate which fluid is occupying that pore space. Current can only pass through the

Current can only pass through the water in the formation, hence the resistivity depends on:

Resistivity of the formation water.

Amount of water present.

Pore structure.

ResistivityResistivity ModelModel

Smov = Sxo - Sw
Smov = Sxo - Sw

NORMALNORMAL ToolsTools

The voltage measured at M is proportional to the formation resistivity.

This electrode configuration is the Normal tool.

The distance between the A and M electrodes.

The spacing determines the depth of investigation and hence the resistivity being read.

the A and M electrodes. • The spacing determines the depth of investigation and hence the

NORMALNORMAL andand LATERALLATERAL ToolsTools

The Lateral device used the same principle.

The difference is in electrode configuration and spacing.

Problems came from "thin beds" when the signature of the curve was used to try and find the true resistivity.

Problems came from "thin beds" when the signature of the curve was used to try and
• This figure shows some of th e "signature curves" for the interpretation of lateral

This figure shows some of the "signature curves" for the interpretation of lateral and normal devices in thin beds.

A library exists plus the rules to extrapolate the the true resistivity of the bed.

measured value to

LaterologLaterolog ApplicationsApplications

Measures Rt.

Standard resistivity in high resistivity environments.

Usable in medium-to-high salinity muds.

Good results in high contrast Rt/Rm.

Fair vertical resolution (same as porosity tools).

LATEROLOG LIMITS :

Cannot be used in oil-based muds. Cannot be used in air-filled holes. Poor when Rxo > Rt.

MSFLMSFL PrinciplePrinciple

MSFL MSFL Principle Principle • This tool uses a set of 5 electrodes which focus the

This tool uses a set of 5 electrodes which focus the signal into the invaded zone just beyond the mud cake.

Uses:

Rxo measurement in water-based muds.

Correction for deep resistivity tools.

Sxo determination.

Limits:

Rugose hole.

Oil-based mud.

Heavy or thick mud cake.

INDUCTIONINDUCTION LOGSLOGS

© Schlumberger 1999

InductionInduction LogsLogs

Induction Principle
Induction Principle

Uses

ILIL UsesUses andand LimitsLimits

Measures Rt saturation

Hydrocarbon content indications & fluid contacts

Bed definition, lithology, shalliness

Correlation

Abnormal pressure

Ideal in fresh or oil-based environments.

Ideal for low resistivity measurements and when Rxo > Rt.

Cable tension (TENS) 10000.0 (LBF) 0.0 SFL unaveraged (SFLU) 0.2 (ohmm) 2000.0 Medium resistivity (ILM)

Cable tension (TENS)

10000.0

(LBF)

0.0

SFL unaveraged (SFLU)

0.2

(ohmm)

2000.0

Medium resistivity (ILM)

0.2

(ohmm)

2000.0

0.2

Deep resistivity (ILD)

(ohmm)

2000.0

examples 3

2000.0 0.2 Deep resistivity (ILD) (ohmm) 2000.0 examples 3   90 Inch investigation .2 (ohmm) 2000
 

90

Inch investigation

.2

(ohmm)

2000

 

10

Inch investigation

.2

(ohmm)

2000

 

20

Inch investigation

.2

(ohmm)

2000

 

30

Inch investigation

.2

(ohmm)

2000

 

60

Inch investigation

.2

(ohmm)

2000

The AIT logs (2' vertical resolution) read correctly in this zone giving a hydrocarbon profile.

The DIL logs are ambiguous as the SFL (electrical log) longer reading shallow because Rxo is less than Rt

SaturationSaturation

The saturation of a formation represents the amount of a given fluid present in the pore space.

The porosity logs react to the pore space.

The resistivity logs react to the fluids in the pore space.

The combination of the two measurements gives the saturation

water oil Matrix
water
oil
Matrix

S w = S w irr

+ S w "free"

S o = S o residual

+ S o "free"

ResistivityResistivity TheoryTheory

Current can only pass through the water in the formation, hence the resistivity depends on:

Resistivity of the formation water.

Amount of water present.

Pore structure.

the resistivity depends on: – Resistivity of the formation water. – Amount of water present. –

BasicsBasics 11

F

=

R

R

0

w

F: Formation Resistivity Factor.

At constant porosity F is constant.

As porosity increases, Ro decreases and F decreases.

Experiments have shown that F is inversely proportional to φ m .

F

=

a

φ m

m: is called the "cementation exponent".

a: is called the "lithology" constant.

BasicsBasics 22

S

n

w

=

R

R

0

t

Saturation can be expressed as a ratio of the resistivities:

where n is the "saturation exponent", an empirical constant.

Substituting for Ro:

S

Substituting for F:

S

n

w

=

FR

w

R

t

n

=

a

an empirical constant. Substituting for Ro: S Substituting for F: S n w = FR w

R w

an empirical constant. Substituting for Ro: S Substituting for F: S n w = FR w

w φ

m R t

SaturationSaturation EquationEquation

S

n

w

=

a R w φ m R t
a
R w
φ
m
R t

The Archie equation is hence very simple. It links porosity and resistivity with the amount of water present, Sw.

Increasing porosity, φ, will reduce the saturation for the same Rt.

Increasing Rt for the same porosity will have the same effect.

InvadedInvaded ZoneZone

The same method can be applied to the invaded zone. The porosity is identical, the lithology is assumed to be the same, hence the constants a, n, m are the same.

The changes are the resistivities which are now Rxo and Rmf.

Rmf is measured usually on surface and Rxo is measured by the MSFL tool.

The equation is then:

S

n

xo

=

aR

mf

φ

m

R

xo

RatioRatio MethodMethod

Dividing for Sxo and Sw, with n set to 2

S

w

S

xo

= ⎝ ⎜

Observations suggest:

Hence:

S

w

=

 

R

xo

  R xo R t ⎞ ⎟ ⎠

R

t

R

mf

R mf R w

R

w

 

1

S

 

S

5

xo

w

 

R

xo

  ⎛ R xo R t

R

t

R

mf

⎜ ⎝ R mf R w

R

w

1

2

5

8

ArchieArchie parametersparameters

= resistivity of connate water.

= "cementation factor", set to 2 in the simple case.

= "saturation exponent", set to 2 in the simple case.

= constant, set to 1 in the simple case.

Rw

m

n

a

All the constants have to be set.

In clastics the values are usually measured for each reservoir. Values could be

m = 1.8

n = 2,

a = 1

An often quoted old formula, the Humble Equation uses:

m = 2.15,

n = 2,

a = 0.62

RwRw determinationdetermination

Rw is an important parameter.

Sources include:

Formation water analysis

Local tables / knowledge.

SP.

Resistivity plus porosity in water zone.

RFT sample.

From Rxo and Rt tools.

RwRw fromfrom RwaRwa

If Sw = 1, the saturation equation can become:

R

w

=

φ

2

R

t

Assuming simple values for a, m, n.

Procedure is to:

Compute an Rwa (Rw apparent) using this relationship.

Read the lowest value over a porous zone which

This is the method employed by all computer based interpretation systems.

RwRw fromfrom resistivityresistivity

In a water zone Sw = 1, thus the alternative saturation equation becomes:

Sw = 1, thus the alternative saturation equation becomes: • The value of Rmf is measured;

The value of Rmf is measured;

Rxo and Rt are measured, the value of Rw can be calculated.

EffectsEffects ofof parametersparameters

Example of variations in the Archie parameters

S

n

w

=

a R w φ m R t
a
R w
φ
m
R t

The following are measurements POR = 25%, Rt = 5 ohm-m, Rw = .02 ohm-m Assuming a simple formation with a = 1, m = 2, n = 2

Sw = 25% Changing n to 2.5, changes the Sw to 33% Changing m to 3 changes Sw to 50% Hence the choice of these constants is important

ShalyShaly SandSand EvaluationEvaluation

© Schlumberger 1999

Matrix Shale Porosity
Matrix
Shale
Porosity

Clean formation

Porosity

Matrix

Shale Porosity Clean formation Porosity Matrix Laminar shale Porosity Shale Matrix Shales Shales Structural

Laminar shale

Porosity

Shale

Matrix

ShalesShales

Structural shale
Structural shale

Porosity

Matrix

Shale

Dispersed shale Porosity Shale Matrix
Dispersed shale
Porosity
Shale
Matrix
Shale Shale and and Logs Logs • Shales have properties that have important influences on
Shale Shale and and Logs Logs • Shales have properties that have important influences on

ShaleShale andand LogsLogs

Shales have properties that have important influences on log readings:

They have porosity.

The porosity is filled with salted water.

They are often radioactive.

Resistivity logs exhibit shales as low resistivity zones.

Neutron porosity logs exhibit shales as high porosity.

Density and sonic logs react to the porosity and matrix changes.

Gamma ray logs react to shale radioactivity.

ShaleShale VolumeVolume

The volume of shale must be computed to correct the tool readings.

This is achieved using simple equations such as:

GR − GR log min = V cl GR − GR max min SP −
GR
− GR
log
min
=
V cl
GR
− GR
max
min
SP
− SP
log
min
=
V cl
SP
− SP
max
min

ShaleShale VolumeVolume

Shale Shale Volume Volume

ShaleShale andand SaturationSaturation

The Archie equation has to be changed to take account of the shale effect.

The shale looks like low resistivity so another term is added to the equations.

The result is an equation which will can be used to compute water saturation in shaly sands.

All these equations return to Archies equation if there is no shale present.

SaturationSaturation EquationsEquations

Indonesia Equation

S w

Nigeria Equation

1

R t

=

Waxman-Smits Equation

1 1 = * ⎜ ⎛ ⎜ ⎞ − V cl 1 ⎟ ⎟ φ
1
1
=
*
− V cl
1
φ
2 ⎠
R t
e
V cl
+
R w
R cl
2
1
.4
m
V
2
φ e
cl
n
+
S w
aR w ⎠
R cl
2
1
BQ
S w
v S w
=
+
F * R w
F *
R t

Dual Water Equation

φ e ⎜ ⎝ cl n + ⎟ S w aR w ⎠ R cl 2
EXAMPLE : PROCESSED LOG POROSITY & SATURATION CALCULATION RESULTS OPEN HOLE LOG PROCESSED LOG VOLUME
EXAMPLE : PROCESSED LOG
POROSITY & SATURATION
CALCULATION RESULTS
OPEN HOLE LOG
PROCESSED LOG
VOLUME
FLUID
ANALYSIS
SATURATION

DUALDUAL WATERWATER MODELMODEL DEFINITIONSDEFINITIONS

total porosity
total
porosity

φt

hydrocarbon

far

water

bound

water

dry

clay

clean

matrix

 
 
   

fluids

unit

volume

solids

      fluids unit volume solids
      fluids unit volume solids φ hy effective porosity φ e = φ wf+
      fluids unit volume solids φ hy effective porosity φ e = φ wf+

φ hy

    fluids unit volume solids φ hy effective porosity φ e = φ wf+ φ

effective

porosity

φe

=

unit volume solids φ hy effective porosity φ e = φ wf+ φ wf φ wb
unit volume solids φ hy effective porosity φ e = φ wf+ φ wf φ wb

φ wf+

φ wf

φ wb

Vdcl

Vcl

wet clay

φ hy

CleanClean toto ShaleShale

SAND

Clean Clean to to Shale Shale SAND SHALE φ t Matrix Far Water φ t Matrix

SHALE

φ t

Matrix Far Water φ t Matrix φ t
Matrix
Far Water
φ t
Matrix
φ t

Dry Colloid

Dry Colloid Matrix

Matrix

Shale SAND SHALE φ t Matrix Far Water φ t Matrix φ t Dry Colloid Matrix
Shale SAND SHALE φ t Matrix Far Water φ t Matrix φ t Dry Colloid Matrix

φ t

Shale SAND SHALE φ t Matrix Far Water φ t Matrix φ t Dry Colloid Matrix

Bound water

Dry Colloid