Sei sulla pagina 1di 130


a kandbook


jB5 illustrations


/s \@


IJA IT.LY ATHENIAN BLACK FIGURE 'lhc Pioneers; The Gorgon Painter to Sophilos; ()thcr groups





'Iyrrhenian amphorae
Any copy ofthis book issued by lhc publishcr rs prp.rbJck t. suld sublett to rhc condrrton rhar ir

\i.rnr cup parnrers: Kleirias: Otht"r por p.rinrer';


resolct. hircd

out or otherwise circulatcd without thc pubhshcr's Pnor conient rn rn) [onn o[ bind,ng or .o\ <, orh, r rhrr thar in ulrrch n ir publ,shrd and without a simrlar .ondnon



*,v or otherwEe be lerlt,


Lydos; The Amasis Painter; Exekias and Group E; Little Masters and other cup painters; Other pot painters and




wor& be:rrg imposed nn

subsequent purchaser. rqz+ Thamcs rnd Hudson Ltd, London Coriected edition 199r Reprinted r997




I; Cup painteis; The Antimenes Painter and

Leagros Group; Other pot painters; Bilinguists


Lekythoi r46

All Rishts llesewed. No part ofthls plrblication rrr rl be rrproduced or rr"n'mirtcd rn anl lontt or by Jny nk.,n...lecrront. o, rnerhanrtrl. rn,ludirrg photocopy, recording or:rny other infonmtion
storrgc aDd retricval system, without Prior pcnnission in wrttirg from the pDbllsherrsBN


The lekythos painters; Other lare work




o-5oo-2or 38-2

l,riolcd rnd bound in Snrsrporc by C.S. CnPhics

Six technique; Polychromc; Miniatures; Black vases; Achens or Atrica ?: Emigranrs.rnd Imitatorr




rlphomc; H ycl i;ri; ()iuocho:ri ; lVine mixers and coolcrs: Cups; l3ou,ls; Oi1 flasks; Riturl shapcs; Other shapcs



Conventions; lnscriptions; Florals; Anin-ra]s and Monstcrs






SCENES OF REA LITY Evcryday life; Fighting; Winc, womcn, boys and song;
Sport; Commerce and industry; Religiotts occasions


The Gods; Hcrakles; and other heroes; The Trojan Cycle; Other figures of nryth
Chror-rological chart

',, rr, rlrr rri likc twcnty thousand Athcnian black ligurc vascs have bccl ,lr ,,\,r,,1, urrcl rnany rnorc reech thc light ofday cech ycar fionr cxclv:rrr',r , ,,rr rrollcrl rnd illicit. or fronr thc shclvcs of dcalcrs and old collcctiorrs. t rl rrl).rr,lhlc works surviving fronr altiquity only Athcns'rcd 6gurc vascs , , ,rL,rt runrcr-()us and divcrsc in shepc and subjcct. Thc black figurc vases 1,r , tlrL c.rllicst major corpus ofnryrhologicel sccncs irr Clrcck art, lrd arc rlr' Lr r(\r \crics of works so p]entihrl and so closcly studiccl that rhc



,r[lri|s lnd identity ofertists

end studios can bc workcd out. Thcy havc

Abbreviations Notcs and bibliographies List ofillustrations lndex ofartists and groups Index of t'nythological subjects
Gencral index

r, ,, r t'llinrcd xn irnporrant part in any study of(lreek art or lryth, alld rr, ,,, )\l,i.u()Lrs ir nruscnns trrd collcctiol)s of Classicrl art. Ncvcrthclcss, I rl, r, Llrorrs ofthc rtrajor coJlections havc ncvcr also iivcn a contprcltcDsivc



rr rr \ orlrcr books for picrurcs, and thcrc is llo systcn)atic accoulc of thc

r , ,, rrrr ol rhc history ofthc subjcct, whilc rronogrlphs ot vasc paintinlj havc ', r L,, t.rr so hrlly ilJustratcd that studcllts have not bccu otrligcd to tunr to ,l,,,trr;rrtcrofthcsccncsplintcdo[vlscs.Thishandbooklropcstorcnrccly


rl , ,,lroltcorniugs to givc a history ofthc art full :rnd dcrailcd cnoueir i , , tirr()issc!u a11cl stude11t, supportccl by picturcs nurllcrous cnouilll to ,1, r r,,rr\tr;rtc the quality of thc work of thc fincst altists as wcll as thc
,1,1,!.u.rr.c ofthc work by lcss compctcnt p:ri1ltcrs, aDd to add arl account of 1,, .Lrlrrriliury dccoration and thc figurc scctlcs, sillcc thcsc often have nlorc to , ,,r \ ( ! t() thc rllLrscurlr visitor or studcnt than sirnplc considcrations ofstylc, I' L ,, .rrd datc. If this hls nlcarlt that pa[ts ofthe book are more'archaeol, ,,r,.rl than'art historical' I hopc this will provc to gcucral advantagc, bur it

Ir.,rtrrrcclbcsttoouritfromthisvolumr:anydetliledcorlsiderltiorloftlrc r,, rrrr,lLrcs ofporting and paintirrg cxccpr in so fxr as thcy lffcct the history of



lccourrt ofthe srylc's ofAtbenian bJack figure painting is based on Sir prirlters arld gr-oups. This hc l,r,l cxpounclccl in articles and books, :rud in his Dcuelopncnt o.l'Attir Blnrk
I lre

l,'lrr Ilclzlcy's brilli:urt work in distinguishing

/ rr,rrrr' (r95 r) he givcs

ln lccount ofthc subjcct which is r1lore profound thul lrrr oliirccl hctc, but lcss conlplctc, lcss fu1ly illustratcd a:rd diffcrcnt irr rr'

rrr, bcing basecl ona scrics oflccturcs. ()thcr ch:rptcrs rely in varyinq dcqrccs ,,rr thc lr-ticlcs and books of othcr scholars, llut, throughout, thc rccri to

corrsi(lcrrll .rsl)r(l\ ()l tlr( \\ork\ ilrvolvcd rhcir st,vlc, drrc, sltrtPc, strbjcctrrrrtcr h;rs lc,l rrre t,r t.rk. .r tltorc pcrsollel vicrv of xrrDc problcDrs- So this attcrllpts r.rll)cr Irl()rc tlr.lrr ;t sLln) y ofthc work ofothcrs, arlcl fi)r a stlt'-lLLr which is too rcerlily sttrrlicd Picccllrcxl nou'lcleys, or vcr',v bricfl,v ilrld cor)vcntioDrlly skctchccl iu thc er-t llistorics, it is pcrheps tilltcly ro plcscnt e rrorc cictailccl synoptic vicrv. Evcu so, it rvill bc irrcorlrplctc, gcncrelislrti""' lbound, rnd rhc l cldcr n)usr nrildly qrr:rli6' tix hitnsclf m1' Lrsc of tcrnls likc 'rrcvcr' or 'lhvnys'. Onc ftrrthcr point on thc sllbjcct_rrrilttcr ofthis bcxrk rlrtlst bc nlrclc llcrcFronr ebout ilo B(t o11 thc ltl.rjor tcchrriLltlc ofvrsc plirlting in Atheus is rccl ligurc, lot blrck frgurc, ancl sorlc printcrs prilctiscd [rotl] tcchniclttcs. It nligllt sccnr strxnqc to cxcludc corrsiclcr:rtiou ofthc lcd figurc vascs hcrc- (lonvcllicnce dictittcs thc rrlrngcrucllt, but ll is supporlcd by thc rllltcrirl, rrrrtc rnost paintcrs wcrc rlot 'Lrililrqunl' lncl thc ltrrlhcr dcvcloprtlcrrt of bl,rr:k figurc dcsclvcs collsidcralion on its ttwtt firr its occesional tlu.rlifi', fir rtr indcpcudcncc, elrd fol its plcnty, thilc cven iu its iconogrrph,v, r1l is by trr.r rucens sharctl with rc'd frgurc. I havc clottc nry bcsr to irldicllc rvhclc rccl 6gurc has its elllct aud to rcruirtcl lhc reedcl of thc inrportll:cc of thc Dcw iclionr, but l conrpantbly dcteilccl study of its dcvelopnrcrrt nrust ilpPciu

Chapter One



Thc pictrrrcs in thc book havc bccrt alloscn k) dclrlonttretc thc ftlll tlcvclopurcrrr of thc stylc, but rlso to illustratc thc tullcsc possiblc rerrgc of shapcs rd fiqurc scclcs. SiDCc il sccnrcd ruost illrPortlllt lo kccp tollcthcr works of rhc s:llDc llroup or ertist, thc PictLllcs :rccorllPrlll)' lllc sccli(Ds oll stylc, rncl in othcr sccliorrs thc lcrdcr's paricncc will lrot, I hopc, bc strairlccl lry hiving to rclc': back to Iclcvirlrt illusrratiolls. It hes sortlctinrcs provcd corrvcnient to usc clrrr,r,ings ro displ:r1'thc firll sprcad ofr hgurc sccnc or clccoratiort rvhich is hlrd to disccrn olr x poor'ly plcscrvccl stlrfircc. It rvoLlld, of cou:sc, havc bccrr xglL'ealllc to hevc plcscntcd still nlolc piclttrcs, lttlcl llrgcr oncs, but drcrr tltis rvoulcl hevc beerr a qltitc ditlcrcnt book, :lt I qtlitc
difii'rcrrr pricc.

ri rlrerving nadc ir cesier for hirn to evolvc the new tcchniquc, probrbly r thc iuflucncc ofirnpolted castcrn ivorics trd nrctel rvork with inciscd ,,rr.rtion, and with it to accept ncw 6gure convcntions and a nc-w ,r , rr,rlisiDg rcpcrtorl ofsutrjc'crs. Ir rvas Corinrhier)s, rhcrr, who developcd rlr, tiLhnique through thc scvcnth ccntury on vascs dorninatcd by eniruel tr r, z, s. wirh occasional ruyth sccncs, in thr' rnctictlous minilturisr sty)c ofthc
r r ,L,

\ , ..rr,rrrnd 7oo uc. It involvcs painting tigures in black sill-roucttc, incisrng r I rrr, rr clctail so lhat the p:rle cley shows through thc black, and addilg, if ',; rr,,1.touchesofrcdandwhircpaint,al) applied bcforc thc vasc wts firc'd. lr \\ r\ .r rcvolutioDery orcthod ofdccorxtion for portery. Hithcrto lror.r Agc ,,,,,,, |r;rd knorvn only thc Gcon)ctric style wirh its rngul;rr silhouettc lr L': oi trcn rnd aniurals, r:rrely rdrnitting any dctail in outline drau ing. I r'. r,,ls a style practiscd bcst in Athcns and not unknowl clscwhcrc, but rt , ,r rrcll bc thlr the Corinthian rrtist's virtual absrcntion front Geomcrrie

,l.Lrk tiqure cechnique ofvasc peintitg was iuvcnlcd in Corinrh in thc


Ml nlin dcbr is to SirJohn 13citzlc,v's publishccl work ; rhcu to thc writirrrj\ rrror-e scholers lhrn I cilD lcadilv trenrc hcrc; thcn to rllo!c DlLlsctlllls, collcct()rs lrrrd photographcls \\,ho ll]vc pclrlrittccl lllc to illLlstrille thcir vrscs rrrrd rrsc rhcir prints. Thc rcsources ofthc Ashnrolerll Muscr.tllr Libt al l and tL r'
Ilcrzlcv rrrchivc of photogrrphs h:rvc corrsiclcrlbly lighrcnccl



l'r,,tocorinthian scrics. Athcnirn paintcrs, rnear.rwhilc, on thc vxscs wc k11ow i'r ()toltttic, prcfcrrcd silhouettc end outiinc drlwn figurcs, oftcl cxccutcd ,,rr .rrsc potS, sorllctinrcs :rddir-rg whitc aDd vcry rarciy incisrng dctril l t ]. But l,r .rhoLrr 63o rc Athcnian arrists wcrc bcgiuning to rlsc thc black 6gurc r,, lrrrirluc for ell thc figurc work on their vescs, end in thc lest dccadcs in the ,, r tLrry thcy uscd it for thc 6lling ornlmcnt as wcll. 'Arhenian Bl:rck Figure' I r,l bcstur arrd in thc coursc ofdle following hurdrcd and fitiy ycar, ir ll('t tivcly won thc rrrarkcrs of rirc (ircck rvorldl'r cscnt-dav krorvlcclrc lnd undcrstencliug oiArhcnilr vitscs is biscd oD l rr rrplicity ofstudics clc'voted roughly to thc thrcc topics rvhich scrvc to lr, ri1 thc rlajor scctioni in fiis book - style, decorrtiou ;rnd shapc; br.rt chc rLrrlics hlvc not progrcssed at equel plcc. Thc vascs wcrc not bcilg coilcctcd , r .rry nurnbcrs until thc cightccnth centrlry, uslrally from ltaly lvhcrc thc l,r rlr tombs oftcn glve up intect specimcns- (lrcccc r,vts less:rcccssibic irnd ur r\ rxtc thc cilcumstrlccs of burial seldont yiclded cornplctc vascs! s() lt r , r nins truc that It:rly is thc prille sourcc. This has ucant, in thc 6rsr plrrr c, t r.rt ir rook sollc tirllc lor thc vlscs to bc rccogniscd xs Gtcck rxdtcr thitrr I trrrscrn, and, in thc sccoDd plecc, thlt thc nxtionili aDd privarc collcctions ol'

vrses wes dirccted Fr onr thc bcqrrrrrirrq stltol rrly rrrlcl dilcttentc intcrest irl thc has to thc rrrl,thoiogicril .()rttcrrt ol thc figlrrc scencs Lrpo1l rhcln This intcrest thc abour ncw cvidencc rcr)11irlci stx)rt; ir)cl tlrc stuciy has yicldcd irlportant othclwi\' storics' in verious clcvcloprrlcllt of rrryth, dct:rils llnd variations ground rcc,orclc'd onlv i,r rcxts u'hich rrc oftcn far iatc'r ir-r drtc, end a proving convcnrnd nerrttivc iconogrephic of dcvcloplncnt tl-r. ,rbo.rt lor theorics tions in (lrcek rrt. Ii this bool, dcvotcd to thc black figurc vescs, in rcl;rtiv' isoletion lrorl arts in olhcr lnxterilrls:urd pcriods, it hes provcd possible onlv to sumtlarise thc lconographic convenlions pcculiir to bleck iigure lnd gir e a guidc to thc rccognition of 6gures etrd scencs' Thc shepc ofthc vascs rppealcd frolrl thc stxrt ro lhe Nco-Clessicist Thc i)odern st;dcrrr is, horvcvii, trrorc concerncd with function atd rvith tl,c study of shapc anrl proportion which cerr rcvcrl thc idcntity of individrral pott;rs and iro.ksiropt, or cal) givc ir critcrion lor deting which is indcpenlc,rt of dccorltion. Thesc studies arc ncw, and b:rsicrlly ' erchacologica l " supportcd by thc ralc potter signlturcs, to which wc shall rcturn +i1e study ofstylc, c'spccirlly ofthc rndividual peinrer's stylc' was slow to collcctcd 13y the cnd of paintcrs' signaturcs wcre rcad dcr"lop 'nd "lthough begin to occuPy scholars' vtscs unsigncd th. 1a.i .cnt.,ry tlrc attribution of (ion-rpaniotr of lnd Knight a (who died, l3cazlcy but it rves l.ft t,, John Honour, in r970) l; facc thc whole rlngc ofsurvivitrg vlscs, :rnd to pul ordcr into thc stu<11, ofthcir Paintcrs. His achicvcmcot with bhck figure, ettribLtting to paintcrs o; lssigning to closcly dclincd groups wcll ovcr threc quartcrs of red thc rvorks knou,n to liin, is cxcccded only by his comperab]c work on Paitttl:' Vost Figutt Bla& iists, Attit of in his book frgurc, end cxPrcsscd put,tirir.a in r956, aud slrPplclnentcd in Pdralipomua, publishcd. posrhuof en ir,.rusly ir', , 97, . ih" ptir.ipl., of artrihrr tion- bascd on thc cotl bination ofdetaii' study cotDparative with o.,"r,rli ,pp.;,is"l of,tiyl",,,,d.o,,tposition, irr his es in thc mdcring oi,1."p"ry o; ln.Itomy, wcrc rvcll dcnlonstrated r9z7' in publishcd Plritrtcr, Antirllcncs the 69urc:rrtist, r bhck cerly essey on Theic principles arc rh; ones which have guidcd the work of nrany other no art sch, ."ho-h"r" contributcd to this ficld ofstudy And Ilcazlcy rvas work thc end collccting assigning hisroricel snob. Hc dcvotcd as rnuch cerc to ours and vicrv rcsult, his As a lllxstcrs ofthe as to that ofpoor or hack ertists n-redc this.has and wlre, ofthc rarlge the full ovcr a",r'Lr" a,rnrpr"lr.rt.ivc possiblc its nrchrtcolrlaicel usc es r yerdsrick fbr drc rclativc :rnd nb\olrrtc ihronology of Arch:ric Circcce. Thc historical importarrce ofthis lvork.cennot bc trgtLci rn dctail hcrc, but \\'ill rcceivc pessing nlcntiol whcre thc principlcs

lirropc.rt r i( lr( r \1,rrr..\ li,r strr<ly tl"'r Crcccc itsclf cvcn \vith thc increasc ir st icrrtiliL .'\(.rvirtrorr ,rrrrl rccorclitrq in thc counlry over the last fifiy ye:rrs'

,,r,,,rrrc(rsthcAntimencsPaintcr);l'romkcyvascs(asthc[,rintcrot-li,rlirr rr,\(,) ; lionr thc nrmcs ofowncrs ofke), vascs (ls the ()akcshott lrrriutr.r ); or lr,,rir .hiul.tcristicsofsrylc (as Elbor,r,s Out lijSl orrheLongNoscl).rirrttr'). 1 ,, r r q11, ,,.1, thc srudy of srylc began with the study of pairtcr s rncl r,,,e lLr v.' 1,,, rr rplrccl any srrcJr artificirl clessification ofEerly, Middlc:rnd Lrtc, I, II,

rl',r rrcrlivcnrrraybctakcn6ontthlrofapottcrwhosignssoDrcol-tlrt r,,rsr's I I r( Anrirsis I':rjntcr); frorn kulos lrnrcs (cxplrrined on p. :lor) rvhir lr ,r1,1r',rr

r,,l lll,

r, ll ,lrrrccd weres ofArchaic (lrcccc. Thcsc:rrc, after lll, thc works ofnrcn, , ,l'l,,vcd meinly in onc restrictcd qllarter of thc city of Atbcns, :rrrd wc
rrr,,l, rstlud thcnr by undersrrnding thc. rciationship bctwecn thcnt, bctwccn I ,,l lrr ;r,rd prirltcr, masrcr and pupil, as well as by studying thcm aqxinst thc ,,, rrl rrrcl political history of ficir day. , rr

such as is imposc'd on the xronynlous works ofprchistory or thc lcss

Wlro rverc thcsc rrcn, paintcrs and pottcrs? Wc lnusr staft frorn therr rtrrrcs- A pxinter who is bcrDg cxplicit signs '... cgrapscn'
rr 1r

r,l rn'cqrrpscn'signaturc on onc vlsc, cithcr \\,ith two llillrcs (ts with rtirs end Ergotimos who collaboratcd on thc Frangois Vasc l46l) or with ,,r( ntrllc cleirning both hrnctions (rs Exekias docs twicc). Morcovcr sotne r rscr cerrying thc srme 'epoicsor' signaturcs (as of Nikosthenes) arc obvir'lr. p:rintcd by diffcrcrlt artists. Hcrc we arc quite clclrly dcaling rvith citbcr r, l)ottc[ or thc studio orvncr, lnd in nlany iistlnces it is apparent that rhe ,,,rrrrtron irctor is pottcr work. Where Exckies docs not sign wirh thc twiLr t,, rrrrrle hc writcs simply 'cPoicscn', yct it is ccrrein rhxt his hend wls on thc ,,Lnh ;rrrd only probrblc thet it was xr rhc whcel. So 'cpoicscn' ney trftcn rr(.Lrr 'pottcd', can imply 'parntcd' end rtray irlply'paintcd and pottcd' rr lrrclt rnusr olccD havc bccn true irr me y workshops. ' Owncr-pottcr' )nxy rir, n bc implicd. It has bccn suggcstcd that ' cpoicscn' usually nrclns 'owncr' : rlr,.r ,"vc r,vould cxpcct dctcccrtrll, diilirelt potter work with thc srDlc owlrcr 'rrin.rtrrrc. NikosthcDcs' ntaDy signaturcs rnight sccrr evidence for flris, but rlri sisncd riases ncerly lli havc a distincti.,,e orisinality ofsirapc and wc mey , rrislcd by his passion for idvertiscrncl)l end his devocion to thc cxport r, r,lc nfiicb gulranteed e bcttcr strrvival ratc lor his u,ork. lt is dil1,icult to scc

. . plinted (this)'. Bur agrinst thc fcr,v nrnrcs rhus ollcrcd thcrc arc sixty .rppcar as '- . . c'poicscn' - '. . . made (this) '. The word for ' rnadc' is rl r rrscd htcr by :rrtists signing, for instancc, sculpturcs, gcnrs or mos:rics, so ,, r,rscs it lrighr refcr to the prinlcr. llut on occasion wc find u 'cpoicscn'


'cpoicscn' narrrcs of Littlc Mastcrs rs owncrs ofseparate esttblishnlclrts lrcr rhan simply pottcrs. ln thc licc ofthe rare twin 'epoicsen ' si!!Dxtur-cs (rs ,,1 Archiklcs lnd Glaukyrc's Il r di, An;rklcs lnd Nikosthcnes) u,c utusr :rssurrrc ,,,llrrbor:rtion, brrr surciy llot ll) tllc pottiDla, so lrcrc rn o\vllcr or prir)rcr llt.ry
I t hc

of chronolocy

Wc krrow thc llillrcs o[el]oLlt I dozcn Athcrtian black figurc paintcrs for ccrt;rir, btrt llc.tzlcy hrrs sorlrc four hundrc'd artists or groups- Thc ncw nancs lo

ltt c discttsscd.

l,, involved too. Wc shall also 6ndexlDlpics whcrc wecan bereasonably strrc rlr.rt pottL'rs' signrturcs rcvcal paintcrs' n:rnlcs (ts with Anrasis). BtLt rrrost .rrrvivirg signeturcs seenl to be of pottcrs or owDers, and that thcy wcrc

irscritrcrl lrv p,rirrtcrs rvho by choicc or llcccssitv rcm:tilrcd anol)yrnous Is 1l rclicctiorr Lrporr tlrc irl)Poltxrt.c ofthc Pottcr in thc industry' an ilnporterlcc \\,hich wc, prcocclpicd rvith thc dccoretiorr, lnay too cesily forget ln thc cJrly sixth ccntury rhc Adrc[ilrr hw-givcr Solon is said to iravc cnc()Lrrlgcd tlrc itrrrnigrarion ofnon-Athcnrrn cr.tftsrtren Ap'rrl fronl tome Ciorinrhilr-inspircd pottcl work thcrc is no clcer cvidcncc fionr the vascs for thc work of hands trailrcd clsc'whcrc, but thc story docs rcflcct oD thc important rolc ofnon-citizen nctics in thc practicc'ofthe lrrts in Athetr's' And we can add ro this lhe cvidcncc latcr in thc ccntury fbr thc prcscnce ofisland ald lonian sculptors working in Athcns. Wc rnry catch a littlc of rhis in thc potter and pairrrer nanres Lydos, who signs sirrrply ts 'thc Lydien' ; Anr'rrir who carrics the Hclleniscd fornt ofl common but also royal Egyptian nirn)c;
Sikelos, tlrc cthnic ofa nativc ofsicily; Thrtx, ofThrrce; Kolchos, Colchis' To thcsc rvc r,. ay add some natles ofpottcrs xnd Pilintcrs ofearly rcd figurc Sikenos. anothcr Sicilien n:rtivc nemc; Mys, of Mysit; Skythcs, ofScythia; 13rygos, ofThrucc. lltlt, c\ccPr possibl,v for'thc Lyclilrl', rvc rre lrot bound to iook for ton-Athcnian or scrvilc blood in thcsc mcn, nor is thcre enything gcncrally in thcir work to indicate cxpcricncc oLltside Attice. We sh:rll see th:rt
Anr:rsis plovidcs a good tcst ofthis, rud thc rcsults arc incoltclusive but at leest st1!i!lcstivc.

I r'L.rrr nrerkct. So rhc status of sone succcssful pottcrs nli), lt;rvr, hccrr ,,,r,rl throngh weelrh. \)fc havc no rcason whatcvcr ro bclicvt. tlr.rr '\r,lr.ric v:rsc plintcrs won estccnt as artists in rhc wxy thirt scLtll)l()r\ ()r
rr, lr ri.cts rnight; but wc ntay sLlspcct that sonrc ofour- vltse peirr rcr : pr.:rr r isr.rl ,,rlr,r,rrrclscniorarts.Theseerc:ril subjccts to which thcre rvill lrc occlsiLrrr r,, '. r Ir .rl \,, oU\ \t.tdc\ tn rlte n.rU.rtiV(.. I,,r Adrcns' pottcrs' quirrtcr itsclf wc have to await stili thc cviclcrrtc ol' , ., rr.rtior, end that cvidcDcc rrray bc scr-appy. The quertcr 1ey itr tltc ovcr,, r .rlcl llclwcctr thc Atrerican c'xcavxlions rn thc Agora and thc Ccrflurr , L\.rtior)s at thc Dipylon (ietc. It [ray scc]tr too exsy to roll)itr1cc. cvcr) | ,., rolrrrly, but we losc a lot in our rrndurst.rndrng of-ririqu rry by l( trruc lists ,r,1 'lr.rpcs and aliegcd llhnities domrnrru \tLrd) F(,r wcrc 1,c.rrs rvhctr '\ rr L.r' .rnd Excki:rs rnen, not tvpological ciphcrs sar at their bcDchrs ll \rlr, rrs Ir o grext distancc fronr cach othcr,:rud no doubt passcd cach othcr ,l rlr ; u,hcn thc darrdics, poliricians, poets and soldicrs ofAthens strollcd by i , ,t rlls, rodded ovcr thc bright v:rses frcsh from thc kiln, approvcd a nrotto

,, rlrt dly u,hich eiudcs ,,i nl i(lLrity.

l,r lrnq ir ftshionabic

beaury, surilcd at rnany an ellusion to thc lili or polirrcs Lrs now, cnjoyed rhc firsr tnLly popular figur:rrivc art

T1r".",,." tto sigrlilttlrcs on AthcDitn black frgurc vascs until tlle paillter Sophilos in thc 57os. Thcn they cornc'thick eld fast, but lhcrc is many a good plirrtcr, to whose hand ovcr:t hundrcd vxscs can bc attributcd, who seems ircvc. ro havc signcd- So thc siinaturcs xrc a nlattcr of pcrsonel pridc or choicc, rtthcr rhan dclibcratc advcrriserncllt, cxcept for the pottcr or owncr Nikosrhencs u,ho saw thet most ofhis work was cottntcr-signcd. Thc status of thc ertists we can barcly judgc. Thrt they should preisc the dandics ofthe day rvith krlos n:rrncs (scc p. :ol) trcccl tncrltr llothirl!1.'fhrcc Pottcrs Nearchos, Andokidcs lnd thc early rcd 6gurc potter/paintcr Euphronios - could alirrd costly sculpturil dcdications on thc Acropolis at Athclls, lnd dcclarcd tht:ir crlfi in thc dedicatory inscripriotts. This is not a period in which wc can cliscovcr accur:rtcly the cost of dccoratcd vascs, bur fiotlr htcr cvidcncc we mly gucss thet a fairly largc v:rsc cost I day's wagc. It is rvith thc Athcntln blrck figurc vascs, cspcci:rliy ofrhc htcl sixlh ccnttrry, lhat wc have soilc opportu:rity to study thc nlcthods of tradillg thctll sillcc rnany bcar incised rirrks on thcir blscs, usually gloups oflettcrs or lllonogr;rnls, optimistically knorvn as 'ntcrchant nlrrks'. Sillcc thcrc is olicn closc corrcspondcncc in the mrrks oD vascs from a singlc paintcr or workshop, it sccnls that thcy werc irrscribed vcr y soorr irficr procltrctiort etrcl so :rrc nol iikcl-v to clucidetc morc
thanloctl rctail conditioDs ill thc potrcrs' qtrertct. Horvcl'cr, thcrc was clc:uly rnolrey in potcry a:rd we find Attic studios carcfully studying dre markct rnd producing wlrcs to sttit it rrotably thc Tyrrhcnilln :rlrtphorac lnd imilations na Er..rr.",, vese shapes fronr thc N ikosthcncs/ Perrphaios studio for the

irtnrtti. dnryhotul'tont Elrasls. Orlysrors


iori thld


H. t,

ChaPter Two


At.+ (formcrlv knorvn :ls thc



Tuo oiltrs

v.rst.s .rrr'

tr,,rrr rlinclonAegina(drcvascswcnttolJctlinbutarenoulost()r(lcstro\,((l)


Athcnian vasc pairltcrs of thc mjddlc of thc sevcnth ccntllry could achicvc e gr:rndeur of scale and conrposition which thc miniaturist black 6gurc tcchiiqucs of Coritth, allhough morc' controlled and precisc, could lot rnatch' Thc' Athcnian paintcr was wcll awlrc ofthc ncw tcchniquc since, although his own vascs nev-cr travelled furthcr than Acgine or thc lslands, thc Oorinthian dicl, and they werc weil known in Athcns rtscli Nor did hc havc any Posilivc abhorrencc ofincision, and he was prcparcd to usc it f616in61d611i15 6fhrir or ar)xron)y, as on thc Odysseus and Polyphernos of thc famous Elcusis Vase peintcdjLrsi bcforc the rtrid-ccrrrttry Il]. Latcr vlscs adnrit rrrorc rncision:rrd .ed paitrt to thc whitc used lor incidcrrral detail, in the Corinthian ",1.1 nauncr, ;nd in rhc 63o's wc caD disccrn thc first Athenian peintcrs who usc black 6gurc for all their 6gurc rvork. -tlotnilant dccorativc style on Corinthian veses had bcen of animel Thc friczcs {zl, and ilcccptancc of thc black figurc technique in Athens secl11cd to .".ry *it-h it ,o,r," olClorinth's obscssion with this schcnre Meny of thc early blaci figurc vascs of Athens carry finc Iargc animals, heraldicelly posed ;rnd cxccutef, with a comllland ofpattcrn and precision at least equal to Corinth's,

ir,, rr ulrlch wc lcartr rnuclr about thc finest Proroilfti(: vrsc p:ritrtint. ()rr r, r];lthchrLrnlritcr's incltrdine orlc rranrccl hcro rrc drur,,,r ir orrtlrrri. rr l),' ()ld llallrlcr! tlle dress is covcrcd with rcd, whitc errcl trscttcs, tlrt 1,,, . rir orrnd frll is orienteiisins with zigzags end dr)t rosctcs, :nrci cltcrc is 'rill r,,1,, rtr thc old bleck rnd-r,r,hilc petccrn ofravs. Bur rhc lcst is blr.k tlqur( ,r 'rlr l.rvish edditions ofrcd lnd whitc. Exrnrplc's ofhis work frorr Atlrcus lr,,r lrorv hc ebanclonc'd outlinc lor lavirg whitc ovcr bleck in rhc propcr l,l , , liqule rnarrn cr - rs for his sphinxcs' trccs l .1], .urd whilc the fill rcrn.rrn, r , .rrrc rhc srrbsidiary pattcr'ns are closer to thosc ofthe Lrtc Pxrtocorinthi;ru I r, \ ()t thc 63o's. Hc wts probably at work by 63o, btrt nr)r as late as 620 sinc( rlr,r, r. no sign ofchc influcncc ofthc fullCorinthian stylc ofblack figurc. His lrr rr rn fiqrrrcs bclong still to the Athcnixn trrditiorl, blrr his a:rinrals, with rl,, r rcu, rc'chniquc end nronumcntality, are rovc), and for rhcir shccr srzc , ' I l, r r rcncc easily ch:rllcrrgc an y products of Corinth in rhcsc ycars :rlth ough rlr,', issrill somc stillircss and rigidiry of outlinc, for in stance in thc tr cat L'nt ,,t lrrrq filrrhers. Thc Paintcr ofl3erJin A34 was I pionccr, aud cl:rirrs;Ltr r,,lr)rt.uit position iD thc histoly of Athcrrial vxsc paiDting, bur it wrs his ,,, rsors rvho finally cstablished thc ncv,, idionr rn Arhcns and set thc colrrsc

, ,,crv stylc.

llre first 'pcrsonality' in Athetien black figurc ro bc rccogniscd by

,,,, ,,1, r rr scholarship wxs thc N Frssos

l,,,rinij (ioriror)s on thc bclly, Heraklcs Eghting Ncssos on thc ncck (hc , 1( \ Nctos and Bcezlcy caltc to r-rsc thc lull Attic fornr ofthenamc, Ncttos; L ,t' thc aonlrlclr)er Grcck form). An earlicr mastcr of rhc animal stylc wls

PAtsrln, nenrcd altcr his Arhens vasc


but thcre is xll incrcasing use of aninul friezes lo dccorerc nrinor v:rscs or nrajor arcas ofJargc vasci, rhroughout thc lirsr two gencrations ofthc use of thc ncw tcchniquc in Athcns. A f-cw plintcrs could risc abovc this rcstriction rnd oller 6r'rely composcd narrativc iccncs, while the quality ofpotting is rlways high. li ur"y L. again Corirrrh whosc influcncc was, rbis timc, s'lltrtary, introducitrg ncw shapes (colurnu creters, cups) lnd a rangc ofnlrrrtive hgure scetcs which pc.h"ps dcpcndcd or-r Pelopolrncsian nxrmtivc arls iD oiirc, rn"tcri"ls, rnd wbich encouragcd thc Athcnian peinters to rcalise morc lully thc quelities ofnlonurrlcntal nrrrativc they had ncvcr rcallylost By thc cnd of thc:phasc dcscribed in this chapter, the regimc ofthc :lnimal friczes was
coming to ln end.


The Pioneers (c. 635 to 600)

One artist illustrares within bis surviving attibutcd work thc transition fronr the idiom oforicntalising Protoattic to full black figure- He is thc P'qlNrnn ot' r4

ttic counrrysidc cclnctcry at Vri hlvc rnadc clcar that onc artist only is r ,,'ivccl, and his staturc lnd importe cc can now bc propcrly judgcd. ll, u lcr.called hirn thc Chiuacre and Ncttos Plinrcr; I leavc hinr with the tr.t sobricluct hc acquircd the Nessos Pxintcr. His clrlicst vrscs rcscnrblc rl,",rithe Paintcr of llcrlrn A34, wirh' Protocolinthiln' filling ornenrcnt. ItLrt. orr the shouldcr ofhis n:rnrc vasc [5] there is a ncw black figurc trcatmcnt ,, tlrclloral chain which thc Protocorinthirn rrtist normally drew in outlin u. , ),r lrtcr-work tllc inciscd r-oscttcs ofchc 1u1l Cotinthian black figrrrc stylc arc ,,i,rrttcd, and theu bccomc the ru1c, so wc rney bclicvc his working lifc ro I rr thc llst quartcr ofthc scvcnth century, sccing out the transition frorn l'r,,r()corinthi"n to thc lull Early Corir-rthian stylc. I lis v:Lses, likc his 6gurcs, trc big: the rnassivc skyphos-crttcn [6] (r. ro rl). 1,, r). oficn wirh donrcd lid and high conical stand, which are the pridc of rhc \ rr lind; a big ncck amphora-his nanrc vasc; and a ncw invcntion of thc \rlrL rrien pottcrs'quarter, thc 'bclly anphora'with onc piccc proGie which

r rllccl fronr finds in Athc:rs lud Acgina ald cellcd thc Chirnaere Peintcr rrr r lrc subjcct hc rwicc paintcd [7]. More finds Athcns ald cspcci:rliy in



oflirs rr tLrllLr licld lirr thc frgurcs alrhough many carly exatllples kccp a scper.rtc rrcck p;rrrcl l,l'].'lhcorrly srnall vascs hc painted wcre of anothcr new shapc, rhc sh.rlkrw bowl krrou,u as a lckanc, rcservcd for aninral lriezcs and witl enirrils or :r qorgorrcion in thc londo within He did not wholly e schew outlinc drlwing, lor sotlc worttcn's faces, lions'tccth and the gorgoneia (e convcntion which died hard) but hg dsvslops subtle ncw convcntions for black 6gurc using doubJc or treblc incised lincs to acccntuate importxnt fcaturcs wherc the snrillc'r Corinthian animals carried single lincs only The doublc shouldcr linc for bcasts soon bccomes a hallmark of Attic painting, as wcll as thc grcatcr dctail bestowed on animal fcatures and limbs Hc is
particularly good at incised surface patterns on bodics, oflocks, scales, fcathers or circles. Hc uses little whitc, cxcept in the lincs ofdots in the Corilrthian manner ar,d for some female flcsh, but he likcs red in broad masses, or alternatrng with black for wing feathers, ald for male arrd somc lr-ronstcr faccs. The 'male : red, femalc . white' conventiol'ls ofEgyptian art may have had somc direct elrect hcre and arc the only realistic fearures on the otherwise unrcalistically coloured black figurcs. The dcbt to Corinth in his filiing ornarncnt has bcen indicatcd, but with it thcre arc black figure versions ofthe d.licate p:,lmettc tendrils fromProtoattic and Island vases. Theheraldic anirnals on his large vascs posc with dignity and arc wcll 6tted to the bcllying bodics or domed lids which they decorate. Thcy reducc wcll in thc smallcr friczcs and admit still the grtzing horses, rare it Corinth, br-rt familiar on Athcnian vascs sincc Geomerric. His mythological scencs havc all thc monumentality of Protoattic but he hls learned from Corinth to make his 69urcs move with a ncw and subtlc plausibility and he can devotc major arc's of vases to my[h, even excerpting from a stock scenc xs with the (iorgon Sistcrs who lack their quarry on his name vasc. Hc succcssfully combines thc bcst qualitics ofthc Athcnian tradition in vasc painting with the ncw subjccts and tcchniques of Corinth.

llrc Gorgon Painter to Sophilos (c. 600 to 570)

llr, ,.rlll ycers of thc sixth ccntury sec a considerable chlngc irr lltc lir t rrrrls ,,i tlr, Athcrien pottcrs' quartcr- Scveral ncw vesc shapcs ald sclrcrrrcs ol' ,l,,,,r.rlion arc introduccd, end thc cxamplc set by Corinth can bc observe.l 1,,,r r r) thc dom;rancc ofanimei friczc decoration and by thc' irct rhut firr th.' lr L rr]lrc Athcnirn vlscs bcgin to compete in the markets ofthc (lrcck worltl ,r,,1 rrt lbund lrorn chc Black Sca ro Libya, frorn Sprin to Syrir. Ilrr (;onc()N P,rrNrEn (r. 600 to J8o) is the most proJific succcssor to rhc ll,.\()! l)rintcr. Hc is sprring with mythological scenes and humrn figL'r,.lrrl, end thcy are always rccornpanicd by aninals or animxl friczcs.


lrr r,rltrced in

r('r virscs carry xnimal friczcs only, or singlc anirnals I l z- I4], but nreny arc size fron those of the lxtc scvcnth ccntury. Thc style is still

1,,,, r:c rnd his lions in particulu arc distinctivc for thcir squarc muzzlcs, r,,,,rlrl qrins, hatched forclocks, rnd thc cnd locks ofthc back nrrne, often , r , r pprlg. Wings lrc cxccutcd wirh ncat rows of secondary fcf,thcrs. A fcw



old dot rosettes linger in the 6cld and thc old roscttc bordcrs arc not fom of floral chain is evolvcd, thc lotus squarc, , l,l,,rrr splayiug so much nor,v (at least in friczcs), thc palnrcttcs ncatly filling 1,, rrccn, the interlace propcrly placcd, and bands of wavy lincs on thc'

,,rtt)lrcn, whilc a ncrv

tl, , rr t rs.

,,r,r l', r

His fcw huruan figures are stiffand mannered but his nalr1e vasc olfi'rs [rr]i friczc with figures lrrl e 6ght and thc Gorgons pursuing thc rrs rvhom thc Ncssos Painter omitted from his name vasc. The big dinos ', i,,,rl. ,,vhich is on l scplratc starrd, clrrics rirc lriczcs of:rninrals :rld fivc ,t llonls alonc bcsidcs thc figurc fricze. Other new shapes wortir noting are


Of his contc-po.".ies thc PIRAEUS ParNrtt's namc vase l9l is early, with stilFrather prinlirivc figurcs of which only the animals display a nicc scnse of sizc and pattcrn. Noticc thc way the lion's chcck folds ere stylised into I sr:roll and palmctte. Othcrs, likc thc BELLERoPHoN PalN'Ltn, crowd thcir big vases r,vith figures and fill which bccomc hard to distinguish, whilc thc LIoN Ir,rrr'rrtn with his balding, worried lionsIIo] hrs a llair which lcaves us regretting thet so little ofhis work survivcs. But the prodlrctiorl ofEguredccorated vescs in Athcns in thcsc years was firr from brisk and, but for a Ncssos Paintcr vase in Elruria, we know of nonc which travelled beyond Attica or nearby Aegina. Onc Athcnian bowl ofchc 6zo's apParcntly p'inted by ar-r itlnrigrant or visiting Corilthiau, rcrninds us of u4rat r'r':ls still thc don-rinant vasc painting centrc ofthcse yean.

r( | orxstcr's but whose imaginativc conlPositi()n ofEgurc sccncs irnprovcs ,, r llre Clorgon Paintcr's rathcr sobcr rcpertory. The rnaster paints an early r, .ion ofthc lckythos, rvith a sphcrical body Ii1], which, for this fcaturc ,,,, 1, rccllls the Corirrthian aryb:rllos flesk; oinochoai with various shapcs of 11, (tspccially thc oJpai lr3l), also uruch favourcd by con tcnrporaries; to, rlrlr with platcs, kothons ald miniature amphorae (amphoriskoi), rrore , , rr lv dcrivcd frorn Corinth. Although an artist ofdistinction thc Corgon l' Lr rtcr ciur be sccn to hevc submittcd rxthcr nlorc to thc rcgimcn of Corinr nrr srylcs, lnd thc dominancc ofanirnal lriczcs bodcd ill for Athcnian bllck lr..rrrc. A scnior contcmpor:rry ofhis, far less prolific, simpler but nrore fluer1t, \\ L\ thc CERAMETcus PATNTER. Thc importancc ofthc animal friczc stylc was Lr,ll dcrnonstratcd on his olpc whcrc even the smlll vase is divided rnto , , ,lrstcrs, alrd the silrgle nyth figure in the upper frieze is flanked by lions I r 7l. In thc semc circlc was born thc scrics ofHonsr-ucao Aulnrtrat, ofthc ', r, 'bclly'shape, with a horse's head and neck on each side Ir 8], and onc, , r,,prionally, with an outlinc-drlwn wornan's hcad drawn on onc sidc.

r, l)cirnira shapc' lekythoi with iong ovoid bodics, oftcn dccoratcd by l, rrrtcrsofthc()orgonPaintcr'sworkshop[15,r6],whosestyleislooserthan



v1r.rr'.rtc rr,.ck lr-iczc ofcarly belly aotphorae thesc carry thcir dcc()r:r(i(r) irr lct t;r rrqrrl.r r p;rrrcls, with the rest ofthc vrsc black, which is to bc tllc c()l),lorrcst s.hcrrc li)r this shepc. Scvr'rlrl diffcrcnt artists, including bed

Witlrorrt tlrc

ol1cs, pair)tcd rlrc llorsc-hc;rcl vrscs (ovcr a hundrcd arc kl)own), whose dccoretion nlLlst hrvc llid sorrrc spccial signific:rncc, nrore probably as prizcs than funcr:rry sincc scvcrll wcrc cxported. Onc was found with the Ncssos Plintcr's name vasc, but thcrc is no clcer cvidence that any were evcr uscd as gravc nrarkcrs- Bcazlcv rhoLrght thc scries Decd not oLrdest thc rlid-ccntury: possibly it is evcn briclcr siucc thc stylc barely dcvclops and it is tcmpting to rcgard thc Panathenaics (Chaptcr Sevelr) as in solnc respcct lhcir successors.

Ilre (lorgon Painter. Wc havc'sccn outlinc faces in Athcnirrr bllck ligLrrc trirc, but Corinth may be rcsponsiblc for Sophilos' cornmor usc of-ourlirrr. ,lr ,rring for flcsh parts of woorcn and for somc drapery, urrrsrr;rlly irr lc,l trll, rl u,ith whitc [2J]. He was, howevcr, awxrc of bctre r thiDlls irr tllc pr )ll( I s'



Thc artists of the KouasT GRoup (r. 58J to J7o) follow the Gorgon Paintcr. Therc arc two leaders, callcd by Beazley thc KX and KY Plinters. Thcy dccoratc new shapcs for Athens, end srnaller vascs arc preferred, bcsidc thc lckanai ard kothons. From Corinth lheir Pottcrs copied thc Kornast cups Izr, zz], and thc deeper cup known as a kotylc (bur in this pcriod usr.raily callcd a skyphos by archecologists), whilc thc KY Paintcr, rhc Icsser artist alrd thc younller man, introduccs thc colurnD cratcr which becomcs the mosl popular shrpe of mixing vessel for winc and watcr. Ycr anothcr typc ofcup with vcrtical handles (rhc kantharos) also becornes popu)ar. This is an oldcr Atric shape not uscd in Clorinth. But from Corinth conc the komasts the jolly, botcom-slapping danccrs with their sunburnt faces and chcsts, naked or in rcd tunics, and somctiInes joined by wotnen lzt-zj). They appcarcd on many Corinthian vascs, bur not so oftcn on cuPs as they do in Athers. Mort are oD thc KY Peinter's cups, or thc work oflesscr artists iIr thc Clroup, but the KX Painter oll-crs sonrc on shapes othcr than cuPs, espccially skyphoi. Hc has also a fcw myth scenes lzol, and the animals, which arc sccn on the majority ofhis viscs, arc ncat, stout versions ofthc Corgon PaiDtcr's bexsts, thc lions beirrg particulerly distinctivc with their big car locks I l9l. His florals resemble the carJicr type, slimrning dightly. Thc cups with kontasts arc our frrst Athcuian class which erc at al1 comparablc with thc repctitivc production ofnrany (iorinthian workshops, and thcy rrc well distributcd in the Grcck

Lrrrothcr known from fragnents found on thc Acropolis l;5l) lrc givcs lr is r , r sr, ro of the Wcdding of Pclcus and Thctis, which is to appc;rr tr irs l)csl ;u r(l rrr tlrr'ncw ma[ncr on the ncar contemporary Franqois Vasc [4d.51. l]or.tlrr. lLr,,r t irrc wc see a long tnrdtifigure frieze on a large vasc dcvotcd to .r sin{lc rrr r;, rr thcmc, and not an cpisodic rnixturc of myth, man and animli, lrs on I hc t .,,rrtrrrr Painter's narre vasc. From Sophilos'hand chcrc is also a chalicc 1.,:,91, s lrL, h is I rare shapc; and the first ofour funerary piaquc scries, with strrr-lics ,,1 rrrrrrrning womcn. A follower ofhis (Beazley bclicvcd, Sophilos hirnsclt) ,l,,,,r.rtcd our first lcbes gamikos (a ruarriage vesc) with its usual decoratiou ,, r rvcclding proccssion, in this casc, and uuiqucly, with chariots bcarrrrg ll,l, rr.rud Mencl:ros and the bride's brothcrs.

Olher groups
I lr(' Virri ccmetery was a rich source for thc work of thc'Nessos Peintcr, but r,,,t ol drosc artists just discussed. Thcrc are:r few othcrs, however, whosc ,' ,,r I is known only in the Attic countryside, and who may trot have bcen ,',, L rng in Athcns itself. Thosc supplying Vari m:rinly decoratc lckanai with , ,,rrr.rl friczes. I mcntion only the PaNrnnt ParNrrn [29] who likcd cablc lr , zcs (as did the Ncssos Pai:rtcr on occasion) and thc ANacvnus (: Vari) l'rrx rrn {3o] who decorates othcr shlpes. Eieusis was being supplied by a rr,lcr end old-fashioncd artist (thc P.rll,rLtn or ELEUSTS 767) for whom 1, ,,vinciaf is quite thc right word. Anrong his works are tall nccked ,ri|hor:rc[Jr], which sccm a ritual shapc. The animals and sircns of thc l'\rN r riR ol. tue DrrsorN LnxaNrs [32] look likc comic versions ofthe KX



tcr'' s figurcs.

Scveral ofhis vascs are in

palcr clay than the usual Attic but

Sr*nrlos (r. 580 to J7o), thc last of this gencratiorl, is also thc first 'real ' nin1c. Hc si!1)s four vascs, three as paintcr, onc as Potrer, and is gcncrally freer witlr nlscriptions th:rn his spelling would sccm tojustify. Thcrc arc nlorc largc vrscs 6-om his bench, notably dirroi aDd amPhorlc. His style is embitiotrs, livclt, btrt rarely prccise [24-28]. Most of his vases carry animal friczc' of rlcgcrcratc tvpc, and in his flortls too wc dctcct still the idiom ofthe Corgon l)uirrrcr, much debased. Hc is nrore occupicd by rrryth than his prcdcccssors, .rrrtl hc shows somc spirit ofinvcntion, as in his treatntcnt ofa chariot race

r livcly crowd ltnd a furnbli:rg attempt to labcl thc wholc picturc 'drc

(irrrrrcs Ior Patroklos'Iz6l. But thc sccr)cs arc accomplnied by thc normal, l)oor xrlinlrl lriczcs, tud thc schenrc ofdecoration is virttLally thc semc ls that

rr,,st ofhis work is fronr Athens itscli Howcvcr, he emigratcd to Boeoti:r rr lrlll lris painting style coarscns a litde and is practised on differeirt shapes 1 L IIorse-bird Group'). Arrothcr artist of sonrc individualicy but no ment is thc Poros Parur.rn 1, i/\ to J6J) a rnass produccr of animal friczc vases in a dcgcncrate stylc, r, rrred fbr the cross hatched' polos' crowns, worn by his women, sircns and 1, rrrrrcs [33]. Wcll over two hundrcd of his works are known and they wcrc \\, I distributed to less discrinritating buycrs itr thc Grcck world, although I r l( to the \)(/cst. Hc is fond oflckanai and platcs, but decoratcd all currcrt ,.r1,r's lnd lavours miniatures. Ap:rrt from works ofapparcntly non-metropolitan artists, which wc hevc ,,,tr.( d at Vari ]nd Eleusis, thc vases ofthe Corgon Paintcr and his followcrs t9


Ir .r slr.rrI ol tlrL' l)() cr v rr.ldc ir1 the Cireck world, mainly in corul..-trtiorr rvitlr ( lor irr tlr i.u r rv,r rcs. N:r ucr-rtis in Egypt, Rhodcs rrld ccntr al ILrlv are Lhc c.rrliest irrrport.rrrt rrr.rrkcrs, Lrut thc Konxst Croup is rcprcscntcd cvcrr il (iorirrth;rrrtl irr tlrc Sp:rrtun colony:rt Tarentum, while Sophilos' vascs rclchctl thc lll:rck Sc.r rurtl Svliu, uncl the Poios Paintcr is richly rcprcscrtcd in colonirl (lyrcnuic:r (l-ibvu). Arhcnian stylcs begin to influence othcr schools too, and thcrc urc irritrtions ofthe C;orgon and KX Paintcrs in Bocotia, as wcll es thc i-ruigri pailltcr wc havcjust noticcd. Thc Acheniarl pottcrs' quartcr is bcginning to cxpolt successFrrlly, and, once the animal friczc idiorl r: shakcn old it will both crowd markcts and influence styles far and widc in Greece rnd her colonies.
\{J()n r\



' t ntrord ry /r1AI.J!.J /i ,/f 1]i. Cot(ori


( dnt rd\.).


N{k. Hodll.r./i(rh


Ctdtu na

d by th(

]\i t.r af tstlin Ala ( dnt rd!()

)/./,, .r.x,, t) tlr 1 ,,", ,.4!4.Sll''ttt

9 N..Lr thMt(brlt)[)

tht t\1,,r

1a 1:td.{

1tt hy


l.rrt l\tnttt

6 Skytln!.rot.r hy th( N!$o\ Painru H. t io. 6. t : tl/hob tu\(. 6. ,: Bad),. H(rakL( \ 1+o,tttt I kt\ 7



hy th( N$a! Pai d th! Chn"duo


1t Ditlo\ dtl ttdnd ty thc CarcaD Paiu (raw n\,). H.93. t ) r : Wlnh tu!. 1 t-,: Shotld.r. '1 tu Cory. \ n l t11\ \

8 B.llt d,tphoft

lty th.

Lia s d l lrik \. H.

N$\ot I'ai tu-


1] Oly
I'y th(

Corlo Pni'tu. H. 26-l

by tlL(

,a l.kyho\


ol tlt(

tt. t7

t 5 D(ia itu hkythot i't LItt na t ond c 'ithnn\r dtt

Cotla Pntt(t. A luyl



l)cidnna ltlytha\ h th( ol ttu Corran Pdhltt

6., : Shaultu.


Btll)' n ryln


tlr ( )rtton l),tittLl

t7 OII bt tlk .itn


PoitlLt . rinni.\

)il IIo&-ltkrl. t9 I.(kn(

Ltl tllt

tl)hokr- 11.


KX l\1ttnt


ly lt Kx Pdi t.t. Athilk' RIit.' tnrt

tl1( ltu tt alth. IiX l1,irtur'. Ko,idJrJ

I (:rp


'! Ka un Ctury dtt- Ko


d\d \r


'I Slt,tn,)r rl /r. KY ldi,,,rr. K,,,dr/j

,4 Di,\\ a ti ndkl \i\ti
SophiL\. |ttartidXc ol

Frar t t ol ditu\ Jiln l hy .So/rIilor Cd,,$ olldrr.lloJ


Ncek nnph.tu hy Saphilo!.



Chdltu I'y Sothilos. H.





olli'tos si.Cn


)Ittrit.r( ol P.h \ n,tl

,9 Ltlnft w- :g :

ltu l)n

nu Pni td.

Chapter Three




r, t

lt1lt,, l,)

th ) \)rt

lr tit

lr r,rur this poiut on irr rhc nirrntivc thlt rhc nrrjol prcocctrperion of thc I' p.riutcrs iu Athcns is sccn to bc thc por-truvul of nr r.tholoqicr I or othcr I I \ccues. Anirrr:rl fi-iezcs rrc disr:risscd ro subordinrtc positions,:rncl vcrt r ,i rhr pililrrcrs to bc ruct in lrtcl chlptcr s (l,yclos rud sr>mc cup p:rirrrcrs), , ,rrP.rrcLl srill ro clcvotc thoulahr elld cirrc to ilrlirlirl dccor-rrcd virscs. Thc Lrorl oithc rnirllxl fi-iczc srvlc is clcclrrcd tirr us bl Klciti:rs'ulrstcr-piu.c, r I r.rrgois Vrsc l46l, lrncl sirrccithassrrtvivccl nc.rrlv intuct, ithrscorrrr tobc , L ,[',:1 ,rs .i s]gniflcirnt ltronLrlrcrlt of Atharliiln vitsc pirjllting, ils inlfucntiill t Ll.rv rs it is insrructivc now. 'WL' e\irglJclrte rhc inrpoltencc of rvhet
r Llcs

nou,bcclrusc rvc hxvc

(). ]'hc

Fr-rngois Vesc in t'icr dcrllonstr'rrcs lhc





r )itoht l,) tlt t\1i tnn t rn\ )



r rriiorn, tirlll.ecccptcd, encl irs dcbr is nvofbld to thc dinos pirirrlcrs, fi,.)nr ()orgon Priurcl to Sophilos, \\,ho dcvclopcd thc trrcliriou ()f u nr.Ljr'r Lri ilic'ze cnci:cliuq r vilsc;but pcrhrps no less to rhc cLrp p:rirrrcrs rvho r rcd throrrqh thc rcvolution st:rrtccl bv drc p:ril)tcrs of I(onl:1st crLps, \in.c it , (llc\'who rcgr.rler'1y lcpllccci eninrels rvith figurcs, end sonlctinrc\ rLldcLl


Ntrk d

ryh'r L) tli l\rn (

rlr. Thc tlic'zcs of thc Frilr)(,ois Vesc rcscnrblc nrorc closclv ir sclic rncl rpositior thc i-iczcs on cLrps thrn thc,v rlo thc biggcr teblc.rrrx or thc t, rs of (lorirrth or Athcr)s, end thc othcr u,orks of its .rrtistr xlc rlilinl\,



rrirnrrist. So thc cup pxintcr\,:lcscrvc sorrrc pliclc ofirlecc, lcss ti;r thcir thlr lor thc lhct rllilt ir thi\ pcriocl corrirluit\.xnd chiinqc ir AthcDi.rn

\c p.llrrting cun bcst bc stuclic(l irr thcir !\ oIL.

lliana cup painters (c. 575 to 555)


r( sc.llrclrcc ofdcaor'.ltcLl Atllcriir) I)leck igurc ctlIs cuDnot bc Ll .lcrst()()Ll Lthout rcii'rcncc to thc pllin vcrsions, rvhich arc bllck irr erd orrt brrt lor.L .rir iip
errcl hrurclic

11 t tiyo,l k'rhot




r,r,ith ;r blrck stripcjust bclorv rhc iip errri r r-cscrvcd Thcl rrc frnc vlscs, lhcy $.crc fr_ccl,v cxpor-tcLl, iurLl rc scrics bcg.rrr rvitlr pllrin vcrsiors ofthc Clorirrthilrrisirrg I{orrrlst cuPs -rt, ',1. llLrt thc pllin'bl.icL glizcd' clLps (rs thcv:rrc oficrr still rrriscellcrl) rrc )n rrt)on to rrlu),otltcr CJrcck rvercs i:rclLrciirrg C)orirrth err,-1 EesL (lrcccc. Tlr.' \Lhcnien cer bc sccr) flrst to clcpcrlcl Lll)on Ciolirch, thcrr upor Eest Clrcccc lirt


ripc lorvcr on thc boclr'.


rr ,l,,,,r,rr.rl hy tlr,. l:rrcst of thc.utisrs in the Konrest Ciroup, lnd tlrr rr' rs orc ,lrlist \\ll() aollhincs dtc ri..vclopccl Konrasl cLryr sl)tpe \.\,ith tltrrrcrtr ol tlrc li,r:t (lrcck .Lrp! (fi11c lincs p.rintccl uithin tltc hollor,r'loot). Ili\ ilqLrlc \tvlc, howc\,cr, looks to thc Si:ur:r cup serics irrcl, ir tirc ncr,v rrlitnllcr, hc dccoriites the lntcriors ofhis cups, sotnctirl]cs lcaviug rhc outsidc p1rin. Tlris is thc PatNtlll or ATHLINs J t -:1, :rrrd on his nrrnc vesc l-r4l wc scc thc rclirlcnlerrt of thc old Konrlst cup shrpc with thc figurc dccorecccl tondo
'lr. 1,r rrr wirhin rvhich
has bccrl

\, r r lir rt r lrl,., rrl lr( I llril thc I(orrritst cLtps and rvith Srorrps of I L, i , ,, , ,lrr, 1r,,,,1,,. n11 11', Ilrr lisltr.-d(\()r.rlcd I clsioDs ofthcsc:rrc lr.hlt ' '\, , rl ),.Lr.r L s i r r ..n)ct(ry irr l(hodcs). ()lc or trvo ofrhc r)cw
rr r

( .r I r

( ,, ntlrixn brrt lrvs his \\rhitc ovcr bl;rck irr rhc Attic rrr'rrrrcr s'1r,rr rlr, r,,r rrrrhian dr:rrl,s his ledics' fl esh in ourlirrc. His myrh sccncs, lr()lr', vl r,,,\\, r ( or nothing to Corinth lnd hc dcvclops thern wcll botlr ir lorrlg lr rcri s, l<lciti;r\, rn(l rr " r,ir crll to nlir1d thc Gorgor P:rintel or th. fir-srrbtlcr t,,l..rsonthcbroadfirotofltripodkothonu'hcrchcoflcrsirlu(lqrnr(l]li)l t' r s llJl- His 6gLtrcs rrc ncrt, Lrill hceclcd, xrld $'ith l ccrr.rirr torrrl,.rrt .,,Lrr- fhc enirrral hcacl shiclcl blezotrs arc particullrl) disti,rctivc l.iZl. N, ,

' ",rlsprob:rblythccndofhisciuccrhisstudioisproviclingcupsvcr,vlikctlrt ()r)c I rLlr Master lip cups ir sh:rpc but dccorrtcd irr thc Sirna manlrcr'- Olr
rplc out

nlct hithctro in Athcns only in lckenai. Thc bor<lc:.of finc hoops is probably borrorvcd fi.onr the plairr cups. O f lris :ur i11r:rls, tllc lions look likc e cross bctwcctl Corirthiun rnd rhc KX l)lrntcr. r.,'hilc thc handlc palnlcrtes look lot u,urd to sontc. Si:rnes end thc Littlc Mastcr crrps. (Clups of this cless arc'somcritlcs clllcci ST cups.) Siaul cups erc clccorutcd in orrc. oftu,o urys: 'dotrblc dcckcr'{.;s,40, 1_.] oltcn u'ith I flor:rl <)rl thc lip un i\,\'()r hrrrcl $,rcalh ls otr nrlnv East (lrcck cups, or rlrcly luriruals, arrcl rvirh figurcs itr the hendlc z(r1L', s()lrlctlln(.s
betrvccn herdlc p:ilmctcs;

lcts ser)r's joiD thc Gorgotl chilse xfter :t Pcrsctts whcr

, rics r,,,hrt nlust bc ir llililltllriscd Mcdns;1 hcld rrr his hrncl bag. l hcrt rr .r , r spirir hcrc u,hich :rrtists likc the Anttsis Prirrtcr r,r,ill e\prcss nrorc

tivcly in thc ttrid ccrrrurr. llrc HLI)Lil tlrl(i PArNrr,R ljg-+r] is e fir nrorc sopliisticatcd ertist, rnorc ,rl,itious rlun thc C Pliltcr, u.ith his rnorc clctailcrl Egrrrcs occrrpyinq a


hppirg )ip rnd h:rndlc zonc, iftholrsh still split by rhc incvitabic bleck line rLlrrn;rgjrrsr bclo\\' thc lip. Thc 1o,,l,cr botr.l rtrly h:rvc a reser.r,cd stripc fillccl r,ith thiu lincs lrrrorLlcr East (ircck rrlit or dccorrtivc bands of tongues,
ravs or llorills, rvhich rra., somcrimcs bc piurnp buds alcl llolvcrs r:rthcr

, +.1 5l r,,,.ith rhc figures ovcr-

prlucftc. Up to thrcc qrurtcls ofrhc intcrior is occupicd b,v a roDdo cxrrvirlgitnilllrlorfirrurcdc'coratio ,usuallvbordcrcclbrtongucs[7t-:,45]. Tlris is thc u,rl rhrt C)oriDthi:rrr clrps hacl bccn dccomtcd bUr thc C P;rirtcr :rdds dots ancl othcr pitttcrned hoops to llil urorc of rhc inrcrior. Thc Lnrdct hrot is finclv roolcd erd sornctiurcs stripccl- These lrc hlnclsonlc vcsscls wllich onlv slowiv llrovc ilwilv honr thcir Corinthilrr nrodcls by hciqhccrrirrq loot
lotus ancl


,, pcr triczc- on tirc cup- llut his rerrgc is slighter arrcl hc is ruorc complcrclv ,1,,lirurcd ro cup peinting and oftcn lcss crrcFtrl. I Ic too dcrivcs his srlle fronr , lercst ofdrc Kornest (iroup, bnt hc rvorks l:ltcr in e llllnncr rlot rclclill , .tirrguishrblc fronl that of thc- Amasis Paintcr il his dullcr cerlv drys (scc , ';) : notc thc bolcl ti'rturcs, bigl cvcs, clrlborrtc drxpcrY pltltcrns rrld lril)racs. ( )frhc orhcr plintcrs dcdicatcd to Si:rna clrps thc otlt'onc ofnrcrit is thc '\rN r rn ()r fl()s'IoN CA (for tht'Circc rncl Achcloos on his nrlllc visc) \vhosc

,',,rk bclrs \olnc rcscrlrblincc ro that ofthc (l Paintcr[1:1. Scvcrll ofhis

cups h:rvc black lips, Iikc l:rtcr bel1d cups, ilDcl thc flolal on onc hrs slill

ing'). Hc still decorrtcs sonrc oltl Konrest ()roup shlpcs lckauai, tripod kothons [3d], skr.phoi, but his lckvthoi xrc shoLrldcrcd not rhc olcl ovxl 'Dcienira'shlpe elrhough ritis is srill bcirg printccl, and lrc llso dccorrLcs exanplcs of thc 6rsr Arhcriun cup rvithorrr lu ofliscr lip thc 'Mcrr1,tlrouqht', nclrlv hcnrisphcrical, r,r.ith knobbcd u-ishborrc hlndlcs errr.l scncr

ancl lip, rnd dccpcninq thc ligurc-dccor-rtcd li iczc. Thc scnior Siana cLrp rrtisl is rhc (l Parxllrr [-rJ,-rEl

ancl proportion ofrvork in thc Konlrst Croup. Thc SANr)AL l)AINlEll C)vrc() PAIN l rR [41] rrc clrclcss lbllo$ crs, thcir figulcs r,"'ith tirrl cvus in r,rll hceds erd Nith no fincssc in thc drl,,ving; thc fornrer Prints shoulLlcr Lkvthoi roo [1-;], a shapc rvhich thc C l)aiurcr :tlso cirnrc to r)oticc. Thc ( irruN llrRD l),lrr*rrn is rllrnl,v s:rtisfrccl \\irh rrther crrclcss lnilllals rnd



((] t'itr 'Crtrinthilnis-

,rrn rvhich hc tekcs his nemc [+ 5] rvls elso thc hellnr:rrk of l largc group of lrc.rp coDtcrllporxrv ()orinrhien ctrps. lhc Sirur cLrps \vcrc n,cll distri[rrrctd in tlrc (ircck rvor]cl, lnd it ir r )tclcstirllr to otc u hrt r good nrrrkct fol thcrtr wils loLrnd cvctl 111 Corinth . rrd cspcciaily tl)c Wcst, llorxblY rt Tirenlorrr. This is true evcD ofthc Si.rn.L

u,irhin strch us wc scc on East (;rcck cups ancl on othcr Atheni:ur bleck vuscs, .nd it scclns r retincd irritation ofa rustic wooden goblct- Thcrc rrc vcrr fiw c\xrr)plcs srrrviv;rg, but the Peilrtcr ofAthcl]s 53 j clccorrrcd I lootlcss vcrsrUll encl hc (or Erqotirnos, sec bclo*,) nrieht ltxve invcntcd it. I hc C l);rintcr rrkcs nrost of his subjcct-nlattcr iiortr (loriuch clucllirrq .,verriors, Lorscnrcr, syrrrPosia, end hc hlrs llot iorgottcD dtc Kotl]ists; hc uscs colour likc e

rall foor [ 77] This shrpc ur:rv c:lrrv pitirs ofrhirr r-ed iincs orr drc fbor rnd

. ups

\rcn1s not to hirvc bccn nlrrkctccl in thc

dccomtcd try pot pirirrtcrs likc Lvdos (nc\t.hxplcr), r'hosc othcr work sltlc rvev. It sug{csts sonlc spcci;rlis;1-

rion in procltrctior xlld rlxde.

l(le it ias

Ihc F:lnqois Vesc f46l rvrs loLrucl lt (llriusi il lltrtrril in rll4s b-v Alcssrrrdto Ftuugois r'r,ho spcnt scvcl-lll subscqrrcrlt scilsolls lookirlg for_ llrissing frlunrcrrrs.


It r,vus slr;rtt.,retl ir)t() a)tll liilql)rcrlts by;r discontcrtcd nuseLrrl attendal)t rl Florcrcc irr rgrxr bLrt rvls skilfirlly rcstorcd. Il survivcd thc rccclt floocls, whict orhcrwisc dcllt so scvcrcly with other muscun cxhibits, but is lg.rrrr bciDq Icbuilt. It is a volutc c(ttcr a ncw shape in clay and proudly signctl twicc by thc pottcr Ersotinlos, just as it was signed rwicc by its painrur Klcitias. Sonrc viral statistics xrc worth recording: it stf,nds 66 crn. high, carrics:7o hunran and arriural figures, and r:r iuscriptions, solnc of thcrrl proudly and unncccssarily c{evotcd to inanimatc objccts likc the ait.r or fbuntain. Only one friczc is dcvoted to rnimals and florais, rbovc thc foor \,hcrc therc arc hcraldic sphinxcs and gritiins [466], and groups of lions attacking othcr lnirnals which in this form xre rlcw to Athenien vascs and which lorrg outlive thc animal friczcs. All thc othcr friczcs are dcvoted to lnyth. On onc side ofthc ncck 146.31 thc Celydonian bolr hunt, abovc thc funeral garncs for Prtroklos; on thc othcr, Thcscus' victory dance (thc gcranos) with thc Athcnian rncn rnd girls hc had rcsctred froir thc Minotaur 1q6.4), ov.:r thc flghr bctwccn Lapiths end Ccutarrrs_ Tlre rnlin shouidcr
friczc arotrnd the wholc' vrse [46.5 ] and passiirq bchind thc handics shows chc processiolr ofdcicies ]ronouring the tlcwiy wcd Peicus who stands bclorc his homc, in thc opcn door of which we sec his bridc, Thctis. Bclow this corrrcs Achilles' pursuit of Troilos [46.5], warched by Priarn outsidc Troy,s walis, lrnd on thc back x viiror-ors Ilerurn ofHcphaistos [46.7] to thc contparry of thc Oiyrnpiar-r gods; on rhc edgcs of each handlc a Corgon, :rnd Arten-ris with xnimals, and Ajrr crrryirg dcad Achillcs l16.zl; aud lor comic rc,licf, on the foot, pygmics fighr crenes [46.8]. Klcitias has sonrething in conrmon with the bcst ofthc C painrer. but is far nlore fastidioLrs ard x master ofcolour and dctail, not for its own sakc but for varicty oftcxturc (as in thc animals), to lcnd richness to a sccnc ofpomp, or ro cxpress Jively emotion the rcj oicing Athenians ir the boet 6.4], the inten t [4 satyrs 146.7]. Frou his florals, howcvcr, and his use ofoutlinc drawing, filled with white for women's flcsh and some drapcry, we cxn sec thxt hc stems lrorn the (iorgon Printer- Sophilos tradition, and it is Sophilos who paintcd two sitrrilar vcrsions ofthc grear wcdding procession, problrbly a littlc carlicr. !9hcre Sophilos conplctcd thc vases with animal friczcs, Kleitias fillcd his with nych, iD r tolrr de force which must lravc takcn days [o c,xecutc frorn cercfully preparcd skctches. No othcr \urvivrng u.rc f.o,, this period is comparably rich and litcratc, and Klcitirs' othcr work is, as wc havc observcd, mxinly lniniatu st and often in coilaboracion with thc potter Ergorimos. A

lllllr)r pot Painters

\\', r1 n l1) olhcr painlers lor \\ork on a lar!!c

,,r.rt r.n. not so rcadily rclated to thosc oldcr traditions to which wc c;rrr sci' rlrrt l,,,tlr l{lcitias and thc Siana cup peinters werc indcbtcd. Thcy prrirrt xrrrrc trrrr I .rr shlpcs - dinoi and colunrn cratcrs but thc ovoid llcck anrPhor'r i\ ,, rrrrr r, iDto its owD now among Pxilltcrs, just occxsion:rlly carryitlg p;rrrcl ,1,,,, rrr,rn likc a bclly anphore, and with it thc hydria in its carly forttr wirh r
,1, ,


scalc and oD ltrgc vltscs' St'tltt thc ncrv tnood itt vrtst but thcy cxprcss Kicities rr,,r Lr':rcr:trtists than

1,l,,l,Lrlrr body. llrL |irn1c vase ofthc PAINTER o[ AcRoPoLIS 606 (r. J7o to J6o) is a 6Dc ,lr ,,, 171 rvith x vigorous battlc sccr-rc of warriors and chariots in rhc rnrirr
t, ,,

othcrs cairying groupcd arlimals, :i cavalry fight, and florals, with ,r, .,r Lrrr.rl rvhirligig on thc brsc. Hc cen match Klcities' eyc for dcteil :nd , ,,1, ,,r, . .rncl cxcel hin-r ir-r skilful compositiotr of ovcr)epping, jostling figurcs'


. .,,rcl


ll,,,rcsthcderailofharncss,wcaPons,hclmelcrcsts,andstLrdiestheposture I r\ liitLrrcs, ifDot aJrvays with totel succcss (noticc thc f:rllcllwrrrior) M()rc ,,1,, .rucl rnore obviously notrunlent^l in cherecter are his horsencn,rr,1,lr,rr,rc ITSl otthc standardbcllyshapcbut r,vith thc picturesin pancls, likc

I l,,r sc-hc:rd arnphor:rc. This is a decorativc schcme which allows the arrist r,, l,r ( \rrlt r singlc 6gurc or group in its owrr right, not ls part ofany lnore ,1, r, l,rpcd xctio; sccile. Yct cven hcre wc erc probably to tskc the coursinsi lr, , bcuceth rhc horscs as an indicatiott ofswiftness, lnd the eaglc carrying a


r rl\(


llll Ornen.

r1e\rr shape thcy introducc is the carlicst ciass of thc Littlc Master cups (iordion cups Iro8] (sec pagc 5tt), indicating a mcasurc ofindcpcr)dcrce of

thc Siana cup rvorkshops, and hinting pcrllaps c:rrly for thcir mastcr.piccc.

thit r. 57o could bc r triflc

Nr,rucnos (c. JToto J5J), whosignsaspottcrandpaintcr,shelcsthc6ncssc ,, rlrc hst:utist irrrd can:rdd somcthing of the dignity of an Exckias in his , ,l r ofAchillcs harncssing his horscs [4 9]. This is on a big klntharos, a sh epc l' I r\'oLus, alld ls potter-paintcr he nlxkes tbis a showpiccc of illnovetion, ,,,r .rll ofit luppy thc white grourrd bencath ihc tongucs at thc lip and thc ,r l,'rc ,rrr rhc horscs irrsct frorrr thc contours to givc I black outlire He c()Pies r , \l)iipc ofa Corinthian aryballos too, lo carry a liny frieze ofpygmics and r rircs, srtyrs it play end othcr figttrcs l5ol (thc whole vase is lcss then 8 cnl' f,r1'fr). Lik; Ergotirlos hc nr:rdc Littlc Mrstcr cr-rps and so probebly r'vorkcd .rrr r drxn j60. I hc other paintcrs to find :r placc herc favoured ovoid ncck rnlPhorllc and rl,, round-bodicd 1-rydriae. Thc ProoN PAINTER dccontcs Silna cups too errd pattcrns on r . r cry fond of friezcs of opposcd palmcttcs :tnd bold rcd-bleck bcttcr thaD hardly in thcse friczcs, xnirral paintcr of is still a ',,,,gi. H" l,,pirilos, lnd hc still uscs blob rosettcs ilr the beckgr-ottnds to his scencs, btrt l,r'dorrls with hoop lirrks instcad ofintcrlaccs, arrd his dr:rped figrrrcs which rc \o closc to Lvdos shou' thlt hc nray bc letcr tharr hc looks (r' s6s ro 5ss)' lli\ key vasc', thc He:rrst H1'clrie 15ll, is low itr Ncw York Thc Caut'ttt l'\rN'rui [J2 3] (namcd xarcr vascs in Cembridgc and Tarquinia) is a poorcrL



irr ,.irlr, lr lrrLi lr ir lr crosscd lotuscs irr to l o\vs of circlcs. Mosl ofhis r il,( rr rr rr': lr.rrl orrrittccl rhcsc b:rnds. "fhc IJuRC()N GRoup bclonss herc. \\rll),,1r lr\r r'orrrpictc l)luurhcnlic vesc [zg6], to rvhich rvc shell rc,tun,, rnci ,lorclr r el.r tcd, rlrc l)^lNTtR oF LoNDoN B 76 iJ.l, Jj l. Hr: is anothct rcd_lcfter rrr.rrr. rlrc fhrrriiiur lrrirrrlls rnd ilorels, but adds r litclc morc colour to his lirt r rlc rvork r,,,hicL is closer to th it ofdtc Lydan Vlses. His intcrcst ilr i nitrr.ow

, rr ir

I I .. , I , ,, t, ,, ir

rrr,r,.rrl ol lr,rrcls..rDd cvcn r row ofroscttesarthcrirn f5z]. ,\,,,,,l, rrirtrrrr.s rr.r.r.obLrsrlv clccorrtivr,. ldios,vncrasics itrclrrclc thc ,t ,,,1,r.1, r,l,,l l,l.r, llLrr.irrsrriptiorrs(rsoftcnsophilos)xndrrrrDir)gthc

I lr r,


, \,,1,1 r\ ll()rr(l .rrr1\r r,,ith his:rnirn:rl fi.iczes. florlLsliDkccl r,l r, ol .r bcil1.:rurphotu in thc old ntanncr rvith

l hc vxsc lrccks usuxlly carr\'ar lotus aDCl pxlllrette cross ()r ir)rcrl.r( (. .lr(l 1,,\\ thL'rrlain sccnc on thc shoulclcr colre two or thrcc fr_iczcs ol ,rrrrrrr,rlr. , ,,,t,,,,hichnreybcrcphccdby:rflora1. l\arcly rhey:rrc ell trlu,k b,rrc,rrlr .r , ,,l,L l shouldcr lriczc [59]. Thc lttcst amphorae rrc slimrlrcr irr slrrrl,c ;rrr,l , r lorLrscs losc thc cortrll spiky lcal Scvcral artists havc bccr rlistirrgr rislrr'rl r , L ti'r.u nrey bc pickcd out hrrc: d1e Cestcllrni Prilltcr, thc nrosl all;r:r( r, rrc ofthc rvl-rolc group, for hisjoll,v, big hcadcd figurcs:urtl his lirrrtlrress


t.rnqc ot lrojiln rllyth sccDes l-clninds rrs that bv Dow soute collvcnriors hed \ct huld jn thc v:r\c paintcrs' r cpcrtor) . .r nd rh:r c innr,,. rri,rn .rtrd irt r trtrion rvill disringuish tllc rruc rrastcrs ofrhis craft as ntuch es tcchrlical;rbilir\,. Thus. in his nlmc v:rsc, a cotlvcntiollal frorrt.rl chlriot \cel)( !.rrh u.lrlior\ 15 oltlv rcndcrcd hcroic bv thc lddicion ofTrr>jan namcs [5rr]. This is r pcriod u.hich levours colour't'irl llorvcr ancl bud fliczcs, l:lter to beconlc bl:rck end crrra cietcrl, end rvhich lnrl cvokc thc oldcr filling or'nanlcnrs bv cxotic biossonls ri.irr! lr,'rr {l)( SroL rd lirrc olrrgr.rc *r'n...

,,,,ncflor-allriczc:rbovchistu,ooftninrals[59,60];theCoitl.rPeirrrcr-fbl l, . l,Lrlbous-hcetlcd enirn.rls l5dl; thc poorcr sc\y (;ueliclnri Iraintcr I6 r ] errcl r, linri:rdcs Peintcr 156-71 u,h o in vcnts sorrre iltcrestiDg cock m or stcrs ; thc Ii illrrios l)airtcr [62] u,ho hes sonrc prcrensions to reil skill rnd ,,vit, sinee ru '

r,, rhou, u, ith his clccllrlrion ' l anr Herrnes ofl{yllcnc' (his Arcadiau honrc) ; ,l thc OLL G: orrp (OxfLrd Lcipziq Louvrc) of crr-licr, frucl v:rscs, rlot L I r.l\ cxpor-l Dlodels.
sccn thc last ofaninrals and aninral friczcs on Athcnian vascs, Dow a fierrrc styic of somc vcrsatility rrld vigour-hes bcen cstablishcd , i c\plcss e liro\\rir[i rcpcrtory ofstock lnydl sccDcs and to scrve the ]Dorc r.rsirrativc:lrtist to tcll nc\n, stories o: depict evcrydey lit'i'. Whet chengcs r\ c thcrc bccn i11 thc idio[r offigurc drau,ing ? In ctlc'ct, vcry tcrv. Thc bllck ,,r rrcn - whitc for rvorren convcDrion is rlruost firlly cstablishcd but tlrcrc r . s!ill solnc rnalc red faces and chcsrs. Whcn sonrc Tyrr benian paintcrs grvc i.orrr;tsts, end cvcn sonrL'her-ocs, r-cd torsos but bleck f;rccs wc nriv suspcct
,Lrt b,v

givinq birth to Arhcna from his hced it is HcrrDcs who stclls ', crc ofZetrs

\\,'h;rvc not

Tyrrhenian amphorae (c. 565 to 550)

procftrccd in thcsc ycars, nurrtrcrinE ncltrly two hntr.ircd iu..,iuing pr...s, scctns to havc becu dcstined [ot.u,cstcrD rnxrkcts ruh.lrcc its,.r",rr.l i6 63]. ()nc or tu'o only arc kuor,r,rr lrom Acgcarr sites. We havc:rlready notcd tlte iDrportance ofthc $,cslcrrl tratkcts, r)i,t.lbl) i11 Solrth lrill),, ro rhc SLJt):r (Lrp

Thc ovoid ncck arlphol:r hrs bccD rhc chiractcristic vasc shipc for scvcr:ll pot paiDters of thc sccond qurrtcr of thc sixrh ccrltrrrv. The largcsr single gror.rp

peintcrs. lhc Ecruscer citics, cspcciallv Cacrc Vulii, hed btcn gooil "ud wxrcs. custolDcrs too, Lrttt gcnertllv rcadic.r for Corirrthiln Now Athclts cDtclcd thc coDlpelition scriously u,ith e li1le:rirned lt a rnarkct conciitiotred r1rclcl1,to Clolnrh's colotrr lnd:rnirrral t'iiezcs, and bcconring rccustorrrccl tcr Athcrs'intcrcstine retrgc of myrh encl ircnr.c sccrer. fhc shepc clroscrr rvas:r Lrsctirl onc, rot lvcli srrppliccl liorl Oorinth, ilrld pclhrps trirvclline lillcd rvith plirrrc Attic oil. Thc schcnrc ofdccor.rrion rc\unrL)l!\ rhrr t,f(-orrnth.s vascs, ;rlthotrgh b1' thc nrid-ccrrurv thesc hrcl gcncrall\, rbtudoncd subsidiurv .rrrrr r.rl llr,z-.,,rr r]ll,lr,,fr..lrdl'r.rr,.r.orrrrtrrl,ur.rrr {rrrcDi rrr rr,,rI t.c,o.,.r to thcnr in st11c (incltrding thc Lyclln v:rses yct to bc cousiclcrcd). Colorrr is

thc point ofthe convclltion is bcing lost. On worrrcn's clrapcrv grid rroticc of fbld or corrrour bur thcrc rnay bc closcr obscrvltrou ,,l rlrc detril ofpcplos slccvcs rnd cloeks (himetia). Wc conre to sec thc l,nrdirllc prttcnr of oblique lines suqgcstilq folds for nreir's himatit, lnd ,,,c:rsiorulll rn:tnqulir fold u.hcrc en cd5ic hiurgs frcc. On the fiqulcs rhc l. rttL'rns ofknecs, cibows or c:u s rney be clrcfully obscrvcd erld cvcll xpproxir r.rtc to lifi', but this rcprcsctts Jitclc eclvancc on the scventh ccntlrry. Frorrtil . lrcst and profilc hips ol1ir no problcrl sincc no ettcmpr is mildc rs yct to show ll)c stoltlrcll rlllrsclcs but thcrc xrc sonlc cllictivc siclc vicws of the rorso, n)ulctinlcs rather oddlv con)bir)cd u,ith half t frontal chcst. I'hc nrelc cyc ,r.rrcs rorrrld xnd frontal in tlrc profilc ficc, thc fcrurlc eye is haifcloscd, olrcrr r irh a black or rcd dot for thc pupil. Withlrr rhcsc colvcntions rvhich allorvcd ro rcnclcring ofdcpth, forcshortcning oflirutrs or facial exprcssior bcvond
i,.rrtcr_ns talkc Do

.r-.1 rr,,1r.,.1\.r.r'lr.',..,crrL...\,,.rr,..rr.rrrr.lli,1rl,lr,,,.,,,lr.,l.

scvclri crr rr'_r'ronsctsc irscriptions for rhcir snob valuc. Thc.c is gr'r.r.1 rur,,r. " o1_stock livth sccrrcs, uith cmphasis on Ilcraklcs:urd A nr:rzn,,.r,rr" ch v. s.r,,,.

rn opcn urouth or the pxnring :ul\icty ofl slt\'r_ - thc rtrtists itchicvcd e go()Ll .rrr!lc ofstudics of:lctio1r al)d rcposc. lt \4,as for thc rlcxt gcllcrxtion to tfterr)pt

to rdd licline.

korrrrsts still :tnd thcir strcccssors! rrtr rr. .rs r,r cll r, uur c.trltc,,r b.rrrh of Athcrrien lovc-rueki:rg displaYs u c:rrlt lnd spccillisccl ilrrcr.cst in cr,'crvd:Lv





\ 5t1t dlkto!.). lt.


t7 l\l\rthorlht nq


th C |'jai,tut. H- t1

jb Ott Jj (:rt'

Ly th( C



tlr (: l\

.tt 'ltilotl krthr (lL!)\' llt C I'jdirlu' |tu1lvknl tt (: tI'ytht Ihit(lh.t.q Pannlr B(lltra o a ltliChi ruo H lI




+t Ott
1o (:ry


Ciriti l\tilt(

th 11(ii.llt! t\ii k1. t.tu itlln ! .4thi (! b,a\:tht ti Chirc





l,t ttu ()ifitFhil1l l\nnd'.11. 1t'.1


Cry) hy




11tt0j.t \rtyr drlr!


t..t (:lt)lttlttlTtj ll.t1

ttrttl Bondt CA

$ ltktthr!

N! ). ..1 hrr hdttt ,itlt,t! li| H- t7-3




P itu l r

t6 th(Fta *)i\11\. L'ol .nltlsi!

tt q Kttitid\.t1tl


.\. tt.6(


N(l N*ttL


lk Cil)'do idn


I 11| .h1t

(;.,,.j .r'l



Athitit t!' ha fttriij


t(.j lJrt) 'fh( W..ldtt! rl Ptld\ r l lt|1j\: ALhitltt thn!.!



Hntullt Ant tit; AN! .d'ria tht

j6-iJ I:ort I,y! tri






lt |'ni'ttt ol Adilli\ ]\ti

ka ol


('o t( tr|!)

ttt B(llt dnphaLt hy th(

A.1\Nii! 6oi




lltln .l Hqlntinr\


Btlly n 4)l\\d l,y

tlt Cr"tor

1-u.l1rot ol kn than

si.q|t.t by

Nu,rh,),. A.hith\ ttith hi! hoY,\

Jo Strdr,dl .4r,/ioJ J/(,.ii ,), Ni,,,.rdj.

r.L d.




1t(\ f,Jht



;tJcrrirr. so

_:; Sary^


Hyl'ir l,t tht L\.l\t l\1tn t l'|'ln lLdn Hylri.) L|- .to I

| Nrtl! n \lon


tlr Cr


])ni kr. Adtillt\ Mnih.l

5.! Hydrin I'y th Pii tt


Lo to B


( rtu rn't).')\.ltdiot



ynl\rir r

phoa bf

lk 't't


]\tino. H,llklL\ flll


/1 :o


I I-

t9 t

ti N..l d,4lDrd,), /r.l,nittt


1.. da B76..,1(hill(r tlu\lti t'trtln\ lkl t\'l)\t1tr

57 1)'nhant drthnn


ltu Tn ah: ltiljta. rh \rdifa,ttt t\)t)lon


)ultnr h ltrtl^\r rl tli I r\lnl r t 't tl

.. Tyholitn \t ltrlt,it artl,lt ah) h)ithr 1 \t:lt ht jt \t _11 /)

59 'l tfth

nn4,l\\d l,t

tk Ktllotii\ Pdttttl tlr.rd!)



ylnliol d

tthohL. t1.15

Prnnr. Atolh) r

i,nj n Vhrftt t,t



tt. C.nx.


li\ ntDt Ltoml

7.t t'v




).,: l'h 1\nth,, ]:.tiltlttl.

Chapter Four


Lydos, Amasis and Exekias

Thrcc artists, whosc works span thc yc'ars frorn:rbout 56o to 5:5 and so to tht. thrcshold of rcd frqurc, ifnot beyond it, rcpresent Arhcritn blick 6gurr rrr its prirnc and exploit lll rh:rr thc tcchriqrrc. can oli-er. Lydos [61-7r ], at his bcst, riscs to thc quality ofhis scniors, Ncarchos or thc Plintcr of Acropolis 6o6. Hc is rootcd iu the rradition of Athclial black figure, evcn irs anim;rl stylc to which he gives a bricf ncu, lifc, brrr he had rr long carccr rnd, albeit in a rather sclfconscious and mlnnered fashiori, his lltcr work rccords thc ncw stylcs ofhis rrore acconrplishc'd contcmporarics- His is cspccially, though, the mood of thc ycars beforc rhe micl-ccrrrury, and ' Lydan ' dcscribcs a stylc which is distinctive, ifrot l)ways ofdistinction. Thc Anrsis Paintcr 177-9tl also workcd long: an individurlist rn thc history ofAthenialr paintinq whosc brrrsh was as cxpressivc as his qrevcr, aucl whose nrost trivial rvork cu pieasc wirh its flucncy or hulI our. And Exckias [97 ro6l, a tnLly grclt artist rvho, irr his fcrv sur.,,ivins vasc's, dcrnolstretcs holv it was possiblc to sc above thc cxigcncies o fa tcchn ique so poorly sLrited to vrsc dccorttion! and to cxprc'ss t nood and dignity such as rv:ts achievccl, lncient r,r,rilcrs assurc us, in the pairtings ofthc ercrt cl.r\sicrl rnnralists ofthe fifth century nc.
LYDos (.. J6o ro -s4o)

lLr,rrr'rvorLhccrrricsLtsfrolnthcswllcldledgcntrvof tlrcirllllrc(lirl(1\ |t)\l l\l( rri,ul vascs, tirror-rgh thc dltpper clrcssirlg of Arllasis, to ncrlt ll)r (lrrlrrrl\ ()l 1.,,i,rs. Within his group $'c find good llriniarurist work too orr lrttl' Nlr\1cr clrps irrrLl e-vc cups, u,lrilc Lydos hirnsclf p]i tccl I berrtl cLrl' lZol 1i'r l'ttl"t 1,,,r!r. Nikosthcnes, \\,hosc florLlit bclongs to thc Ycrrs ofrcd figrrrc irr thc vxses avaihblc ancl slDall rcpcrtorv oflargc full P()(ttr\' the l)rrl! loLrtrophoroi:rncl :r firrr' r':rl lLrLrtcr, nrcluding :L trick v.rsc [6.s], a coolcr [66],
1, L,lue scrics

I r ,los' prcdcccssors. ln the llorals, clctailing ofdrcss and f-celul-cs, ltrd thc bolrl , ,,Lrprrig ofthe battle ofgods ancl giarrls, wc xrc 11ot ftr lrom Acropolis 6o6 , ,1 Nc,richos. Thc rlriu liiezc hts thc gigrlntorrrachy end bclorv ir thcrc i" l,ir.cssioll xlrd ] hurlt, thcn eDinlrls akrnc. Thcre is dclail allal colour hcl_c lo r r,'point of tirssrncss, relicvcd by thc vcrve o[lhc fighting lirouPs lrrd thc , \ r rL'n1cl,v s)'nlPrthctic trcltrncnt oflhc aninils, iiorl thc rvasp shicld dcr r' ' 1,, thc s:rcri6.iel bc.rsts :rccolrlpanied by thc nlen *'ith e clsc ofwickcd looking ,ll rvcs. A colunur cletcr ir1 Ncw York [65] is ncarly I s big es thc Frxnqois V;11(' ,ul, \\,ith x singlc friczc, its figtrrcs arc ncarlY 25 cn1. hilih. Thc l{crutn of llr'phaistos is rcndcrcd with thc rninitrlnnr rcqtlisitc allcntiolr to thc storv l)ionysos orr ollc sidc, Hephirisl()s llloLnltcd on thc otlrcr end ItlilxinlullI ,rlcrcst i1r thc licstulcs rncl bchrviour of rhc :tcconlpln,ving sl 'rs 'rrrd rn,rcnlds. bLrt without thc circtrlnslarrtixl dcrail rvl-rich Klcitils olli-rccl. Nrltiu' rlrc s]t-vr sllxkc-h:llldlcr; thcrc is sonle stcalil)g ofdiDk froltr ir willc skirl, Lnd tlil-pu1ling. Lydos' srtyrs are gcllllcrncn heiry solllctilrlcs or rvriuklcd bLrt alnlost rlcvcr xs sextrxllv c,\hibitiollist lls thc Aollscell, \{ho xrc rotlghcr bcrsts, 1)or as sornc ofLydoi Incn whcll ficcd by halrclsornc ,vouths. Pcrhxps
(llis tcilchcs
sornethirr!! xborlt LYdos lrlld Al11asis. sccncs cstiblish xncl cleboritta stock thclllcs, uot ltll of rhcnr rcrldt'rcd rvirh rhc firtcssc sccll on thc vescs alrcacly consiclcrcd. Thc onlookcrr .u c- lnol c corllnlor1 n611, ' pc guirr ' r,,'otncn holditrg thcir cloeks irl lio t of

()nc signccl piccc is l supcrb, norv frlgtlreurary diuos frorlr dlc Acrohavc rcndcrcd thc besr rvork of sonl c of 1,,, rs | 611, r shrpc xDd sourcc which

[7t l.

Thc nryrh

Twosurvivinsvascsaresigncd l64l,aspainter-, by'ho

Lvdos"drc Ll.clirrr'

a sufncicDt indication rhat thc artist or his fur-nily rvas imnrigr-lnt lionr Crocsrs' Ernpirc, although hc mry havc bcc'n borr in Athcns and hc ccr rrinlv
learncd his tradc thcre. It hes not provcd casy to isolatc Lydos
an individuel

irtist rvhcn his signcd works and their obvious kin f,rll r.,,ithin the ransc of r
vcr v ltrgc group ofvases, fairly hotrrogcncous;1 stylc bur widclv



qualiry. We sccm ro bc dcaling wirh e prolific workshop in which the standlrds wcrc sct by thc Lydian- Morcovcr, thc r,r,orkins lilc of Lyclos ald
his studio sccms to havc bccn iong. His stylc is firnrly rootcd irr thc tradirion of the paintcrs dcscribed in thc last chaptcr; hc decoratcs rrrlnv Sianr cups

(ovcrlep) and hc is drc last of rhe paintcrs in Athcus to dcvore larsc


little colour_ In thcse respccts his stylc rcnreirs close to thet oftlte (lorinthians, u,hilc'in his
c:rre and no s2

rvhollv to Iergc rninlals, dr:lwn with cousidcrablc

thcnr (prcsrrruebly wrxppcd r.ross thcir chcsrs) treililg o11 ilto'tails' 'rrd r1rcr1 \\'ith the fblds ofrhcir hinratia shorvll ir) slar)lirlg stripcs likc blnd:rging A trick.jtLg (rn lir holc irr thc hollorv heudlc rvill, $'hclr Lrncovcrcd, rclcir\c licluicl fronr:r sep:rrltc irrtcr c;rvity throttgh thc ftrot ofthc vlsc!) Dllclc b)'thc pcittcr Kolchos [6E] h:rs Iuorc lD:urncrcd fisules lrld rhc Athcne supPorlirlj Hcreklcs egeinst K1'knos has ltcr flcsh drltvn in outlillc as Anlrsis might 1l:tvc donc. uhilc rhc folds of Arcs' .hcss lncl of Zctls (r'r'ho intcrvcllcs) sltou erl .rttcrnpt lo herrdlr'thc nc\\, thrce-dinlcllsiollal convcrltiolls oirhc 5,1os. Thc lrcck e d halldlc pelrltcltcs loo :trc lxlc, and lvcll orl dlc rvrv to prltcms oflllc lccl frgurc pcriod. (On this v:rse scc also p. (rr.) Sotttc of L-vclos'olhcr bcst wol k is sL-erl in thc nrnrrirlg or' fl,vitrg figtll_cs oll p1:ttcs. A gorgollci"rr is promotcd to Ii1l :r pi:rtc orlcc 169]


Vlsc. Thr.1, urc sriflilcgecd, siirrr-bodicd, r rther- rt oodcn bLrt tlccorativc bcasrs, encl thc closest ofell in Athels to thc very latesr ofthosc plintcd ol1 \,i1scs by (lorirthirn-ertrsrs (comp:rrc l7.u l). Bclzlcy distirgtrishcs trr,o principll conr_ penions oiLldos, but onll.frrrnr thcjr hLlrnrn figurc r.r,ork sincc thc aninrrls r-cllr:riD 'Lvdell'. ()f thcsc thc l)ArNtE]l ()1, VATTcAN -lo9,s pcrk1,_fcetrrrccl figrrcs r arcll app:-olch L vdo s cvcr iu h is ntost pcclestr i:rn rrrood | 7-1 a l, whilc thc PAINTT.R or LouvRE F6 orlv occtrsionally.i,,cs hr.k ruurt'i75 f1. "b,r.," Thc firrlrcr is nrorc old-[rshiorrrt anci shorrc,r-livcd, dccol,i"r*,r*i,,f",r"af. rllrphoric: thc lattcr gocs oIrc dccor.lttc- the nctv shot,iclcrccl h,vclria, crltcrs rlld n1ln,v bclll irnrphorlc,, nrost like thc Cor.rnthil:r in shapc, and sctting;rbovc thc p.rncls thc lorq tongucs, rvhich arc so cr:rrrnror in (lorrlrh, or rous ofblobbr ir,r'lc-ercs. Thc colunrr crltcrs t()o.rr-c llicl orrt nrrLch likc th. ilrcst Cor.irirhi:rn. Whlt lilks rhc u,r)rk ofthcsc er.tisrs to L1.dos is thc st1,lc .,1 rIr, .rrIrrrr.r|.,,rrrlr,.u v r,...rrr(t tit,.r l\(,,r rlr.rrr urrl.ir_ r.r,. . ..ltl .6 1.,,.,,, Athcrrs- fhc LIdrn ligurrc st)-lc lirrgcrs oD dcccprivcly irrto rhc 5:o,s o,-larcr (rvith tlrc 11cld1, l)tirrrcr) pcrhaps fbr cldcr.l1..,,rt,ru.,i.., s,ith slc.nclcr nrcarrs.
Trrr, Auasts l)ArNTHx (.. -s6c) to jtl) Thc clclicetc touch aDd r,".it ofthc Ar11:lsis p;riltcr erc an cxccilctrt f-oil to

r. i r , r.spccirllv on thc ceriicr vascs whcrc rhe fiiczcs mav snll I1,",,:.l,.,rrl,ol,,l,r,..,rr,.....rnnrrr,ir.,,l.,r ..rrr,l.,,r.r,.rnr,.r.c,rrn,d.t.,,'l.l,L, rl,. rrlri.l,rr lt.rr,l .1rr.r.r. r, ,,f ..,r)( t,.lir(\ rr.ri,lr 5, Lr.,,l ,,, rh,. 1_.,,,r,,,,
' I r


rrr ;rI

Lrl,lcs ofsiout'spcciel s]rrpc'fd5 61. His siEriturcs irr( ()r llr.( n{,L , r 1,lror.c, e cup illd t'btrr oirrochori, xnothcr levorrrcd shupc. I Iis r'.rrlr,'r 'i,,rl, ir on slrotrldcr lckythoi [77 El, .rnd hc peirts elso ;r lirv ol tlrc ol,li


rtr,.,,iththcliplcssT,vpcActLps[.9;] ircludirewharlookslikc;rp.rrotlr ol ckien cl'c cup, wirh its cyc-sircn xnd cxcrciscs in m:rniptrlr tior l,t..l1,:rrrrl ,,,,.'rvirh pleirr stcrrrs rDd onc-piccc profilcs to tbot ft4l, ,,vlrich ertirip.rtc y,r ofTvpc ]3. His potting is unifolnllv c\ccilcnt rr1d, likc thc peinting, otrt , , r r1 11161i11111, l ulr of prodLlclioll ir Atlrcrs pottcrs' quartc'r. I he broed dcvclopmcllt oithc plintar''s cill ccr cilrl bc obscr vt'cl both in thc rr L. ot_his flerrres ilnd orlrill)lcrt, lrrd ir thc shepcs ofthc vescs hc rlccoratcs, 1,,! rnstrrlcc in tllc scrics oi 1)cck xnlphor:lc. Thc c:rrl1' shouldcr lcklr r,,l 177 El illc closc to rhc u,ork ofthc Sien:r cup pairrrcrs.'fhc rcietioushi;r ,rLtI thc Hciclclbcrq Irrinlcr hxs bccrr norcd, lnd rhis indicares thrt Am.r:rs , p.riuting by lbout 56o ll(r. On thc rnrphorlc wc ciln scc chrlrgcs il) thc
lr r ,, ]l


I)t LLririt t)-pc.Hiscupsurcludcordin;rr1,blndcupsIdIItrD(l r()nr(



cnt lhclotlrscslosirlqrhcirccDtrclcafId5:Eg,9r].Thccrrlyclrlpccl

rlrullbcr ofDcck unrphor:rc spln his carccr-, lronr thc cerlv ovoid to 6nc latc

\\'orklrlrliike Lyclos or thc nlor.c rljenitv oflrxckias. AlthoLlgh sonrc fclturcs of his srvlc sccnr rlnost fbrcign to tltc rnair ttrc;un of bl:rck lletlc in Athcrls, his rpprcnticcship .,r,ls Arh-c,li,rn, i,, r1rc 11,.rpr,,fth" Si"r" cLLp.prirrtcrs, arrd cspccilll,v of rhc Ilcidclbcle peiutcr l-;9_7i l. Anrlsis signs cight bllck fllaurc v:rscs, :rll dc.cor;rtcd bv'on'c ertist. His othct pottcr rvork is slielrt, ;ichldiltg f\\' o v.r\rs iot L I dus .urJ, n u I I rhc othcr cl)d ot. his c.trccr, l crtp (rvhich hc also sisrrs) for ,r rccl fiqrrc eitirr. flr" t i".lt i,*,,." peintcr r.d potrcr trc slrrcl' thc s:,tlc llr:til. ,Anr:Lsis, is a Hcllc,ised lor,t ot'. thc Eq),ptiirrr Ahrnosis, wtich is e rnnllrruu Eq)pf,.,n u.,rr.. Thurc ,,rar a l)liareoh Ahrnosis r-rr-line Egypr fronr 57o ,,,, prub"l.rl1,,oo lurc ftrr the Grcek to bc r:rrlcd elicr hinr rt birth. The carlicst v,rics by thc,paintcr_portcr ilrc nor siqrlccl so thc rrrrnc courlcl hevc l)ccn edoptc.i littcr in iiie, brrt tli..., urh". 1:.rdor-s u,hich llriliht irrdicrtc a pert-Eg,vpiien or igin "r.i rDd cerly 1,",,.r.r1r.-u,, .,, r,, ir Neucrrtis: his i:rtrocluctiou ofthi,Eevptiari;rhlr"sr.,,,,'sh"p. iir..t"r ru Arlr,.r,, 1-ol. rrr,l f lrr. rllrrr, .,t,,.;,"....,, rw(,.,t.Jr,,'r,..1A,,,.,_ '., sri lool rnd A,r rs,,r'. uhteh rrr{:{csrs that thc finrilier Ar,lsis rves s*..trt. IJrrt thc idiosvncr:rsic's ofhis st;lc lrc nor spccificailv louien. Arrr:rsis pots encl dccoretcs e rvidc rengc of shepcs (but rrot hr.drilLc or cr.rrrrs). t)fthc l.rr,:c v.r\r\ h( prL.fL.r\ th" 1r.:11r,,,,,rp1,,,,."c, wir; o,c or tn,o of rhu nc\\ T)Lrc A l,tz .il. rrrdr rht clabor:rcccl hendlcs lnd lcct, bur e surell


{urcs hirvc fbldless drapcrr'177], thcn flet rnslrl:rr lolds ('Lvcl,m'It7]) lncl r)irll! sirloorrs ()Dcs [86], so Aur;rsis' ctrccl sp:rns rhis iruportlnt st,vlistic ,lrlngc. This 1:rst phrsc nlust llc corltcllrpolrlr\,\\,ith thc ctrly vcltrs of rccl igurc but hc is iu uo rcspcct scclucc'd by'thc lcr, irrrcrcst il erretonlic:rl dctril ()r thc looser drr\\,ilrg of(llilpcr v r,vhich bcsct his poorcr corrlcrDpoIarics. ()n r rturnbcr ofhis lrtcr v:rscs hc drlrus worucD's flcsh in oLttlinc [85, E7, 39], not rhitc ou bhck Id6, 9o]. H.rrlict Athcnir:r plintcrs hrd donc thc silrllc but rn rhis rcspcct alorc Anlxsis l11ay bc lckrlowlcclqing or alticipatinq thc rlcu, tcclrniquc- Arrothcr fi'lrnrc ofhis l:Lrc work, on thc stout irnrphorec irnd cups, is rhc occrsionel oru issiol ofr sround linc ti)r his fiqlrrcs IE4, E6l. Hc firvorrrs lirrclv pettcrncd drrpcrv, nreking !!rcat piey with delicetc r,r-ar,) lincs ld5 61, whilc flingcd hcnrlincs xrc I spccialitv. I lc uscs stipplinu ii grcirt rlcril ior rhc lrliry boclics ol setyrs ftt-91, cvcn fi)r hcld hrir end bcrlds, :rrd rnrnv of his \ oullla nrc sporl long lovc locks bcfi)rc thc cxrs. A rcrl fircc urev I)c qivcn to xr1 occesiorlill sircrl [.r2] or Athcl1.r (thcrr r,r,ith bl.rck flcsh), ercl ir gcncrel his usc ofcololrr.rn(l erce pattcrlrilrg is bold e|d originrJ Hc r'r,:rs Urscinrtcd bv .u'nrou: and cs1'rccielly bv shiclcl bhzons fETl rvhich he nrekcs nruch of

(cspccilllv ;rnirrll fbrcparrs), incisins rethcr than nrcrclv prirtirlq thcnl

rvhirc. I lc llso cnjoys dct.rils ol.jcrvcllcry ltcl drcss. His t'lgtrrcs hirvc rn cl.r\tiL delicncy of lirrrb ancl corltoLrr, bcst irpprcciitccl on his s lellcr v:1scs, []ut rlot lost on thc I:rrqc oncs. Unusurlly, ftr e bhck figurc urtist, his brtrsh work inrprcssive as his incisine. His glorLps rrd lriczcs lrc composcd with e c:rrclirl svrrrrrlctr\', rathcr stxid :rt first, bLrt letcr rrcvcr dullirlg thc iurp:-r'ssion ()fr1r()vcrlrcDt. l)iouysos is his irvoul.itc, usurlly standing cor pluccntl,v u,ith suryrs, rnucnrds or nortxls, sLrpL-rvisir)q tho vintalje [.!9], once skipping forwlrd to hilvc his cup rc chrrgcd [8t1. Thc s:rt\.rs xrc p:llticularl\r eimiablc bcesrs, with 1o\\,, hcirr,)'

corvcrsilzi()Dc. T'hcrc is origirl.lity, llo\! c'cr, l)()'] ol_ ol)scr vil tior r. i. rrrill) \ () l his cfuncing figurcs, rncl hc is one ofthc flrsr to incr.odrrcc cvcr-yclev sccrrur,,l sonle cortrplcxit) chc r,vcdc.liDg pr.occssjoD [72], e r,r,cavirrg shop [7.S1, tlrc hur)tcr's rctur-11, plausiblc doqs, a rllegnificcnt c.lvxlcxdc lgil. renlpcr-enrcrlt or trrinirrg he u,as eblc to lcld soructhiug ol. _ _Throueh clelic-ecy :rnd u,ir to a style rvhich sccnrcd alwxys ro n-or.k agli:rsr tltcsc qu:rlitics. His skill as r peittcr xs well es drrLrEllrsrniur iudicarcs hi's svnrplthy u,ith thc idiom ofrccl 6gu:-c, elcl 1vc curch his spirit nrorc clcrrlt, in thc u,qr.k of verious rccl figr.rrc cup pnirrtcl s therr in othc: bleck 1igure ertists. Hrs sorr Klcophradcs m:rdc pots Ibr-nvo ofrhc fincst rcd 6gur.e rr.;jsts of circ, ca11l, 6ftlr ccDtury. ExrKtAS AND (lRoup E

bLrttoil's, s[rrrrrr I)r(lr.rr,l .rl(.rt l..rtrr(\ llr, rrrrrlr,,l,,r r,.Li ,,,rrcs,rrc ulll c()rrp()scd hrt r.rr(.ll slrorv tlrc or.isirr.rlrrl ol lrrs rlrr rrrr sr,rlrli.s rvirlr rlrt. irrrirr)irtcd ltcl)itcalLrritl saUlprLnc lf'.;l,.rrr,l lrc rs olicrr s.rti:llcrl \!ttl) il (liviDC


1 !\ lr,r\rrr\rn((11 tlrL r.rlir,r.rtrr\riii llrL, ,r rL,r \LIL,,,r'r,tr.r',I,,,,r'rt,,I Lr lrrrrr lrd;l;.rn(l llcl,()rrc(l Lrttl( Nl.r\l(,,,r1)\i,,, ,)IL(r\I('IrrIrrL llr(' r.llllrc (lr,rlit\ ol tlris lvor I' is lcrrr.rll.rl,l,. l:rorr tlrc:lrort lrst rrl lrrs srgrrcti ;rrrtl ',,1 r r rl,r rtt tl vusc: u c c.r n \cc thrl llr w()rkc(l Lrotlr orr pltr rrr P ncr'k ,r rrrplrortc lrrd rl,, Abcll),lrufhor-rc(rxtl)crth;rrrthcst;ur11;rrtll;r'llyrnrphor:tofGloupE), r,l .rr orrc crlrnplc o1_clrclt llc sillrls :Ls both pottcr :1nd peirrtct, tnctricirll,v lr..cki:rs cgrrphsc k:r'iroicsc rtrc'. His orhcr plintilg rvc'ktrorv frorn onc I bcllv rrrrphorr onl1., l Panlthcneic lro6l, l dinos lio.u l, r plxis:rnd ',lLr,rr I r1! ()l_trvo firncrerv plltcluc scrics lIo5l. I lr\ dcbt to drc traditior ofGroup E is dc'monstratcd bv shapcs, olrlltlrrcnt , stvlc. The neck anrphorxe in particular xrc Pr'oviclcd u,ith a vlricty of ',1 i,,rrr'r', bud xlrd cvcn ll;rlel friczcs on thcir lower ,,vllls lttd shoul,1, r: lr1, 97-t]. The unclcrhandle scrolls arc Lu)plrrllelcd lor thcir incssc. \\rlrcrc Croup E usullly has irtcrl:rces of lotus and palnlcttc in thc olclcr .rrrncr, Exckias hts chrirs (rvith hoop links not rcndrils), a1ld xllhough or 'r
,,rrc side of :ur carly xr)rphora thc'pelnlettcs heve close set lclvcs Iq7], on thc (,r( ofhis wolk thc lcavcs scpxrete and rrc xlwxys 6rrc1y drlrvtr, sonlc'tirDu\

'(iroup E . . . is r larsc and comp;rcr laroup which is vcry cioscly rcletccl to thc wolk of thc painter Exckias, though c,rrlicr . . . tl-rlrr rcarij. :tll tl.rc, vlscs assisned to hirlr . . . (lroup E is rhc soil lrorn witich rhc ert ofE_rckirs sprinus,
ind tr:Lrlsccnds'. Thus llcazlcy lncl ir his firsr eccotrnl ofthc gxrup hc lclclcd 'Most oidrcsc'vascs rvill lrc by orrc hrnd,. Thc rr.tisr or etists
thc traditiou rru,hich on his rvry fronr finc crlftsrDlD to trtrc arrist hc ubsorbs

:rttcntioD xrrd sontc rcspcct, motc thitD wc rlre1,uaturel1y:lcco].d alt illr()lty_ rl)olrs qroup, si11cc thcir.u,ork lcircls t)ot oltly ro Exckias but llso rcprL,scltts x conscious brcrk r",ith \\,h:rt rvc rruy rcgard as thc,Lydiul,trrclitioi ofthc jJo's. lt is cxlrcssccl irl sltitpcs - thc clonrinancc of thc bcllv ar1cl cnrcyllcncc. of Typc A (rnosr Ll,clen bclly :rnrpholac lr-c poor.ercli iet.), thc rot:rl lbxDdonnrcnt of ovoicl ncck lmpholac and (alnrosi toreJ) ofcolunrt cratcrs, y)lne ncw'spcci:ll'ncck eruphorac, an apptrcllf l:rck ofiltcrcsr rn


r.c,rlnrscd rs a p:Linrcr, so hc rrrlr, havc conui[rL,t"d t., thc pottins traditior) ofrhc groltp ur iir c.rrlirr t..,rr. Lrut,.,,,rc rcgrrd this:rs bis crrlicst surviving paintcd u,ork a1so. Thc figrrrc srylc of(irouj E lq,r_901, rviti'r no enimll vascs, lrcks thc, rnonunrcrrtali4,ofExciies or cvc,, Ly.lor, "n.l rhc mytholosv c:ru bc vcrv rcpctitivc tlrxr)),ofHcr.klcs u,ith Ccrl,on or.rhc Lion, or T'hcscus with thc Minotrur) but rrrorc paintcr.s ofrhc scconcl helfof lhc ccntuly fbllorv the iced of cltis srorrp encl Exeki:rs than ofLydos or tltc Anusis Plillcr. It is possiblc thur Exrkr.rr' ullor irr rhc hr\rory of. Athc'ui:rn black fiqnrc is duc rs much to his pottiue ls his peiltirs. Wc h.rr c notcd his carlv potiue alrcadv l96l and hc riqu, ..rrr" trr,. liir.r1r. "1r,r pottcr, for x Littlc Mastcr to piint. Wc can sce ", lrorn his pottcr sig[irturcs ti]itt hc rray hlvc bccn rcsponsiblc lor thc clrl1, clcvclopmcrt of ihc Type A ctrp ll o4l end Type A bclly eruphora bis vlscs, r ool is oycr Co cnr. higir I ; 1c

lh c ,jruu p) b.'[orr. ]rc

.rrrrll r r,u. I,rcLr... purr,d rr,ro,r1, L,.,r..






sailing rrrouucl thc illtcr rinl ofa dinos lro-:1. Hcrocs and horscs flrrrrrrtr-y.rit t r'l (r,vho equally dcscrvc, end oltcr erc givcrl, nrmcs) welk likc thoroughbrcrls through a crlft devoted too long to \\,orkrnanlikc dccoratioll lrrrd oltcD rr.lrv('

rrcrn:llcly colollrcd. In nrxlrv ofthcsc rcspccts Anirsis wes coDscrvuli\L', rrlrcrc Exckias skinlpcd rlothing encl pilnncd cvcry dctril. His rvork es e l,.rn)tcr (hc plob:rblv pottcd lar longt'r) fal]s in thc thircl qLrtrtcr of thc sixth , rrtLlry, starting hter thln Alrasis, olrt oft()Llch with Lyclos, atrd at thr'crrd nrrkillg Do corlccssion to rcd figlrrc altholrgh thc first ofthc rcd figr:rc rrrirtr \\ orks in his manlrcr. Frolrr his rendcl ir)q ofdreper)' wc scc that thc splal rng. rhrcc dirncnsional folds erc lcrv ro thc v:lse painter'[9E]. Hi\ trcetrlrcnt of tlrcrn is confideDt, Dol yct 1r)ll1111clcd. Thc devclopnrcrrr of tlrc stylc ofa l)crfcctionist is lcss cxs,v to obscrvc th:lrr rnight bc inrlgincd :rnd it rlry rvcll be rhlt his ectivc peinring occupicd firr fcrvct vcnls then rlrilrlv htvc thotrght sa,v 54 j to 5lo. Ar)d did such dD artist \\,ork oDly ;1 thc poftcr-s qu:rr-tcr ? Wc rrright Jook to rlre kouros, Murlich r69,orcvc11thcnr;rrkcriirrKroisos'15:nvc. ft is cast ro drvcll on dctlils of lris rvork, thc crrc hc levishccl on nrrncs, rl-morrr, onlilnrcnt {;ool, :rld indccd thcrc :rrc firv uho could nr.ttch his precisioD rnd dratLghtsnrenship. But tltc lullmark of his stvlc is e ncer stxrucsquc dignity ufiich brings vtsc p:rinting t'or thc flrst tirnc closc to ...rrIrrg.r pl-,,. r..r rrr.,j,'r .rrr. Illr' i. rr,r., r)rrll,'r,'f.iz..r pr,'pnrri,'rr. llthough both pley their part, for his sccncs ofactioll erc composccl rvidr originality and vcrvcl-{is originelirl, eppcers iD lrlxrly lbrlns. Hc blcaks Athcrrien colrvcrrtiorr to let his Dionysos seil across thc wholc e1)rptv intcrior ofa clrp [-ro1], prcpercd \\,ith:r warnr'corel rcd'b:rckqr-ound llld dccoratcd outsidc \\,ith thc cl-rssii cycs - both pcrlr:rps his o\\'D irlvcrltioD. Hc is tlrr'first to scr prinrcd ships



011 mpi.urs. His u elrior-s lncl vounq nrcrr rvjrh thcir purcnts Frorrris2lr,irl, cvc,rr I rvhcn idcnti6cd rs divinc (as rhc I)ioskourroi with Lc,cll ancl T,1.rrdi."nrj, ".t " hunran, cvcrld:ry scer)c, widl that xwercrcss ofthc divinc in hrrnrar thougl.rt

corlvclltion rvhich rvill not yct :ldnrit facie) cxprcssiou bcl,ond a firrrorvccl brou, and nor thc bloodv;rpaletr)cr1t, thc ntonrcnt ofnrtxinturn actron bclovccl oI Arc]reic lrt. His Arhcnians rrorrrn Iro5] r,virh thc digniry of

"r,,,.r,. Exekias cotrld scc iris nrcn ls qods lnd in !his he Eives Lrs x fbretestc ofciilssical :rrts. Felv ofllis mythologicll sccncs folkr,,r, cstrblishc,d petcrns rvhilc soruc scr rcrv fashiotrs. For A.jlx's srricide Ir ot I wc hrvc thc broodirg prcpemtion in a

stor\. tcllins. For thc first tirre thc grrpiric rrrist caD chxllcngc his pocr cortcnlpolaries, al)d on sinrihr grounds ofobscr.,,etion alld fcelilg. T]tc lltcI ofctrlicl xrtists erc, at bcst, clegent ptrppcts. Anasis could r". r,r",,

r r,,1,(lowcrrhluor1 lllost SjirtlaLr:111d oficn cer its b.rse. lllc lirot rsLrlr tlr' ',, rr.. but glo*,ing,:lrrd with clccort livc hoo Ps bcrlcil tlr. rllrrl, rrrsr,l, tlr,r, 't l,,1Lrr c tonclo cdgccl wirh torlllucs, llso likc thc Si:rnrrs, ;rrrci olit rr ,r i st r i "l L r,l ,rr thc botorrr ofthc liP. Lr fht thc rtt;rrn dilii':cncc frolrr lhc Si.rrr'rs t' rrr t , 'r,,cunc1 thcprofilcofrhclip, arrd cvcn sorllc Sierr:rs hitcl blrrck lips. l(lertr.ri

r, ,1 l:r-gotirrros colltbor;rtcd on tltc tlittltc piccc oa thc Crotrp, firtrrrrl "r r,,,riliol) [rodl. Thcir signetttrcs rlrn stI]ii]ht bctrvc'cn drc rlc:lt h:llldlr I).rli r t.s. lDd tlris is thc nol ntxl schcll)c o fdccoliitioll fi)r this clllss :1lld lor thc liP , l, Ihc srnlc llltists Plodllccd othcr cxitrllplcs, but rlo othcr Lirtlc Masr'.'l' ).r[]cs! lurd this sLlggcsts I llortlit foI llrc cllss eirotlr o:.iLrst bciirlc s(ro' \L )N r)ri()s siqrls lcvcl el othel s lnd rlso sccllls illl cilrlv sPcci]list iD thc cless. bl1r

rrr. All rl,t. \\... t)(\\ rn rl)( lr.,t .ur\

rnd action u,hich thc chssicrl elti\t \\,xs to codifv lbr-thc tntdition ofrvcsccrlr

,,Llri r (lordiou cul'r sienrturcs (Phr1:ros, Soklcs, pcrhrps Archiklcs) erc ruct on ,,rLrcr Lirtlc Mastcr shapres. Lrt,Cut,s, rs lt l3l, rcsclttblc thc Ciordiorr ctrps in shrpc, rvrrh :t str:rieht lip


thc hullmerk ofthc bcst (iorrnthiar ;rair.rrilg ofrhe scvc,nth ccDrurY B c. I11 Athclls thc Silna crrp p:lil)tcl_s wcrc:rt rhcir bc\r ,.r,hr:l thcrr tigrtr,:s orcrrprecl fhc irighcst ev:rililble 6cJc1, on thc ovcrlep cups, btrt thcir rivals lnd succcssors, thc Litllc Mestcls, rcDounced lhc ovcrlep and conccntretccl thcir figLlrc rvork in drc n:rr-rorv lrit'zcs of lip or hendlc zoDc, or1 shapcs of l ncu, clcg;rucc:rnd dclicrc,v. Vcry li'rv Sirne ClLrp l)aiutcrs r,,,crc rlso Littlc Mlstcrs:rrrciit rves firr irltists likc Kleirits to iDrloc]ttce rhc llcw styic i:t, it scclus, nc\\, poftcr,s srLldios.

Little Masters and other cup painters Succcssftrl nriniarrrrist rvork in thc black ligtrrc rcchniquc hld bccn

oll honr rhc bodv, brrt nol et ]D abluPt aDglc. Thc high fccr hevc ir ,rL)xd l']et b:rsc plirtc: lhc lict of most clllicr ctlPs airc hollo\\'collcs ()fcvcll

rrri\t\ ol'thc ultitr scrics, finirlll clcrivcd rvpcs. o(rs (ltrps I I otl lrc thc' cerlicst enc] lnrotrg thc srtrallcst. Thc: srreighr lip is bhck, clc:rrlv markccl oil fronr thc bocly. Ihc hendle zoric has a linc rrcar
:lud dccorarion. thcn:tr

pxintcrs illso dccor:ltcd e ti-,,v cups. Stylistic co:rrp:uison bctn c,c,n the big ;urcl rlrr ,rrr.rli i. n"l .r,\^ r\.,. .. W.. lr.,r, nr.rr\ \lqnrlltr!.\,,r litrl.. M.r.t.r, bcclusc thc inscripriol) sontetirlrcs for n)L.d urirrrpuir.urtclrnrL.rtrrrhL,,vcrlil clcsigr, cspcciellv oflip cups. Mosr rrc oirhc ,cpoicscn' r\.pc. fhc Potir)g i\ ()ftclr cven bcttcr rhl11 the peintiDq, so dtis is not surprisirrg, but rhcl clo Ior help trs to idcntilv biesel u,orks p:rirrrcd b1,tfic srlic urriir. Iftherci erc uot tuorc siglted 1:rrgcr virscs it nliry Ltc th:lt the siq]rlttnrcs dicl Iot (or rlicl ot Yc) havc thc rclvcrtisinq vlluc th;rc sonrc lud letcr. Wc sh;rll look et rhrpcs

ofrhc loot or cups rves tppercnt in thc bhck cups ofothcr prrts ofCircccc, lncl in rhc, dccorlrc,d bllck fiurrrc crrps of East (lrcc'cc errd Lrconi:r, brrr thcir lips ilre sct o1l'srill iu tht- ur,rr,,r". oi,rldcr. skyphoi. In Athcrs somc carly nrcrryrhought cLrps hacl hieh ti,ct [37], rnci lor thc lips thc pottcrs sousht olhcr sohrtionj, rvhilc thc ptinrcrs iuiccssiirllv nrilstcrcd the rnirilrrrrist srvlc rvhich suired thcsc lcrv shrpcs. Fcu, rvc:-c rccognislbly thc pailltcls ofhrgcr vascs llso, alrhorrgh nlost ()flhc besr pot

1hc_tcnciency to ir)alcasc drc hclqht

lr ickncss. lJrrr rhc urrdcrlool tl cllnlcnt itpPc:r1cd on sorr)c Siitllrs which hrvc ,lLritc broed lcsting illclrs, u,hilc rhc C l)lirtlcr utldc er Iclst onc rvirh I high, IrLrelv Littlc Mrtstcr loot. fhc figtLrc dccorrlion is on rhc phin 1ip, Lrsurllv , )nlv onc to thrcc figtrrcs:rl tilc ccrlrl-c oll erc]t sidc, rvhich lncens that it is r:rrc r,, find u rvholc nrytlt sccrrc in this position, btrt thc lip is oltcn lcfr cnrptl - Thc lr,rrdlc zonc hrs l liuc nc:rr its top :Ltrd illll()st elu'e,vs:rrl iuscriptit)D tlcl\\'ccn lr.rndle pllnc cs. Thc inscription rlrry llc a sigtlxltlle, aL ll)olto 'cl)xirc kli lc[tcrs to n1:]Lc rhc 1,ici tccli' ('h.ri1 rncl dtiuk rhis') or thc likc, or rrorrscnsc (lcsircd prttcrD. Thctc is e r-esc'rvccl b:rttd Lrrvcl on lhc \1'rll illrci thc lilll li)ot r.rrcly h:rs ltoops bcuetth. Insiclc tltcrc is of_tcrr a fiqulc t'lrrdo crlgccl tith tongucs which hevc rvhitc dots bctrvccn drcir rips I I I o- r ]. Outlinc drlu'n timllc hcrds rlc not tlDc()r1il)ron xs thc lip dccorlttiorl (' hcrcl cups') on rvork bv Slkonidcs t5l, Hcrnrogcrrcs. ['hlvrros end otl]cr'\; Epirinros h:rs tint r

busts ofdivinitics itr tllis posltiotr, rlso outlirrc dlrrvrr lr.:t t l. llrilitics rcphcc thc hrrnclic p:rlurcttcs bl rninrills or iigurcs lr.zr l; hrtvc florels on thc lips likc Sirnls (thcsr' bv Hcr rrroqcrles) I Put flgtrlcs it the hrlucllc zollc, likc olll_ nc\t chss.


llaNo Cups, ls lroql, hevc bllck, sliglttlt'corrclvc lips rvhich rrrrr into rhc iinc of tltc bod,r', rurci oftcn r rcd p:rinted fillct xr thejunction ofboclr :rrrd srenr. Thc- flgulc dccoretiorl ls in rhc harldlc zoDC, olicn bcruccn peltllcrtcs,
.rrd it nor llrxllv fills this liclcl but rIe t' bc ' bricf'. Fcr,r' it.ivc inscripriorrs hcr c; fi'rv. clccor:rrcrl tonclos rvithin: ii-t :rlc rtll bleck t'ith ir p:rrch wirrdow for figrrrcs bcnvccn thc hlrdlcs; .trrLl:r vcr-v fcn'big orrcs (Atrdokiclcln) h'rv' tigurcs on thc Brt r.lrldcltbol. Wc rttight wolldcr wh) t\{ o cup t,vPcs s1l.h xs rlicsc $,cr.c rlcvclopcd erd so Iong r crulillcd cqr.rallY popuLrr rvilh peirrtcls end cu\lolDcrs. lhc bl:rr:k iip is rDorc colllfollrblc to thc drirlkcr, bul thc hc.tVy ridgc bclol thc lip l it[in thc lip cup probeblr' lllcxrrr thll lc\s \\'rrrc wis lost



bv splesi:irrq. Ilrc rrrrst i)c rhlrt botlt plclscd in thcir rvr1, bLrr thc lil) cup nes pr-ob rblv thc nror-c clifficLrlt to rhrorv lnd clcconcc firlli,. Lirtlc Mlstcr siglreturcs lrc gcncr:rllv ofpotters but Irilr)ds sotnclirrrcs sccrrr to cort-cspdrd. TItcr.c is a strotrg Illllilv itltc-rcst too Ncerchos, sons TlcsoI and Ergotclc's; ErEotinros'son Euchcir.os, arcl his qr:rtclsor u,ctc in rhc -fr.rt btrsircss. Wc lrlve noricccl sonrc Litlc Mesrer crrps liy th" tlrtec u,i,l ct'rrtury pxintcls irr the last scctiorr and thcrc will [rc, ot]rcrs Doticccl].rt._r.. Wc t1tn1 ro\\,'to e t'i'lr- ofthc ntorc clistinqrrishccl spccialists. Tr.rsoN is thc clessic Little Mesrer, no doLlbt pailltcr iurcl pottcr, und lll,lys nrnritrg his flthcr, rhc peintcr Ncatchos in ltis siglitrrrcs T.lcson ho

I ,

.rr(l liltcr rrtist but u,ith :r \i/idcr rrrlqe, otlirs rrrrphor:r, (rrr, lrr,lrrr[


lr,,r ,rr.urenrphora),hvdtiec.rndlck-vthoi,oncofwlticlr.rrrrrorrrrtcirlri rrlrr , r ,Lrirrrl shape. Aucl thc EPITIMos P,trNttr's rtrps :r, rc,.rll rlr,' 'r ,r,,,, lroc rrraclc bv Kolchos l6d] thlt Bcezley wonclcrc(l rvlrctlrcr tlrt l,rttir I ,,r Ll not [-rc rcnrovcd frorl Lydos' list. I lr. r rr lin pcr iocl ofthls serics ofLirtle Mlstcr ctrps rinlst rLlr) fi()ll) j trst .rli( r ll,rILrit ofthc (lordion cups, about,s60, down to rbout J-lo. Mltrr' ;rrc

N,.,r, lr.',1.,,iu,



plairr). Thcy lrc'cxccurccl dclicetclv rvith , .nl.rr., ."tlr". tit.., ,j.r" t Lvdan, u,ith lll:rny rcpljces ofstock sr-oups. [Jis bapd clps 1r"".]'r1r" "., r",,,"

rarlrs, stiss It I r]) both insidc and ,,ur,r.le

Hi, ligrrr....r..rr,rrrll, ,,,,rr,. 1..,,,, i.,,r,l 1,.r,. lro9l..,t.,r., Lp.uF\ (nt ur ]. t,t w hi, h Lrc lc.:rvcs

,,,r rrnrporiiricsofthcletc: Siltnl ctrps btLf in a clilllrcnt tradition arld gcrrcrr lrr othcr alrists. A lttcr stert fbr rhc blnci cLlps is ofter) xssr.rnlccl, brrt thc r\l,( i\.rswcll rootcd in drc prst as thc lip ctLp, lud dlcrc arc sorrlc Peinters of 1,1, , rps.rncl blrrd cups who .lso pxintcd (iordion ctrps. Thc bancl cup docs ,, rlilrrrc rftcr lbout jlo, brrt no longcr Littlc M:rslcr in ch;rraclcr rs we shllll

, l)cvcloprrcnt withill

thc scrics is llot cesil,v .lctcrrrlirred, bLrt htrldlc' pel-

l,p ,,,1, I clt'corltccloriyr,,,itLirIri9i.C)thcrpr.o,rinc,c.trrisrsrr.,,'t"air.'N,,^^irr,,,r, lvhosc,peiurcr. is glrmiouslv proud-ofhis uirrr;rls r zol, .,"a i r*,.or, l"pr"_ I serrccd ltcr-c b; a kanth;u-os Il::1, I shape rvhich rerc:i1. lound its rvar],,,*rr rir"
Lictlc M.rsrcr-'s r,vork tablc.
rrc,o iicr r o fq,,.,d (lrrtlit\,. JLISt :ts Sorlt(, ,,raj,r. .r.tirts likc tlrc Anr.r\l\ l,.1rrrgr rls,r tlu.or:rri:.1 .r ti.u l,ittlc M:rsrcr cups, so srirnrc Litrlc Mestcr h.Lnds..rrr bc detrereJ rrr lJrS(r \llscs..Ihc pnrvtros Ir.rrrrrtrr is eu c,erJy ( \.llrl.lL. l..r]rllr)q ,rr ...,,.,.11,.rrr rrrd Lrrl,nr..lrl,. r,p irr I ,,rJo,r t/.,11. |lr,l r),..rr rrrr.rll,,rrrLph.,r,rc Ii-.-1]. intlrLdrnu.,,nrs plsnlp *iA\ ..,lr,,rrr',fr";. rrl( irrlrrKr\ ( r {\\' lou(rr_, rrrh..r,....r,.n1. llr,. ".,,rrrplcs, lrrrrnr .l,rrrr'r

with dctrilccl nr,vrh ;ccDcs. 'I'h. Co","ur. t,,rrrrri. r., i.u., 1,H,,* horscs, ccntaLrrs, slLtyrs, rcrdcrcd rn -r hrr:1,,. rr(r\oLr\ \r) Ic ",fria. ii"_,"g._ lerly clocs rvirhou r heucllc pllnrctrcs_ Thc ()ai<rsno.rr. t,itr,Zi. ,rr;gtri.i"r,, ul bc onc r>fthe_flrcst of'thc spccielist Little Mastcrs rvith trvo ,r,.liiig.*.,t rua cttps, onc uirh rr)irl)els. rhc ()rh{.r \\rrh l)r(,n\sLrL r.ercr r r,!J, .,,,j.,

Thc plintcr ofctps sigucd by XlNorr_rs wils it poolct. rrrilt Jt tjl, arxll], ,rr s .rr rL tru.rtrrr1] hr\ lrp cLlps r-rrilct- likc Sien:rs a Ilc"ri"i. ,r,rt",, clr" rnllLrcrrr r. 'gu't o t rhc (' l,.rirrrr r orr hrs u ork. Hc :rlso rnekcs scvcr_al plrirr, inclucling barrcl c-ups can ying thc siqrr:rturc onlv. H i_l(MrrcrNrrs nr.rrk! l.if li1r . I,rr1, inclurling sornc bcering oLrtiinc fcnr.,lc hr r.i, (herd .Lrlr,., ti*jrrlli "lr,,uy.rn thc lip,.urd birud cups with chlrior lu.l *,".ri,r, lll:'uclt ,ro.k, bu, ,u" lr cill]rlot bc sltrc that ol]c xrtist peintcd both troLrps_ C)thcr hcld clrp xrrists of clisritrcrion arc, jekoniclcs r r , 5l (rcscnrbline I Lvdos);rnd Phrynos. SaroNror,s Dtily cotllc lrtc ru the scrics'sincc hc also paints e Typc A cup., ou thc othl,r hincl, siilrs Iip iup-*.itfr a bllck lip rcscrrrblinr thc (ior cliou cups, rnd coll;rbor:rrc, " ifro*. iy i,, ,,'.,,p .Lfrn sisnccl rvitli ' cpoicscn ' by (ilatrkvrc, lrro]._Thir Ls rn cl.r[>or.rrc 1",;:. Ir.".i


thc scnlicircular with tigl)t lcives lr ogl, throLlgh lhc llcar .hrnlac rr r rrrqlrlar rvith grorving .crrtrc lcel. lr i 51, to drc lxtcsl typt' with scptrxlirrrj I,.Lr cs lr rz, r r4]: nclrly the renlac wc scc orr lhc Amasis Pairrtct's v:tscs. ()l)ly r ,' rrrost carcfull,v drau'tl 6gLrrcs or the tondo grouPs oliir clcttils ofdra'.viLrs Lr:.cptible to stylistic enal,vsis. Thc brDd cups tend to bccorrrc fllttcr rvitlr

6 orrr

fhcrc are sonrc tclltcd or clcrivatir,t'classcs alld sh:rPcs to collsidcr bcforc lcrvc thc Littlc Mastcrs. DRooP cuPs lrz6-81 (pronounccd 'dropc', alicr lrc scholar rvho lirst stuclicci thcnr) hrvc conclvc bleck lips markcd olf rrrorc ,1.'urly fronr the bocly than Littlc Masrers, x txll stcrrrrrcd tirot with e pJ:ril illlcr:rnd bend, soillctinles {lroovcd, xt thc top lrld r blilck toe. Thcrc ir:l l,r'oed black bancl rvithin drc hollorv loo!, and in thc bowl e rcscrvcd Lrlrrrcl lo\\' ilor,,,n in thc 1ip errd somerimcs a rcscrvcd ccntrc clisc. Thc constrttctiorr ir rrnretincs hcavicr tlun thlt ofthc Littlc Mastcrs. Thc c:rrlicst, f[ol)) aboLtt 5 5o ro-judgc 6-onr thcir erave coutcxls with orhcr vlses, hevc all black boclics (r r 1'pc r,vhich lingcrs), but sonrc rdrtrit.r row ofbuds ill thc rcsclvcd hendlc zorlc likc blnd cups. Fronr aboul j4o rhc wholc body !"1o.t thc lip is LrsLrallv .ovclcd wirh decorrtivc berrds lc:rvcs, pliltncltcs, dots, btrcls, rcscrvcd lcxf zigzags, rays I i.u.l], l rou, ofsilhoLrctte aDinlals (usuelly upsiclc clorvrr). A fcrv h:rvc bctrel black flgurc friczcs in thc h:rrdlc zoDe (chariots rlc PoPLrllr), thc .onr moncst bein E thc (lR( )u P ()l RIIor)Es 12264 [l:6], tnd sonrc ofthe bcst bv

thcWrrith Prinrcr(cf. li74]).Aliroonos(sonrchavecallcdtl)cnl Antidorlrl

arc so closc to thosc

tln.lttftbutcd. ld

Thc'rc is e high proporrion of surviving Littlc Mlsrcr cups rvhich rcrulrn


ofbhck fieure Laconian cups (rvhich lrc llso dccor:rrcd rvithin) rhrt drcrc i)ust bc somc connectiol- Thc Laconiln typc n'ith thcsc dctails is csrrblished by ebout 55o o1-soor rftcr. Thc L)roop clrps probrbl,v o\\,c iothirlq to thc Lalconixll in shapc, tltottgh both nray o\\'c solllclhing ro thc colllrnon Eest (lrc'ek bl;ick cups u'hosc illlltlcncc jn Athcns rvc h:rvc observccl llrcld-v. Thc Iltcr etrd rllosr co111Ilon schcrnc ofdecorttiott tirr thc

cups) a1ld Nikosthcrlcs siqn cxarnplcs, the lbrrtrcr using rhc urldcr-foot lor thc iuscliption Ir.27]. I )etails ofthc shapc :urd schcrrlc ofdccolrtiorr :rftcr lrbotrt 5,1o


tiolrr Lxcol)ie, l]o\vcVcr-. A thcr)i:rn pxintcrs incl p()ttcr\ \\ crc nc\:cr itb()vc lcilrniDq fiortr potcntitl I ivtls. (;l tv(, c()rltcxfs fot_ thL_ lltcst J)r'oop ctrps brinq thcln clorvr to about j ro, but sollc .,l,irh bl:rck bodics .pPcu'cr'c, lrlcr, arcl thcrc is t,vcn :r, c-rxnlplc \\,itlr H:Liirrorir, clccoratio, ol. rhc sccond quilrtcr ofrhc fltih ccnrur.r,. (lA\sri. (iuls, hltvc :r r.lthcr fi.,t. b-,r,J .ur1. ,h.t1,c -rnd rrr srrrcreliy. srrrrll lr;ol. Borh lip errci bod1. rrc Lrsuellv cnr, *.ith sirlplc irtter-nc.l beucis. I ongrrcs it thc lip urrLl r:l) s ;rbor,,c thc usull Lirtic M:r'slcr' ftrot rs ,r corrnol schcnrc, lrd I fi.,,r udcl silhoucffc liqurcs in thc hanclic zonc_ All ucrc probirblv urdc in e short per-iocl u,ithil thc llsr thirtl, l.cers ofrhc srxth ccrrtLlt\', but tltc'schcrnc'of thc dccorxtiorr clcrives fiolt Siln,t cLrt,s. r.rtJrer thrrl Littlc Mesrcrs, ;rrrcl thcrc is .r l,rte \i-rn L cup rn Wiirzburrg llol r,r.ith :r Littlc Mestcr fbor, Crsscl roDsucs on rhc lip end ,ruo.l :r,,i,rr"1 i.i"r". tu
I )r

rop t rr p


rlr'r rVc

\lrr rrrr,. llr li( iIr'1,rr r,. L. ,, ,' 'rrippcdfiorrhir:tundluid.tsiclc'. lltcrliuoftrrrrtlcis,rllr'.rrlr,lrrt.rrrt. r , i rlrr is Eos u ith Mcmnou, thc urtist rlirl bcrhinkingilllt.rtlr ol lrlr rrLrrrr I l, r' L thotrghriirl if sorrrctinrcs irnprccisc eftist. Thc l',rrir r r ri ( )r lir rr rN r, ., r'r nl()r-c acxdcnric wilh a srrbjecr rellge xrld stylc closcr t() rlr()!( (il r , ,,r l, li. Irvo ofrhc vxscs I show arc rtypicelly original u,irh r secrrlir L l r 15 i 1 lr\ niuuc vasc) iind a dancc of rnurumcts plilyjnlj clvllicrs lr;7], tlrcrr ,,'Lrrtr,itrttrybcnotcd,inthcoldkonrrstclress.ThcknL'etrc:rblcrsonlr.;61 l, r

()ihcr dlcss to hcr cf
c\ :

rrr in qricf , nliscs e corllcr-

clc rorrsllxtc thc :lllccstrV.


Mustcrs: nonc :rrc sigrcd. Artrrsis lrrdc ard clccorated e skvphos rclatcd to but \^ rrh .r r.rll fL;urc fi.iczc, rnd I(nlrovr,Nls nricic onc- u,irh thc h.Ir(l .up 5rh!.Drr r,fder.,r.,trorr bLrt rcsplcDdc|t u,itb sp;rcccl rccl lincs iD anc{ otrt, lncl idlritilq I tondo \\'irhirr li3.1i. Lrdcccl, i, spirc,rfth" ficilc cetc qorisation of cup shepcs.rcccptc,d Lrl,schole:-s, thcrc is ,,vcitlth e ofirclivrdrrll irvcrtion encl v;rriatiou ol) thc stock scltcntcs: hr.trrids too to confitsc thc hnrilv rrccs .jrrst ls thc C l)i1inrcr. hrd to dccor-ltri it Si:rnil cup rvirh I Little Mlsrcr firot, so Hcr-nroqencs.rnd Anrrsis nreclc lip cups rvith I Sianl tbor.
thusc slt.rpts.

scp:tretc.-or)crrvc lips (1ikc blncl cups) al)d fi,er likc sorltc cYc cLrpil i 1: l. Thcr lcss distinquishccl end pr.obubli evor lxtcr.rlrrrr thc urain r;.,.l"rl nif_irJ.

lip eucl io',r'lierins lbor, orvilq norhin:j h) L L,rilf[ Tlr.r .,,...].l..r.rrccl likc blnd ctrps lrJ t l. lJANDsr(yl,Horlrcsirrrilrr:lt.l.c,,r.,rudbur.r,.s.1rr rrtur, rvith

. l)ccPcl clrinkilq vcssels, .on-cspondirls to rhc skyphoi of Corinrhierr shlpc in thc I{orrrlsr (iroup, rvcr-c.rlso rrrlJc Lri.s,r,,r. Lirtl" Mlstcr potcrs. Thc fincsr irrc thc HlrM()cENi AN sK \ r,uor, r,, i rlr elrlic.rrc rv.Llls, . hvhtlf l]lrring

, L,L)\'crlrioDel crlough blrt thc strg is. surprisirlg lovc !!ift. t )i ll)c irrrrrcdiate sLlccessor s tllc ['RrN(ir] r ()N l'ArN r[r [] Jt-i 4ol is leprcscD ,r r L ot scvclal wh()sc \\,ork on bcllv lncl ncck lurphorac ofthc usurl l:rtcr \ r L (y occupies the thircl cluartcr ofthc sixth ci:'rltur-). ]'hey turrl thc ,,, I nrotiii r,.,,idr slight origirr:tl vrri:rtions, end show rw:lrclrcss rethcr thrl) ' r,l( rrtirnding of ncw dcvelopmerlts, as in thc rcprcscllretioll of dr:rpcr,v, 1,, rLL'r' r'crdcrcd by en Excki:rs. Yct thcrc is sonrcthing of thc nrestcr on I r,1o] , r lr its clrcful florals and sratucsqlrc 6gurcs- ln m:uly rcspccrs rhcsc rvorks , ,.rlLl rhc cxluusrion ofblnck tignrc as:r nlljor srylc ofvxsc p:rirrririr end it r [, s rhc invcrrrion of r-cd 6gu:c, a]rout J.lo, to qivc e ncrv lclsc oflifi'to drc , , lrricltLc. Mcenu.hilc thcy cnhlncc ouI k olvlcdgc ofAthcr)ixn trcitlllcr)l of r\ rll. -fhc l)Arr* rHns (ll MuNrcH r.+ro |,1r ]rrrd Vl'rtc:aN j6j cirn solllctirrcs r\(' to bcttcr work, br.rt this is :rn lrcl firr thc conroisscur_ of irttlibuti,,u, I , r:Lrnllirics arc hirrd to crxsp and drc futurc of Athcrlian vxsc printilrg lx),

Other pot painters and Nikosthenes

Wc hlvc elr cad v lookccl rt thc wor k oisoru c puintcrs rvlro rnev havc snt in ci-rc surr]c stlrdioi :ls thc grcil t ir.tists ol.this pcrjod _ Lvdos, A trrsis, Exckil]j. Thcr.c erc othcrs, nol or)l\'conlnlittcd to dccoreting thc largct vlscs (rrstrnlly bclly ernphorrc), uho echicvccl sorrc distirclion ,rnd nr,ry iluinr sonrc,or.iginalir)i, eltltough ovcrshedor.r,cd bv rhcir.coDtcnrporrricr; ,rc c,r,, stLrclli 1-q.,1,.",,d first tirrrc rhc opc-r-etiou oil rlljor workslrop, th;rt ofNikoschcncs. rviro sal, to it rhet a nrrrjoritt ofrhc vescs hc rrr:rrkctccl borc his uarrc. Fint, sontc paintcrs who irc c(rltcntfor-u.rL.j of (iroLtp E bLrr ,.1rrit

intcrcst\ :tnd sonrc indivirir.ralitl. 'l'hc irernc vesc of thc l),\rNTr,R ()r. lrrE Va tLi:aN Moulr.rrn It34] shorvs :r woltrxD still)ding ovcr rirc bodv of e dcld lren, Iricl out crrclirlll on br anchcs in -r rr ,...1i.rn.1 s..ftrrrq, ,ulr., .- ti,. r...s



clorncstic occasiol)s ilrcludill!i the sr,vingirrg n,hich givcs hirrr his r.rrnc lr4:]. Hc c:tn usc colour skilftllly firr drcss p:rttcrrs. His corrrpositious ()n thc lrtcr v:rscs rvhich arc of rhc led figrrre pcriod, nlxy bcconrc ilvolvcd, bur gcrrcr:rlIy thcy:rrc prosricrlll,sinrplc lnd his st1,lc, ucvcr vcl,v prc(rsc, ..rsilv beconles carcless. Prccision is not ln csscnti:rl queliry ir rlt, bot rt r\ oftcrr irr Grcck irt, rnd cspccixllv in bllck figurc. Paiutcrs oi snrrllcr vases, other rhrrr cup p:rinters, :recd not dctain us, but thc progrcss ofthc lckl thos sh:rpc end its clccoretion is worth attcntion. Thc oirl ' Deirnira ' shapc persisted, espccirl),r, thc ' sub-l)cierrirr' rvhich hrs e short r)cck bciow its cLrp-likc lip. Thc I)u,ltros l)AINr, rlerrrcd fbr thc cloilk shilr c(l b,v rrvo rvonrcn on scvcrrl ofhis vilscs l r4Tl, peirts irr plrrcls ir lr goocl stl,lcol' thc 54os;erd littlc lrtcr rhcrc is thc 1]r.^cKNr,cK Clrr\ss (sclf-cxp litlliltor ), of

\\ Llll othcl-s. 'I-hc SwrN(; Parurtn [14:-6] st:rnds olrt in this crorvd tirr rhc nunrbcr of r.rscs rvhich c:rn bc:rtributcd to hinl, r,,,hich rnay rcllcct thc clsc rvith rvhich lrr: henci can bc rcc<)glliscd r:rrhcr thxr) his irrdostry. Hc is rrot r good p:rir)tcr, rol r corscious corncdixrr, although his pllcid 6!.rrrcs rvirh thcir bis hcecls, t.rshior:rbly tiny noscs, rlrd oftcn clcrchcd tlsts, brirg e snrilc to onr 1ips. Hc ,r olkcd rnairly fronr ebout jrto to J20, r'vith a goocl mnqc of ryth sccrcs, e Lrnicluc Hcr:iklcs rud l3trsiris { r 431, errd sonrc odditics likc rucr on stilts | 7 4+]


l' l( It

srrirll j(.k\thoi dcc()rirrcd \\'ith sprightly if carclcss 6gLrrcs, aqairr il pal cls { l7 t]. l}Lrt tlte fioulclcr ickythos is tlte dortrinrnt typJ by u,r*, its slr,rul,i., bccorring Hltter end brotdc'r givirq ,r.r.. u..r,."1_ lor rhu bocly


cup l7o] end bclly lrnphor:r) thc llMN parN.r rn is thc bcsr, :rncl probablr thc cxrlicst silcc I Sixna clrp elcl sontr, Littlc Mestcrs (onc, :r lip cup signccl

ofhis prodlrcts erlr)rjlroLls!.rnd rlrc orrqureilry oi his lrom thc'Drrlr:bcr o[]ris rr orks . td i..rru ri, u hr.h havc comc to bc' callcd 'Nikosrircnic'. Lt ctrps alonc, rvc havc lip cups, brnd cups (oucc collrborltinq rvirh Auaklcs and onc plinrcd firr hirn t l"ju9, t l,.,r,rp cups etrcl cyr.cups :l l),pe wc llevc vct to clcscritrc ancl whiih " brinqs us wcll into drc r cd 6gurc pcr iod. Sonrc ofthc cy.c crps hrvc r ler sc, spcciel, sp1.r r,,rr r Lrot platc (Nikosthcnic). This sug5;csts th:Lt his srtrclio *,"i f.,r,,, ,,r.,,, ".ti,r" tilkcs ()vc[, elicr thc nrid ccntur-\' Lultil nclr 5 r o, u,hcn thc pottcr plrmphaios cnrplol,ing nrorc r.ccl figurc irtisrs. 'l'hc .Nikosthcric thc most "urplr,r.",is clistinctivc producr ofthc studio Ir.19, t 5ol. Its brord flat hnndles lnd ensuler bodv, which slirrrs as tinrc passcs, inritlrc I shapc nrtivc to Etruriil and c\ccuted rhcrc in a pilin bilck rvlrc (bLrcchcro) with, rt thc bcst, stanrpccl dccoration.'lhc black figurc vcrsion m:rdc in Athcns rv:rs clcerll,elr cxp()rt nroclel ancl is I furrhcr irclicarion of Nikosthcncs, lleir tbr bLrsincss encl ddvcytisctDcrlt Alntost evcr) sitrqlc cxettpic with a rccordcd provcniclcc $,ls foulld iD (llcrc, tvhile I Dr:rjority ofhis othcr vases N,cnt ro Vulci- an ocld distribution rcflcftins loc;rl tastcs in Eh.rrrir, anci somc ctcclit to Nikosthcncs, egents. Thc ligtr rc clccor;1tio11 nt ir v ovct-lap lll th rcc bod ztrr v cs un ticlily I r J o], or bc clisposcd in friczcs lr49i, s.nrc rnirrrll or florel, irilc thc hencllJs coLrlcl elso cirly figtrrcs and the iip had a dccorelivc bancl t,ithin. Nikosthcncs' obscrvatiorr of lorciqn shapcs docs not cncl rvith rhc rnrphor:r. The kyarhos-dippcr (scc liTrl) $,es aD;thcr Etruscen shlpc borror,r.'cd fbr Atlr.rrrrr ol.. k 6-.,,, 111',.l1l1,.pr,,b.rLrl) rrrr,,tlrrcrd..rnnh, Lrri,r,t.L,.,.k,r,ro rht Arircni.rrr rcpLrror\ rhu [.urc]) Corinrhien skyphos shrpe (riqnc.l uudc, tlr! t,,,,r) .lrdphiJlri,.lr(..r\r(nrIr,,nzcshapc.Thcsc]Lrrtspla].ilgli.crofcups rrrdc iu r (lheiciclian colony il ftaiy;rrc copied (s"cp. io7,';r761). Thc 'Nikosthcrricpvxis', r,ith Ile ng bocly encl dorrrcd li<l islcs..J.tal,ri1,lo,r",rf his iDv c:rtio s (lt 5.11 ; krr :r cornplcrc cxanrplc scc l:671). Hc sieDs (or1 rhc top ofthc lip) onc ofthe crr.licsr c-unrplc\ \)f., p,ykr.._.o.,i". r i i+ l. H. nr.,,, hrvc intr-odLrccd thc Ltsc of the 'Six rcchnJqLrr' tor nr.r;,rr j".t,,1-,t,.,, .,t u",,.:l (scc l-;o9l .rnd p. r 7ll), encl hc uas rrrong rhc 6rsr to use e ,"vhicc groLrnd tot 111"1\-f1Sy1." dccorirrion fiuus bi his pritrtcr ofLorrvtc F r r7). C)f Niko.sthc-ncs'stefl peiritcrs, latcr than his potrint f,-ri Lr,dos (,r barrcl
celr []e girugcd

work, so ile rvas clcarlv x poftcl.or pottcry owncr, ;,.irrrriil1, 6yra, ii-ranr", ,,, judgc t'ronr thc c()lrlnlor queiity ofinvcnrivencss displavcd bv most of his
shlpes. Thc rarrgc

Thc sinnarurc of Nrros lHrxrs is thc conuuorcst of :rll ir bl:rck fisurc: rl\'lys rvith ' cpoicscrr ' end u ith scvcrel cli6irent h;rncls srrpplr,in!I rhc 6'qrir_c

L , , \ rrd opcn dccoration Ir5z] (l3ellerophorr xtle.ks thc (llrirrr,rlr.L ir,,rrr rl,, , lrLr sirlc' of tlrc vase). l)arNrlt N sccrtls to h:rvc cltolltrrl .rll tlr, lll,,. !r.rric ilrDphorrc [rqg, t5o), sorrc k,vlthoi ard cups lt5l], .rrr,l tlr, I r,, r;ll,lndifNikosrhcncshimsclfcvcruscdabrushthcsc nr.rr' tre lrir. , r lr .t thc 53o's end j:,o's. Thc puintini5 oflllgcr fislrres is conlpctrnt. r,l rr l, llqrrrcsdull,somctitDcssiopp)1conlirlqcloscronr:lssprrrclLrctiorr IIii rl, \ (.rr bc perticular-ly Lrngainly. Visiting rrtists wcrc bcttcr, urcltrr-lirrg l',,,'. brrr thc bcst of rhcru paintcd rccl figurc Okos, Epiktctos, thc L , ,\ll).ncs l)lintcr thc term inherltcd bv Plrrrphaios elong r,,,irh urost of L, . rrIc iDnovatiolrs.

I I ,,.r r( nc\) hevc bccn essignecl to his hlnd. To hirrr u,( rr'( rll rrr\1.(l rrr,,\l ( i I , I r)( lllrr-r.r-R()PII()N ()-Ass' arnphorac, u,ith thcir Pltrrrrp ll,ilris, , Lrrlr


,,.rllr, tno highly inclividLral nrlnncrists. Txlr AI,r,ti(r'IER (r. 54o to 5:o) ,1, ,,r.rtcs ovoid rrcck rnlphoritc of rethcl old 1:rshioncd appcarurrcr', sotrrc 1, ',rrl;,iroracincludingthe:rerv'I',vPcCrvithlrollcdlip lr 56], end srrrlllcr ' , ,. llis figures hlvc rirly heeds, rvell upholstcrcd bodics rvhcu drcssc'cl, bul ,r Lrl.rl erd spikr.rvhcn urrdrcsscd: thcy arc casiil rccogniscd lt55 7]. llis I LLr( nl uolk is curcful a d es odd in irs proportioDs es his 6gurcs, rvith rvclJ , Lrnq littlc palmcrrcs lt thc cnd oalong thin tend: iJs, skituty btLt rvcll f<rrmccl -['hc p.ttctrir]!; l, ,Lr ses rnd a rrsh oftiny rcd end white dots ell ovcr- clothing. (lrcck , i llorrls is close to thrt of sorne Easr bllck Frgr-rrc studios (Clazortrcrrr. the Northanrpton (iroup) ind irl i pcriod whcn so ttrLrch clsc oalonl.lrl ,,1 rtil sccnls to hilvc bcclr illroduccd in Athenlan art irr sculpturc:rnd L ,lritccturc \\:e probxbl,v oLrllht to look lor influcncc in thc vesc paintirrg \ I rlor instenccs ofcopying rrc unlikcly end ir is nrorc likc noticing Arrr,,ririsrrs in current E:rqlish usegc. Thc Afii-ctcr is r srvlist es rro othcr, and thc ,,,olkcldcrsstrDd r(l gcsticulirre pointlcssl,v u,hilc rncrr lccosl youths or :r Hcrnrcs flutlers l,tti)rc e scatcd Zcus lr 551. It is:r rnekc-bciicvc worlcl, illd if tlrc Arhcrti-rrr r.rdition hrd nor beeu to put figurcs on pot\ thc Aliictcl rlight h;rvc provcd r outstiuldirlg and origillili cxponcnt oi Archeic art notrvcru. His letcst rrpholr('hxvc florr]s, not 6gurcs or thc ncck [157] xrld or]c oftllcrtr w;rs

l,.rintcd fol Jriru bl rn attist oftllc sros, u,hich hclps plrcc his rathcr cltrsivc Hc u,es possibl) 1 pottcr-p.iDtcr. 'rr Ic. 'fhc otlrcr nrerncrist was crllccl ELBows Ou r' (r. 55o to -53o) by Bclzlcy for

llrc cxeggerited gcstur_cs arld enetolny of his dancitrg figurcs- His tteck .nr)pl)orac erc oflr specia) sh:rpc rvith heavl,ovoicl boclics, slirn flaring r-rccks, fcct end fl:rt hrrndlcs usually decorltcd with a irurcl b.rnd It 5 d]. Tlrc

shrprc:r;rv ou,c sonrethinq to bronzc xlnphorac. Hc ofltcrs scveral ftiezcs orr thcsc v:rscs, bnt is also a Littlc Mastcr, irnd dccorrted scvcrel barrd cups t,hcrc r hc animels :rre norc car)onical, recalling Tlcson or L),.los. Thcy apPcer llsc, on thc l,vdiorr Ir59], onc of thc lerc Athcni:ru jmitltions of lhc LydirD


l)crflrnlc v:tsc shapc. Hc is


lirrie interestc'cl in [ryth


thc Allcctcr, [rorc


intcrcstcd in lovc-nrekiug. Thc stvlc is r:rorc virrorously appcelinq too, rno).c 'nornral', u,ith scdation rcntovcd. lloth artists cilrl rcctll Am:rscen 6gurcs, brrt not thc typic:rllv Anrascan oDcs, arrd coDncctions bctwcc thc tltrcc lrc- e:rsily exeggcrxtcd, cvcn thollgh thc:e is sliglrt c'videncc thet thev n)xv havc sxt togcthcr for pottcrs crrly irl thcir ciuecr w']lor plinting sholrldcr lekyth,.,r.

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ryhotut (

tlt (:) by ttu AlltLt(

llli,1tt. Ztt'

rrr Nrrl
dnl Haiti-

ar+liom l,r,riti I I. ti'i!

'/4,.7 F' ?Q

Chapter Five


,, r1 ilol](i,rrlorcProb:rblvc:rrlicrrhlrni'rtcr,rhcrcdligurctccllllitlu' "f rv'rs I , ,,, u.r. ,,rr.,rt"d in Arhcrrs rtn<l thc first rrtist to prlcllsc it rcglrler-lv r, t,,,l,,kid", l'.rirrtcr. Hc nlso r,r'orkcd irr bl:ick tigurc, sorrrctirrcs or1 tllc , r.Lrc *,ith thc rrcrv rcchlliqlrc, rncl othcr clr-l,v rccl figur-c printcrs rlrrr etlrectcrl to 1,, ,,'.1 thcse 'bilingtl:r1s'. Not lll rhc tlcst pirirltcl-s \\icrc lrow rvhlch rvcr c .,',.. Ihc rcchni.1,.tc inrrocluccd lrclr lllcthods oidrlr'vinq . ',Ll br artirts con,,rrirrcd lo rhc old slylc trrd rvhich infltrcrrccd.rhcir


Nik dali."t


ltu I ttttu,


, L .

ri." Nrl i,rtr,.rd,t l,//,rir() .It t. i

t59 Iyd,,t

i lht Lr k\ d Lll,rt\ () tt.9

L i

.t s incrc:rsinq irircrcst irl tllcsc nllv bc rc:rd rts:r r-cil'rioD lliill11st lhc I))()1c ,r,sque srvlc.'lr rvls, horvcvcr, Jrtgcl,v vitilrecl bY I r{ccrctsng Lrsc of ,1,,1,r, rvhicir h;r,:l helpcd (lifii'r'cDlilrtc clrcsscd fiqurcs bclilrc':rrrcl this ruel' '( vrmcthill!a to rcd flqu:c. Withrll rhc outlrlrc figurt-s tlcteils rvcrc dleu'tl ,,1, tl,. b.udi. iurd not ilrcisccl $,'ith thc qrevcr. Thc c;rrlv rcd figtrrc rrrists I tuorc rrsc sotttc aolottr on thcir figlllcs brrt it is soon lrblllclonccl iil ncrT ' techrrirltrc bcttcr ,r l,lc linc:rr', ' bl:rck errd rvhitc', cllict u'hich srtitccl thc , , ,r thc c,lct. Gonc, ior irrstltrcc, is rhc olcl colotrr dilii'tcrrtirtio of r''x' lrorrgh rhcrc is sotrtr'crpcritlrcnttl !rsc of lvhltc qroLrlld bY thc-ArltLrkldr:s ,rrtci rnd I):tscls. Thc lrsc'ofr blush elso gevc thc oppor-rtrrrirl fi>r diflcrcllt 'rclicf linc'to tlilutc rplr.rsrs i:r rhc lirrc 11r;rr'virrg, fiortr rhc cnsp bl:rck ,,,.r,-..,i..,.",1 strokcs uhich thc cvc ber-el,v c:rtchcs' ln this.rl:r1'difiircnt r '.turcs oiclr,rpc, y ,rl-stlcllgth ()fboclY llloclcllirlg cotllcl bc rcrrclcrcd ln hl'rr k rtLrrc lhc tclttPt];iorl wls l; usc !hc qrxver likc a brush u'ith.lightcl'.scr-rrtchv rncl drlpctl l'hcrc rll bctilc rvrs cxplicit :rntl pr''' it' ' ,,,,k"s ,ru "u,ti,,rr,1 nlorc clctl,ilc.l rrrrd rcirlistic trcelrnerrt oflrte[otrrr ulso.'rrcourrgc.l Lrc btttsh blltck tigtrtr's Lirri lttcrrtiorr to dcpictiotl ofpostulc. CoPv lhis lrcw rc:rlisnl on lili likc rc'l' nrorc thc u'ith ,Lrtl thc rcsult is btiL,nd t,-, srrt}cr b-r'cc,rrrp,rrison

Untll rbout joo lhcrr wcrc ir..onrplishcd ;rrrists still rvorking in bllt k ' ,,rr1\', so |rr as rvc cenjtrclgc, u ith lt fcrv tlsillg both tcchrltltrcs' erltl it is l Lrr k rvc- cortsirlcl irl this chllptcr. Ilrrr l'c hevc first to look et thc ncn' is thc ] cYclsc r Lr quc tojud!ac whltit coulcloflcrtothcold Thc ellict I 6l-zl ,,,1,,tiu. lf bl,rck ligrtrc. Thc frgnrcs rrc clltr'rar in otrrlinc rrrrl lcfi irr thc , ,,,I,rut.,rf th. c1.ry u'hilc lhc b:rckglotrnd \vls fiintcd ell.bleck Thir \\ thcrnirrtotlrorcvividrclicfrhlrrbhckfiglrrc lrclidrlottllekcthcDl'lrtv L rrlsv to rlistillgtlisll in ovcrlrtpprnq conrpositiolls, erld rllc blrck figtrrc


'/4,.7 F' ?Q

Chapter Five


,, r1 ilol](i,rrlorcProb:rblvc:rrlicrrhlrni'rtcr,rhcrcdligurctccllllitlu' "f rv'rs I , ,,, u.r. ,,rr.,rt"d in Arhcrrs rtn<l thc first rrtist to prlcllsc it rcglrler-lv r, t,,,l,,kid", l'.rirrtcr. Hc nlso r,r'orkcd irr bl:ick tigurc, sorrrctirrcs or1 tllc , r.Lrc *,ith thc rrcrv rcchlliqlrc, rncl othcr clr-l,v rccl figur-c printcrs rlrrr etlrectcrl to 1,, ,,'.1 thcse 'bilingtl:r1s'. Not lll rhc tlcst pirirltcl-s \\icrc lrow rvhlch rvcr c .,',.. Ihc rcchni.1,.tc inrrocluccd lrclr lllcthods oidrlr'vinq . ',Ll br artirts con,,rrirrcd lo rhc old slylc trrd rvhich infltrcrrccd.rhcir


Nik dali."t


ltu I ttttu,


, L .

ri." Nrl i,rtr,.rd,t l,//,rir() .It t. i

t59 Iyd,,t

i lht Lr k\ d Lll,rt\ () tt.9

L i

.t s incrc:rsinq irircrcst irl tllcsc nllv bc rc:rd rts:r r-cil'rioD lliill11st lhc I))()1c ,r,sque srvlc.'lr rvls, horvcvcr, Jrtgcl,v vitilrecl bY I r{ccrctsng Lrsc of ,1,,1,r, rvhicir h;r,:l helpcd (lifii'r'cDlilrtc clrcsscd fiqurcs bclilrc':rrrcl this ruel' '( vrmcthill!a to rcd flqu:c. Withrll rhc outlrlrc figurt-s tlcteils rvcrc dleu'tl ,,1, tl,. b.udi. iurd not ilrcisccl $,'ith thc qrevcr. Thc c;rrlv rcd figtrrc rrrists I tuorc rrsc sotttc aolottr on thcir figlllcs brrt it is soon lrblllclonccl iil ncrT ' techrrirltrc bcttcr ,r l,lc linc:rr', ' bl:rck errd rvhitc', cllict u'hich srtitccl thc , , ,r thc c,lct. Gonc, ior irrstltrcc, is rhc olcl colotrr dilii'tcrrtirtio of r''x' lrorrgh rhcrc is sotrtr'crpcritlrcnttl !rsc of lvhltc qroLrlld bY thc-ArltLrkldr:s ,rrtci rnd I):tscls. Thc lrsc'ofr blush elso gevc thc oppor-rtrrrirl fi>r diflcrcllt 'rclicf linc'to tlilutc rplr.rsrs i:r rhc lirrc 11r;rr'virrg, fiortr rhc cnsp bl:rck ,,,.r,-..,i..,.",1 strokcs uhich thc cvc ber-el,v c:rtchcs' ln this.rl:r1'difiircnt r '.turcs oiclr,rpc, y ,rl-stlcllgth ()fboclY llloclcllirlg cotllcl bc rcrrclcrcd ln hl'rr k rtLrrc lhc tclttPt];iorl wls l; usc !hc qrxver likc a brush u'ith.lightcl'.scr-rrtchv rncl drlpctl l'hcrc rll bctilc rvrs cxplicit :rntl pr''' it' ' ,,,,k"s ,ru "u,ti,,rr,1 nlorc clctl,ilc.l rrrrd rcirlistic trcelrnerrt oflrte[otrrr ulso.'rrcourrgc.l Lrc btttsh blltck tigtrtr's Lirri lttcrrtiorr to dcpictiotl ofpostulc. CoPv lhis lrcw rc:rlisnl on lili likc rc'l' nrorc thc u'ith ,Lrtl thc rcsult is btiL,nd t,-, srrt}cr b-r'cc,rrrp,rrison

Untll rbout joo lhcrr wcrc ir..onrplishcd ;rrrists still rvorking in bllt k ' ,,rr1\', so |rr as rvc cenjtrclgc, u ith lt fcrv tlsillg both tcchrltltrcs' erltl it is l Lrr k rvc- cortsirlcl irl this chllptcr. Ilrrr l'c hevc first to look et thc ncn' is thc ] cYclsc r Lr quc tojud!ac whltit coulcloflcrtothcold Thc ellict I 6l-zl ,,,1,,tiu. lf bl,rck ligrtrc. Thc frgnrcs rrc clltr'rar in otrrlinc rrrrl lcfi irr thc , ,,,I,rut.,rf th. c1.ry u'hilc lhc b:rckglotrnd \vls fiintcd ell.bleck Thir \\ thcrnirrtotlrorcvividrclicfrhlrrbhckfiglrrc lrclidrlottllekcthcDl'lrtv L rrlsv to rlistillgtlisll in ovcrlrtpprnq conrpositiolls, erld rllc blrck figtrrc


pxirltcrs and thc pot paintcrs. Thc belly amphora is falling from favtrLrr., c'xcept lbr son)c of Type A. Thc neck enphora is thc coilmoncst anlph()r,t shapc arrd thc schcrnc of clecoratioll is soon stcrc-oryped, u,irh floral on tlrc ncck and a f,rir1y sirnpic palmcttc cross bcneath the handles, asllg6]..I.lrc hydria is far morc popular: shouldercd now, so thxt therc is a s(,pxrrtc shouldcr scenc and for a while a predcill bclow the nrain scenc, aslrgol, figuring enimals, horsemcn or a hunt, rarcly myth. Later (after thc A[tirrcn(,s Painter) thcre is only a fforal herc. Red figure plurls, w irh bl.rr k b.rckgrouncls, rccluircd decorative borders to sct them oIf froll1 the black body oithc vrsc and thc schemc is copicd on black 6gurc vascs. Thc Littlc Masters givc pl:r.c to cups ofTypc A the eyc cups, as Ir 73], whilc tbe dceper skyphoi iome irrrr: fashion,rs Ir,ir-z]. Thc lckythoi now acquirc rhei, frrrrili", iyli,,d.icrl .h"p. btrr the full range oflatc biack figurc lekythoi, togcrher wirh tirc ncw serics ol. oinochoai and somc new shapcs likc rhe rrrrt6rd 611p5 1p" r,ot ch.r r-rctcristic ol' the bcst biack figurc ofthc late sixth ccntury, and will be considcred in a latcr

vesc plilting 1ie clscwherc. Tltc shrpcs u,hich occu1ry thc artists now arc gcncrally dillercnt and wc carr ot-rscrvc nrorc spccialisation and clearcr distinction bctwccn thc crrp luchicvcrr:cnLs

'l hcsc ,r rc tlrc l.rr tors ,"vhich pllycd on thc work of thc black figure artists wc hrvc yct to discrrss, uncl it nrust bc rcnrcmbcrcd that from nou) o,, thc


of Athcnilrn


(nre lrirrr(l rlrr' lr1, ,,1 rlrr v11scs signcd by tl-rc pottcr Aldokides arc by \rr,,,r rr,r s t'.rrNrr:i1l 6o-61. All arc rcd figure but onc, ir cuP irr l)xlclrrr()' r\ York hirs ir lrrll l,l.r, l' ligurc a bilinguel, and thc rcd 6gurc arnphora ill-Ncw c:rrr l)c bilirrlltrrtls eld vascs 6gurc i,t, 1 i,,,,',.ii*hir" g..,.,",td) lip. Othcr rcd


work rl,,,rrr tlris:rncl in thc cnd prefcrrcd to ettibute thc black figurc of co[grucnce gencral , , ,,,t1 .r tist, thc Lysippidcs Paintcr. Thcre is a clcar is not thc techniqucs bctwcc:r ofdctail cxrit .on-rpari.o,,s ,, l, ,',,1 "lrirough gonc out of his w:ry to vary-dt:tail ,l',,',,.'t",sucliafineartistiliihthrve a singlc vasc wcrc supcr6cially on sccnes thJ when ,,,,,p,rrl,ion cvctl ,,,,f r,l,l , Lr ll- so hc was very thorough on sorrlc vascs hrdeed, it looks as rhough hevc bccn the artist's intcntion, sincc the problcm ariscs nost

lc worrlcl sccnr rc:rsoneble to suppose th:1t orrly orrc ,rirrt ,,,, ,t,,,,,1,1 t,, tlri, ".tiit. tbc techDiquc, but Bcazlcy changcd his nlind twi(t whatcver , ,r,,lvcrl, r



Ir6l] and not with n)any ofthc attributcd xllvascs wherc thc work ofa singlc herrd is rnorc all-rcd-"6gure l,l ,, l. lLqurc and ,1,,, r f,:-31. So the Ando"kidcs Paintcr did pair.rt black frgurc ancl it is diflicult arc one and thc ,, , , .,1,. ,lr" conclusion that hc and the Lysippides Printcr " y red figurc' 'in' c onl h painted e .,r',, lt is at any rate quite inconccivable that


w,ilh soluc bilinguals

figurc artists, thc atatontical dctail ofnakcd bodies is bettcriendcred. and thc tyr:f frop frontal chest to profilc hip is achievcd with nerr plausibility by shifting the stomach pattcrn to onc side. For three-cluartcr vicws ofobjucts rhc combiuation of frorrr aud profile can lead to soine odd cllects, as witlr shiclds, but clcmcntary forcshortcning is menagcd aorl this is all better observed_ il rcd figurc. Drapery pattcrns arc simpler and thcre is gencrally less colour addcd, buc thc arrangcrncnt offolds with zigzag edges is iow norrnal. Thc ncck flomis now havc tJrin lotuses, palrncttes with scpaiatc leavcs, and lc,ss :urd lcss addcd colorr. The reliol'linc ofthick black paint standiDg up boldly fronr thc vasc surfacc had bccn uscd sirrcc thc, mid cer,t.r.y in bJr.:k fig.,." t., separatc tongues in decor:rtivc friezcs x[d for spears or sccptrcs_ It conlcs Lnto its own now for outlincs and cmphatic dctaiJ in red figurc but has a reduccd rolc ifanything in black figurc. Outline incision for black figurc secrrs almost a countcrput to the corltour rclief linc. It lrad been uscd before but it rs intcresting to noticc'how it bcconrr.s comn-ron agein especially on thc work of bilinguists likc'rhe Andokidcs Paintcr and psiax. It helps dcfine thc fisurcs whcrc the background is a rich rcd, arr intcnsity ofcolour lost through timc aud cle:riring, and dclibcratcly tollcd down by thc photogrilpher.

Thc drlwing convcntiorls arc unaltered but, following thc lead of


and ,,,1,,,,.1t,", which u'xs obviously invented by a skilful black figure artist' such spccialist$ (ifthere werc muralist distinguished a t,riinstence, r,,,r 'in'-'r somc r,,,r,r ,lcrails antl patterni arc borrowcd straight from black figurc So We ,,t lrl bleck figurc vascs could be carlier than thc red figure or bilinguals hAvc whi''h 6gures with amphorac tbc somc of , ,,,',,,, :'"y ,."iily *hich, but l t was aln ost as though Exckias


to b" orr"'of thc 6rst, if not thc fiISt prxctitioncr in the ncw

lr,,l t.rkelr uP his brush xgain but in another mxn's workshop' and ii i\


,.,llv .rg.'e..1th"t the A;dokides Painter was Exekias' Ptrpil Certainly the ,, ,,l,riu,i ir'th. ,"rr", so whxt xrc thc dillercnces? ln dctails they arc too llrcat r,,,Llorvidcntification Ornamcntis much the same and son-re firvourite sccoes .r, rcpcxted il1 mrrch thc serne manncr Ajax and Achillcs piaying' Hcrekles

rllLr.tntions choscn hcrc. Sonre sccncs still carry an Exckien dignity but llot lacking' is r , Lrcrelly the compositions arc looser and iDvenlion, thorgh in rh' biack slr'kcr brrt bctonres is conrp'rr'rble precision ,u t ritti"rrt. fh" ',,,, rccl rlJ]urc ln lhc conlposrnon oIExeklrrr morc is in a way tl-rerc lrrtLrc, and to is intcrcstille lt .',r'k,'b,.tt hc.c cor't,p"risorrs bccotttc cven morc dilfrcult
, )t' Hcrakles

is a particr-rlar favourite as can bejudged



har:l Lrucrrs or,r".f ,rnpl-ro,"", bulll .rrnphorac of thc ncw TyPe A' which Masros Thc hydriac and cr.rps cyc Exckias, by irrrrodtrced lr..n ,,,,r'iLrtu l'rrn rrt, i. ol tlrl. grurrp. rrJnrcd irTlrr rlre brc"tt-'h-P'd ' rrp l/o7l'

'ihc black figurc work oithc Andokides Paintcr ind ofartists

i.c that DlosI o f thc bilinguals


y rlo nrc'tns thc carlicst ofhis vases' closc to hin)




I r0,r'-r 7r

rcrrinccl bv his contcmporerics for enothcr treditiouel prodtrct, rhc plnlthcnaic vascs, on which sinrilar Arhcna flqLlrcs:rppcar. plsclrs pairrrcd orr norrc oftllcse so wc knorv, btrr bclorc onc ofthc Arhcrrxs on a pllquc hc, siuns with r phrrsc rvhich cchocs thc lbrrrrule of thc l)enxlllcnaics ,onc of rhc printines ofPascrs'. Pcrh:rps hc hed br-cn c{iseppointccl ofan orclcr for thc
prrze vxscs.

brrt rvc rlct lrir, huvc bccrr :r prrpil ol_rhc Arnrsis l)eintcr and rhcrc it 1l1his work sonlcrhirij (,1 thc dciic;rtc prcttir)css which tlliLt arlist sollletirltcs exprcsscd, btrt it is rtrorc brittlc, lcss r-obrrst. l lc sccnrs rrluch afccted b1, rcd ligure ercl lrc uscs rvuvv lincs ftr fol<ls not to cnrphxsisc blrt ro wclkcn thc sriH-ctli,ct it was difficLrlt ro avoid in black 6sure. Fivc 6nc platcs stLr vive, pirin bur ibr sirrrplc end usrrally singlc black fiqurc srlbjccrs at thcjr ccrtrc! [r691. Hc hlcl rlrc iustint ofe rr)iniirtr.lrist rltd orl lris l]rgcr vrscs (Dcck :ll]]phorec, h\'clrixc, c;rl\.x cnttcrs etrcl lmphorec of'fypc A rhc l:rst bcinrj biiinlu.rJr) his irgurcs i.rr k rrrbrr.rrrcc but crn bc crrjol cd ir dcllil. Mosr ofllis urork plobebl1 bclones to dre yc;rrs fionr ,rLr,,rrr < ,. tu (..rr iow. A corrtc'uporerv rlso e platc peintcr rnd closc to psiil\ irr stylc wrs Prsrras (irrntctlr kuou,n es tltc Clcrbcrrrs I);rintcr), e fiuc rcd fiqLlr.(, iirtist \\,llo usccl thc'olclcr tcchniquc hrr sotrrc dcdicrtorv pl:lqlrcs loLltrd olr thc ArhunteD Acropolis. Thcy u,crc prcplrcd rvith e linc rvhitc grourd, eud rli rcprcscnr Athcnl Il7.ul, sorncrinrcs :Llorrr-. The bJeck ligurc tcchnique r,r,es bcirrg

I I,,rirrtrrl ;r bililcLrrl urnphore lbr the pottcr Anclokidcs, rr,rrrrr. frortr r\\,() rcd flgLlc v.lses_ Bclzley thourghc hc rnigltt

(I!LrL lr I Lrl' ' ,, Is]roP s'cr c: esPollsibie lor 1lln) ' iurd thc ltrtlsts rvlr. tli ( I)r'rl( I lr' ' rLl' tcr lrrrrrlrr' rrcu' rhc of prrctltioncrs ,,, , ,,r,r'u,.g rhc v.'ry 6r,cst bl rr I' lrrlrrr' rrr'l lirr il)vcrrlcd w:rs it srncc us occtlP-v r 1,,, ho\\'cvcr, lllLlst



'\{ ao1lr1lorll)'
I hc

', ',,,,,,rq"trl,"tup.trrrr.rllr.r 1'l'trnblurrttoclikcthcLittlcMlstcrs'bLrttIrL' I ,l,,ru.irrl" rvithrliirc loot is pairrtccl bllck A lcss coutrnon shePc irr bIr' k rop of tllc toc r rc is fypc Il, u'ith e c(nltintlous culvc fro1l1 thc IiP orlto thc in l totrclo' rron figurc ,, n";l). iic l,,,t "tc oltcn clccoratcd l'ith:r gorq()llcioll' is I (:()l1l1l1()n devicc I ,lrng e dccoritivc borclcr, ancl :l vcl-\'

l)()\!Lrisrr)1" li' I t,srrrl veriety,Type A, es I r 7-7, l7E, I'911, hrs 't shrll()\\ slrlr\irrrl tr rtlr lrrtl is short fool Thc , , LrD. n.,t oBscr lil'cihc Lrrtl. Mrstcrs



thc ttsurl rrlarlncr \\'ith ell oullirlc, llot bl:rck figurc ircc' brLr thclc (brrr ,,, ., ti*, c.,ps r.'ith tirll irrslclcs lt5t. t7/ Outsidc' tllc trstr:rl clccorltiorr c'ilhcr on cvcs fol thc letcr cxrntplcs) is I pair oflrrgc ,,,,, i,ru".i"Lri" "rp..iallv (;rcck vrscs in drc scvcrrdr ,r. Lr"i*.^.r tl,.'lr"r'rdi.r' E-vcs hrd lppcricd on cycbr orvs' erld iu E:rst snggcstcd , I !rtLrrv, ustrlllv ullc:icr archccl heDdlcs lvhich rs irr thc c'-ve cuP wcll ls sporlt' no\c thc sidc of jug lccks, eithcr r ;,ccc.: o,t OD or'rl cLrps thcv :rr c Altic' th:rn thc rrc cirrli.r which liirl"r, u"sc\ n,,



i,rt,' 1'r',, *rrlr (\il\r'L'\\' rrrrl\ rro\t' rrrd tlx lLrll lr'i-1.'r''ri' ,, t,t tiltrr,. llr('\"r\(''u rlr'rr tl'' lr'rrrd L'1"'k l'lu' 'r''rr'\l tlr( trrrd(rrrrot '' ,,,ni , ., ,,.i* .,r,,1(([ L)] r drrnk( r's conlplnlorr, rr()t thc drinkcr hinrsclf- lt ' \\'itholll tcxr Lrr.rY bc rr()tc.l th:rt s()r11c cyes erc'fctlr;rlc'- aLllolld-shxpcd orr thc vxsc ;urd corrlposition friczc oferr,v possibility rhc a.rv ,1,,.1 r. ifr.'"t-

Ncu, tcchliclucs firr tlciltin!a thc background to figurc dccoration oD viscs ilppcilr lnorc frcqLlcr)tlv lro\\,. P:rsces used a finc, glossv white or crcetD rr his plequcs rnd onc phtc, x tcchr)iquc \vhich airpcared by ebout 5:5 lnd is ottcn nsccl on irtcr bleck fierrrc. Ilc sornctirncs usccl a sccond. rvhitcr rvhitc fbr rvolicn's flcsh, btrt on a lvhite qroutrd thc l:rcllcs wcrc bouncl soon to h:rvc bieck faccs. Psil-x r.rscs rvhitc grorrnd on othcr.shrpcs alabestre. :r lckythos piatc and kylthos lr7rl. Thc Anclokiclcs l)aintcr hld uscd u4ritc sr.ound cxpcrirrrcnt:rlly on onc 'rcd figtrc' vasc (as rlocs l)ascrs olrcc! or) ;t rccl figurc pl:rquc) :rncl lbr a bleck fignrc liiczc on rhc lip of arlorhcr. Exckias hacl introducccl thc corrl rcd backqround orr his l)ionysos cup I o4 l)si:rx has it for { l. thc rvholc interior of I cup r,,,ith a sinrplc ccntrc piccc I I 7o J uivine cxactly rhe dccorrtive cffcct ofhis plarcs. Skythcs, e rcd ligure artist ofrhcsc ycars, uscd it frrr thc blcksroun.l to black ligrrrcs otrr,idc r..d figurc rLrpr Jnd rt rc frrr irrcils or1 s()rlc plaiD v:tscs of d1c gcicretiotrs bcfrrrc elld aftcr 5oo.

c\ cs' or rLr{cld rve h:rvc sirlglc 6g,.,rcs or srrrlll grotlPs bct\\'ccn t]ld bcsidc.the for thc wrrriols' frghtirrg ..,r.,ri ,r* i,"r.llcsi Tlt.l latt", is thc scircmt', r'vith ilr cLrp ltnlolrs E-xckirrs' slilPc ,.,rti"r, frn*- cxilmplc of sllndird thc i:rto rrrd crccp hrucllc c:rch bcrlcir'h glolv will e vinc Oftcn

Cup painters
Thcrc is arolhcr lergc
closclv hcrc. Thcv
cl.rss of bilingLral vrscs lvhich nccd not bc srtrcliccl lrc cyc ctLps Lrv rcd 6gurc p;rirltcrs lvho put a bleck figurc pictrrrc in the inrcrior torrdo. Nikosrhcnes'It-5r, i 7-;] and p.tmphaios,

nr.,,r"lr fr r+1. ll.ia lr 77 El,rl1don\inrPlurLLrP\thcrtrsjrlrt'r.fl"rr'r'lcri "u"s "loi,,,a',1" dcvicc in thr' Posrliorr li To rJrl' H'rrrdlc.prlulcttcs simplc simihr or ,lolphin oithc ()t iittlc Mistcr typcs erc not nnkuos n, btrt lh(r u Jre (uPS 'rrd rkvphui *rt' bencadr flowcrs distinctivc rvitb Cllass ',, .,tff.'a ep (Flor.rcr-P.rlnrettc) riLlc srlllllcr pelmctrc' bllck horizontal ltrce i lr.rndlcs iud lrcsidc the,rr ,,,,r,.,,ir*, .ra scrolls; I1o I oorn aor cves on tilcsc scvcr:Ll fill thc u'holc high bor'1 is usurlll il";.;; 6;;, .ui,l,.,u, "y"' lt7's' rz9, t'eol rhc lou'cr rrorc cl.;rbotelc hrvc oftcrl irirJ, *,i,f, r'rcscrncd barrcl, brrt thc eulicr cLrPS bcl"rr I t 77-El' r i'id r'Lvs btrtk elterrrrnrrg dots, rvirh 'rnd l,, ,rfl;r", trrrfrc'' brrr ",rdfoot for sonrc l:rrg':r r('tirrg llrr l''ikt lh( if- N;flrrtfr.ri. ''''p" hcrr'eth ,pt.,1.r, r.,ittl lr lhitl, trtrnrpct-shrpcJ rr 'rll rlJ rrr'ry bc Jtior'rte'l ' r ' ' r' t \lr'lu' l',z,lr. ,rr tll)ll .r-ll\ cl rl',rr'rlr c\'llrrlrlr \\illl r)ilr( "rr Nikosthcncs-Prrrrrin thc devisccl ir,,ilr". t.,ri"nt \\hr(h rlr.r) hrvc bi'cn is thc'Cu'll t:ttristrr; phaios r'r,olkshop, tojttdgc lrotl two sillllcd spccilllcns' 1t rPl''r\t \vith tonr hcavy L:,,n', h,r,. sl,"ll,rru, ''dgc ll76l' so lrrll"rrrtl rr) S"rrth i"",,,i i,:, ..-'r,p,: . tvpc rrrclc bv Lh.,l.'dr"' Pirtlcr\
I r



' t





r(prcsr'rls,r lirrtlrcr.l;scrv;rriorr by this workshop offlrshions in the wcstcrn rrrarket. l'ltc tlccorrrtion t(x) sonlctitllcs copies Chalcidian, the eycs berng supplicLl wirlt rroscs;Itrl s:rtyr c:u s, und rll knowD provenicnces lre lcaliaD with orc grssiblc cxccprior ir Arhcls. Thcv beloug to rhc J2o's_ 'flrc prchistoly ofrhcsc shapcs:Lnd somc hybids can uscfully bc disctrssed beforc trrrling to dctlils ofdccor:rtion or thc works ofplilltcrs and groups. Therc had bccn cerlicr Attic cups which lackcd tl-rc ollset lip, such as thc rn ore nclrly hcruisphcrical rnerrythought cups [37]. Tl-re srandard cyc cup shapc had many variants, cspccially wirh the onc piccc profilc (Type B) of whiclr thcrc arc cxamplcs painred by Arlasis with the figurc.s bcrween thc cyes, pxinted in free ficld [84], without lines or peiut on rhe lowclbody or stcnl ol: thc cup. Thcre arc hybrids too, inciuding Lrtle Mrstcrs wrrJr Typc A Gct.
The WRarrn P,crNrFR, n:rrrled for his rathcr insubstarrtial tlgrucs, pLlt a Littl.: Mastcr foot on Typc A bodics lt 7ql, md rhcse hc dccoratcd likc thc Droop cups (which hc also painted). His cornplnion, the PAIN.r.ER or. THE Nr(x)srA Ot-le Ir75], shows a similar cclectic taste: and thc nvo plintcd both,subL)cianire'and shoulder lckyrhoi. Thcrc are a fcw larcr cups ofaborrt 5oo (Typc B) with a black top band over thc handic zotrc, so thilt thc schemc is is for brnd cups, bur the profilc r.rot (comparc IrE4]). Thc rrrain run ofcerly c1c cups havc ornetc lowcr bodics anc{ thc whites of tlre eycs are drawn in outline fr 7 j. t 77-6l,ltcr nor-e oftcn bcing fillcd with whicc or paintcd whitc over-black. Thc carly cups ere rcprcsentc,d by Nikosthcnes'prodr.rcts lr5r, r73l :rnd a fcw of l.righ queliry by Ir6o], and ir.r thc rnanncr ofthc Andokides Painrcr, likc the onc with thc funny l.oot Ii 77]. Relatcd is thc inrport:rnr CRoup or, WALTtrRS 48.42 which spccialiscs in lrontal 1[isks ofL)ioDysos Ir Z8], satyr s or nlaenads betwccD the cyes, and gorgo[cia within. Ofthc sanrc fanrily arc skyphoi ofthc Knororos Group, so callcd for tirc sallior yellow uscd by rhc piintcrs for somc lninrels and drcsscs. Thcse skyphoi arc hcevy, dcep vcsscls, witlr shallow concxvc Jips whicl-r r.ay bc bleck or decorated with e ivy wreadr, and with red and black or rll-bleck longLres rt the basc. Thc sccnes arc oftcn Dior.rysiac, thcir backgrounds fillcd with vincs fr6l-zl. Thcy arc lc'ss fincJl, ptrntcd than thc cups arld Dlust bring us to the cnd of thc sixth cenrury, but tbe group has sonrc inporcant

Iir.rlly, thcrc are somc

stcrnlcss ctlps

of thc lest qtrttlct ol tlrt ,r'rrtLrrr

ILr,r htvc broed, shallorv, torlrs fcct. Thc T()P-rrANl) sttrtttrrssts lr'rr, tlr, ,1,, r,rrrtivc scbenle ofbaDd cr"lps IiE,fl, but with cycs iu thc ]r.rrrrllc zorr, .rrr,l ','rirdinlcswithqorgoneiawithin.ThcSEcM.Nl(lL^sshrvcblrtcktrttrr,rrs, l,Lrr llrc pictrlrc inside, u,ith or withoul e scgmcntxl sroLrnd linc, fills tlrc t t r1r. I lrl rLrbjccts arc usr.urily I)ionysiec, the style fair to poor, but thcy ollrr s()rr)c ,,1 l lc lest black figures ofxny sizc, apaft froln thc Panathcnric llrlph()rilclrJsl is a prrticulariy eltboratc cxarnple, with rcd flgurc cycs bclow th(' 1,,,rLndlinc.!7eshallsccthatfrornthclatcrsixthcenturyontheskvphoirvill

r Lr

,lr.r lLrrv cups

.r.t still somc worthwhile black frgurc dccor atioll, bur by th:tt datc rll thc ofquality u,crc bcing pairltcd in rcd figurc.

l'he Antimenes Painter and Leagros Group

I lr( rDost prolific ofthc black figrLre paintcrs workins in thc 6rst gcncratioo ,,t rcclfigureisthcANrrMtiNrsPAINTER Ir86 r9o],socelledlronrlkalosrranrc ,,r, ,rnc vtse. Ilcazlcy regardcd hinr ls pcr haps a pupil ofLydos xrld x 'brothcr' ,'t l)rilx, br.rt hc sccrrrs to havc painted no ted figurc xnd to 11avc bccn iittlc r rllLrcnccd by the ncw tc.hniqLre . Most of his work (somc t io vascs ilrc .rrributed to hilr) mLrst bcloDg to:rbout 53o to J ro, and appcars (]1) hydrilc ,rtl ncck amphorac, his scherne ofdccolation oD thcsc shapcs b,:ing standard

l,,r this pcriod. He continucs thc tradition of straightforward narrarivc rcmplified earlicr by artists of ()roup E, but with a remark:rblc range of

Fcw oftherr Inty bc'his owl) iDvcnlion, but his prcsclltxtion ofthcrll 1s r,lling and explicit, though vcry fcw arc inscribcd, and the corrpositions are r L.,rtlv obscrvcd aud sirnplc, rarely with overlapping figurcs cxcept of ncn rrd horscs or dancing couplcs. Herakles is his cspecial favourite atd we mey
,{ rrrcs.

rl\o pick out sorne fbunrain scenes, possibly inspired by Pcisistratid works trr Arhcns; a mstic scene ofoiive picking ll86] in which, turusually for Clrcck .]l r, the trees gct solllcthing ncar thcir full valuc; and some borrowinE aronl ( \ c cllps, srich .s colrlpositiorls wifi eyes (rsually whitc l1ow, llot oLltlincd), ,rlrcrr l)ionysiac and inchrding thc frontal irask which charactcriscd thc .w:rltcrs , orlcmporary (iroup of 48.42. Psi:Lx docs this oncc loo, ilso on a
rcak amphora.

dillcrcnt tradition arc othcr cups and skyphoi nreny ofwhich havc rhc florver end palmcrtc (FP) decoratiou at thc hudles that wc hrvc rlready dcscribcd. In the (lnoup oF CIouRUNG Cluls wc scc a homosexual courtirrg couple IrEJ] or I horsct[iu1 betwccn outlincd or. whitc eycs (solrctrrue" omittcd). Urc's Classr.s or Srypsol Ar AND A2 (a classification dcviscd for tbe prolific linds at l\hitsona in Boeotia) havc bl.rck lips which cerry a groove bclorv thc r-olled top, or irrc lrcrclv shallow tnd corrvcx, with undccoratcd lolvcr rvalis. Thc range of sublecrs is sorrrcwhat greirtcr blrt thc style is still


Iis drawing is not ovcr-precise, but it is never incorrlpctcnt, lnd hc offc'rs quitc dccailed studies. Thc mass end proportion ofhis fi!!urcs show hinr ',,rrre ro bc a r-nastcr with thc brush. Hc likcs to 611 the fie1d conrforrably, widl llo L rlrphrtic masses of colour, and il] thc l)ionysiac scencs wc see now, :Is oD r.ury cyc cups and skypl-roi, the ivy or vinc cendrils, rvhich, whcthcr hclcl or r)ot, swccp grxccfirlly around thc figurcs. Hc succccds in dcn)onstratin!l thet, ,lcspitc ncrv dcvcloprrcnts, figure cf,n still cllcctively scrvc thc rlccds of rclixbic coDservative; thc typical black 6gurc pairrtcr. 'rnplc narrltive; a Hc has nrany follou,et's w-ho workcd in x conparabic stylc on lhc sanc



shrpcs. \()trlc ()l lllcll) :rt Ic.rst ls qood ertists but Donc, !o.judgc l'roDt .rttribLrtlor)\, ls plolilic lrgr 4]. lhc Ell-SrnEN (iRoup i\ \()rth rrcurionrrr.-. rr lcirst li)r its:runrc vlsc u,ith cyc sircn\ lt95l rccllling Anresis' colccit Iti.rl,

r nc'rv shtpc thc strrl)lros l]gJl. Thc lest inrportaut llld DLll)crous srou p oflerec I)leck tiijtrrc vxsc-s ttkus tr\ ridc, thc LrA(;uos C;Rour (.. 5:o to 5oo) fronr thc k:rlos narrrc ou flvc of its hyclri;rc. Arouncl krur- hrrndrcd vases hlvc bccrr lttributccl to it of ,"vhiclr ucrr'11, hllfarc h vdriac, r'rcerly halfncck rlrlphorre, ll)c rcst unr phor-lc ofothcr shrpc\, critcrs lncl lck_l'thoi, to nlrDrc thc collrnoncst. Thc hvdri:lc rcscnrblc rhosc of the Antirncrcs I)eintct, tcndirg to llorc flrriDg iips :rrcl fhrrcr, broarlcr slrouldcrs l.:o l 61. Thc arriual prcdcll;r l rgol rnd sonrctirrrcs rhu rvv bordcrs givc pllcc:tou r() l)cilt pillrllcttcs r,r,ith bro.rd btrt scp:rretc lcrr,cs, rrlerqcd iD rotrrrded scrolls or loops l;o,u-.1.2061, a pettclrr r:rrc liithc:.t, ill bLrck figurc f66] but u,hich soor bccorucs vcry poprrlar in recl tiqurc. A vcrv fct Lclilrau h1'driec tollorv rrrc' exrnrplcs lry thc Arrrinrcncs l)ainrcr in Ilivinq rvhitc-qrolurd nccks. Thc ucck urrphor:rc lrc Antirncnc;ru brrt thc r)cck floril is i)ccornirrg lcss lrticulrtccl end tlt c Lrtuscs rnorc likc bluck sticks of


enclthc(luouprir ToRoNtoJoj [196 71.T|cl]ur;t;rParNrlr ltq,l'lise:rolcicr rnrn, closcr to thc AndoLidcs PeinLcr. lr,ho soructimcs borrou s l)rn:rthcrr.ri. colLlrtlrls to frrrnc his sccnes. Thc paintcrs or1 ()ccesi()r) ac1cl I sr:nll :rninrel friczc to rhcil ncck anrphorrc, Iike thc prcclcll;rs on hyclr-irc. Thcr ;rlso

t , L of tlrccrr,-lofthcsirrhccnttrr\'.TlrcAt;ttlr.rxrsl)AlNllllrlri)n" l/,l,.rrr 1,, .r rglccl out tirr lris robLlstl\' origilr:rl nr)th sccllcs ellri tllc ',,' rt Lrl lris ,, rlr,.is oil,rrvc, s:rcrccl xrtd proirnc [.2 r I ] ; and th c Cirlrusl l)A lN rlil{ li)r rxd ICr r , ',,Lrr flrrcssc [:i-;1. Thc stiuld srLPPollinla tl]c p;rinlecl lurphore [-:o9] is rrot r lr, Aclrcloos l)llilltcr l)Lrt bY rrrolllcr arrist rvho appcxr-s to hilvc sPccjitliscd
,,1.,()r.rti,rgthesc.icccssolics.ThcnrcrloDltsccruk)bcfccdirlterldfirl:lillge ,, Anothcr pclikc, Lcrgrrl in per'locl, sho\\'s thc v;r\c shepc ltsciiilr Lrsc l;r'

,1, 1, ,rrr.rncl thc to11rett's;lrllls ()Lllsttctahcd t() tl)( l rlrr.rllr l', l"rr llr' !, , l,ll()rr\, lhouglt tlollsctrsc, sccrD l() hcigl]tclt tllt scrrsc ol lrrL:tl,' ',, rLr.rl p:rirrtcrs illtd tllitlor groLlPs havc bccrr tlistrlrqlrrslrc,l \rllrrrr tlrr' ,,, l,LLt thc gcncrlc sinrilrritl is strorrg antl tlris is Lhc idi,rrrr ol rlrt Lrtsr lrlr,l


oioil l:t-u],endbothsidcsclrrvlcgcrtcls 'C)h ihrhcr Zcrrs, mev I r ,rch'. lncl orl thc othcr sidc uith I silnilxr sccrlc, :ln llllltrrllcnt ovcr thc
,1,ril rrrttcs ilpPclrl ovcr thc sccllcs,

(. !r\


ll.,uur.. ,.,'r, ltoo. )oo).

Thc compositions ofthc frgrr:e sccncs h;rvc a trcrv vigour :urcl cornplcrrtl. Involved eroups of ovcrlapping 6sr.rrcs lrc ski1lirl1v uren:Lgcd arld rrc only occirsioDrllY confitsiDg to the cvc bccltr\c tllc iltcision is clclr aucl bold aDd thc displr) of.rrr:rtollicril clcteil is ntoclcratc. fherc is rcstreilcd usc rtxr ofeddcd coloLrl whilc drrpc'ry firlcls:urd plttclns erc, if:rnvthiug, less cl:rborrtc thur rhc Antinrcrrclr although aorrlclnporrr) rt'd figLlrc tlrc Pionccr Cir.ouP lcjoiccs irr fblcls, tcxrurc lncl enetorny. Thcsc ertists lcllisc r,r'het is possiblc still irr thc old tcchliclnc and arc:rblc to Ieducc to rcesonltrlc tcrrlls scvcrxl fiittltrcs ofthc ncw, rcnder-ins corrplicrtcd firlds or ruusclcs u,ith lcss cxplicit strokcs (rr.l noticc rhc riny g1c5), bLrr proliring tr-onr ncrvl\. lcer-nt skills in shou rng nrorc cioclucnt poscs, likc thc rrirc tn,isting figurcs rvith orrc lce tj.ortill, onc

urc lhc tivour_itcs of thc (iroup, u'itll solllc rl,lL L rs bcing inr: orlLrccd ft)r thc flrst littlc, othcrs bciuq rcnclcrcd in r llovcl r r)cr, sorrrctiDlcs otlirirlg vicrvs of hilhcrto igDlrrcd luotllcttts irl i:rtrrilirr , . s. AlthoLrgh this is r;rthcr in thc spirit ofthc ncrv rccl flgttlc thc sccncs itlc 1,.. rro rucans sirrrplv bolrorvcd furrrt thc rcd fiuurc rcpcttoly lnd thrt it .iL rllr .r rliflclent, though parlllcl trrclition lilr rll thar L}c.rzlc) obsL'r'vcd lh. I , Lqlrn ch:rrtctcr ofblack figurc work bv sonlc Lrilirrgtrists (thc Nikoxcuos ,r ,l [ucharidcs P:rinte: s).


rq. Thc uppcr pxrt of tltc vxsc ls rcstorccl brrt dtc othcr-siclc \ho\\'s thrt

lsort l:tol.

llcr.rklc'i encl Trrrjerr

Other pot



llrc Antlmcncs I)eintcl encl thc Lc:rgran tcl_ics 11cc()r.lllt lor e vcrY srrrrll 1,,)poltion of lhc lilrgcI pots, nlrilrlv rlcck arllPhoritc rrrd hvdlirc, w]ridl Lrvivc tiom thc lrsl thirt,v ycars ofthc \ixth ceDlllr\'. Ootlrloissctrlship,'i , rrtcrs is nlorc dii{ictrlt in tltis pcriod ofbltck trgurc therr irr erry othcl arrd I ,rrntion hcrc onlr'a lc\\,ofthe trtists xr)d qrouPs, disrirrgLrishcd b1'lSclzlcl-. I cy nlc choseu lor thcir quelit,l or ii)r' lheir spcciirl irllcr-cst irl soluc ftrrrrs of

hcroic irt ritcir proportious lnd tiatLlcs burll sqtLilcs bcsicle rhc Artinrcrrc,r I)linrcr's clcrks. Thc punels:rrc elrvevs ftrll u,ith rlo figurcs or-spxccs l,lscccl. Thus, thc lorcptrrts ofchrriors tle\.culcrijc fl()nt thc boldcrs of rhc pictrrre if thcir prcscrrcc is rcrlui:c'd [:0,51 lrrcl not only l)iorrvsilc sccncs rrc lorrnd rvirh thc'ir-conrplcrncnt oftillinq vircs ol tcudrils. l-:orlis ir qood cxlrrrplc of thc ' in rcn siry ' oi rlrr-r-xrivc uirh thc uction:rnd titrrrcs ovcrl:rppine thc bordcrs, whcIC il Trojutl tcaltr s:lllics to ttv to rcscltc Troilos bur is irilccl bv Athcnr, rnd ruuninq up onto thc shorriclcr ofrhc vasc, whcrc ol !hc batdcrnents ofTrol, lren liqht end dlirrk, a grc1,-bcerd rv:rlchcs, arrd rvorrcn uccp. Thc two llclds:rrc Iinkcd b) rhc trcc\ spreltcling up lrunr pro6lc. Thc I_rgurcs:lrc
l ro


Flrst, sornc involving distirrctivc or lcss coDllnolr shlpcs lhc Ot.,lss ot' ( .M. l r li conlpriscs v:rrients of tlrc Nikosthcrljc elrr Phorl l: r 4l in rvhich thc qcDclllly l,r oilc is slllootl)cr, on)ittilr,l thc :LrlqLrlarity ofthc c:rnonic folr)r el)d ('okln!i rnorc Cireck. Plttrpheios, Nikosthcllcs'succcssor, lllaclc two to be |.rir1rcd in rccl figtuc by Okos,;rnd, likc tirc rcel Nikosrhcrrics, thc ouly (l:Lcre, so thcy sccrn to bc tll llllv in ljr'()vcr)icnccs for vrscs in this chss rccor_cl thc Nikosthclic trrditjorr ilrld rlr cxp()r't \ "irc wirh a lilllitcd rn:rrket. 'Ihc Ilvt,ortrazoN (ir.tss (nemcd 6-or:r thc picturc of e ntoulltilt!l witrri()l' ()n u1 cx:lrrrplc in Atltcts) is of bclly arrrPhorac u'ltich up-datc thc old tbrru * ith rorrrdcd hendlcs lnd ti'ct I lyPe bY no rlrearls tbrllotlcn (it lppcrtrs in

r.()riltioll or


thc Lc:rsros (iroup) altl-rotrgh trv rou, lcss popuLr thrn thc Tlpc A:rntphorec. A linc' rrcandcr ovcr thc pencls is r distinctivc fclturc, ancl thc fiqurc corilpositiors lr-c cqually fiug;r1, but dclicrtcly panrtcd, \\ith I penchlnt fcrrgcrlr(r scclrcs other thln m,vrh, inchrdirlg odditics likc lislrcnucn or mcll c:trr)'ir)s pots | .z l5-61. Noticc thc rcjcctccl sketch o fthc doq's hindqLnrter on thc lattcr-. These rrc of the 5 r o's. Eerlicr erc sonrc rlcck irlphorrc ofstand:rrd typc, brrt srrell, rvith triplc lincs betu,ceu the body pilttcrns thc THREE LrNE (;Ror,,p l:171. Srurll black figurc ncck ernphorac bccornc vcry corllnloll irr later ycars ancl their clecore tiol is usurlllv of the poorest, but rhis group could rccilll to Bclzicl thc
Andokidcs l)eintcr, errd onc' or two othcr irroLlps, Irerdly l:rtcr thal thc 5 ro's, rre wcll peintccl lnd ofGr sonre orisinal ncck prtcrns (i1s in thc Mcdcu Ciroup [zr6]). A ncu shepc which is introduccd lbout 5zo is thc strmnos, rvcll rcprcscntcd in thc l)rrtzoMA Citoup [zi9l, so rranrcd lor thc whitc loin cloths worn by thc flabby athlctcs lnd even by the rverrior danccrs errd altrorrg thc synrposiasts with wi1or11 thc paintcrs of this snrall but distinctive group arc prcoccul'riccl. In thc sanle group ere sorlc onc-handlcd kentharoi l:,2 ol, cctpying an Etruscln shapc eld dcstincd for thc \vcstcrD rlrxrkct, but post-Nikosthcnic. And wc nr:ly noticc hcrc a rather latcr stanrnos of dificrenr shepc Izz r], a rurc cxarllplc ofa vlrictv olhcrwisc confiDcd to rcd figure. Of thc other peintcrs I nrcntior four of cpaliry. Thc Eupurrerrrs ParurER [222] is bcst k:rown firr his lranathcnaic vascs [zg7-81 whcrc wc scc his Llncst work and his c:rpecity for dctlil noticc thc shicld deviccs. lt is in thc arhlctc studics on thcsc vescs the! thc transjtion flonl thc atrxto ricrlly impossiblc runncrs ofnrost c:rrlicr peirtitg to thc n1()re plausiblc vicu,s ofrunncrs r,r,itir thcir:rrnrs closc to thcir sidcs can bc observcd. His odrcr rvork (ir is all nreirrlv ofthc J-u o's) is poorcr and obscsscd wirh the cheriot sccncs u4rich sccn-r
feshionable in thcsc ycars.

I'l , ' l)ion1'siac sccues but his bcst work, on bcllv :Ir)rIh()r'rc .l I r 1ri' A lr'r' ,11, rrrr rncl prcsencc lz:61. Ilcazlcy rclatcs hirn to thc l)ri,rrrr l).rirrtt r 'rrll t" l'.r rr, bLrt rhc 'body' ofsotue ofhis work bclrs comp;rrisorl rvitlr l)iorrci l I ' tl lr.Lrri.rrrdhcunclcrslaDClsho\\'xllllto lical dctail c:rD bc trellslitrc(l cHc(livclv rrrr,, hluck figurc: corlpare Izz,!] by a conlpaDioll of his (thc rlillllc v.lsc {)l_

l l)r'l\ycRol'r PAINTIR I226-7]hasnlorcoftJrcrc,l ligrrrt rrtrst rl"'rrt lrrrrr rrlr,lrrrr-vcxpl:rinhisrcadincsstooutlineinciscn)trclr()llri\licrrr' \\"rl' ll'

rlr, l).Lirter of , ,, rr l22.ll.

llrlinguists ll

TerqulniiL IlC68,+7)

ilrd contrtst thc Madrid


Ar )Lns urls cornnriltcd to recl 6gtlrc. Therc rvcrc, hou'cvcr, rcasolrs why , rrc still had occasiol) lo practisc'thc older tcchl)iLlue. Arllollq thc cerliest of 1,, bilingulls rherc lred appetrcd cyc cups, bltck fLgurc r'vitirin, rcd figtrrc , ,,'r, Jccoretcd by the bcst ofthc cLrP peirltcrs - Oltos, Epiktctos, PhcidiprcrlraiDcd :rn cxtrcnlcly Popuhr 1,,,,, Skvthcs ancl thcir follorvcrs. Thc schemc ,,,,, throughout thc tirst gcncretion ofrccl tignrc btrt barcly survivcs ink) thc lillh ccnt;ry. Thcrc u,as nlso a dci)llrd for Panathcnaic veses (scc (lh'ptcr \, r cn) rvJrich wxs lnet bY studios which sPccixliscd in Ilrgcr Pots Sirlce thc


lhc list ycrrs oflhc sixlh centur)'ainlost cvcry visc Pxintcr



Haldiy rnuch leter is thc MADRTD l)ArNTEtt, who is fxr morc corscious of thc an.tonlical dctail bcing oliired by his rcd 6qLlre contcnlporerics, but hc cxccutes it iD an old hshioDccl lnd uncorrvincing way akhouqh hc hes Jearnt thc new poscs (frontal ancl proflle legs for collapsing Kyknos on l:::31) and atcrnpts forcshortenine (his shicld). On rhc sanrc vesc thc ligurcs overlap thc bordcl piltterrl and rvc scc still fie old stylc aninral prcdelle. Thc Pttalr ParNren is an irnportant tnd prolific artist, ir1 soltlc \^,iLys linking thc Antirncncs Pxirlter.rnd thc Lcil!jros Croup. His work is inagin.rtivc, for although his irterest lics in fc$, thcnrcs hc trcats thern iD clch instance rvith oriuinality of clcttil and compositiorr. Hc is cspccially tbucl of fie Athcnian forrntein housc scencs [:24] lnd of chariot sccnes \\.irh Athcr:r :Lod l{crlklcs lu:5l. Tl-rcsc interesrs seerl lo rcflect sornc mcasurc of symptrh,v fLr the Pcisist(rtids and rhcir usc of rnyth arld mosr rnay bc painted bcforc rhcir ejcction fronr Athcns in 5to.
I 12

,r k cither r,:rs u'clJ paid or convcycd prcstige, scvcral ofthc better peirrtcr-s ,l, L orltcd thc vascs, llnd antonq lhenr rvc rccognisc lhc' Klcophrades Paintct, Llrc Ilcrlin Paintcr (or his workshop) ald, rrearcr thc nricldlc ofdrc 6fth ,rntury, rhc Achilles Pailtcr. Of these thc first namcd sccttrs to havc heen , ,rcrcstcd in pxinrirl!! some slandxrd Lrleck figurc ucck elllphoric xod irr ,,,troducing sornc bhck figurc onto his tcd figttrc vxscs for lids or sttbsidiarv ir iczcs, anJ thc Achillcs Paintcr nlay l)lvc decoratcd iu black figurc arrothcr r r uditionel shrpe, the loutrophoros. Apart fronr thcsc rrtists, lvhosc ilrtcrcsr in rhc olcl tcchuicluc cen be tt lcrst paintcrs with err)' l,.rrtly cxplxinecl b,v sPecial dcmarld, thcre arc fcw rcd 6sure l thoroughlY has P,ttNtln rrorable ileck lisurc outpr.rt Thc NIroxr:ulls ere thc his hyclriec but artd pclikei, elllplrorllc or1 6gurc stylc lelgren black rew shape (kalpidcs, r,r,ith onc-piccc profiles). Hc Printcd red figrrrc ttro, r,,lthout distrnction, as clid his prcsumcd pupil, tl-rc Euchariclcs Peintcr" TLe lttcr, howcvcr, has beerl creditcd wirh sevcrxl Pxl1athcl)llic prizc vescs ;rs wcll .Lr pclikei Iz:9]atd kalpidcs, end it hes bccD suggested that thcsc rlight rl1 he r,rker for ihc Nikoxcnos Paintcr's $,ork, u'hich wonld ttrikc hirn arlothcr of rllosc with rerson fbr kccping up black i-igurc. Tire At}Ilxa P'trurtlt, I rlistinguishcd artist who workcd in bl;rck figttrc lnlinly on lckyrhoi :rncl ,,inociroal (scc thc ucxt chtptcr), has bccn idcntiiied with the Bou'doln l)rir1tcr, who was Peintrng rcd 6gurc and rvhitc ground lckytltoi irr thc scc<;nd rluartcr ofthe 6fth centuly, but thc conllcctioll DllIy bc il rn:ttlcr ofwolkshoP



Lr!c of whitc ground 1ll)Ll of olltlinc tcchniqucs ol bl;rck tir1rrr!. lcklthoi ofrhcc.rrlvlilthccntur'ybrirgrhcscvrscsvcr)closcrothcspirirrrrtl rechrritlrrc of rccl tlgulc, :utd tltt'tinc fifth ccrtrrrrv tr-udiriorr oitvhitc qr.olrntl trrucr:rrr ickt,thoi,:lltlroLrqh tlic \\.()rk of r.cc1 liqurc ertists, ,,v.rr borri in thc stlrdios of prirrcrr of blick ligurc lcki.thoi. Of thcsc, rncl of thc Athcrr.r P:rirrtcr, rhcrc r,r,ill bc ruorc !o s:ly trr rhc trcxt chtptcr-. I sho\\, orriy otlc whit. qrorrrrcl oinochoc l:-1ol rvhich illtrstretcs u,cll thc rethcr ructellic clct.tils ofrl)c dr.rpcs oiicn r cscr-vcd lor this (thc nrouklccl hcecl xr thc hitndlc er)(l rhc coller') u:rd thc u,rv iu rvhich tirll vlluc is givcr to l;trqc rrcxs ofplxir), slossl whirc-


()fthe encl oflhL'c(]ntlrly .trc lcfr.srrrl((l l,r tlr, l'rrr irr r, , rlr,.lrichrct:rirrsthcoldtrpcrjrrllshrPc,\()rirclinr(s\\rllr rl).rll(rr1 ,lr,, r , oltl r'crricll prlrrcttcs (.1rrd lotuscs rc([r.etl to lirr, s ]il', r.rr r,tr lr'.1i, ,) , . ' roLrldcr [-:37l. Ihc stvlc ofplirllirls vrrrics crr()rrrrorrr]r'brrt rr s, l,l,,rrr rr , rlrrr):rdcquelc.Sonlcorigirrllit,voftllcrllcisiltlcllrPt.(l bLrt rlrcrci: rl,,r 'I Lr nn:s ploclrrctiorr oistock sccnc'j likc rrrrlrinq, .I uillrt()r I(.lvil)rt l)()rrrc. I r, )\\()s lrctwcclr c1cs. This is lILrc too ofthc (]()cK C;R()LlP, lllltlrc(l ii)r tl)c , ,ock end ir'\'lclvcs orr rhc sLouldcr, brrt thcsc hsr ncll into thc liilr

. Thc Mcclc;r hc.rrl (hcl nunrc is Iiglrtlv irrscribcrl bcfirr c her') l u-;,i1, .Ls olcl firshiorrc,:l rs rhc Athcrls orr aolltcrlrpol-rr-\' tojt1s, ir11.l thc

Activc, if oftor illicir cxclr,ltion ir Atticu rrrd l}trcotir, errrl the conrrr()l) errcic:rt prrcricc iu thcsc erclrs ofoili'rirrg lckvthoi ir s111,c5, il.r. ltlcl1ltt tllut \vc h,r\ c ii firlL-r rccor c1 ofALhcnill bleck liqLrrc lckythoi ofthc liitc sixrh :rnd
c.rr'll titih ccntutv rhrn ofruost othcr cllsscs ofAthcnien bleck tilaurc vltsc. It

'l',,v, h, rr. rr .,r(, ...rtt


ficlcl tirl thc llrisr's rvork, and oficr) u irh I stcppcrl pr.o6lc to thc foot, btrt thc old shorrldcr lck,,thos uirh t.rpcring bocll dics h.rrrl,:rncl a conrprorrrrsc sltupc r,, ith qclltl\'\wcllillr body'lrrrl ccliinrrs foot hrs r,,,oguc. Nonlallv no$ rhclc js u l)rr)cl oip:rtcrl .ibovc rhc bocll scclc. ()n thc slroul,:lcr thc lorv oi-bucis is:tou usuell\ pcndiltt or r,,c scc:t chlil oflcvclr titll p:ll1)c6cs oithcnc\\,t\pcl-u.Jrl,rroter-ouiuqvcrticill)t'11)rnch.rjnsesinbl:rckflsrrrc. Inlpor'tiurt illr)oviltions erc ilrtrodrLcccl by thc Edinburgh l)lintcr itLrour

Ilrs rlso rrc;rnt thxr rhc;l\,crillic qtL.rlin ofthcsc vuscs is lorv urd, sircc rhc fincsl vltsc pirintinq wrs douc in rcd flgur-c bv norv, rhc colrrrst ,,vith rhc cr:1icr vescs, bcsr kno,.vn fi-onr tlrc linc picces c-xportcci ro ltlly, is thc grcxtcr_ Tltc conrirrrr of rcd liqurc. sces th( rro,,LlLrLU,,D ,,i.r triJ\\ r:rritti t,f rhc shotrldcl ickytltos, es l:-;3], u,ith I r.rlltr rrlindrr..rl b,,.lr, grrurg .r ,.1ccpcr

Patrrrl ',vho hes I good e,vc firr clt:riJ ancl a scnsc ofcoloLr. l-u-;rl. Likc othcr lckythos p:rintcrs he elso dccor:rtcs oiDo.hoxi und cspccirlly thc ucrv v;rr rcty ofolpc rvitlt a slinr bocly and higlt dccoratccl 1ip [2 j2l. T hc ( ],lr: r us prrr r ll is llsocep:rblcoirdc)ic:rcyrvctlissilnturh Ic.r[r.r:r \\.tk H(r\r1.lntcd h,t thc prick lv pcers on his p:Llnlctre tcnclrjls [:3.; l. The (irr.,l l,a rN rr]x 2-4 6l slirrts e l Lrrg clrrccr hcrc tot), blrt )ost ofhis vilscs rrc fi tih ccDturv rnd erc irrflucnccd bythe ncrv irshiorrr. Althotreh his srr lu rrr.l ,,fr,Jr l,c \li'p,h,,cl hc rhnrrs un
origiuel epprorch to l)l vth tnd qcrtrc scctrcs, uncl cet conr posc

ioo, but thcsl'xrc l)cst considcrcd ln thc ncxt chaptcr alld thcrr itlc fi,\\, lufl\ts or classcs still sixth-ccltul.v in dirtc or nlxnncr u,hich dcse:.r,c rlr cntion. Scvcral ofthc Lc:rgros (iroup :rrtisrs dccorxtc iekylhoi- Anrong tircnr rs thc f)ayltl.rr

)(a t,. 1),t ittt ltl th. l1)lr[ilti 1\tutk1. 'i.t1tl ],y ,1 ,hLiJL:

ficld ofnrore cxpcnsivc




L)r thc shouldcrs ofhis lckythoi

1or rhc ier gcr tht, outcr bucls

hlvc bccn
f l,l

rcpleced b,v flor.,,crs. A vcry high proportir:rn ofhis vescs sccrl to solcl in thc Wcsten) (;rcck col()rrics.



lt It
a , ,


t(\ B.lllatljh.httl)i,t:1)hlt/'hut1rt.i(1 ta1 . lthdrrn 'l lltinllL,

1:lnl :i\t"t

.1tli n il llir[h'



l/r'iI/r'! r'1('rl''r'j

t(.j t.2 tt,llt r l,hil t tlt,, l, i') /r, l,,l.ti,/, /,,r,r.1 //,1ill,'J,r(i (,,/rati //. r6



hy th(

la[itl.5 Prutut

ryhokt ( 1'ypt



Lnl\. hnl h

,,- .l/,ri/.s ll,/Jk ,Ilin.J i)rnrnt (ndtu r.\'). /)r,,ri.! d,,/



\' rfi




t) |y I']&rs .l lrrrl/r'r''



i6J Ni.l d,ifrord rt r/l


.]nkitl|j Paitlttt. Httu1llL\ n ]!ithh1, dtrl Athold

166 Oi adk" lry tli /h,likitu' Pa" u. Lhnl:LJ (ith thl

), ,i+, Ji(r.,/


Nit.Jr,.rtJ. IL /o

17, Plntlut hy 1lth6. lfhin,!tutu,l.



lty t)\ins.

.t:k,l d. 1Za-t: H.uklt\ uith.N ilthl HoN\L,l l)rr tl 17a.,: l\1\utt


(), l


ttt l,ltuith t\iltttt. A n1..


Il- it l

P\inr. l/hitL !tuunl

Dio ),\t\



' -. t:|l


t t-t' - tt' / x"j'' .'' '1.' \'r'' "'

lt't llt tt' , ltL 't

t76 Chtl.idisi





nry ol tht

(i1,ry 4 Wnltu\ 18.1,

ihn u!,).I)n,r),Jor


t ) ()ry. H(&L\

tuldks Lhsio



lr rrt\t(

t77.1,r,1 Ey! ary h th( nnh( ttl tln Atniakid!s Pai t.t. satv| 1t\k

tr ()\'. lrntlhip dtul turhnnt


,r, .s()/J,,./f.r, (.J,r

].x..r. Dtrt,,

x.tlt.-,t, t,tt-,"1,t,


) t1.

t., (:lry .1 lli Oh\tp d Owlri:t (:t$.


H- u

i ) (. t( t'rr(:).lth.Cln!tl

ti\ht l51. tL\\..W


ntubnl tt.5




\t t.htn.,r..l

H \.o



c-rl) o/

r,. S.(,r,1tt (:l.tlt lr- t7

Olitc hotLit.Il. 1o j

i,!6 \i,.t n,rrr),r rt


Attin( t\ t)ni

k1 hrnL,ft bt tllt A tiu( tt t)rn1t(l Watioi\ tlryd ot uilh trtisti.y ( r tnkitq

\tk n tphatu hy th. /1t i tut.r l,di |t. HttrLlt\ \nk n ryhan


Aplla.lar th( tit,.tl

tht ,1rti

kl( t\ti


ltLtakltr li1hr'

tlt lidt


too tl)tLn lt) tli, ltrorr"



tl ti

tqz hllt

llty Nitlti

"t k\ I\inltr. Htnkld dLliut rltt

Bon' to


th( n un



t* tstltyr ph

n ol tht


al th(

A li



Ht t nkL

\ liltt'

tltt Ol1nh


lir.l\tlr , H.52-E

t9t \hk ntryhott


th(()orrol lVt':brry


r6t) IldrklL\ l!:l r\..1t



,0. ) .1r r. ,.r,., I \ ,ht t _t- ._ (,,. ", un ). hlL\t\ t\tstkt vith lhtti!. H. ]a


Ohut t)lT.h\lh

t9b B(lly nnuhda ol tlk


A uanior lLatts hauL

t99 l3tlly atlttto I lypt A) t'lth. 1,turfu\ Ch)ut. Hunkld.l!:ht\ Antdio\. H. 6J

,oo ndlt r"ryho ( t ytt A) ol ltu Lu.\!1\


.rtit\ il

ttu ,4 k1:.

t97 N-.k dnphorc ol th( Ch"ry ol Toto ta to5. LlLtutk16 uith Pholo\ dnd olu

'98 Pdittd. SDtl\ pow unt(r; SiJlplior rrlr rir i/o,c ,r


hy th(


,o. lhli) tt)\hh ,, rr. Lr,r(n,J Hrral/r', 7iq/rts Nrrri. 11. 1; ;



,o) (dl,rt) llyltut ./ rr. t.,r(,.r Cr.!p



H .lni\ b.dy \ritl AtllillLi

,oj H)\htu rl th( t..d*r\ (lh\ry. dtui ni d.nn h\th.\ili (? )


1 Hytlt,l l h(
t) t



\ Cr\t t.





l.s htlt\L Tk y. H. i

7 5

,r5 Llyltin




C\ut). Honl:lt5

kills !h(

\ltpinj Alkyomt:

ttlr iltfu LalI,.\


A P tt.d

lt tt, rr.nr1 i.5 n



ot Er!



Hydrid ol

tk t.u.{or (;r.,/,. C.&,tqrr

Ctr ,/j

toq hitltil dh\tn


l,y th(



.nud by nrtlrl dtti\t. lL. Klry ilidtl Dt1'- H-6t


hlitlk\ (ntw

w). I Idnkli

1,),,r, ..1,r.1,r.

,10 2likc

h) ttu



I\ nd'.'t'h!.1t) 11 r)l

,1, I\'li|!. Srl. H..j7-E



ltlrJ 7iin,,

,1r.r,) ll.lik.


tht Atlltlar\ Pni tr.IL.1,


rj NttL @ryl


.4tillo n

. !rdd.j'. I t.

il ltu a:lLl\ q to 5





B(ll), atrylbtut t\l th( Llyt.hihd:rlt Cir$.

Il. t6

.. I


ttlitul t. tht M.lo ()rtt-


srrrrrrrL, /,/rL

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It J,

II t' i

t t t t:,)

I tri(\\iti. Il. )9

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rI S/,,,r...

Dnr,t,n,i tr./

1' lt t1. th,'\lr.l.:l l'.,'|',t H t,l,

n.t.t. 1.)lt-.

)r4 Hydir bl th. h'n t P,tillo

I:otltttit hru|



57 '5

:z: Hyiit Iy


hphiltn,! ]\rttt, \irikl

hy Pnntphdiot ns

po n'. Dntiyn\ o,itli \nyt\





titklt\, lidhr'\\i ! t .lhti.t


Btllt nrynvd



l't th.

hia Ptut. Allnn.1



r tph n I t)'pt /t)


tltt t<y.ttli Pari( ( rtu pn!). t..ti' thati.l

,,8 Bttllnt1)tt.tnl!ttt'.1)hytltt)dilrtuol

ttrlyntir RC


( !,n' fdl.l. II.,du.jli(ir^

rr; (irlt.!,rr(,

lt), tht RyLnli Pdiitkt .ltltilhs

atl .lpt ylty H.tLi.iLh.lN!i\dlio)

'| t\lill

by nk

lltnhaidti hLrtto. C.l'1,1$. H.+D

2tr ()i'whot


tlk t)airttt \\l t.a lo



Whik \t.n,1- P(lLr\

rt t





t,) Ltkyth.\


th( Dtlhturk hu ttt. (:itu. ()dy\\tLt . d hit bn itt k,i aupatlots


l.(kfth.\ ht tht ().li l\litn\'. vvhilt


td.Dio ti\


hinrl (dtliat\t.H.rg

()lft [t th Dryhuk hri ttl.lldl)kl.\

L.kytln)\ bt llk Orht5
t.(kyth.J l,t th( Cthr

tu tht

hn(]i] tli \



,:16 Itkythos[y thcCt]a

Pdii!(.\'yliitln\ol. Hlrl il

Atlton th\r


I'r Nilr.

/ 1.


htiltd. llttutulL' h nt

tlk Ht\\\nlL\. H.,7

:tZ Itk)rho\.ltlr
2r.r /-fl),r,.j

l'ha yllisOmry.Anti .q H.1z


r'ith ttu


rrr C-..1 Ctutry. llL\1d ol ltlttua

llrr: k:l<yth os painters

Chapter Six


Frorl abont Joo to at least thc middle of thc fifth ccntury:l considcr;rlrll numbcr ofblack trgurc vascs were slili being madc in Atlrcns, dcspirc ilr" t:,, that red figurc was by then r,vcll cstablishld p.i-"'r".i,riqu",,,,,,t virtually no ocher figure dccorated pottery was "r,t" being produccd in th'c Grccl, rvorld. Witl-r rare cxccptiorls in tha first q.rart., ceritL,ry thc quality of rlr,. black figure is Iow, ud wc ceIl scc that it ietisfied a d",rr"rrd Lr..l-r"ip .,,1rr, jugs and oil flasks at r tirnc wircrr thc pottery industry in Ath"r. ."", b.r'o,,,,,,1i but thc fincr led ligure was probably beyond the pursc ofpoor"..itir",,, Thcre wrs, thcrefbre, ro demand for th. l"ig". .."t..r, r,, plr,r'." hyd.i,,,, in thc old tcchriquc, ro furnish the synrposie of thc "well_ro_do, " "ud yct blrr I fi61.r. pc-,'.1,.1 [rr l.rngrr rhrn c.,n Lc cxplrrrr-d irr renn\ ot,t,",rr'..]ru.,,,r, tastc of tirc clclerly. Thc cxport mxrket f.r, th"se p.rn. warcs in Grc,ecc urrrl bcyond Grcecc renrain-cd srroug. Herc couscrvatistr nray well have playc.l ,r pJrl srrlc(- rhc export o f Artic portcr y to othcr Grcck towns, to Cypnis ancl t,, culorres rn rhe rrorrh .rnd u esr, Jid rot abate, yer for chc first fifty years ll1icr the invcntion oftcd figure this tradc is vcry l:rrgcly t"t",-r.,p try irll.k hg,,,.,.

r.,irl. ,rre ,rfrcducing thc numbcr ofPalrrrcttcs on thc lekythos shouldcr' lr,i,r '.vcn (charactcristic ofthc Letgros Croup) to frvc lz4ll The othcr i" r,,r, in)portxrlt - thc use of a thick whltc groulld for thc body pic ,,,,, ,;r -zl iDsterd oflhe custornary rcd clay groLrnd 1239, 240] Thc whin' , ,,,,, ,,1 bcconres rcgLrlar no\\' lor all thc lincr lekythoi as wcll as nrany ofthe rrl, L r, pllttcrncd vascs, e d it is iltrodtlccd for sonrc other slrepcs likc thc rr,,, Lroei end srnrll ncck ampholac dccoratcd by the lekytbos painters lt

)rNlltiRGH I)^INIER is the first in)portant paintcr ofthc lerge c,vlirr'1' r ,l r rlr,,r l:-19 Jl21. H is styic dcrivcs directl y fl-orr th lt ofthc Lc'rtgros (iro trp, 1,,,r lrcn hc <lccoratcs va;cs other thal) lekythoi thcy xrc sl-neil Dcck arrrPh()'r ,, |'I;1] or lekan c lids, rathcr than thc largcr vascs firvou rcd b y thc(irorrp' I \\ r, lr wc havc only otlc or two fronl his hand. Soon after thc stert ol_his but c:rsily l, rLrrrrg cerccr hc introduccd trvo innovatjons. First is thc trivial

I r,

r, ,


ii l. li black

,, ,,

, ,l cvcs. He is capablc ofdelicacy ofdeteil but rcal fincssc is Ilo lorrgel to bc

lrrd unciuttcrcd, lhc cxprcssiot ofhis actors rithcr vacxnl with big
ior in black i!5urc. His rxnlic of Inyth xrld llcnre
sccncs is

on wir itc' grotr nd tases. Tl-rc Edirrbtr rgh Plirr tcr's style is clcat

t,,, , .,'.1

noleblc md

,,, l.rrc black figurc is only rivallcd by his inrrntdirtc cottrprrtrt'ns and r,, r'\s()rs \vhose work wc ncxt coDsidcr. llrc Grt.a Patrren, whosc carlicr vxscs havc alrcady bccn lloliccd, is

"rj the new styie. During cxtcnt Nxucratis) s)rowcd:r nrarkcd prcfcrencc,lirr rlr,. vcJrs.urv(\i1l irr rhi.,h rp1,r. Arh,.n. Dcu d(.nror.rJc) wJ\re\tcd Lrl inr.r,i,,rr trer c-it1 rnd r.nrples irikcd and burned by thc pcr.sians irr 4lio. Thcse dir. L'vcrrts h:ld no perceptiblc ellect or1 thc producrion ofblack flgurc vascs or on thc sccncs paintcd on thern, but rhe disa-ster lefr sottre valu rbli rr.t-r".'ot..,gi." dating por,ts in the dcbris ofthc city, whilc thc torr.rb ,r.r.ut.l at if4"l"ifr",,. fought in 49o, rtrxkcs its contribution ro chronology too. lr is thc lckythos p:rinrers thxt we hlvc to follow, sincc thc lckyrhoi lclt thc ruost prolific scries fbr ciassi6cation, but thcsc painters dccoreted othc,r sha;,cs too,_ rrd sonle cvcn prefcrrcd orhcr shapes. Swifr production fbr I brisk nrarkcr Jcd to spccialisatiou, and thcrc is liitle ofcithci arr or craFt irr most ol thc black figurc of thcse years. Thc poorcr rvork will ,r,,t irc igr,,r..,J 1,..", bccausc it is plcntifui, br:t its sublcct mattcr-is rcpetitivc. So,rrc"ofth" lrctr". xrrists could show fl;rir still, and origiDality in al1c trear|rent of old or thc invcntion ofncw thcnrcs. and so ro rhcllt ntost ofthc following pegc,s arrcl picturcs arc devotcd.


whilc only thc lnajor markcts ofEt.uri,

Crnrp",ria ("ncl ro

llri nccd by lhc ncw styles, but clings to his prcfcrencc ftrr flowcrs, bcsidc rl', ,,duccd nunrbcr ofPxlmettcs on lckythos shottldcrs, atld nrly introducc both whitc l,,l,rrctrcs besidc the figirre sccnes. I show two ofhis ]lrter viscs'

a 1",rr,.,

lhc Thcseus and Athcra Pliuters werc coilcxgtles, working in a rclated .r\ li (nl rc'latcd sh:rpcs, rnd tekiDg thcir lctd from thc Editrburgh Painter in rLrL rn.rttcr ofthc use of whitc ground arrd thc ncw schcmc lor dccoration of
r Lrr



each had widcr lntcrcsrs:lnd a nlore veried cxreer rhcir Lelgran nentor. Thc THL'slus P,'uuTrn startcd his carecr :rs thc best we havc l,.rrtcr of thc Whitc Heron skyphoi whosc imrnediatc prcdecessors i., , n irr thc Krokotos Grottp r Ei z]. A whitc hcron ispaintcdby theharrdlcs l ,,1 rrrtry ofthcsc skyphoi (but not all white hcrons arc his) rncl thcrc is thc ',,rrrc distinctivc usc'of ycllor,,', xt lcast for h;Lir, u'hich gavc thc Krokotos r irrlrp its nanre. His skyphoi [245 7] arc from his cerly ycars, perhaps n)lirrly lettcr 1,, ri,rc 5oo, eDd :rorc of thcm arc prescrvcd thlrtl ofhis lckythoi Thc tlrc shou' but his skvphoi, orr , Lcd somcthing ir1 thc'clcgrrrcc ofrhc fiturcs '., rrc tirm hend with stocky bodics, rouud hclds. He hes :r good c1' firr ,r rr:rls, solnc irnegination lvhen it comcs to lllollstcl s, end was onc of tllc lr \t oithc black figure artists to takc nruch rrotice of rhc ncw vogtrc ti'r

rl,, lekythos shouldcrs. But


\\eDi 5l',fS. r,tgl, whcrtc,





'l'lrc A Lrrr.N,r l',\rN r r,r ljid 5l wxs nrorc ,,vholly dcdicltcd to the decor:rtiorr ol lekvtlroi :rrrrl orrrocho.ri, rncl rrrust havc startcd his clrccr l.rtcr- Ifhc il

tict:rlso p.rirrtctl rctl liqrrc (hithctto krorvn


tl)c work ofthe lJolvdoirr

L ,1.

[)aintcr') spcci.rlising in Ickythoi cithcr in drc usull tcchnicluc or rvith orrtlirrr' ligrrrcs or r rvhitc gror-rncl, hc r'vis workins sti11 through or bcyond tlrc se()rrd rllL.rrtcr ofthe ccntur\'. He had lcrrrred the rrsc ofrvhitc ground firrrrr

the Eclinburgh Plinte: and Lecl some minor iunovetions of his orvr tir contlitrutc to thc standllcl dccoration ofblack 69rrrc lckythoi, addirir rendrils rvith thin closed btrds to the 6vc shouldcr prlmcttcs, blacking sorrr, nccks [.:t 5i], outlininla thc upright llars (clcbascd tonqucs) ebovc rhc shotLldcr. dispensing with a ground linc. His bcst work hes rhc dienitl, of thc bcst Lcegren; thc rcst hevc e sirnplc, livcly clLlxlity, sol)cti1r)cs nrrDrlclccl in dctilil. thc frEurcs rclding to thc cgg hced. Hc- puts sorrc finc llrgc hcacls on lris jugs [,u 571 :rnd lekl.thoi, :rnd Jris dcvotion to sccncs with Athcnl givcs hinr lris nernc. His choicc of sutrjcct wes vericd illrd somctinrcs oliginal. Fro r his workshop conlc ir nLulrb.'r of bltck bodicd lckythoi, ;rnd ;l grc:rt nleny oirrochoai of varyirlg l11crit, rtrllirllv whirc gror.rnd, as \\rcll ls thc later r((l lckvthoi (Bo.,vdoin Peirrrer). There was roonl [or severx] different u,orkshops proclucing black 1ii;trrr lc'kythoi ir Athcrs ofthe early fifth century. Ilesidc thc paintcrs ofthc lergr. r' cylinclcr lckythoi thcrc wcrc many othcrs, gcncrirlly morc prolillc rnd nlrk1r1!l slllallc'r nrorc rcpetitivc vlscs, bnt kecping aiive,:rlthoLrgh ir lcrminirl conclition, a tr:rdition it black ligurc which was to last to thc nrid century. A largc group ofthe clrly fifth cerltrlry, the CLAss ol, ATH.NS 5ilt, stenrls on irs owD, and centres or1 the work of thc Marirthon Paintcr [256-7] wlro supplicd many ofthc Ick-vthoi clcposircd in thc tumulus r:tiscd ovcr thosc rvlro fc'll in the battle of49o. Thc shapes are gencrally rjld faslrioned, tap.-Lrn{ stc:rdily ro thc foot. Thc MARATTT()N ParNrrn hls x scDsc of colour aDd prttcm, introdLlcing pattcrn bxnds on somc vilse necks xnd lor,r,el u,alls, aDrl varying tJrc xrcas ofthc v:lsc to bc ccx,crcd by whitc gronnd, but thc carlicr vases, as thosc from Marathon, wcrc nraillly cley ground. Thc shoulders o{' lckythoi in this Ohss Iz5E-9] carry palnrcttc!, buds or rays, thc fillrrrcs er.c gcrrcrrlly llinrsy end carclcssly executcd, thc backgrounds ofren ful1 oficafy branchcs, :r strlc continuccl on thc Hrirrrorixrr lckrthoi (scc bclot). Thcrc arc also rl]ny exrmples of'pahDettc lck ythoi ' decorltcd orlly ,,r,ith thc oltl bleck figurc Jotus and pelrncttc friczc. Thcrc rvcrc othcr lncl trctter plinters ofsrrriill lek ythoi irr thcsc ycars, etd :rc rheir- head stand the Sappho and Diosphos l'ainters, humblcr colrsins of thc Edinburgh Paintcr and influcnccd by his rvork. Thcy too prcFcrrcd thc srlaller lekythoi, often rather oid fashioned in shapc and kccping the old bucl lriczc on thc shouldcrs, but adnritting whitc llrourrd- Tlrc Sappno l)aIrurER[160 6] is the more irltercsting .tnd inventive artist. For his narrrc vesc scc [3rl]. Hc dccoratcd sornc largcr vAscs! cvcrl a column cratcr, lnd othcr
figLrrc r48

llc lr'rrl I l)rrlrr Lr rr lrrr' r ij(r()(l ( ()lr\|( ( llr! (il ' orrl L rrrlrir rLr\ fr.talicc oll llrllctllrv phqucs fot itttilclll)rclll t() l t l \ l ' r ' , I ltrrl \,.., ?66] :rllLl loLrtloPhoroi [.261] e rittrrJ shrrpc firr lllritlr rlrr "lrl r"lr r tr r wrs lons rctnincd (tl'lc Thcsctls Printcr also clccor ;rtc(l sorr rt )' I lt' Itrlt tt ' t rr\( r sPriglltly tluelirl rvhich colnPensrltcs fur tlrc olicrr lrtrrri'rl rrlnr"rr
r.,t,,: irrclLrding cpir)ctra lor wool \\'orkcrs [:6.;l'
r( \ccl11s,

in filncr:rl

sccncs, llncl givcs lrs

rl rr


,,,.,,,f,ti.r,,r. A !ilrict) ofsl1rrll ick,vthos ',r'hich he tlt;r) hrrvc irrr"'rrte'l

A r roLrgh uot illircratc hc sPrilrklcs thc field lrcelv


clisrirrctivc rr"rrv rrx


,,1, ,h r:r;r-r'hrtvc bccn irvotlecl fol hillr) h:rs I tlLpel ilrg bodt irlttrrtir"i lrr l,lv abovc thc tbot l2d1--?] irr)cl sonrclillcs dccorerccl \\'itll liorl\ ()rr lhc l,,,,,l.icr'; hor,vcvcr', rnost of lhis llLrrllcr{)tls LII ILE Ll(lN (itess 'tlc rlot by l, rrncl but br collc:rgucs, llltd thcrc llc 1tl:lll)' othcls of thc Littlc I iorr .l ,1,c rr,ith othcr shorrldc: piltlcrns (...(. hou:rci ancl helc)' llrc I)tosptlrs PatNttlll,:6d 2721 wrs a slightcr lttisr with x poorcr rL l,rrtolv, his big hcrdcd, slirtr but livclv, lllhough he had a boldcl ..,,1. Lr, lcr,r, lck,vthoi. Sotrrc of lris ircst work is on rltbestr':r Iz6E], enrl hc " , ,,, irliscd also in snrrll ncck elnPh()r'lc His letcr lekythoi bcco:llc slinlttcr' ( ) i sornc hc jrltlodllccs ftgurcs bctwccn larllc palmettcs encl perts of thc rrLrcs nrc drx\vll in outlinc [.u 69]. This'scrlri-outlirrc' tcchniquc \\'xs 1ro ,l,,,,Lrt irflrrc:rccd b1'rlrc lr'hitc g rourr cl 1ck1'thoi ofthc Athcrla P:rirltcr or orlrcr ,,l liglrrc rltists. Hc rves probeb]v working still irr tllc [rid fifth ccntrrr,v' Ilic HaruoN P,qrNtnn wls rn illcluslri()us yorLngcr colltcn)pollrl' ofthc \. 1,pho lnd l)iosphos Printcrs. He pairrtcd snrell, slirn lckl'rhoi, r'r'ith thc Pxirl l('r ,1, r,'irlc re scrvcd linc il thc lo* cr bhck ;rrce iu T-J ] u'hich thc l )iosph os

,,rrrhrvcpopul:rrisccl.Hisslirtlfigtrrc'ssteldorposturcairr)lcssl\'i11 aJi'ldof 1,, ,,,cIr".. Tl,.'cLrp-1ikc lips oflcklthoi hrd bc.^lr bcgirrnirrg to flarc slighrlv, ,r,l :r rrrbcr suddcn innovatiort is to nrakc thcn) tlll xlld nliilrlv collc:lvc siclcd' llr. H:rinrorr l):rilrtcl dccoratcs solllc o f thesc ' chitn rrey-lckythoi ' Hc hls e ,rlilic ' lluinroni:ru ' fbllou irlg. Sorlc ofthc othcr sh:rpcs hc rrrcl his rotrrperr1,r ,,,,r.lccoratc shorv I difii'rctlt itrlcrcst lronl thilt of lhc lck)thos Pililltcrs so Lrr cliscussccl. Thcrc lrc nlasroid cuPs [:74], u'ifi or r'r'ithoul hlndlcs; :r \ rricty of footcd cups, ttsurll,v u'ith a sirrgle figure tondo, end ctrp skyhrvc long, krrobbl,v lclvcs' 1,lr,ri [.u 7,5]. L)l thesc thc larqc ]rendlc palrncttcs I lrc figures r;rrrgc f'rolll Poor to cxccrlblc, the subjcct nlxttcr is rcpctitive lnrl , p"i,,r"r', co,rrp"riorrs rcgtllarll dispcllsc with whitc ground, rvllilc irr '. ,,thcr closely lelllcd trouPs cven incision is :tbancloncd' Thc .n orishop of ihc Rt t oarl l),llNlrn, irlso :rclivc illto thc sccotrcl qLtrrtct

rhc frfth ceutui,v, offcrs thc lest


illlportrnt grotrp ofbltck-figurc


vJscs to bc

,,,ntinuiDg tl'rc treditlon of srnall thin lckythoi, the Poorcst bc'lring lhc , hinrney trouth lu 7E 91, sbarp shotrldcrs ancl e high blunt foot' Thc p''i'rr' r l:rrgc lck ytll o i , irusclf u,:rs capal'rlc r) fbcttcl work th:ln thc lJeilrlon Pain tcr on rrith incurviug nccks lnd carly irl his c:lrccr' Alr exatnplc'is his tutnc vtsc

l, rodLrcccl

qnittrtity in Athcns. lt

closcly liDkccl r,vith thc Hairnonilrr

ri. r.


wlrcr c .r rr,r rr rr.less Ir.rrrider is bcing tortured by satyrs [2771. He put ivy on rhc ncck ot srrrlr.orhcl lckythoi too, and these include some with purcly outlinc figrrrcs.rrd lirr:cr:rl sccncs Jrrlong thc first ofthc great scries of Athcnirrrr whirc grotrrrd lirncrel lckythoi. His smaller lckythoi are also supcrior to tlrc Hliuroni:Ln, wirh rrruch use of white, and added usc of whitc grourrcl, sometiDlcs only bcncath rhe pattcrn friezcs. A speciality was pattcrn lekythoi [280], whitc grourrd with florrl or chcquer pattcrns (also mede in othcr workshops and throughout the century), and palmette lekythoi which continued the tradition ofthe Class ofAthens (llr.

'rqLrtcstrtcritlzgrl,butonrhervholcbcrtcrtlrrrrtlrcsirrrilrr lrrrr rrr'rrrrlr Irt' ll rrronien cups. Thc Leaflcss stylc is tracccl oll liy.rtlroi ,rrrtl rrr'rst"r'l ' rrl'" ,r lr, h rlso liad a nrorc disringuished rccor-d i:r thc lrrtc sirtlr ..rrlrrr \" 'rrr(l .rl

r,,rrhichlrccontribulcdthcr_cwxsasucccssionofftrpoolctqrrllity l|ttrcr ,r, thc mastoid cups with fcct rnd ordinary cnp hltrdics, of ll)c l'rsrr^s

I r l,lroi. Thc Thescus Pxiutcr had workcd ou skyphoi'rrItl irr tlrc I Icr'''rr

( l''"

Other late work

A very fcw standard neck amphorac werc still being decorated in biack figrrr c after the Pcrsian wars. Most ftfth-century examples ofthis shape, paintcd in the old technique, are small vases. A few (doubleens) havc only double reedcrl handles, not treblc, and many carry white ground on all or part ofthe vasc irs did the lekythoi. Of the lekythos painters the Edinburgh and Diosphos Paintcrs also decoratcd small ncck amphorae lz4j 4; z7t-zl, usually wirlr three palmettes on the necks and some with panels for the body picturcs.
Several paintcrs and classes have becn distinguished, most

rrs [294]. Among rhe skyphoi l-rlve bccn distinguishcd thc CI l(l (lttoLtt" Ll,, tiqirrcs being sit in narrow bands trld comnlonly showillg it chirri"r * ',elins round Izgz] or a courtitlg sccne (the inirials ofthesc slrlrjccts 1)lnlc rlr, group). Of larger works the Slppho Paintcr's funcrary vxscs havc bccrl ,,,,r.,,kcd elrc.rdy ;lnd wc nrxy adcl (not by hirn) i l:rtc lebes gamikos [:z 93], .L r,)lhcl shxpe witlr ritual corlnectiolrs for rvhich the o1d tcchnicltLe was ,, r ,iuccl, es it wxs for sonlc loutrophoroi to thc mid centrtry'

RED LINE parNren, who sometimes outlines thc pattern band below his pictures in red Iz8z]; and the Dor BaNo Crass, named for the pattcrn beneath the picturcs. Both oi thcsc have Leagran connections and the Edinbtrrgh Painter dccoratcd examples ol'


name only one

of the earliest, thc

ofwhich require no

the latter [244].

Oinochoai and olpai were othcr f:lvoured shapcs of the Athcna paintcr. The many othcr examples ofthc first quarter ofthe fifth cenrury arc seldonr whitc ground. I mcntion rhe KEysrDE CrAis [zdJ 6] (mosr of which do not have this border pattern), the ALIENBURc Cr-ass [284], and thc Crass or, Varrcav G47 [zE7] which includc some good genrc scencs. Thc tall olpai



mouths [288] instead of trefoil, and a fcw arc red bodicd with no painting below the figurcs. The succcssors to the black figurc eye cups are nufilerous but undistinguished. Some early in thc ccntury carry a black lip, following the scheme ol: band cups (Top BAND Crass) and several simply carry lotus and palmcttc friezcs in the old manncr. The lattcr typc continucs to be made right through the 6fth century tojudge from finds in Athens and in Corinth, somc srill with slightly out-turned band cup lips. The eyc cup schcme was continued in thc Lrarrrss Gnour, nanted for the strippcd branches which appear in thc fields ofmany examples. They havc gorgoneion or single figurc tondos, and below theirhandleslurk dolphins, birdsor leaves Izgo]. Most, however, dispcnsc with cyes and prescnt a weary repetition ol Dionysiac sccnes, gencrally of the rso

lip beforc 5oo Iz3z]-

Some oinochoai havc flat




by rhc

Ltlittutrrh Pdi d.B|LLrntk


Ltkythn\ I'y

ln Ldi


lh l\ to. Al,nlb ttdflr.$.i,4drtrr.i



L)r"l,lt (L t rylkn l,),thl I)l"thu\h 1\in,tt. A r h1lrtu t altrl





t).11\u (:li\i t..k auphtta by tltL l\tnn( I\ rtr M tl tsrll


t.! 1..\,tltr\ l't th 1\lal\ .,J.h t\1ut1tt t d n rt\t). Lrhn lkwtd. I)tidtl tt \r \ th l)rtl) il tlttto 1'1\ .,ldtill6 ,.t2 1 td),thr\ lt tltt 1:tlntl tlh P.n (. Whitr:tttwd. l)ir1yt\' dtrtiot. H. ll

,, slffr.j lf /rr 'l'h.!\tr Pnt t.Il. 1?.2.,,j.rr'l7ri'Jri/Jtrqr/JPr.,rljr'J.

r \/i[r.J i,t ,r. ]lri.!r t,t th( lhiP @ rl 1)i. y\\

i t)i'Nth.. l,)' ttu Th.\'ts 1'.tintu ltu bln"ln.. t)1

/ r,

n,i /i(n/,

S1,1,, ,

) tiltu


tlt. 1h&\tr t\lito

lL'hit (run

thNar (itlt ttu trtll il !\ldtdth . H. 18'5


i i.)!li\ ht ltu Alt(Lt P,iiittt. lfhitt .<r\ l.I'.j.!nrr ., ,


,.rj.. lt Jd

S/.),tr.J l,t /ir. 'Iht!\ts 1)ait t. A srttt, IIL'aklt\

dil Athor.lL tT


)tln\ br rht Atltu l\tiiitt. Sl..r rltl Dtrth a,1y tli hady.l Strytdo.1:1.1l

:52.t.:' Ly

rlt.,4tltt r P.i nt. llltitt ltrritLl. lldiklr hl ..1th:

, t )i'tu\h hy th( Athdkt 1),ti1t0 t ttt lnn nl. Crr( L)l l)ltl,thu..\,r l..kylho\ hy tlt Nl a n t Chdit al Dir,:)'\'i. H- 16 t,l)'tltr\ L) tlr .\1t lnr Uhttr{ttttdt',rt't hdl,l't' d'tt tht Ho \ al Di.'kd.

t rin

iih ) 1 t, t *Li

,.\ l..kyho\

!h. Clds! t'l Ath41\

C/,rrs ,r/

r. ,4trdio,

r.r, lI lin .lo(J H. ro



r, ,5dr :1rr.r,,t(lrt! r (;ir,


z5q l)ntodn bytht )rhcndPnilkt



,:) ()inrtlr\'by tht Athtld Ptntt(. llt.[1t\ li \nlritttt II ),



u, 1t h,'c. r,


.)rtt. t r. .t- 4 t - r't l. ta

,tir i.).J ttk:ttto\


tht Sntph. ]\ti tt!. I,tlhit(.qn\ur:. Hodklt\' tirtu u.tifi.!. H.

i 7. 5

,6a.1.2 Lnrnnthoto\


tk Sn




,6i I\t Nry tlatu by th. S.ptl! htrtut. tttd (y,nh$ir. I4/. ,6 5

La1{n! n,t,1,,

25!.1., Lt[),thr\


lty tli Snt'tlto 1\titltu tl.ili td badf n.t|. Adtill5lhr) t l

I irlt (:]t\\).



,b1 L.4thashtthr St lli Pai tu(t,itl. Lio Ch$).Whitu{ J..,.. ll./,r,j,r.i(rrro!/! (psi,./to\tt\d). H. i i.6


, t t)tlti Ly n, Diasphos )t t,' li&li 1t Hydtut

Ptint.r. Whn. lk,kd,

,66 Bnil-hnLlld

Pni,kr. 'lh. dnt


l'y th(


/. /,ir


,62 Nikoxh n pylis. Itlttdditp


t t ),rtl,l.
,66 Alahr\tro
Whitu ,qtor d.
h), tht

uk nnphon


ttu Dia+ho\ P."t|cr-


tr! !).ji1tttr

H. )Z

,69 l.(kytlt\'!





r/r,o/,,dr! Pr(d$!. H. Mcdr\t

Diospho\ I,.i,tttt_ Whitt


,72 N.A anthon bt tht



L.kythas by tht

HaioLa Pa
stuDn.l body

tu. Whik na.- l ht




a Thcttnn

)71 !'h'n,d ntt


th( lloimo

Paikn\- lludklLt n,hl1 tllt Ctun

,75 ()ry



th. Hdinnn Ctuup

) tr[yth.! hy ttu ]3.ldan l'jainrtr. tltit , t Ll:1'rho: Ly rhL l)tldon lrnint. H..12






il j.

r.r1\1 h ut1s.

II. r,

,76 I Iy&tu (Lnbi;)


Ly th( Lliituah

Ni/l/ trith t hrll





lltldon Pnnttt (.hn td\t). Soty^ to tu

,8, N(L onphora l,)'|tu Rtd lin l\nn thm' i tht tdttl. t,l ,;lpllo


NtA Mryhord


the fln"Lntt t)l





uona . It- 2.

,iJJ Nttkanthaturl th.Clnsol 'ltonta3t5 Atntos htit\ Aa.hi,$ lion Ttoy. H. 14 5 ,84 OnlDtlN. o1 tlt Altothw! Cta$_ Athea d d H(nk!4 nt d dwiat to fuht t( Cn t5

..ii ()i,o.l,or oltht (:lnlt i] V iatl t, t7. ll thtt. H.2j I tt ]:lnt n\nh(l oi r.lkt IK h /,,rr). Dr,,l,roJ rir, !i/),rJ d,/

,Jr.,,i a)n,dlr., tl tfu ()tidt LiIt r'/,,!.,, iIi,ll l)id,r!,i, nr/),rl

,E6 ()nn.ltu


ttu Krysitl( Clo$. Otysd\ d tl th. Silljtr

,90.1., (ttp il tlt ttallt'J! (;tuirl, 1)n,r)'Qj &r/

rdr ()no.r..,, /h.K.l,Ji,/.


F.r(. H rji

Chapter Seven


,9t ()tp


th( Letll6\

Ct.\'. Stlyt\ r


n" ,t,t\

,9a ()U, rl th( Pl\tiat (:ln\\. H. t I

:9j I.(tus.{dnik.\. Wk1t1r}r t\\6n ;PrLt^ ?tNl.. .ith l hti!. H. Jq

,9, SLftho\ ol th (:ttt Ctu\tt. Chrr|t n,lh

1,' rtcd bllck, thc neck sonctirlcs with :r simple patterrr which hes eerrcd rlr fr thc ll;rrIc S()S arlplrorlc. Thc PanerhcDllcs rrc dccolatccl by bleck I , LLrc:lltists lvhosc othcr work wc cilll rccortlrisc, but thcy rvcrc cspccially ,, ,, rlissioncd by thc stetc. Moreovc'r-, thc shlpc, dccoretion:rnd bleck frgurc , r rirluc lvcrc rct;rillcd lor thcnl long lftcr bleck tigurc rves eblncloncd firr L, rllirrv wilr'a, as wc sh;rll sccl'hc canonicll shipc ilnd dccorrtion rvas csceblishcd by ;rbour 53o l c lud " rrlry look rt t\.picrl cxirnrples of thcsc ycers bcfrrrc considenrg lhcir ,' r,ius, latcr dclclopnrcnt, xrld pnr-posc. [:97] md [,u9d] givc thc lroDt ilncl l,,1, of rrvo P:rnethcnrics bv thc Euphilctos P:rintcr, thc cerlicsr artist qf ,r lr,rsc prizc vrses an,v nurllbcr hrs sttrvivcd. Thc ncck clrrric'i a nor:nal florel. ( )r thc lront Arhcrlir stlttlds, hcr shicld:rnd spcal rrisccl, stliclirg forrvlld but ,,,,1 .rctivcl,v cnq:rqcd 1lg]inst rn cncrlry, xrld sLrrcl,v hcrc rcPrcscntiDg l ctLlt Lgc which nl:lv havc bccrr irstellcd on thc Acropolis ancl pl:rycd sonrc rolc r thc ritual ofthc elLnrcs- At cithcr sidc irrc f)orjc colurlls !uppolting cock,i. r.rc vcrc votivc scLrlpturcs oD colurrDs orl thc Acropolis, bLll thc cocks xrc ' lrcr rrrrcxpcctcd rnd eri.- laellcrrll) c\plrirlcd as syrlbois of chc spirit of ,,,rrrpcririol1 (cock fights fignrc on orerry crrlicr vxser. B1, tlrc lcft-lrend ,, lnrrru is rhc inscription,'ton Athcncthcn rrhlon' 'onc ofthc prizcs frorn '\ lrcns'. ()n thc rcv crsc :r 11 cvcrlt frorn thc g:rrrrcs is shorv:r hcrc a loor rlcc. 1 ) llcr c()ntcsts co rlr nr oniy sho wn arc tll c horsc rx cc, cha rlor rxcc, Iloxing xncl , lrcr cr,cr!s irr rhc pcnt:rthlon (lurrPirg, -i:rvclin, discus, rvrcstling and thc ,LJt rilcc). Sorn.'tinlcs thc triirlcr is irllroduccd or r victor is shown bringtng ' horsc ir 1r45.:l or bcinq clowr)cd rr)d dccoreted u.idr fillcrs. Thc Prnnthcnric Fcsti\,el hed bccD reorgauiscd, it sccnrs, ir1 j66 B c :lnd rhc l,rcltcr Paruthcnlia wcrc thcn hclcl cvcry fcrur ycers rvirlr glrrtes inclrrdiug rlrlctics, the Lcsscr arrnuelly in rhe vcars bctwccn. Thc vxsc! rclcl to thc ,,r rncr. Thc prizc vescs carlicr thlln thc Euphilctos Pairltr:r show sonlc v:rricty.

) .cr ics ofbl:rck figrrrc vescs is clistingrrishecl b1' their shtpe, dccor etion tnd r 1,r thc rrrscriptiorrs upon thcn1, rs prizc vascs for thc l)auethcnaic Clarlcs r \rlrcns. Thcy r,crc big oil vlscs (usrrirlly 6ll-70 cl). hiuh), und thc clistint r t iqht hlrrdlcs, nrrrou, nccks errd fi'ct dcrivc fronr a type of Attic sroragc ' , hich eppc,rrcd first ir1 thc Lete Ccomctric pcriocl, drc bocly usualil


Chapter Seven


,9t ()tp


th( Letll6\

Ct.\'. Stlyt\ r


n" ,t,t\

,9a ()U, rl th( Pl\tiat (:ln\\. H. t I

:9j I.(tus.{dnik.\. Wk1t1r}r t\\6n ;PrLt^ ?tNl.. .ith l hti!. H. Jq

,9, SLftho\ ol th (:ttt Ctu\tt. Chrr|t n,lh

1,' rtcd bllck, thc neck sonctirlcs with :r simple patterrr which hes eerrcd rlr fr thc ll;rrIc S()S arlplrorlc. Thc PanerhcDllcs rrc dccolatccl by bleck I , LLrc:lltists lvhosc othcr work wc cilll rccortlrisc, but thcy rvcrc cspccially ,, ,, rlissioncd by thc stetc. Moreovc'r-, thc shlpc, dccoretion:rnd bleck frgurc , r rirluc lvcrc rct;rillcd lor thcnl long lftcr bleck tigurc rves eblncloncd firr L, rllirrv wilr'a, as wc sh;rll sccl'hc canonicll shipc ilnd dccorrtion rvas csceblishcd by ;rbour 53o l c lud " rrlry look rt t\.picrl cxirnrples of thcsc ycers bcfrrrc considenrg lhcir ,' r,ius, latcr dclclopnrcnt, xrld pnr-posc. [:97] md [,u9d] givc thc lroDt ilncl l,,1, of rrvo P:rnethcnrics bv thc Euphilctos P:rintcr, thc cerlicsr artist qf ,r lr,rsc prizc vrses an,v nurllbcr hrs sttrvivcd. Thc ncck clrrric'i a nor:nal florel. ( )r thc lront Arhcrlir stlttlds, hcr shicld:rnd spcal rrisccl, stliclirg forrvlld but ,,,,1 .rctivcl,v cnq:rqcd 1lg]inst rn cncrlry, xrld sLrrcl,v hcrc rcPrcscntiDg l ctLlt Lgc which nl:lv havc bccrr irstellcd on thc Acropolis ancl pl:rycd sonrc rolc r thc ritual ofthc elLnrcs- At cithcr sidc irrc f)orjc colurlls !uppolting cock,i. r.rc vcrc votivc scLrlpturcs oD colurrDs orl thc Acropolis, bLll thc cocks xrc ' lrcr rrrrcxpcctcd rnd eri.- laellcrrll) c\plrirlcd as syrlbois of chc spirit of ,,,rrrpcririol1 (cock fights fignrc on orerry crrlicr vxser. B1, tlrc lcft-lrend ,, lnrrru is rhc inscription,'ton Athcncthcn rrhlon' 'onc ofthc prizcs frorn '\ lrcns'. ()n thc rcv crsc :r 11 cvcrlt frorn thc g:rrrrcs is shorv:r hcrc a loor rlcc. 1 ) llcr c()ntcsts co rlr nr oniy sho wn arc tll c horsc rx cc, cha rlor rxcc, Iloxing xncl , lrcr cr,cr!s irr rhc pcnt:rthlon (lurrPirg, -i:rvclin, discus, rvrcstling and thc ,LJt rilcc). Sorn.'tinlcs thc triirlcr is irllroduccd or r victor is shown bringtng ' horsc ir 1r45.:l or bcinq clowr)cd rr)d dccoreted u.idr fillcrs. Thc Prnnthcnric Fcsti\,el hed bccD reorgauiscd, it sccnrs, ir1 j66 B c :lnd rhc l,rcltcr Paruthcnlia wcrc thcn hclcl cvcry fcrur ycers rvirlr glrrtes inclrrdiug rlrlctics, the Lcsscr arrnuelly in rhe vcars bctwccn. Thc vxsc! rclcl to thc ,,r rncr. Thc prizc vescs carlicr thlln thc Euphilctos Pairltr:r show sonlc v:rricty.

) .cr ics ofbl:rck figrrrc vescs is clistingrrishecl b1' their shtpe, dccor etion tnd r 1,r thc rrrscriptiorrs upon thcn1, rs prizc vascs for thc l)auethcnaic Clarlcs r \rlrcns. Thcy r,crc big oil vlscs (usrrirlly 6ll-70 cl). hiuh), und thc clistint r t iqht hlrrdlcs, nrrrou, nccks errd fi'ct dcrivc fronr a type of Attic sroragc ' , hich eppc,rrcd first ir1 thc Lete Ccomctric pcriocl, drc bocly usualil


'fhc errrlicst *ylistic.rlly end so pcrheps of thc letcr ,i6o,s is thc


Arnphor.r l.u96J rvhcrc uc. scc Arhcue's orvl orr the rreck, e scluerly Arr


prizc v:rsc, btrt tirh thc rnscription by rhc risht hand colrrnrr."Thc Su,inse,,, r1ot il)sctibcd irs prizcs. ()rr onc ltc puts a Hcnltcs bcsiclc Athcn:r;rncl orr Jnolhcr [/1J1, whcre a rnortrljoirrs thc dcitics, thc- rcversc reco].ds .thc

Athcre ud rclcqttcs thc inscription to thc rcvc,rsc. Thcsc cari1,pl-izc\ onrit thc cock colunlr)s ilnd thc- Athcnes st:Lud 6:rt-footc,rl. Thc cock colunrns erc sccn firsr on l)an:rtbcnrics l)crr C;roup E, by lirr kias Iro6] end by thc Slving Peiutcr. Exckius,onc r.,.vl,,,i,rg.,r,,,r,pl",,.,

f:rshiorrccl rcd f:rcc. ()thcr vescs rlan)c thc trvo-lcnsth foot rlce (di;rrrl,ri) showing rrnrc'cl runnels: tllcv ennoLu)cc or,r,lcrship, , dieulodrouro(rr) crrrr ,, or victoly in rltc shcljon, 'strdio(rL) endrorr nikc,. llclos puts a vicror bcl,,r,

ott thc Icvcrsc is l ,tvDoris tcaru (nvo-horsc or -ntulc cxlts). SiDcc this rr rr,,r iithlctic it coulcl bc curlicr thtn thc rcorsanisation but it is i;kclv thar th( r(.\\ sclics ofvascs rvus inluqrLrltcd xt thu \.urru tirrrc t)tlrcrc-rrl) r,,.,,1r..1 ,,,,r,. vases:rrc' also morc- ir formative th:rn thc l:rtcr oncs. A fragnrcn I ilr Hlllc \ l, lr, closc't() L\'clos, sho,,vs thc t'bot recc and slys,rrrdron,,;ofthc nrcn,: rhis r,, usurllv tukcr to be thc crr.licst to shorv :rrhletics, brrt thc lotus on its ncr l Ir,r llrcedy_lost its cclrtrii spike irld thcrc is rnothcr cur-1y frrqnrcnr florr: rlri Acropolis, siruilarly inscribcd lor nrntrcrs, o:rc of rl.horn hes still thc ol,l

\\r rlrrrs coDtot;s xnd hcavicl-lips and fcct. [u thc seco d iralf of thc ilfih ,, r,Lrr ir is tlol so cils\ to idcntify Paintcrs of prize vascs \vidl knorvn rt'd ri,LLrL ,rrtists but groups can bc disti:reuishcd (thc llobinson Cirotrp, thc Sikclos l'. rrl, Lr ( iloup [3oi]). We do ,,ur l.rok lor signetures on Pllzc vases but ,,,, ,l ,,,r, r"riri l, r.liii11g his orr the colurllrl ofonc irl thc late sixth ccntury errd cc tury (Bakchios, I{ ittos and lx)othcr) ' I ,, LL r\ \ign onc or tw; irl lhc fotrrth i,, ,,. riiif, ccntury thcrc wes xr lcist onc kxlos inscriptiol ([297] on thc

strrrd in thc rraditioull pose bur thcir drcss ' I r,, r'l (gorgo eia). Thc Athcnas rctldcr xll thc oc\\'skills in drar'ving brrr 6gulcs rhc athletc , ,,,,,,t,l.,rit"ii "ua ,,, rlr, o[1 rcchtique- The vlscs rhcnrselvcs hxvc higher shouldcrs with nrorc

,',,.i p(rhrps





(gorgonci:r) rnd the Achillcs Peint-


,,",,r"s Hi;rpo.1",,ras, ofi75/4 uc:, but Bcezlcy sr'rspccts th:rr , .rr listiialli carlicr vrsc'nlrncd l)yrhoklcs, ofrgz/r BC. On thc colurllls rhc , , ,, l, .rrc rcplecccl by s,vlnbols, diffcrcrlt cxch ycAr, usLrilly a st rluxry figtlrc or ,,,,,, 1r. Thr: tllrpholl sh:1pcs bccotnc nrorc fcrnininc, rvith gencroLrs lips, ,1,,,,q rh,r.,1d.r:s, slcnclcr rlecks and il)klcs. Thc colurlllls slirlr lo xr) imPos_

\\'ith thc lourth ccrltllry conlc ilnovatiolls. By thc righr hand coluun ,l l,. rl ir)scrlptions nrnrirrs thc erchon lor thc'ycar. Thc eerlicst rvhich clrr Le


;Ltier rvhich tlrc Etrphilctos


is n:rmed).

,L 'il,l,, ."rt,rr.,l

of L)ysr)ikctos
Thcrc lrc


I nulltbcr ofothcr unrphor:rc r,vhosc shlpcs lpproxinrltc to tlrr. prizc .,,rscs in dcgrccs lnd r,,,hich clrry tirc Achc:ras, oftcr tl:r. colunlris, ilud the tlhlcti. cvcnr\ )s wcll xs rDr.tsicel contcscs (pipcs p1:rr,crs)
arrcl spcclators ot1 a vrsc inscribed -,r r 'rtr,cl ti.r rhe runrbler.. .k.,Jos r,,r kl,bistciroi'. Sonrc ofthcsc rnigltt bc 1.r rze v.l\u\, bu t Lr Lr\rur.rrr drcl n,,t wrn oil :rt this detc, ald tllerc lrc ordinary arrrphorle rud othcr shepcs rvhich borro,,r, rlrc Panathcn:Lic sclrcnre of dccoration eud nrust bc ,n".jv souvcnirs. Tlrc

.l,i,.rrchircctur.rliir-rnarldillthcaa)-o'sthcindividuallcttcrsoflheillscriPtiul ,', , lrorizonral. Thc Athcnas wcrc xlrcxdy bccominq pin-hcldcd lrrd gror, , urll'c'lorrgttccl irr rhe lrtc 6fth ccDtury rncl thc proccss continues.Sonlc , ,,, t.t.u".,r'359 end 34lt tlc Athcrla turrrs to facc right, hcr shicld raiserl to


rvhich had problbiy bcen adrrriftcd in thr, sixlh ccncury, lrrrl cr,cr lcrob,rt,


Don-prizc I)aLnathctrirics oftcD dcvietc tn, , b i, i,r rrirti:rg colu r[,, .t,.1 .rd.]ine u rr owJ or othcr ligurcs, rl,hiJc I lclv r-eplecc thc cocks b1:cuuldrons, iions, orvis or disci and oncc by nrele tiqurcs. With thc Lceqros Ciroup [_zgg,-7ool \\c \ciJ thl! srr.rtcr Lrnitunlritv hl(l bccn esteblishcd for the prizc vascs rnd thc rrtist.r r,,111111q1i,,,,.rl t,, producr. tllcnr lnorc oftcl r_cpcat the s.nrc shicld dcvicc fbr thc Athcnrs ofouc scrrcs. PossibiY thc dcviccs rvcrc dictltcd by the rlrasistretc rvho ordcrccl thc vlscs fronr cliRi'rcnr pxillters to hclp identify ,, Ir,rtfl,. Th" frrst gencmtjon ofrc(l figrrrc lrtists sccnrs r)ot to lr:rve bccn irvitcd to producc prizc vrscs, :rlthouqlr onc lrasnrcnt hrs been rhought pcrhxps thc wor.k ofEupirrorios_ .I,hc Euchr_ ridcs P:ri|tct is thc lirsr t.ccl figorc araist to h.r\r F.lIrtcd LD\ Irrnbr.r, rtr tlrc 1..r. .'rrrrrl .Ld l(r \ou.,rrrd lr..i, Lrjl,,rr..l Lr..rrrrcof rlr, .,,,.r Jr,rrr,_ guishcd nanrcs in rcd fieurc thi-' Klcophrrdes Peirre:.f3orl (l)cgJsus blr_

:rrl carly twcrlticth-ccllttlry fashion p)rtc' 13cezof 3S6/5 D (i nccds llo cxPltnllion lJoTlCroup l, r'.'rl,rrks, xnd thc HoLrblc thc ethlctcs reprcscnt ihirhfirll,v thc arcllaisirlq, is Itrrnnerccl, llr t rr.hilc shc t \\ scrrlptur'rl proportiors er)d Posct ofthc fourth cctltury Bcsidc thc[r nray ,l,l,crr t;:riDc1s, Nikr-'or, oncc, x pcr-sonilicittioll ofthc Olynrpic ()enrcs, a ,,,rrrplinrcrrr to thc scDior lcstivel aucl gerl1cs. lLc larest clrtcd v:Lsc is of I I2/ I I R(lbtrtPAn:ltllcrr.ticsxrcslillbcingrllrdc , rhc rhircl aDd sccond ccntulics [;oE], nxnr;]g othcr oficials - l trctsurcr lrrLrriirs) or stcl\.rlcl ofthc srnlcs (egonothclcs). Thc shxpcs cx'lllgcrxtc r11d \,

.., cn obliqllci-v 6orn u,ithil lJo5l. Shc wcars a cloek drapcd ovcr hcr uPPcr ,,,,,', its .rid Ileritrg in s*'ellorv tails which also affcct the hcnrs of hcr

gilrnlcnt iuld chitorl : likc

L,,,rltc thc o1d sinrplc lornrs ,urd thc stylc is :r 1:rirrr pcrfunctor y rcflcctiorr of ()11 ,r rr,rt bllck 6grrrc hlcl bcen. lltlt thc v:tscs wclc still velLlcd, and erc showll B(l' sccond celltury first and of the l)el()s orr ,r ,ll plir,trngs el)d Irros:rics, \, i't,rt]e cxplains lbr us that thc .rchorrs u'crc rcsPonsiblc lbr providing oil t,, th.^ prizr's fronr thc secrccl olive trccs. Tllc clllecl vascs ir'c oDly ofYc'tr\ ill ,, r ich tire Grcatcr Pmxthclrtix wcrc ,?ol helcl arrd it t es th c cluty of omc jit ls irr thc r r( \c vcirs to lly LIP thc stock for rhc ycer ofrhc g:Ln1es:rnd to

,,rductioDofthcvlses,whichdxtcdtllcharvcstillthcsltrlcu'irythxtvilrtilllcs i,,'r".htcd by ltrchon sttnlPS irnpressccl on lhc h:rDdlcs of willc illllpllolilc


s()Ilc ntrr\t hr\'c :rccoruplnicd victors to thcir !IrilVcs ljkc thc vescs:rt cui lr corrcr ofa slrr-cophrgLrs in l:rrcrltrLr)) errcl nrlny wcr-c declicarcd in serrcrrr itrics.WhcrthccstttcsofAlcibilrcics.tu.lntltrrd.rc.r.rrt,rr,,ttlrcHcrrtrrlvcr.i. soirl rrp in :[r j D(: ovc] onc hurdtcd r,vcrc clisposcd ofrt pr.ia" ,,t "u "u"."e" hrif :r clrrchnre. Anotlrcr rrcusurc oithc-ir popLriurity ru,r. .,r,ri] i,i.ri,l.l, rlr" rhe shrpr ri,piud ir \tur(. t,,r trwcilcri, fl,r srr"ii v,rsL.s,,,rcl ti,, tt.1 ftqtrrr vrrcr dcc^r.Lr(rl \ itlt \ .,rroLls scctrc!. Ofiiciul 1,,,,c tDcasrrrcs ofthis sh;r1,, l-r'rr .,r'.\rlr.,r.r lrur.l .rr,,r . , j , . . 1 ir i,l.r, k ,rrr rr. L l..l ,,l ,.rrr.,,r,,.r J'ublr' l:lll(.\ .rr( tjtlr/t.,r ,t,i.tjntr\ i.r ,1,r..
, r
. . ,

rr.t irr Arhcrs). So,rcthirg of the or.dcr ofonc thous:lrrd \\,.'r(. 'ilscs lirr_prizcs rl cuch g]n1cs a strDt rvhich brirrgshorrtc tlrc eppellirlgl1 1,,') '1,',r,lr.Lr(..t,,1, rn,,\r t)l(rrrilirl ,rrclracoloqi;l cviclcncc irlr'Arch.,i, ,rl,l ( l,\ r. rl(,r.r,, 'Ilrc vlscs ltcl contcnts rtril,lhr bu suld by rhr r.L.trr, rr,hr.h cxol;rirrs tlrc uirlc clistril.,rrrior oftl,cru tlrroL,qh rh. (;,..1 ,r.,rl.l'.,,rd .r,,,.,.f. ii, fr,



.!qt Iiit!

nht t,l l\t\11hd&i.

r t trhj,,ttnttLlto



, t.. l\ Llth.ttit rtrl,ldtt ,1,l ntuN!).Ll-6t 3


f' tlr


P ,nhuiit


l atu rnr). H- 62'5

Lthon l,y nk


,99 Pd nth. diLn rhaLrr)ltl1(



at. rnphan al Llk t.t:dlras Ctu\q)



Pd'ldthonit dnphott ht ttu Klrclhndcs Pdnnd

,9E ltdtdth.ndit noryhon bt ttu hthilct(t Pa"t1u

t ntrhtrat, utllrrt


tlt llLtltt l\trrtrl

| : l\ irthnrl r tlr\r ltt tlr .lltill.\ 1tli tt,

tot .


.thtt rilt, |l to1 l







r)1.2 t\untln dit

r lrlr\d

\'l ttu Ktbat ()1\tp

t\ufihdfuit dnpho


th. rhbltu CNry. A11lo$hil

t t, ! lrrl(lrr, .tj6l 5

t06 h ntltnnit dtnthrll,, /i,. \'il.,k.roj S.rn: ,4rr,',,/,'/, rl K.phi\\\b.!. i,1l.! BC

to5 Pd nlh! ni. a,rlr\d,,,,r,!r,ri.J. ,4riro,rr//, al ltytln\l(1\,5, .j1615 BC. I L [,;


I\rlttlhlan n thotd. Htllai\tit H.7t'l

Irrtlc or no ir.rcision, on their interiors. Thc subjects are dolphins, fiips' orloplrses, florals, rarely 6gures. There are earliel Chian phialai decoracccl with white and red florals within, inspired by the reliefpattcrning ofbronzc

Chapter Eight


cxir)rples. Sosimos made a phiele including a lloral band ofrcd with incisi'rrr oI lhc lllack, which is a techniquc used earlier on Rhodian Vases (Vrottlia (lroup). So it seems possible that these rare all-colour essays in Athens wcrc rrrspircd by East Gteek work or artists.


Six technique
This technique is named after the scholarJan Six, who discussed it in r 8llll. its simplesr form ir lnvolves layrng on figures in white or red on an all-bl surface and incising details so that the black, not the clay, shows through. technique had been used in details on Athenian black figure vases for men's faces with featurcs incised, and for some shield blazons from thc halfofthe sixth century, as [47], but it is not used for completc figures or whole decoration of a vase until about 53o. The general effect is, of cou that of red figure, but it l.rad already been used outside Attica (in Corin Boeotia and East Greece) for whole figtues and major elements of One of the first uses in Athens is on a Nikosthenic amphora (was this ofhis innovations?) for studies ofnaked girls fjogl, and in this case thc black vase recalls the all-black Etruscan bucchero it is copying. psiax will another user and the pottcr Sosimos. A small group of stamnoi and ncck amphorac [3rz] ofthc end ofthe century used the same red that was used fof details in black figure, but the main pcriod for the technique is the late sixth and early fifth century and most examples are on lekythoi by the Sappho and cspecially the Diosphos Painter. These scem to have introduccd the use of0 pink colour for the bodics of men instead of white, more closely resembling nature and red figure, and they incised some detail as in outline, on the black, It is not only used for small vases, and the Sappho Painter's name vase is a hydria (kalpis) with the poetess drawn in rhis techniquc [Jri]. It is rhc technique used iu thc fifth century by Etruscan vase painters when 6rst thcy take note ofred figure and try to imitate it (Praxias Group) since it dispenscs with delicate brush-work and the tedium ofbackground filling, but the palc paints used ate fugitive. Finally there is a small group of mid-fifth-century oinochoai (choes), mainly from the Haimon Paintcr workshop with unincised red figures on the black.

Mirriature versions of major vase shapes were used for dedication in tcmplcs ,rrtl rombs or for toys. Thc most important Athenian sixth-century serics is

llrc SwAN GRoup, roughly decorated with swans and lines ofdashes. Altrost ,rll shapes are represented, even odd ones like eggs and bells, but in cups thcre ,rrt only skyphoi of Corinthian shapc ('kotylai': the swans on thcsc arc was herself an activc lr,rintcd upsidc down [315]) perhaps because Corinth i xporter of miniature skyphoi. The shapes copied indicate a range in detc

liom the second quarter ofthe century, perhaps to its end, tojudge fron-r finds irr Athenian gravcs. Othcr sixth- and early fifth-century miniatules decomtcd witlr stripes and blobs (notably kothons,jugs and fecders) seem to have bccr rlcstincd for funerary deposits in Athens, perhaps all for children. Many otl,cr srrtll, but not strictly impractical versions of common shapes were made :rr1d rlccorated in the ordinary manner throughout thc black figure period. Miniature Panathenaic vases were made in the carly fourth century, l,rcsumably as souvenit vases, and naturally decoratcd in the old techniquc, likc their models. This is thc Buras Gnoup [3t 6] to which many othcr
rniniatures, not black figure, are assigned.

There arc a number of late sixth-century phialai [313-4] including nrany from the Athenian Acropolis, decoratcd in white and red ovcr black, witir

Black vases Wc might have expected that the figure decorated vases which have bccr-r tliscusscd in this book represented only a minority among the clay vases rlscd by sixth-century Athenians. It is remarkable, however, that the unpair-rtcd Iottery ofAthcns in these years was designed for storagc or the kitchen, not li)r the table. We must make allowance, of coufie, for wooden cups and l,llttcrs which have not survived, but there is one series ofclay vases whiclr scrved much the same purPoses as the figured ware and is often of high quality. These arc the black vases, painted all over with the fine black gloss |iint, somctimes with added red lines or with rcserved bands bearing thc simplest decoration of stripes or rays. The production of these black vascs rloes not, however, exactly tally with that of the figured vases and may bc
briefly summarised here. The big black oil or wine vases which in the scventh century had SOS dccoration on the necks aie usually plain in thc sixth century - all-black or


t) t'llil,.\trt,,lt


t, t

N9 Nl, nltuh Mphrtn Sb ttlnilu, H- t,

,rJ l;l)t,h,r d ,&, Sil,,

(a'.ut. Ll- 5-6

tt, h\ntutd.


t.d qn


jt 1 Hydrtu lkdlti!) hy th( Snpt'ha l\Nto ltn k Sis trh Sappho


Phinl(- Si!

(tl liqu

n ryhdn ol ttu Buld\ Ctott.

tI6 llli|idtnt. l\ tnthoni

ltt Cltttl),|t lhrtrlt ll :t

brossc')srlrrLl;1rd lDrphor.r. lrrrlri,r.rrrtl .r,llct sh.rpc\.lrl poorl\ rcprcsclltcd irr bleck, bLrt thcrc rr.c rr:rr rr oin{).lloiri, sL vcr,rl pclikui lnrl psl ktcr,i lrld ln irclcr:tl thc lltc si-\th ccntrrr\ \(cs.rrr in thc pro<lLrction ofblrck virscs. Spccillitics in biirck ofrlr,.r,

h.rrr,lc,l u itlr rlrrrrrcrl p:rirr (clccor:rtiorr




vcrrs errcl i.ttcr ur-c stcnt tcrl plltcs rlld clishcs. Lt thc first h:rlf of thc sirtlr ccl)ttrr\, h()\\'cvcr. bllck:illtphoflskoi wci-c collllliolt (sontc rctlrirring rlt,. S()S ncck),llrhough rurc in bilck filrLrc, rvhilcbl;rck iekunei long ourlivc rlr, shipc'spoplrlilrit\firrtjgrrrcclccolltioninAthcns.rr)dsul-\'ivctoirb()ut.\tr, Anrorg lck,, thoi ()rrl\. thc carlv 'l)cirririr' shepc i\ conlnron in bllck, brrt rr, Lhc cerly 6f_th ccnturv sontc cLlrrclt shitpes hlrvc bllck bodics r,uith or.clirrrrt shotrlclcr clccoretiol (I-ittlc Lions encl fiont thc Atltcntr Plintcr's uor.ksltol,) ()icrrps thc (iorinthi;rn sklphos rhlpe und its Attic clcr.iv:rtir'cs rr-c c()nllr(,1 k)gclhcr \\'ith .up skr plroi. fhc t,holc mngc of tborcd cuPs, 6.or:r thc korr r.r,r to cvc cups, is ucll rcprcscntcd ir bl.rck (bur rrot lip cups). TItc e.rr.licr.or,.. ou,c much lo ln oidcr l-est (ircck trlclirion (the so clllccl Ioniun cLrps),.rrr,l

()fthc lirrllr,.'r clrss tlrcrc is tllc l'j.rirrrr'r ,,1 tlr, llclrllY ll()co!iil lllis sccrllr to lr.rrL lrr r rr L l,ti!c xrc.r, \\ihcrc \\c cilll:llto (iclcct thc nork ofpairlttrs trrrtt rtrLrr' lr' \r rLrri.rn (lorgor Plintcr.rrrtl rhc KX l)rirrtcr'. Irr tht scrorrrl lr'rlt ,'t tl" L, ,Lllr:\i lD Athcrriln, Trrsl,ls, signs xs P()ttcr t\\o skvl,lrt,i rrrrl ,r I' rr,tlr,r"' ,, ri,h l'clc 1tt:ldc in Bocotit 1rt1d orc of tltclll clccor:rtr'tl irr.r IJ"i"rr'rrr ,, frcr b1:rckpol-lchrorrtc,t'ithirlcisiollilllclcoloLlroll.lll.rll IJ.r, I'r1r"r "'l I , (lA 1r,L l) tNTER is itrr rrrlsl \vho Ilrs llithcrto bccrr t;rlerr Iirl Atlrt rrr'rrr. ,rrril:j cup sklphoi irr e L,vcl;rn stllc, but hc rvrrs protr,rbl,r u,'rLrrr1l rrr
.rLjigr.rnt\ ol rlirect copr'ists.
I r,. .,1en Lckrnis \\'ho IuovcLl to


ln Eubocl, .irolhcr closc ncighbotrr to Artlc.i,




st1 lc



oiSirnl shepc h:rvc rcscrr ccl lips, hendlc zoncs ercl brncls, olit.rr closc sc-t groups oi:cd lincs uithin thc rcscn ccl lip or toncjo.

Athens or Attica

l, ,, I figurc hes bccn iclcrrritrcd, rr spcci:r1it1'bcirrg anlurtls or firlrrr-cs l.rclrLrg l 1., h ol rli ircisiou. F.rctrie rvrs lhc princiP.rl ccntrc, end il sccnls likcly rrow rl l \onrc qrorLps of v.rse\ u,hich hed bccn tirkcn ibl Attic propcrl,v bclorrg t ,i r tirc wrtcr, irr Lrctri:r or sorrlc othcr Eubocrtl lor,r'tl. This sccllrs tlrlt, trf' ot thc l)oLPutN (;Rour or lck,vthoi (shoLrlclcr lck'vrhoi of thc rrricl 'rLrrv L rrrLrr),rnd Iirtcr) rltd scvcrel othcr hydrirc lnd enrpho:ltc u'hicJr hlvc plsscd ,, Atlc. Clev rnelvsis by crllissior) sPcclr ogrrPh,v hls hciPcd to is()lalc !hcsc th(' l, i .cs froll) thc Atltcrtien scrics, illd thc s:1olc lcchniquc hclPS tls to plxcc
l\rJLArA (lr.^ss of srtrlll rrcck tnrPhorire il Sicily. It is likcl,v tlltt othcr r,l rrslrncnts to our ju(lgcrncllt of wh:lt is Athcniell uiil hlvc'lo I)c ulildc. l'in:r1lv, at cirhcr siclc oflhc I)ildrncllcs, iIr tllc Trotcl lncl et Elaetrs u'hcrc 'rLhctls rvts ilctivc clulirlg lhe sixlh cclllurv, thcrc .rr'c ll:1llv srn'rll eninr,,l

Tht'conrrnor pnrcticc ofcellirg Athcui:rrr



clisguiscs thc


tlr;rt thcle \\'crc fottcrics proclLrcinq firrurc clccoratcd v:rscs clsr.-utcrc ir A tr ri ,r rhiln in Athcrts' p()ttcr s' cluurrcr. Tltcrc tvcrc rlen v rich lou.lships in th c A t tr, coLlrrir'\'sidc iu thc si:ith ccnturr,, nt;rrkcd bv thc Iillc stiitlrilry irDd v.r\(.., rcrtrvcrccl fionr tlrcit cc'nrcrcrics, ltncl nten,, sourcL-s of cl:r\ othcr thel llt(. nrliri clav bcds ilt Allrrrousion ,iollc t\\:clvc kilorrctrcs tionr tbc ci11,. Thcr c r, trnlikclr to hrvc bccn irrrv rpprcci.rL,lc tlitlc-rrn.r rn rtvlu.,,rhrr rh.Ln irr tlr, $ ork o fclitlercDt hrnrls, so thc- possibilitv ofdctccrion lics il distriburion, u rrr l this cer bc I rrrislc:rding euidc, but \,\'c hlvc sccll thtt soruc c.rrlv bleck figrrrr peil]tcrs rrc'so t'llr rcplcsctltcd onlr'at Veri, ill southwcsr Atticr, r.r'hich u.r,,

,1, 1,,,

vrrscs, ofrctr



ttsttelly \\'ith urlinciscc] birds


oretiorr, \\ hich rrc rclxtcd ro thc Su,rn (irorrp lllitliattrl

ls thcir on11' tlld problbll' of

rl rr:rrutictrrrc.






is clslcr-,,r,lrcrr drc proclrrctio:r is rrrorc spcciuiisccl . votivcs ti)r:l lo.,rl cllr;rr\. fhLrs at Elcrrsis, thcLc iuc \onlc vit\cs ofcllstiuctivc dilpc [1r I .rrrrI

jnrport.tnt celrtlc.

of the flrst helf of


si\th ccnrLtry, bl pl1rttcrs not rcprcscltc(l

clscrvhcrc lrncl shor.r'ing:iturl sccrrcs uppropri;rtc to thc wor\hip ofl)crrctcr And et llrltulor rn cest Attic:r, \,hctc drcrc rves e sJDctuerY of Ar rcnris, lhcr r. hevc bccn forrnd r nunrbcl of lootcrl cretcrs in err unincisecl snlc of 6lilr cctrtrtrv c1ltc, shorvire niikcd qills cl rrrrrrr{ [rrrl rnLi Llr.rrlr rel.rtin,l t,r rlri. locrl crrlt orrlv.

Emigrants and lm itators WhilcAthcns'bllckfigLrrcsctestrndard1brorhcr(l:cckstrrdiostoiirllor,.or cnruliltc it is not clsv to tracc Adrcniun irliLrcncc oursiclc Articl irr thc l or L


,r!, AfrirrF/'/,,,,i,/r., H. it

tlr, rrr up. To evoid wastc hL'would huve nludc thc p:rrt\ to ,r .t,rrr,Lr,,I .rr, rrr,1 t ,rc is closc corrcspolldencL' of DreasurenrcDl iI v;rs,s rrlrr, lr \((rr, lr,,rr




t.rilsoiportinqrnclprinring,tohavebccn prodtrccd liorr orrt rr,,rlrlr,,l, rn L.r,rlrpcriod.Ovcrrllchrngcsinpropor-tiolrcirrrilis()bc()l)\crr,,l .,rl,r,,r.,l l rr.ition t'ionr stoul f()rrns ro slcndL'r oncs, with J rctLn n l. nr1)r r r,,l,rrsr rrr,l r r 1ic,-l tornrs by about ) Io, soon eftcr thc iDtrodu.tiorr ol lctl lirltrL, rr lr, rr .., \Lr:rl nc\v shepcs uhich erc purcly pottcr inspircrl (pclikli, k,rlpis lrrilr.L. ., rrros) also nlrkc thcir eppcitrinccs. lhc irllrrcncc of :uctul vrscs orr thc shitpcs of clilv virscs ts rvortlr ,r

L,nrcDt's ertcDti()n.

Thc lbrrncr, csPcciitll) thc clccoritccl viscs, nru\t.rlui.r\s

Athcniln pottcrs ofbllck figurc vlscs wcrc not thc flrst in Cirecce to sisn th, rr urc:ks rl,ith pridc, but it is with Athcri:rn sixth-ccntr.lry vascs that wc..ur

lr. , L.bccn the mor-c valuirble. Sonrc'shepcs in Athenirn blrck figLrrc, lrkc thc

r nrore conscious intcrcst ofthc pottcr in his r,vork.'1'lris rr r-cvc:r1cd by rclincmcnr oilip end foot proEIcs, end lttcrrtion to, for lnstarrcr', rhc nrodc'llirg oflcss irnportlnt llcts likc chc undcrfoot lerturc's which c,rrr


servc rs critcria for thc idcnti6c:rtion ofpottcr lvork as cfcctivcly as clct;rils ol dra*,ing carr rhc pairting. Ilcfincnrcnt, invcntion, irnitation, nrav all :cvc,rl the potter rs lr.,"lrcboth ofthc comnlcrciel aud precticel veluc ofe good sl:;ry,t' lnd ofits vduc as a 'r,r,ork oi urt' (ifnot cluite il orrr scnsc of thc tcrm). lirrr

nrodcrn corunrcntetors pcrh:rps havc bccl cluickcr to obscrvc rll this thln tlrr. potlcr would hevc bccn, and es e rcsrLlt it is rvich Achc:rian black figurc tl:,rt scvcrrl rcccll invcstigetioDs hevc bcglrn in an attclrrpt to rccovcr thc Prrr ciplcs ofproporrion or 'dvnenric synuuctry ' tvhich govcrnccl thc sh:rpc's rrrr,l dctaiis of tirc incr vrsc shepcs. Whcrc thcse studics itrply l knou,lcdgc,rI gcorllctry far bcyoncl thc wit of aDy ancient potter they can be igDorcrl \\,ithout lorc ldo- Thc rnost thcy rnry dcmo[strrrc is rhat :r ' atura] ' curr,, u,hiclt plcascs thc c) c nlry bc c\pressed nrathematicxlly. (icrtrirrly thc shrpt

irr rircir overall ploportions end dctails rrriry otrcn bc rrrrdcrstood in tcrrrrs \lllich wc can irs rcldily apply to othcr rvorks ofthe (lrcck artist, in architr t tlu-c or scLllpturc. All this brings us too repidly, too Gr lronr thc blsic trrrrlr that (lrcck vascs are frllctional, that shape was dcternrincd by siltplc rrccrls
to storc, nor ro spill, ro suir thc lip, to hold hclvv liquicl, to kccp cool, a:rcl s,, on. thcsc rlccds thc shrpc can also be acljustcd to ccho function es irr

hrcl bccn bolrolvcd b,v clrlicr pottcrs fton1 rhc rrrcr.rl \\L,rkcr's repL'r-tory. L)fthc rrcu,shlpcs lhc volutc'cllltcr in pluricLrlur ptob ,1, r oucs its oliqin to rlctai prototypcs, but not Athcniln oncs. ()thc[\\isu L r. nr:ly bc dccorltive fi'rru:cs copvint nrctalwolk. Thcsc rrc'rrrost prorirncnt or hvdfi:ri errcl oinoahori, both poprrl:rr bronzc shapcs, lrDcl rvc scc r,,LL llcs :rt rhcjunction ofhendlc lncl lip, u,hcrc roo r hnnreu [:30] or lninrel r,.rJ in thc l()und rlny look inro thc vcsscl. Thc schcrrrc with thc hcrd is ,,,, r'orvcd tLr sonle kv:rthoi I t 7 t I. Prlrrrcttcs uud si:u ila: dc'viccs fol etrrching rr, trl hrrrdlcs to lhc bod,v ofrhc v:rsc rrc:rlso copicd itr paint oI rclicf-. Thc l,,,rro1,ing5 rrc l]cvcr slirvish aud rhcrt'is e rcturn trlffic wirh:r blonzc ,,r ktcr. I'hc rcst ofthis chrpte:-is dc'r,ored to rn eccornrt oithc fLurctioDs rncl DrDres , lhc vxsc shepcs \\,hosc clccoretiou has bccu stuclicrl ultclcl,l. Somctinrcs thc ,1, r'clopnrcnr of a shrpc or thc inverrrion of a rlcw onc hes provcd xrl rl)ofleDl clcDlcrlr in thc story of thc dcvcloprllcrlt oa st\rlc, rl1cl thcsc ,,1,{(r1,11io115 rlccd Dot be rcpcrtcd xt lcngth. So thc follorving cDtlics slullr.Llisc lrd cross-rcli'r, encl rhcv cln cll onl,v uhcrc no crpllnetion h:rs lrccrl , lcrl lbr :rlrcedt
y,irL,rlc eucl cliuos,

Anrphorae L lrr, llrgc rrr'l

r.rpcs aDd

thc bxesy outlirres of liquicl colrt.incrs rnd clcly rhc'erchitcctrrrc'oflip,

Dcck, bodr., foot..fust as iD thc dccoration, the painter nlxy

cllcct of shapc

rs js no[nlrliy truc iu black ald rcd fignrc convey throngh picturcs his vicrv of myth or life in originrl iltcrprct:rtion ofstock


ro cnhencc tlrc


Thcrc lvas undorrbtcdly sonlc rlreesLlring and standardisation, quitc epitr

fronr thc spcci:rl rccluirclDerlts ofe fcw shapcs intcldcd to hoid sct qulntltlul.. Thc rccks, bodics and fiet oflarge vescs end ofthc rDorc.uticulttcd nltlll or)cs wcrc norrrrally throu,n scperatcly on thc whccl, thclljoined. Thc pctttct' nrLrst havc uradc blrtchcs ofnecks, bodics, eDd indccd lids, arrcl thcn nrltchcrl

ariplrr)r.?. ofthc lxtc scvcnth ccnturv l5l delivc lronr ['roto.rtti. do Dor long continuc to Lrc nradc. Thc usuel forrrr ofthc flrst halfof rlr. sixth cerltulv lnd littlc I:rtcr is snrellcr, ovoid, u,ith sinrple c_vlinclricll lr Lrrrllcs to nrid ncck. Soon efter rhc micl ccntrlry thc colnltlorr t'brtrr lres triplc, , rlcd hlncllcs lr,hich rut nrorc srrroothly irrto rhc ncck, end thc body's cenrrc ' , I qritvit,v is highcr lr 86l. Thcrc erc sonlc firlc plump cxrnrplcs b,v Exckils r rJ Anrlsis ldJ, gzl brlt thc lypc is soon st:rndrrdised, with p.lmcttc cross .Lrtcrr)s bcrcrth thc haudlcs (eD older East (ircck pattcrn), cnrphesisirrg thr.' l,rr-els rathcr than thc spinrls which bcttcr' ;rrtists nraDagcd so wcll, rrd thc ,r qcr v;rscs grecluallv givc placc ro a crop ofsnrall neck amphortc arout,:l lrrl ll.r Joo B (i l -21.1-7 ] rncJuclirg :r nLlnlbcr of ' dotrblccns' rvith doublc-rccrlc.l



Of spccial varictics the Nikosthenic and its successors may be not. edU4g,2t4l, and thc neck amphorae of Elbows Out [rj8], wherc thc

hody profrle and rolled lip, and there are many smell iatc cxrltttplcs lrl tllir sh;rpe in black figure [276].

splaying neck, high body and strap handles may owe something to bronzc

Thc belly amphora, with a continuous profile from lip to foot, is reprcsented in a few massive examples ofthe late seventh ccntury [3] and remains I popular large vase, acquiring by about 6oo its usual scheme of decoration, with pancls sct in thc black ground on either side. The earlier variety (Type B) has a straight lip, rounded foot and cylindrical handles Ir 8], and continues to be made into the early fifth century. Soon after 55o, however, a morc elaborate shape is introduced (Type A) with strap handlcs having flanged arrd decorated (ivy patten) edges fFtontkpierel, soon a palmette drawn in a rcscr. ved patch below each handle, and a stepped foot with the'riser'to thc srcp left plain after about S2o [163). The Afecter has some amphorae with rollcd lips and simple feet [156], a type continued in red figure (Type C). The name amphora, or rather the Greek form - amphorcus, conveys i1g shape: 'carried on both sides', so with two upright handles. The types wc have noticed are mainly storage vases, the plain examples of which are thc neck amphorae with narrower necks and fcet, which inspired the shape oftho decoratcd Panathenaic amphorae and Iater the occasional black 6gurc 'pointed amphora', which may be provided with a cylindrical stand [2ogl,
They could have held oil or wine, or small solids. The ordinary belly and ncch amphorae are commonly lidded, the former with mainly black lids patterncd around knob and rim, the latter often with broad-striped lids, matching tlrc overall patterning ofthe vases. Rarely they carry 6gure friezes. The knobs arc

l hc earliest ofthe common pouring vases in Athcnian black figLrlc is tllc o/2r', its profile from lip to foot a flat S, usually with a broad trcfoil -rrrotrth, ,,,rictimes straight, and with a high-swung handle Ir3]- Thcsc arc frcqtrcnt lr or-n the Gorgon Painter on, and in latc black figure the lip may bc r hcavy 'echinus', sometimes decorated [2-r2]. Oinochoai with a sharp junction between neck and body may have high (tllas t) [z59] or 1ow (Class II) handles and often boast a pronounced coller' 'l'hcy appear no later than the olpai, but arc relatively scarce until thc-second Ir,rltofihe century. Plump oinochoai with a pronounced S profile and trcfoil lips (the latcr 'droas ' : Class III) are rarer, and not earlier than the mid century' livcn less common are beakedjugs (Class X) which copy a metal shape, and ( lypro-Jugs, for the Cyprus market and copying an eastern shape with hLrlbous body and narrow conical ncck.

Wine mixers and coolers

'l'hc sixth century sees thc establishment or invention ofall the open winelike an enormous rrr ixing vessels except the bcll crater. Th e old skyphos-croter ' survive the early sixth not does lid and foot with conical up, &..r , [6], arrd may rever have been a vase for the symposion."fhe columt trater , ",,tury ruls copied fiom Corinth by potters serving the Komast Group-and was known as the 'Corinthian crater' in antiquity. It has a flat, often decorated rirn with rectangular handle plates over the hoop handles, which eventually reparate into two supporting 'columns'. It is most popular in the second ,1,.,,r.te. ofthe centutylf5] and then loses favoru, but is never forgotten The flrtnqois Vase [46] is the earliest Athenian uolute .rater preserved complete' l.,rter examples usually have all-black bodies. The neck is higher than thet of thc column crater and thejunction ofhandle and lip is eflected by a heavy, rising scroll. The shape may copy Peloponnesian bronze vases' The earliest sLtvl.ting calyx crater is by Exekias (r. J3o) [r oJ], who may have inventcd the slrepe. It is like a heavy cup with high straight walls, offering the painter a g,rod fi.ld with only a one-way curve. A broader, squat variety has a short
lebes or dinos copies the metal shape, with rounded base, but may be grlovided with a high stand [r r, z4]. The Gorgon Painter's name vase is the lrrrliest Athenian bLck figure example and it is an important shape for the l)ctter paintcrs before the mid century. The sranaos has a low neck,high body ,rud horizontal side handles. It is a red figure shape but there are black figurc t xrmples ofthe end ofthe century lt9j, ztg, zztl-

usually like fruit, sometimes drop-shaped. Pelil<ai ate decorated like belly amphorae but are generally smaller, with rolled lips and a sagging profile [zro-z]. They appear 6rst about 5zo, and to judge from the scenes on some of them a common use was the storage of oil Izrz], perhaps perfumed rather than culinary. A minor variety is the ncck


Water jars are identified by the arrangement of one upright handle for pouring, with two horizontal, for lifting. The tall slin.r variety, or loutro.
phoros-hydria, has a long history in Athens. The more pmctical variety, with globulat body and cylindrical ueck [5r], is borrowed from Corinth in the early sixth century. About the middte of the century it develops a shoul. der [74], which becomes progressively flatter, while the mouth flares, the sidc handles curl up more and more, and the upright handle has knob and rotcllc attachments inspired by metalwork. This is the standard black figLrrc type Izor]. The so-called &alpis is introduced by about 5zo, with a continuolu

vogte 'ThelzzTl-


rlrapcd wirh fit'srr.m . lt appears firrt by abour "r 5.:o, one ofrhe'"*t most elaborate being by Nikosthenes [r54]. In black figure a few, miniatures, arelidded and have picrced lugs or ears at eith; side. A rare cooler.takes_ the form of an amphora with an inner wall open to the Dc and a shoulder spout for the outer enveloping cavity. Ther. e*"raples ^re the third quarter ofthe century (decorated by Lydos [66] and the Swi

A psyltt,r is for cooling wine. Standing in a crater, full of well watcr srrow rt plcscrrtcd.l mirxrmurn surface area to lhe coolant bv beine E

it is not common as a shape in Athenian black figurc atrd tuorc oliclr scctt llclrl hy u Dionysos. Nor is its iurmediate origin clear, but it hrtc{ I vcry loll$ ll iit(ll y

iri lloeotia. The best are quite early - Komast Croup and N ca rchrrs witlt li'w lirrcr [/22]. Some dozen surviving one-handled kantharoi bcltlttg ttr Lltc ycrtrl ,,rt,t,,id 5oo. These, like thc kyathoi Ir7r] (dippers witJr sirrglc, high vcrticrrl lrrrrdles and straight walls) which seem to have been invcntcd by Nikostllcrrcs

The development of the Athenian cup has bccn adequatcly discussecl described in the earlier chapters and I givc here refe.ences only to text
pictures: komast cups, p. r8.[2r-z]; Siana cups, p. 3r b4_6, jg_42, 44_5! merrytho_ught cups, p. 32 [37]; Gordion ."p,,- p. aarla
cuPs, p. ro7, as [84]; Droop cups, p- 6r 11r 8l: Cassel cups. p. 6; ; ilhal. cidising cups, p. ro7 1t761. There are one or two covered cups ofabout J3o on, with a decorated covct

irbout 53o, were for export to Etruria, and both copy Etrttscan bucchcto In these circumstances it is odd that two ofthe one-handlcd kanth:rnri bc:u Athenian funerary scenes since vessels so decorated werc usually for lr'tcel rrsc, but these travelled west [zzo]. Statdlets for cups are small rimmed discs on splaying feet [318], and the rrrrlicst surviving one is from the hands ofKteitias and Ergotimos, no less'

p. 59 [r o9]; lip cups, p-ss tr

5S 1to{i jl; typ. a ."p, 1"y.'.,ip,i p.'i;; i; rri;irp.

'lhc lekane, thcavy dish with ribbon handles Ir9, z9], is an early black figure the slxoe which survives lo the period ofLydos Some are lidded (for these lids only bowl a few are rl rire lekanis i" ofren preferred by scholars), and there ol-ebout 5oo (Edinburgh Painter). The shaPe had been known in Athenien ( icometric ,".,ion had survived in the istands' The Anagyrus Painter ^rri " walls [30] and in the first half of the century there are high with rrr.rde one ,rccasional other o!en chatiie-iike bowls with straight sides Sophilos makes onc vasc with a body like the Chian chalice [28]' Thc .o-called kotiori is anorhcr earll :hapc l33t lr is characterrsed by its irturned, dipping lip which Prevents sPilling. and may have been used to hold p".f.,-.d *"t".1ioil, althtugh some scholars have taken them for lamps'


made in one piece with the bowl, leaving a mouth hole. Ofthe deeper cups with horizontal handles the straight_lipped type which copies the C-orinthian kotyle (often called sbyphos in tf,is p.iiod) b"lorrg, to early black figure down to the earlier Siana ct,ps [23,315i, and irlikosthenct revives the shapc but without figure decor"tion. OrLer skyphos types are developed by the Little Masters and have been discussed rl.."ay, Urria rky. phoi (p-. 62, ft jzl) 1nd Hermogcnean skyphoi (p. 6u, [r3r ])_ From abour 5 3o onthe heavier-walled skyphos Irdt-z; ,45 71 b..orn", popular and remaing so-into-the fifth century, and there are stemlesses *hose body shape is tJrat of the footed cups [i84-j]. The ruaslos cup is shaped like a breast, with nipplc base , [167]. The form is borrowed from Corinth, and shown hanging oir the wali in a scene by thc KX_Painter, but the few surviving Athenian examples are all ofthe second halfofthe century. Mastoid cups have a narrow flat ioot, flanng lips and one, two or no handles l:741. Thel rre produced rbour 5oo and lrt"cr trr Amrsis made a skyphos of roughly this shape, with vertical handles. The shallow phiale, with or without a central navel (omphalos), copies the mctal shape ancl is rarely decorated (only within) by the Ltest blach figure artists altirough there are some decorated in Six's technique or polychrJme [313_4], perhalps copying East Greek types, some miniatures ofihe Swan G.o"p, Nit"i_ ""a It was thenes made plain black ones with a tongue pattern around the -navel. a vessel especially for libations to the gods bur could be used also on ordinary occasions rojudge from rcpresentation5 on vascs. Ofcups with vertic alhlndles the l<antharos is the most important, although r88

i'igu.e-de.orated examples last to the mid century and have b-road tripod tic't [381. Later ones havi splaying Get; most arc all black exccpt for- a pattem r',,u,,i the mouth [3r9]. Some ar; lidded. The ancient name for the shapc may
bc axaleiptton or plemochoe.

Oil flasks 'Ihe earliest Athenian llack figtre lekythoi' by the Gorgon Painter and his but thcir pronounced feet and cup-shaped lips are new' The elongated
l)eianira shape Ir5-6] lives longer, beyond the mid century, but by about J60 variety with an offset shoulder is invented [77-8]. These shouldei lekythoi ;rcquire straighter, but still flaring walls, but after about J3o they arc soon ,"piaced by iekythoi with cylindrical bodies Iz5o], the type which survives thiough the fifth century. Some classes of the latest blaqk figure lekythoi ,cplac-e the swelling lip with a slim chimney mouth [278-9], and thc. Little Li,on shape lz6t-zl, perhaps invented for the Sappho Painter, has sloping

lbllowers, may owe

little to Codnth, since some have spherical bodies Ir 4],



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c+;i i i f 6 i. iiEtli!E;31 xI i i rI i Lt

()f thc (ilcck u,ords I, ;1r)d othcrs, hevc Lrscd to dcscribe shrpcs, rirr lbllouirrqsccrrrspccifi.illlyconcctlortheshapesindicetcdIrcrc:anrphor,rl
(thc Lutin lornr, enrphoril, is llrorc comrnorll\r usecl: k;rdos ilnd stxmnos \\r(,1 xlso trpplied ro thc shilpc in untirluity), hydria, psyklqr, lckvthos (but uslrl

book s orr ( irccl, vrrscs. ( jor vcrricncc ind thc corlvcnri()lls ofrcccnt schol:rlslr lr.'r.,,, r,, r.rllr,',rt,', rilr..l,,,r,.r.1,'r.rlrun. -,f .r,,.rr.,r \.


Chapter Ten

cr'atcr, lcbes, lebcs glrr)ikos, phirlc, ulubastrotl, oillochoc, plcntoch()c, nllsl (,\,


1hc follorving xrc scncricrllv corrcct: skyphos, kotl,lc, iouterion,


thos, olpc (epplicablc ro r u,iclcr vrrietv of sh:rpcs includurg our ':rrybu lios '). starnrros (rlso lp;rliclble to xnphorec end probably onr 'pelikai'), krrl1,r,,, aryballos, pvxis, clrous, lckanc, cxalciptror ; and k ylix for a cup ofen y lirr rrr, cspccirlly rvhat rve call 'skyphoi', usueliy epplicd rlowada),s to stcr)rr(.,1

l).Ltes for Athcnian bllck ligurc vrscs hlrvc becn siven in clris book irr r,pr oxinrate but ebsohrte ycxrs D C, and rlot eccording to :lnv schcnrc ofEurly, Nliddlc and Letc, such xs Dcccssxlilv donriretcs nrost stllclics ofprchistr,llL

baskct), onos (footrcst).

Thc follorving rrc \\,ror1g, but in conrrnon Llsc lbr vasc shlpcs (rlrc r,..rl mcxninq is indicltccl iD brackers): lorrtrophoros (a mortal r.r,lLtcr bc;t|tr1, kothon (a cLrp), pclikc (cup, lr.rg or bo,,vi), dilos (cup), phonniskos (srrr.rll

1,,,1tcr__y.Thc,vcouldelsil)bc'convcrtcdtosucheschcnrcbutthcrnovcrvolrld ,, r'ctrogrlde sirrcc:rDy ettcnrpt to dcfillc closcly thc'stvlc' ofu sub period is L,,,Lrnd to bc sccorrd bcst to thc sr.lcccssfui idcntilicttion of paintcrs lnd rr,,rkshops, whi.h cerr nrirkc it possiblc to clistinquish:rnd phcc lccurlrc'lv l,,,rh the old fashioncd rnd avlnt qrrdc errd can obscrvc thc rrrastcr-pupi1 r, .rtionships. Much ofthc rvork ou peiltcr ilttribLltiorl cel thct bc sccrl to lr.rvc sc:ved to stabilisc r lcliable lcletivc chronolosy ior thc vescs- Thrs rs l,,r tificd tncl confirrlcd by meny parallcl stLrdics: thc cvidcncc ofdcvcloprng r r|cs; the evidence ofdcvclopinq dccorativc nrotivcs, such :Ls flor;Lls, or thc ,1,,rt,ilE of 6gur-cs lrrd clrtpcrl ; thc ktlos irlscriptior)s. In rhc chaptcrs ofthc \t pxrt ofthis book this lelative chr-onolosv has bccrl lcccptcd ercl, whclc 1,1,l)oriunc, bccn dcironsrrltcd. Thc possibilit\, ofcrr()r rcnlri s. Ifvesc A is ,l rtccl ' lboul i:o' encl vasc lJ ' rlloltt J I o' this nrerns no nrorc lh:ln th:lt il tha ,,1,'ervcd plogrcss ofsrylc or rclationship ofthc peiurcrs involvcd A is slightl,v , r licr r,vork thlrr lJ, Lrut ifthc paintcr ofA r,vas a youne innov:rtor, thc peintcr ,,t [] er oldor.ltist or orlc ur1\\,illing to charlllc his sr},lc, thc vescs could bc rr( rr corltemporary;rvhile ifthesc qualilies rvcrc rcvcrscd thc ebsolltc glr;r rqht bc grcatcr. Wc usc thc tinrc sc:rlc as a colrvcn!iorr :lnd convcnicncc, LIrt r this pcliod rnd r,r,irh thcse v:rscs thc scqucncc rld rrtc ofchxr)gc proposcd , Lr) bc trcltccl rvith somc conlidcucc. ()nc 1:rst fecror ilfli-cting this'r'irtc of , r.rngc' is thc volunrc ofsurvivinq pottcry :lssigllcd ro dillc'rcnt pcriods. I rcre .ite obvious dilngcrs in rhc rvish to sprcxd st\,lcs eud peirtcls cvcnly tlrr oush 1 qivcn nurnb.'r ofvears, bLrt there ar.' eqLlillly obvious dc6cicrcirs in .r rv schcrrrc u,hich:rssigns d:rtcs in such a \\.ey thxt apprcciablc gaps ofnon'Ihc stylisric s.'(lrrence irr l, orllLctiolr appcar rvithout c\pl:lnrti()n. ,.rck frgurc is sccurc cDoush to :tvoid this clrrlgcr', but thcrc is e hlrnrlcss rL ldcrlcy to ussiqn d:rtc\ closc to thc rriddle or cllcl of ccntLlrics Bc or to r rrrk irr qLrartcr ccDrlrrics tlc, rvhich arc obvior.rsly lllcitninglcss. Thc ebsolutc clatcs r! c proposccl dcpcrld oD othcr flctors. Ilricflv, thcrc lrc , tcu, tlirl),rclieblc lixcd points to which thc st,vlistic scclr-rcrcc cen bc pcgucd,

J)o ])yxj\ \,1 ttu CNry

fieht: Apollo liv thL

al !h(

Oxliid Lid. Hdrkl5

t,t t),



lirAlar hnt,' H.rt


the gaps thcn filled by judicious observation ofthe probable rate of progress of painters and workshops, and volume of work produced. criteria for cstablishing these'pegs'are ofvarying merit and can be classified as follows:

Arhenian is related to the Nessos Painter. Rather latcr tlrc sitc of Old Sttt yrttn wrs reoccupied efter its sack by the Lydians, and thc clrlicst pottcry il ulc wittt lltc Middle Corinthian, dated about 58o to 575, with Athcninrr irr tlrc rliurlcr ofrhe Gorgon Painter, examples ofthe Komast GroLrp, ar)d a Sophilclrr vrrc.

(r) Vases or styles dated by events. This usually means their presence contexts which can plausibly be associated with dated historical events. are few of this type in Athenian black figure and the historical ' dates' sometimes imprecise. Marseilles (Massalia) was said to have been fo in 6oo and the earliest ofthe early Athenian black figure pottery which
been found there is

(3) Vases or rtyi".


-"y be dated by stylistic comparison with othcr irts or for which a chronology has been established. Our dating of c:rllicr Adrenian black figure relies almost wholly on observation of fcaturcs and rnotives derived from the Corinthian sedes, such as were picked out in (lhapter Two. Later in the sixth century, if the name vase of the Spartan

in the manner of t}te Gorgon Painter. In


Panathenaic Games appear to have been reorganised. If the earliest survi Panathenaic prize vases l2g 5-61belong to the first or the second ofthe games, then Lydos began painting in the late 56os. An Egyptian frontier at Tell Defenneh was probably overthrown in the Persian invasion of5z5, it were found pieces of standard neck amphorae of the general style of

Princeton Painter. After the battle of Marathon in 49o the Athenian were buded in a tumulus which contained several lekythoi by the Painter [256] and some with early Haimonian elements, and the Plataeans rightly identified) in a tumulus which has two late black figure plates, loutrophoros and more work ofthe Marathon Painter and from the Class Athens J8r. In 48o the Persians sacked Athens' Acropolis and city, and in following years the tidying-up filled pits, wells and Acropolis terraces the debris. The latest material fiom the Agora includes Little Lion and

Arkesilas Painter represents Arkesilas II ofCyrene, it must have been painted in rhe 56os. His other work is found with and broadly resembles Athenian Siena cups. The earliest sculpture from the columns ofthe temple of Artemis :rt Ephesus is likely to be ofthe period ofKing Kroisos ofLydia, who paid for rrreny of them and who was deposed in j46. It shows that stylcs ofdrapery, with splaying three-dimensional folds, were current in the J4os, at least in lirst Greek sculpture. On Athenian vases this corresponds with Exekias and rliddle period works ofthe Amasis Painter. The Siphnian Treasury at DelPhi wes erected little before 525 and its reliefsculpture very closely matches the crrly red figure ofthe Andokides Painter, easily related to his and other black ligure work. ln the same way rathei more advanced red figure can be related to the sculptures on the new Temple of Apollo at Delphi, built about Jro. Some other near-absolute dateshave been proposed for Athenian sculpture in thc sixth century, notably for the breaking ofgrave stones, but these depend

Haimonian lekythoi, CHC skyphoi and a Gw Leafless Group cups.

Acropolis evidence is confused. Another type ofdating by event might be from the naming ofcontem raries on vases but the kalos names prove of limited use in this (p. zor); or from the identification ofselect myth scenes used symbolically to celebrate particular events, but for these we should require some literary

much as anything on comparisons with the apparent dating ofcomparable pottery, and form no secure basis for argument.


(z) Vases or styles may be dated by their excavated context with othcf objects, usually vases, for which a chronology has been established on othct grounds. Down to the early sixth century it is the Corinthian series which ia adequately dated by criteria discussed under the last head. There are many tombs and sites where Athenian and Corinthian are found side by side, but most are sixth-century, when, for absolute dates, the Athenian take priority, although the correspondence of contexts with the stylistic sequence of, Corinthian is always a useful check. Although plenty ofCorinthian pottery reached Athens in the early black figure period it is remarkable how seldom Athenian and Corinthian are found together in tombs in Atl.rens. In theso years we find the earliest Corinthian pottery at Naucratis in Egypt is of Transitional to Early Corinthian, dated about 625 to 620, and the earliert

Lhc sccDes

l,llrfosc ()1rly.

ptilltcd or) thcnr rvhich suqqcsl\ llt.r( (lrr \ rr, r, rrrr,l, l,,r l, Somc:ittrll viscs ccrt:rirrlY rvcrr's,r rlr':r1lrr,l rrr,l r,,rrr ,,1 nraY hrvc bccu bought for r brrri:rl, brrt rrrrrrry,,l tlrL otlrr r lrrr, r rl r r.

Chapter Eleven


.1rorvsignsofprcvir)lrsr.lsc,evcnofrcPeir.Merrr'.rrrtlc,tl rrl()\t,,r|( lr,,rrr rr,,r (;rcck, Etnlsciln graves. Plrticular vasc scc)rcs nrel rvell lr;rrclrr'trr lr<'i1',,1,l ir l cLrstomcr, end therc arc r_alc cxanrples of l sccrrc .rf p.rr errtl \ .rirrr,,l .rt .r r:rrkcr likc thc nrarrv Acrcas ;rnd Arrchiscs sccrrcs uhich rcuclrirl It.rlr'. rr hclc thc nr-vth hrd a spccial locltl rclcl,lrrcc. 1)ut thc lrcqtrcrrt rcpctirr()rr (,1 .r 'icnc bv ln arlist suqgcsts tllat thc clloicc nsually 1ey with hinr. Evc:r rv]rcrr tlrc t,crrc is topicel or of possiblc local synrbolic siqui6carrcc, ()r rliLrrrcs irrr
rircnirn ,v,-ruth, thc vesc oltcn travcllcd to Etrnria \4ficrc xll thcsc points rvcrc l,rotr.rbl,v lrlisscd :rDd they nray onl,v ltevc bccn :rpprecietccl during l bricf l.cliocl ofclispley in Athcns. I imlginc thc Athcniart potrcrs'qu:rrter to hrvc L,ccn lrtrch ficqucnrcd by rhe ordi:rarv obscrvirnt Athcrri:r:r. It lav bcnvccn lhcil nllrkct pllcc arrd il gatc*,ay, bcvoncl rvhich rl,es onc of lhc princip.ll ( .l1lctcrics: n good pllcc to rva1k, talk, :rnd look. Intcrcst in rhc contcnt ofdccorxtioll lcd xwry fronl a propcr intcrcst irr thc r..or11Drod;1lio ofdccoretion to shepe, rvhich wc nlev rcqrct. Ho\\,cvcr, thc r Dqc' of clecol rtion errd the gradual stcrcotypirlll ]lld dcvcloptllcDt ofscrttes rrrl convcrrrions ir Athcnierr bleck figure, nrrke possiblc hcrc es in no othcr lielcl of (ircck :rrt, a derailccl stucly of thc cvolution ofe ' Olessic' st,vlc- Irr thc lirllor'r,irrg scctior)s rlrl ittcrnpt is rrledc to dcfinc:rnd to describc thcsc ' 'r\ \ rrlri 'rr\ .,rrd r lr, ir drr.l.,prrr, Irt. For corrvcnicncc- of discussion corlsidcratiorr of rhc work of red fiqurc rrtists hes bccn avoidcd, exccpt in so far rs it xllccts rlrc ofbl:rck ligurc .rrcl dcspitc thc lirct thlt tir pllt of thc pcriod .ovcrcd it rl,es tllc DCu: rcchnicluc th:rt rttr:rctcd the bcst trtists. This arro raly hes litr1c or no ,lctrimcttal cllccr on this prrt ofthc book- Apert tionr a ti'rv drared sccnes, rncl e vcrv fcrv copicd, thc l:ltcr blxck figrrrc' rcpcr-tory, cspc.ixll-y ol. iililrrc \(cllcs, has rcnrerk:rbll littlc ir conruon $-ith rhc colltcnlpolilrv rccl tgurc r .pcr tory. lJut ir should Lrc rcrr:rrkcd rhet it is only rl,ith thc rccl ligulc of thc ilfrh:rnd tinrth ccntrrrics tlrrt it bccon)cs possiblc ro provc r n)orc clclibcrrlc rrltc]-cst ir1 drc choicc ofscencs for vases ofcoDruron shlpcs.

Thc clccor:rtion ofAthenien black figurc vescs was dctcrntinccl by r varictv ol ftctors, not the lcast bcing rhc invcntivc skills of :r lumbcr ofgilicd:lrtrstr rr,ho fottnd nl this colnprrarivelv hunrble creft:r satistictorv rlcl cllcLtr\(, mcans ofexpressine thcir vicu,s of myrh end lili, on objccts <)fcvcrvd;ry us(' BLr! ruost vlrsc plinrcrs \\,crc lirtlc bctrcr than hacks, cl)do$cd \iith vrr) r rli dcgrccs ofconrpetcnce rnd originality, \\,hosc work fills our firr Lrs this ri{ lr corlspcctlrs ofthc de.()retivc arrd narretivrl- xrt of^n irllllreutiul city rhlorrqlr tnorc tharn a cerltul y, Thc carlicr historv ofthc craft in Athcns phyed its part, brLr thc qrrrlirv ol lhc nlonuulc[tai nrrrative scc]les on Protoattic vescs ofrhc scvcnth ccrrtttrt rt tbr r lvhilc subducd by enorhcr influcrrcc, that of thc prolific schools ()l Corinthiln vesc prirtinlJ. These, as rvc heve sccu, introduccd thc rcw tcchniqLrc, es,,vcl1 ls rcw shlpcs tnd stylcs ofdccorrtion, notirbly thc lrrirrr;rl friczc sryJc. For thc contcnt ofligurc scerlcs (lorindlixn v:rscs xrd othcl lrts, ir\ ofrclicfbrorrzc worL, hclpcd dcl'irrc thc rcpcrtory ofsccncs clrau.n upon by Athcniau plintcts, but apart frolll sonrc stock sccllcs ofmych or stock figulcr Jikc korrests, thc Athcniln sccms ro hrve bccn quick to invctt 11cw sccncs or cstablish llcw convcntiois; quick to obscrvc novclties ill orhcl pxrts of tl)(. Crcek lvorld ln lwercncss pcrheps cnlrarccd by rhc arrivll ofartisrs fi,,rn outsidc'Attic:r (sce pp. r:, r6, 54); cluick ro obscrvc co sLllrlcr dcln:1rlrl;

lllolc lcldY roo,

,,r,c rnight cxPcct,

to iook to poctry and


whcthcr rl,rittclr dou,n or not, for fresh inspiritioll, iud to cxpkrit rlyth irr tlrc intercsts of politicel svnrbolisnr, llthough this is dillcult to jrldec ir)(l irrr possibic to provc (sec pp. z r 6, :: r lL). Dcspitc thc li rllitations of tcchniLl u r l nrxstcr iikc cotrld rlisc his crlft to d1c sratus of a ura.jor ert :rlltl prcperc tllc wey for thc .lchicvc rcnts of carly red figure. Thc rcasons ibr thc choicc ofligurc dccoration on a bleck figurc v:rsc urc s()nlctinlcs obvious frrreral scerlcs oD 11 rituel vasc irrtcndccl for thc grevc. dcitics ou votivc phclLrcs, convivi;rlity on drirrking vessels. IJut whcr, li)r insrancc, deities or cult scencs rppcar on vxscs ofordiniry donlcstic shtpcs u/( Irray rlot rssunlc thrt thcy wcrc dccorirtcd lor a specific prrrposc. A higlr proportion ofthc survivi g conrplcfc vases were folutd in grevcs, bnt whr thesc vases lre ofordinlrl,shapcs thcrc is no disccrnibly dclibcratc choicc ol t96

Conventions As in env elt rnxilly collccrrlccl rl,ith urr'r-lltivc sccrlcs irlvolvillq llunrrn ligLrrcs, Athcni:rn black ligLrre bccanrc subjcct to convcrrti()ns of plilnn;;.
|]()sc:l d colllpositi()r), u,hich rcquirc \ortrcvufiet rrrorc:rpplicxtion fror1l t() u dcrstxnd rlrru thc,v did in ruticluiB,. Thc colour convcnrions t-c sirttple. Whitc p:rirrr is used ft)r \l'orlrcD's flcsh, .rlthouqh rhere rverc a1u,at's sourc plintcrs \^, iro cl_cw thcsc perts in outlinc xt lcrst on sorrrc vrscs (c.g., Sophilos l.u5l, l(lcitias 1161, thc Anresis P:rintrr


(lr|\ l/r-5. ,rIl;

gr'()11r)d v.rscs.

o"-i, ,t'7.

,r9l) .rrrrl cs1,r'L



lirl isoirtcd

\\,lrile tl)crc


like soreoneia 169, ?9ol or on hcx(l rirrc ruid-sixth cclr!Llrv cxxrnplcs of bl:rck

'rl);llc'llc\lrlirruorncrr,uudrtiet- joour()nlen'slleshh:rsrobebieckonwhitr-

WorrcD's cycs lr-c usuell_y r]1n()nd-shapcd, n()l thc rlrxlc seLrccIs, oficn irrvc rcd pupils. ()n1y ghc 1s.1.,.6 p,:rils ofcycs on c, ilt1d tl)(' like nrc crlciirllt sh:rpcd lyjlh lhc lcxr duct llrarkcd alld cvcn soirc ofthcsc lrc ' lcnrxlc', xhlond shapcd. The observen t rcadcr u'ill havc noriccd thar rh c rvhitc painr olten hrs nol srLrvivcd on thc vase, and rhar meny womclt illv. black ficcs, blank bccer.rsc thc irrciscd dctail ou rhe ovcrlyins, no\\, nlissrrr11, r,vhitc did not go decp cnough (nor should it) to scorc thc blxck. Thc l()sl whitc can bc dctcctcd on worrcn's flcsh or shield blezons, fol ilrst:rncc l)y rhe drLlled biack bcncilth it. It I.rsts better o11 rhc clay grornrd itsclf. Mllc flcsh is 'plein', in this cesc black, but on carly vases it is nrorc oftcn over-printcd rc(1. indicating a weechcr bcatcn tan: rvheu komlsts undrcss we sc'c thrt thcy hir vc sr-urly chcsts too lzr]. llut this disposition ofcolour is not rlwrvs logical, urrrl in thc sccond quartcr ofthe century wc scc sorDc rcd chcsts bciow black ficc s. Thc rcd nrey bc uscd for carly rnonster faccs, cvcn lcmule (sphinxcs, sircrs [82]), but is abandorred for nreJcs by al:our the middlc ofthc ccntLrr v although cvcn Anresis oflers two rcd-ftccd Athenes and there is a rcd-farcrl Hcreklcs ol e Nikosthclic c'yc cup. Red and whitc arc othcr\,isc usc(l li)r prlrc pattcr11, or for a rough iIrdic:rtion oflight and shade stripcs on drapcry, :rnirnel ribs and haurlchcs, or thc palc hrir:rnd flcsh ofrnene and beilics. ()rr vescs ofClroLLp E, Exckias aod sorr-rc lollowcrs wc solnetjDres see a wxrrior's grclvcs paintcd onc bleck end one (thc'farther) rcd, but this docs rlot sccrr rr obvious clsc for distinguishing light and shadc and thc purposc is obsculc. sil1cc thc dccorativc valrrc is sliirht. There is lcss ii-clinir for thc usc ol comperlsxting coloul- Dlasses thxD thcrc was ir) Clorirlthixn vesc painting, urr,l

:rr(l ()l lilir rrr s rr r .r, r r.rr lr is r .rtlr ,, nr( rrl', rrlg how vcry slow it wts and how only with thc ir(lvcrt rrl rtrl lrrtrrrr rr.rr tlr, profilc or combined frontal-pto61e convention clli'ctivcly hloklrr. ,rrrrl llt rr then not lor heads, akhor-rgh there were occasi()Drl rrrtl srrcccsslirl ,rtt( n r pl\ ti,

f)eveiopmcnt in tirc rcprcscntation ofrnattor)l


rhowobliquc,forshortenedvicwsofshields[2,u3]orwhccls.'llrcrrrrriorrtttl likc figurcs of black figure fight, run, lllourD, c()rlvcrsc with posr's .rrrtl .:i.crrru. rvhich,rr( r(puJrr'd lronr q,'rrer,rliurr to l]('nL'r,lrri'rr..rrLi\t r,, llll\1. of
Sometirnes greater subticty is adrnittcd or an:rrtist tcsts natrrrc with thc figrrrc a collapsing wxrrior or horsc, but wc ncvcr hrvc thc itrprcssi,:lr chlc lrc bothcrcd to look rt livc nrodcls when hc drcw wholc frglLrcs- Horvevcr, thc rcprcscntations of running xllord e good cxemplc of how a 6gurc-drawinq .onvention can be adopted end eventually ebandoncd in levour ofrcalism. ln t[c scvcnth ccntury rur]ners on vascs lrc gcncrally stiF lcggcd but the knccling-running posc (Kriclaufl is soon adoptcd, probabiy from thc East r'hcrc it scrvcd figurcs dcmonstratirg por,ver rathcr than ttrovcmcnt. The (irccks usc it to irnply action, running or flying, arms and lcgs bcnt likc e

rr.hirligig swestika, and

it is vcry


irupossible since most early mnners are shown moviirll thcir righr (or lcft) .rnns alld lcgs foru,ard togcthcr [295]. Onc or two artists coulcl Elct it rillht l,cfore thc mid sixth ccntury but it was stiil possiblc to m:rke this mistekc il] thc carly fifth ccntury. By this timc, howcvcr, thc knccling posc had bcci .r bandoned and already il thc Iest quertcr ofthc sixth ccr)trlry rLrnncrs irray bc

- cvcn whcn enatomicrlly

'howu with thcir lcgs only slightly bent[296] and somctirncs with thcir clbows wcll tucked in. Thcy still run with thc front ice rrised frorD the g.ound [-;oz-Jl, r.thcr th:rn thc beck lcg [306], which givcs a lrlorc real\u. rt.itudc only grrdLr.lly obscrvcd in thc 6fth ccntury.
Thc languagc of gcsturcr in black 6gurc is not a vcry subtlc or c-\tcllsivu ,rrc rnd there is rnore to obscrvc irr red figurc but thcre erc e fcw gestures \\orth mcntioninlj: thc raiscd hatrd, palnr out, for thc vaicdiction of malc rrrourncrs [265]; hlDd to forcheld for griefor drsrnay [zoz-3]; irand to chrn llr rLrpplication fronr thc thrcat of dcath 167l or for lovcrs lt24;871 rid nrxny ges!-lres of remoilstrancc or dcn)olstration such as still cnliven the ( (rlvcrs:rtions ofour Mcditcrrancrfl co[tcnlporirics- Thc wonlcll's gcstllrc, lrolding thc cloak bcforc the f:rce, is r little enisnratic. lt is somctrncs .'xplaincd xs a ritlral gesture ofdisplay, but oftcn aIi-ectec{ by gocldesses or \\'onlcn iD lnomcDls of nr()dcstv or cilbatrtssrncnt (fur contcstallts tt thc lLrclgenrent of Paris, Helcn rccovcrcd 167,9ol md in u,cdding proccsThc Archaic artist docs nor likc obscu ng hunun fcltrrrcs (which 'ions [77]). Ls r,vhy u,arriors so often fighr widr their helmets pushed back) and thc \\{)rllcn arc pcrhaps to bc thought ofprrtly vciliDg fhcir faccs in a qcsturc ljnrilier cnough still irr Mcditerranean and Arab coLlrltries where sur1, dust rnd thc vic$, of nrcn arc to bc avoidcd by the llir skimcd. Thc degrccs o1'
| 9<)



of abstrrct patten) were evoidcd although thcrc arc it tiu

rnlphorac and cups ofthe rhird quarter ofthe ccDtury on which much of I lrr. bocly is covcrcd rvidr f,rt srripcs. lndications ofagc are vcry simple. Thc yours arc smalicr bLrt in thc s:rr(. proportions as adults IFrorrfispir&,] : small childrcn arc not givcn largcr hcir(l\. Young rren are bcardlcss. Old nrcn have whitc hair, which may show rrs thir riirg or as a 1)rcrc fringc. Thcy 11ray stoop on sticks. The occxsional o](l(.r lady is rnorc portly. Expression hardly goes bcyond an opcn mouth or st:r rir rll cyc rnd is bcttcr rcndcrcd by gesture. There arc very few grotcsquc or nlalformcd nrortal faces and only in thc sccond half of thc ccntury rri, Africens givcn curly hair, thick iips and snub noses [9g] (compare the carlicr pyenlics on thc Frenqois Vrse [46.8], wiro arc iittlc mcr)). Frontal faccs;u( gclrcrallv grotcsquL', or separated fronr thcir bodics, or both (s:rtyrr [50.2, t77], gorgoncia [69, r77], Dionysos Ir78]); but on whole Ggurcs tlr( ] may serve to 'punctu:rte' a sccnc, as by Exekias at thc sidc of onc funcr'.rl pleque in a scrics. rgll

l)lt(lr(\ (11\l,l.ryr(l hr s,.rrriors. cvcn i11 ectioD, dcll)onstrlfL'e coDvcrltioll ()l sorre irrp()rl.rr(c in (;rcck irrt ofell pcriods. Wlrolr' srr'rrr. i ol both r:crrr c errd rrl\Ithicel contclt ltcquirc convcnti()r)s ()l coIllpositi()l] elrri posc, sor c ;rlrcady cstrblishccl in thc scr,crrth ccnttrry. Wirl:iu thcsc tlrc rrrisr is licc to irrtroducc innovations or vary tlglrr(\, solllctlmcs pcrccplil)ly to irltcr tllc lrctiotl oI l]1()ocl of a ptrticrtlar storl irr xccol-d u,itl) his orvrr vicu, of it or u,ith r pocnr on thc strb.icct, or cvcr) li)r pulposcs ofsynrbolism. It is ncvcr clsy lojLrdgc which iflrrv ofthcsc mori!,'\
trLrt tltc gcrrcr;rlly acccptcd convcntions do makc' it possiblc to obscrvc- ilnd spcctrlatc otr dcvi rr rt t end rhis is rvb:rt nrakcs thc stLrdy of (ll.issical iconogrrph,v, cspccielly ,,1

detcrrrinc thc dcveioprncnt ofparticrrlar sccllcs errd stories,

riilt l'r tr'l' Ilr.rc.irccxeupicstooofsccncswhclcsctlsc'xndll()llscllscstttlttl rLrlgcstlng ;r nrixturc of copying lnd inregination. I'hc iuscliptions :r;rruc fistrrcs, rercl-v ldrlirrg ;rrr cpitlrtt. .rrr,l tlr, r 'r,, in thc tlckl nclr lhc rclevrtrrt tigrrrcs, itlthorrqh orrtc irr r rr'lr.rr.rt, Lcccl 1, ,;listcl ovcr thc scetrc. (icrrcr:rl captiorts, likc Soplril,r: (i:rrrrts ol l'rlr,, ,os l:6] urcvcryret-c,ilndlcgcrldslt.rrdlvcvcrr[rPcrrr(tlrcr.rr','r,rr,,rr,,Lrrilr rr rccl titLrlc). Sotlc cxcep!iorrs xrc thc cr)'of rl Irlortrrrel ,rl tl)c ll\ rrrll ()rrl oiruoi;or'()dvsscus ticcl to his:trast as his ship plsscs rlrc sircrrs lrrs(,,)rr" ' Lrt nlc so' l:t6] ; oI tlrc oil urcrchlrr!'s ' Frthcl Zcus, rvorrltl I rrr igl)l grl

Arhcnian blrck ligurc.rrrd rcd fiqurc

vasi.'s, so

vcr), rcrvardirrg. Thcrc u,ill lx

iD liltcr chlptcrs but ir rnry hcrc lrr' rcnrukcd thet artists rlso frccltrcrl!l,v prcsc:rtcc1 cxccr pts tionr lhc sturck sccrrcr

opportnritl enolrglt to clctrronstrrtc rhis


h [: r:1. 'I'hc kllos irscriptions forrn e spcciel cless. Thcy llc p:rintcd ln thc ilcld, r thout Iclclcllcc to thc liquIC scctrc, r,r'ith fc\^i c\ccPtiorrs u'llclc thc rrrL.rltion rllirv hrVc bc,.'tr so lo clcsignerc I voLlth, lthlcrc oI hcro rs 'bcllrrri L '. Sorlc!irrrcs \\'c tcc jLlst thc t'ord 'knlos'; sorlrctinrcs thc pliisr i\

pursucrs rvithorrt e qutrrv ((;or-gons), ulbush r,vithout victim (Achillcs rrrrrl conrptition rvithorrr:rjudgc (rhcJuclgcnrcnt ofParis) rvhich corrl,l still rcedilY bc recoguisc<l bccetsc rhc collvcllriorls or thc story *,crc rv,ll krrorvr. Whcn e rlcw stor-v is shou,n ancl:ro inscriptions erc proviclctl t,, cxpl:rin lieurcs, sonrc (irccks trrev hevc bccn rs tttr.rch i1t ir loss:rs \\,c illc l(r cxpllin thc circurnstiiucc of tl)c lclions. Thcrc rrc fcrv such puzzics iu blrr, l. figtrrc, but oD occrsion thcrc is rcesotr to slrsPcct thirt lhc :utisl (the Su irrll Pnintcr is onc such olii'nclcr) hls lbrgottcrr or-igrrorcd thc point ofa sccrrr', sccnl;uising rl)yth (with orclinerl club-mcn:rttrcking a chirrr;rcrl) or lcrr rr,1i otrt vitll clcrncrts (lly tignrcs ruinrins Hcrakles fighring ApoJlo firr tlr,' tripocl, rvith no tripod btrt r,vith Apollo's dccr bctuccn thctr).

r,ncriclllvirr-':rboy"('hop:riskllos');burrrstrtlllthcbovisnrrrrcd Thesc ir'rc coDlclrlpollrv Atllcni]n ,votltlls, scvcrll of r,r'hol1r erc iclcutif]lblc. It ,l,,cs not nccd to inrplv lirrrrili:rritv orr thc P:rrt ofthc peintcr liltllcr thrn ir ,,rrc:al lcknorl'lcdqcnrcrrt of sotrrt' ftvouritc of thc drr', btrt lllc-ir truc ,lr.rlrctcl is clusive ltlcl r'r'c c:ru hlrdly disnriss thctl as flipplrltll eruorous rrhcr thc,l ;rppcer, fbr itrstetrcc, o:r $rllc oflxckias"scriotls'vescs. ()n thc ,,Llrcr hencl thct' hrcl not bccornc by thcrl l 1lrcrc corrvclltiorl silrcc tllc\'onl\'
ititcr rhc nrid ccntttrv. A 1ed u ls likcJl to tltrrrlifv for rrnnrbct oivcrrs, wc nrir:ht itlleqiuc, so v;tscs bt' linritccl t rc cpirhct lor orrlr' ,lrtii'rcrrr puintcrs rrenring drc serue bov trc likcl-v to trc ttc;rr co:rtctltp<lLlry, ,i hich is:r hclp irr rc1:rrivc r1;rtirrg ofPirintcrs' rvor-k l givc I tcr',' cxrtrtlplcs, rrrlh nunrbcrs irrdiclting thc trr.ttubcr of vascs otr rvltich thc iDscliptiol)
l,, girr ro rppcar



llcforceborrr5Tiinscriptiolsn:rnrinethepcrsonsshorvuinsccttcs,:rrnrrrrit'1', thc itrtists illc cxccptional on Athcni:rrr vascs, but u.ithin a fcw vclrs wc scc r lr1 ]lrost llvisl) cx.rnrplc ol'tlrcir Lrsc, {)rl thc Frrngois V:rsc l4dl, u,hcrc cv,rt 11r,vthicrl ligurc and l1rost uninrels ;rr,. n;rrrrc'd, 1'rottcr end paintcr sitn lrt i,,', lnd cvcn sorlc ob;ects of lurriturc erc lebclled. C)u Do lirtcr vxsc xrc llr( inscriptions so protusc. Sotrc ertists evoid tlrcm:rltogcthcr:lrld othcrs ilr( usurllv inconsisrcnt in thoir rrsc, sonrctirncs bciug r,vhoily cxplicit, sorrrctrrrr,, sclective, sornctirlcs silcnt. It is still e rrriroritl'ofv:rscs u'hich carty thcnr. br rt
thcv crn trc sccn to llcquirc x ccrt:rin st:rlus vlluc sincc nrock inscriptiotts lIc ,,rr occrsioll suppliccl rvlrcrc cithcr thc ertist's litc[acy firilccl or no propcl rr:rrrr, t ucr'c rcrlrrirccl. Tlrcsc rrorscrsc inscriptions rprpcrr rilrc:icly on Tyrrhcrrr.rn vascs eDcl latcr piintcrs ci111 son)ctirllcs bc fi)trDcl thouglttlcssly to Ic|( rl nonscnsc fLmrrLrc (thc Slpph,r Prirrrcr's liiislis, loloslos, ctotot, ctc.). ( )rr Lirtle M:rstcr cups thc signlrturc or bibulotLs rnottt:r has dccorativc velrrc.rrr,l rnll bc'rcpl.rcccl bv norrscrtsc or blob lctters t() pr-escrvc thc clccor':rtivc clli r



)nuor-iclcs krlos: Exckils (:); vlscs rcletcrl I Lrcc Liuc (ilorrp (r); I)rirrcton I'tilrtcr (r).

to thc Arrdokiclcs P.rirrtcr (-:);


lippokrrtcs k;rlos: Mr:rucr lloup (r); Psir-r (t).

of tirc

Arr.lokiclcs l)rirrtcr'

(r); Ilucc

I irrc

,'r (5); crrlv ()ncsinros (r); ercl

I ,rgros kulos: Lcrsros (irotrp (s): (rn,rnv rcd figrrrc Etrphronios (r:); I rLrh,vnriclcs (r) ; l)lrintirs (r) ; ElcLrsis Paintcr (4) ; Clrclis (t); Colnrer P.rirrr3

r othcrsl).

\()\tr-i1tos krlos: rrenncr oiAchcloos

Prilrtcr (l); (rcd


Phinties (t)).

ll On.-toridcs rvrs :rrchorr ir 5:.7/6 (rro yotnl!tcr thrll tlljr ly) hc plobeblv corrld ,or huvc qrr:rlificd rs :r bcluty elrcr- rbout J -l o- IfLcrgr-os is thc gcrrcrel killcd irr 1o; hc nriqht rvcll havc bccn k.tlos irr dre hsr dccedc of thc si\lll cellttlr\ ' ir hich is rvhcr c on olhcr qr()Lrrlds \\'c wonlcl plrtcc thc Lceqratt vascs. A vcrv li * rvonreu trc sirnil:l1l)'honotrrccl bv trenrc,:rnd cxtrcrtrcl,v mrcll'l god rrr-



, ,
a5 515
57s.550 550-525

o o o o
? ?

1 I 1


a@ a oo ol ot ot


crrcer rather than by a retailer. These are most common iu tlrc sccottcl hnll'ot' rhc sixth century. In the same position red dipinti may serve tlrc slnte pttrporc lnd some are found earlier than the 'mercantile graftiti'.




'{ x x

r A

l" //
N ,^/ N N



15 t

-r v yY


/t4 /{ sao A15 /^,/'/\




7V q=6t


The lettering is done in black, rarely red

(see p. 36) and spellilg

sometimes shaky. Often inscriptions run retrogtade in common with Archaic inscriptions on stone, and there is very rarely triple dot

between words. I give a rendering of the common letter forms in sixth-century vase inscriptions since some may be unfamiliar even to Greek-reader. This is based on a table kindly checked by LilianJeffery. that in Athens ofthis period no separate letters are used for long e and long and tiere are other occasional idiosyncrasies ofspelling, peculiar to Athens to early Greece in general, which again might puzzle a Classical Greek For instance: er becoming e or r (Chiron); ea becoming u at name (Nerus); erTs for 1s (Heraklees); E becoming tr (especially Olysseus) 6pcbecoming op (Asmetos, Kasmos); single consonants for double (rarely reverse) and zt for oo (Netos) ; the loss of nasals before consonants ( mache, Sphichs); additional aspirate-0, g, X fora 7, ,. (less often the Dedicatory inscdptions naming the deity appear on votive plaques but it unusual to find a bespoke inscription naming the dedicator, purchaser o! mortal dead. Exceptions are on one or two funeral plaque series. Some painted insc ptions are discussed elsewhere - artists' signatures (p. rt), Panathenaic prize vases (p. r67). Incised inscriptions added after firing do not normally refer to the painted scene but record personal dedications or giftt, Exekias added to one ofhis vases an incised signature in Attic letters and a gifl motto in Sicyonian letters for the purchaser. Keian and Samian letter forma have been detected on other vases. Graffiti underfoot may record prices, bug many are monograms or symbols which have to do with the marketing ofth6 vase or ofother vases in a batch, and seem to have been put on early in theit

Some late cups have floral bands as their only decoration; otherwise florals fi1l subordinate ftiezes or serve as the decoration ofvase necks. The commonest pettern is a combination oflotuses and palmettes, a type already developed by (lorinthian painters. In early Athenian black figure the lotus has a broad splaying form with the spiky central leaf shown over the tiny palmette which Orcek artists ofthe seventh century had persuaded to grow there. This lotus type progressively narrows and the sequence can be followed as a useful criterion ofdate [5.2, tr.z. tz, 241 25.2, 42.r, 47, 52,56]. Before the mid sixth century the central spiky leafmay be omitted [5 r . r ] and the added wavy lites which could cross the calyxes or palmette hearts had been abandoned by irbout J6o. The body of the lotus becomes little more than a support to the spreading outer leaves which frame the intermediate palmettes. Lotus and pllmette usually alternate and are often opposed, but we do not see friezes of lotus alone and rarely of palmette alone (e4., on a handle ofthe Frangois Vase rrd work by the Ptoon Painter [5r. r]). The interlace is linked by tendrils, but liom about 560 these are increasingly often replaced by round chain

ciements are normally opposed [92], not alternating. Added colour disap-

lhks [51], which become normal by about 54o, and with

these the floral

pcals, the palmettes become more angular with time and their leaves cventually sepatate [r oJ]. The lotuses progressively thin [r 88, zogf. The palrrcttes have a new lease of life with the red figure Pedod, comPosed in neat

The lotus and palmette patterns are fotmal but non-realistic. Friezes of pear-shaped buds are, in their simple elements, more Plausible, and alternating buds may be given curling outer leaves like opening flowers, as Ir 4z]. Arc links above the buds hint at these opening leaves, and the arcs are regularly repeated below, again as links, as Ir46]. Some ofthese bud and flower friezes

within scrolls Ugg,


tppear in thc second quarter ofthe century [47, 54], as on Siana cups, and are often brightly coloured, but the more mechanical friezes are later and are pcrsistent. Base rays had once been a floral pattern and are sometimes treated more like leaves than a geometric scheme. The only plausible florals are the laurel or myrde fiiezes which sit like wreaths on the lips of some Siana cups, and the ivy in the same positionl35, 4o), but also often framing later black figure panels. The ivy leaves soon become mere blobs, and ivy and vine leaves are seldom diferentiated in figure scenes. Generally the black figure painter is not vety observant of botanical forms, and even where a tree or vine is relevant to the scene it is

uru.rll\ r(ri(tl\'\Lrl)()r(lin;rrcdtothcfiglrrcsl8tl
v:rlLrc l r r'61.


only rarcJr.givcn its tirll

Animals and Monsters

Chapter Twelve

iiii' of thc c:rrly rrinrel lriczcs lvas borroucd ironr Clorirth, urrrl Oorinthi:rn t_vpcs are observed and tbllo., right to tJrc nrid ccnrury. Retht r nlorc coDlmon irr Athctirn friczes, pcrheps, is thc gr:rzing horsc, whiclr h:rrl lonq bccn a popular uotivc on hcr vlscs, ancl irom thc uricl ccnttrr; thc or borr nrev havc his bristlcs 'brokcn ' er mid-back in thc Eest Clrcck nran:rcr'. A fc:lturc of thc crr],v Athc ial eDinreJs, Dot sccrr ilt Clorinth, is thc comnrorr doublc shoLrldcr lirrc, cs1-rccielly for lclircs. Anirrr:rJs nray:rppcer iu fiirure scenes es ettribr.rtcs (Athcn:r's ou,J or Hcrrncs's aoet), protegonists (nreglificcrrt horscs, es by Exckias, or htrntir,li clogs) or subsicliarv clctril (flf iug bircls; mnnins doss, cspcciellv with horsc rlcn). Srn:rll flr'ing birds in b:rrtlc sccncs arc nrorc probebly t)rlrcns thrn soul\,
Thc u,ild


i\,1\,th nas


tt.ll (ci lZS, zZt)). Oirtrll:i:re iifc orr lt clolphini counroull ;rppclr, lclping in ctrp intcriors lroSl or in friczcs. As shiclcl bl;rzo:rs u,c scc rvholc anitttals, hcads or lorcparrs. Onc unusrrrl bllrz,,rr is a rvolflikc hcacl rvith wuxrs iitticllccl [93], rl,hich looks likc l vcrsion ()l .r Scythierr rrrctel rppliqui; a col)rlor onc is thc 111irrg clglc clrr-ying a sn;rk( , 11) obvious orlcn,:lrrd this nrly nppclr in lightrug sccnc's (cf.[48]). Snekcs;ul bcerdcci l:381, irs lcgrllrrly in (lrcck lrt. Aninrtls ln lctiou rnr,v occupv thc ticld o11 thcir ()wrl. Wc think cspcciu llt o fth c fin e grou ps o fliorls attxck in g bulls, strlrs or boirrs [68, r:o] sonrcrirrr.t Irrlrs or- qoxts.'Ihc motif is iD oid oricnt:rlisinq onc, blrt thc Dcw cor1lp.l( schl'rncs with crossing ol closclv cng:rgcd bodics rvin suddcrr popul:rritt lbout i7rl rnd ilppcitr_ il\o in Athcnilrr r)lorlunlcntill sculpttrrc. This serggcstr frcsh iuspirrtiorr lir>rn custcnr sourccs, llhcrc such qroLlps lrlcl t syntbolr, siiyriliclncc, pcrhlps rot cntirclv losr l11 ( ircck :rrr. ( locks fiqhr orr nrluy Lit tl,' Mesrcr cups Ir ogl, ,,r,hilc on orllcr v;rscs wc allll scc thet l,ouths hvorrr llr,
ifrrrclcccl rltcl.hlvc'a:ry significancc

,\rhcnien black figurc. ()n cerlicr vlscs lhc orrly vicu,s of con tcnr ponr 11, lifc \\ arc citllcr' itssocirtcd with cult, likc thc luncrrl scencs, or oi:r t,vpc rr,,hcrc rr ts r()t rlwr),s cesy to jrrdgc u,hcthcr sonrc cfic occllsion rvls in ntind, likc tiqhtinq scc cs. This rc rlins t: rrc ofAtircDirn blrck liglrr c. Iu sontc sccDcs of \.tniors \\,irh squilcs, ol rvirriors clcprrting, cspcci:tJly rvitlt chariots, it rpfcxrs dlirt.,r,c lrc bcing sho\\, courtlv vcrsions oacvclyd;1),cvcnts uJhich lind thcir cxlct plnllcls rrrorc rclclilv in the lvor'ld ofHonrcr thlrr jn sixtlt, r'utury nrilirrrl nlellncls. lt rcquircs orrlv inscriptions r)rrnirg lrcrocs to rrrslltc thcsc to thc world of :ry.rh. This probeblv cxpleirs roo wll,v slilvcs . rc vcrv rlrely dcprictcd or ditlircntiltcd from frcc nrcr elthough thcv cprcscnt:r vcrv colrlrnoD rnd rcccssary clcr:rcnt ofc'r,crydav iifc etrd rvork. Whetcvcl thc urood. horvcvcr. tltc aatiorl rcrnairls'in rnodcrrr drcss'. lncl rr holc strrdics arc dcvotcd to prrrcly secuhr bcheviour. Thcsc givc .i virlrr.iblc l,rcturc oflifc in Athcus and thc colrrtrvsidc, lncl in thcir clcr:rils rhc_v tcll us rlLrch of iirlriqLlillilr intcrcst u,hich, thlouqh rhc ilccidcl)ts ofsrlrvjvitl, hts , scepcd thc cxcevltor.



tlrc'on1y sorrrcc ofinspirltion firr filrurc sccncs ir)

Everyday life
l1_ ucn drcss rt a1l in bllck frgtrrc, thc nlvirialblc grrrlrcnt is thc himirrion, r r.ctiuglc of cioth rvreppcd:lround thc bocly rvirh orle eDd ovcr t shoul ilcr l7r l. llcnclth it :uly be rvorrr a chiton, e ltrll lclgth bclrccl clrcss rvith slrorr 'lccvcs. Thc shorr chiron, rhieh-lcngth, suits rvorknrcn, \virrriors, or- thc itcnclill) active, irrcltrdiDg nrent,hcrocs. A smrllcr clolk f:rstcltcd ut the Dcck ,rr clrepccl ovcr thc lorcelli is usuitlLv cilllcd a chlenrys, r nernc morc propcrly rcscrvcd fbl thc short but llc:tv), cloilk u,or-n bv horscnrcn. This nrrv bc eeily l)irttcrnccl in thc North (lrcck or Thrlcian nranncr Ir g6l, ,,vhcr it is prcsum-


()f rrronslcrs thc collulor)cst :rrc sirclrs entl sphilxcs, rrrc thc gril fin {t, a6.6], rs rvcll rs thosc occupicd irr rnlth Chirnacre, l)cg:rsus, Kclbt r()s. with ccntrLrrs rllld srtYrs, rlrc perr-eninrei il1rllrorlxls. Thc Arirrrsl,s, drcsscd likc Sct.thi:urs, lrfio fbrrglrt thc qrilirs lilr thc sold thcl gnardcd, ;rr l \ccn () lwo rrricl ccrrtlrrv ctrps. Thclc itrc ()]]c ()f t\\,o litlc r);r]rrclcss col](()( tiorrs, gcrcrlllv lor Hcr';rllcs to clcal rvith l:5-;1. ()r Tyrrhcrilr vascs sorrr' rl)orrstcrs colrrpounclcd lronl irrrirrrirl torcpillt\ attuchccl to cocks' botlr,r shoulclcr thcit wav into drc uuinral fliczcs, but ofsuch onl,v thc cock-lr()r\r' (lrippelcktrvorr) sutrst.rrrcc:lrcl rr;ry Lrc sccrr r icklcn b,v l bo,v ol lr,;rr

.rl,ly lvoollcn.

Sorrrc latc black flgurc has cxplicit vicr,r's of thc rvotlrcn's chiton r,r,ith thc siccvcs rnd loosc fblds ovcr the bclt I r 9 r ]. l'rllicr rcplcscntrrir)11s ofbcttcr-fittccl short-slccvcd drcsscs ale itlso gcllcrrlly,

lislctings elors thc uppcr ann! full


pcrhlps not rightl)', taken for chirons. T;iilor-ing wrs no inrportlnr part



(ir.rk (()stlllr)(. rrlriLlr rDrrdc cl(r r,r,ith besic rcclxrrgulrr slrapcs, stitched or pirrnctl toqctlr( r. l lri lltcrnltivc ti'nralc costurnc which c()Lrld xlso bc worl
ovcl u driton, il rrccrl bc, wirs rhc pcplos (sonrcrinres rnislc:rdingly c:rllcd thc I )olic chiton). 'l his hrs e looscr skirr end a plain or,,crtrll fionl thc ncck whi.l)
e streiqhr cdilc rt thc w:List [461. It is fastencd by pins or broochcs at the shouldcr 164.:1, but thcy arc rercll,shown on thc vxscs. Thc arms arc thtls lcli bare, which is olc criterion for identilyilg thc drcss, but ;r box-like trcrtnrcrt ofthe overfall is anothc'r indication. ()nc sidc nlxy bc lcft opcn, but for tht'

cncis in

withollt clrrablrturc is crlough to ilrdicatc rhc Porclr of l housc'(ls for-thc l.rtmg out ofx body lz65l), the ptoxiurity ofa tcmplc (thrcc on [.2 z5]) or rhc I l.rll of Hadcs lr 62 -r]. Thc typc of capit:r1 shorvn for-sonc colrrmns, r,vith thc r olutcs s1r'irrging tionr the shaft, is not onc which is rlol-mll in rhc srorre .r chitcctllr c oaArhcns rnd nlry indicate a paintcd \\oodcn form. Most arc

ccognislbly' J)oric'.

Mrlc activitl, whcn not wer-likc, athlcric, conrlrlcrcixl, pecdcrasric or

bibulolLs, is Lrslrxllv coucclrlcd u,ith horsc's - riding thcnr, lctding thcut, hrnrcssing thcnr, or driving cheliots, nlor-e oftcn for a procession thln for.r r.rcc. Thc sterrding f'rontal cherior is a popular syrnmct cil conlposi tro l 154. 92, rg0i. A lcw sccncs show \\,hat eppciu-s to be aimless discnsrio[ rr<1uc not so nr uch indicative ofer Arlrcnian dcliqhr in corrvcrsrti()r) as ofthe plirrtcrs'lack oa imxginatioll. ln the sanre spirit nrrle errd f_enrale onlookcrs rrrlv fi11 thc r'vings for e rnytholoqical ccrrrre-piccc. lrr rccl ligrrrc onlv docs the .ntist trkL'i scrious intcrcsl in rciaxcd gcrlrc sccncs involving rro spcciel
.rctivit,v or plcpiration.

bcit, ancl rhis explains tlre one tirll b:rre leq showl by xrne runrrirrq figurcs Irig] in all bur larc black figurc. Ovcr pcplos or chidon r h;nrtr(,1 nr:ry bc u,orn, as by men, but u,onren oftcn draw ir ovcr thc back ofthc hcrtl end mey hold en cdgc ofthc garnlcrt bct'brc thc fecc wirich is thcrr silhoucttcrl (whitc on bhck) bcforc itl67,9o). Sorueti:res two or thrce (rercly n11;1q)
rvomeD sharc orrc himetion fr47]. Sornc rney bc aroups ofgoddcsscs but this is uot ncccssarily rrrrc ofali. Lr the second quarter oathe cclrtury thc wonrcl often srand holding the cdgc of thcir himetia bcforc rhcm, thc hcru rrailing Bcazlcy's ' pcngnin lvomcn' 173].

lery and coiflule are best obser-r,ed in red liqure but we scc spir:rl brrcclcts enrl carring pcndxDts, oftcu tri-lobcd I8Zl. HrLrrtc'rs \\rcar laccd boots rvith plomirlent tonglrcs to hclp thcm on, which nr:ry bc styliscd into u,ilEs firl f:rvourccl figurcs of ttryth (Hcrr11cs, Pcrscus, (iorgons, Ik:rros). Thcrc erc fc.,v scencs ofthe donrcstic lifc ofworncn. nonc nruch bcforc th, nrid ccrtrrry. Anresis shor,vs wonlcn :lt thc loonr 17.9] end in thc htcst bl:rck ligurc thcrc arc morc sccrlcs ofthcn at thcir casc, in drc eyneikcion, spinrirrr;, with besidc tlrcnr thc cheractcristic wool baskcts with flering sidcs (kalathoi) or ir an orchard, scetcd or f'ruir-pickinq, whcrc thcy nright bc trkcn firl nylrrpJrs. Thc Srvingcr's nenrc vesc shows enothcr pastin)c lI+2], rathcr th;rr

Men and wonen may have thcir hair-bound by a fillcr. Thc brorrl brirnmcd rravclling hat for nrcrr is thc petrsos f:ro]. J)ctails oIdrcss,jcwcl-

thcrc:rrc to colrtcnlporaric\ il cxerrplcs, but xrc not rclxtcd to rhc pictrrrcs. Sonc ofthc wonrcrr narucd in ftrncrel or fountai:r scclcs nlight lrrve been rcco!5rlislblc Athcnians tbr lll rvc cen tcJl. Seppho was nilllrcd posthLrrlrously J,r r l.

It is rcmar'klblc ho*'fcrv dircct rcfi'rcnccs Lrlack figur'c. Thc kalos n:rncs arc thc obvious

Fighting 'fhc vesc picturcs erc a good source of information xbollt xlrlour aDCl \\capoDs. Thc usurl ollcrrsivc wclpoDs xrc a thrllsfil)g sPcrt or sword. Sonrctinrcs thc srvord is crrrvcd and onc-cdqcd: rhc'nrachrira'ot'kopis'spcer s ar c gcDcrrlly carricd irl prirs ll1c1 in tctiolr, cvL'rr 6 orlr hd_scheck, a thror'ving thonq mey bc secn tlstencd to the shaft I r -z l. i ]. Thc shiclcl is ofthc routd hoplitc vilicty, crnblazollc-d, and il)tcrior- vicws shorv thc ccntr-ll



ltcr about 5l



if not perticularly consistcrrt, and thc scclrcs nrey r,vcll br' inspircd by Pcisistratid work on the Athens'water-suppiv Enneakrouros:;r systcnl which sccms to irlvolvc thc constr[ctiol) ofscvcra] llcw fourrteirls witlr colunrn:u t'igadcs, of thc typc shown oD thc vascs. On trvo uc rc:rtl 'Klllirhoc', thc flatrrc of a rcvcrcd Athcniiln spriig, end thcsc picturcs:rrc sood sourccs for thc familiar nenrcs ofAtheniln eir ls. Therc is lirrlc bv way ol rrchitcctlrrc othcrwisc on thc blxck ligurc vascs. Thc Wrlls of Troy on thr' Frtnqois Vasc rney bc rncntiorcd, ald drcir bettlcnrcrts on sonre late sccrr's ofthc dlagging ofHcctor's body, tlrc dcxth ofTroilos l:or I and rhc Sack ol Troy; the house ofPclcus, llso on the Frrnqois Vlsc lnd the fount n horrscs in Troilos sccncs 146.5]; r mortal lronrccotnillg [77]. Gcncrllly a coluo-ln witlr
chborxtc cvcn

of the

o thcrc xrc ln:ur y sccncs, rolrnxlly ot hvdriec, of worrcrr housc to draw watcr [-:t:1], and writing bv it to chat. A fcu,

sccnes irrtroducc youths w:lshirrq thcnlsclvcs.

Thc rrchitcctulc it

porpax' throulih rvhich thc lorcerm is pesscd end thc haDd-grip, ' :rrltiiabc'', \orlrctirlics with cords elso hlnging wilhill lhc 1i111, pcrhaps lo fistcrl rts covcr [56, r.1l l. llercly 1 cloth is shown hengine fronr the shiclcl to protcct Llrc olvncr's lcss lior1r rrrows. Thc 'lJocoriau' shicld is fittcd likc thc circullr \ irriety, brit is ov:tl i shepc wilh cut-outs rt thc u,eist, eDd nlav rlso h:lvc e baldric. Sornc bclicvc it rorl-functior1e1, hcroic cqr.ripnrcrrr, xnd it is ccrtxirlly popullr rvith hcrocs (ls dclivcrcd to Achillcs), dcitics or xs prradc xrrnour lJ-r, 73, ,!71. ShicJd blazons arc usu:rll,v prilltcd whitc, soDlctirllus inciscd. TLcy figure t:rirrrals, hclcls, lirnbs, thurrdcrbolts, !aorqonci:r) to lrarlre thc morc il1t.'restirlg. Clornmoncst trc rncrc blobs, ii tripod or :r bull's hced. A tiw, likc l lion's hclcl or r suilke, stlnd frcc of thc shicld, in the r ou nd [64.-;, t z r ]. Tht'y a re rarcly if cver signifrcant of idcnrity or allegian cc. Thcrc l:-e sc'vcrrl blsic hclrrct ty1rcs. Tlrc Attic cen bc no rnore thxn x cup,


rs \\'(,nr l)\i Atlrr.nrr lr.,l.:1. und sonre Arnazons Izo4], but rvithlt hiqlr crcst.

Ilorvcvcr. its rrrorc pr;rcticll for-m includcs a neck guard and chcck

picccs(l r62,r,sn","r.l6l;Arnirzons[56,9E]) wl-ricit are sootetirncs sho$,n Foldcd up ovcr tl)c rcnrlrcs. -['1]c (lorinrhiall helrnct {t6.r, 52 ri.qht,86, 1oo, t2t.rl rvith high or lou, crcst, covcrs thc fecc lclving only thc eycs cxposccl and a slit bcfcrre tlrc rrrotrth, but it is oftcll worn 'ar casc' on thc brck ofthc hcad, cvcrr it tction (at iclst in art). Thc'Chalcidian'hc'lnrct (ru inaccurltc titlc) is sinriler but it leavcs roonr for thc cxrs and thc cheek picccs rney hevc e curvcrl oLrtlinc Ii2 /r,[]. Thc stittcd crcsts rn:ry htve or-rlirrc crcst holders likc aninrl hcads or r,vhcels [17,66], but drc lou, crcsts beconrc thc nric end :L sl.rcci;rl v:rricty is placcd ecross thc hclmet, not lbre:rnd afr, and is favoured lor frontul or rexr vicws. Thcrc erc ilso doublc, helf-cr-csts l?or tap.206,2tZltobesecrr. sonletinlcs attechcd to antlers [47], lncl for spccial cllcct fearhcrs or bulls' hor-ns nray bc attechcd ro thc cro$1l l./Zl. The :r1l-nrctll bcll corselct protects chcst erd back:rnd is oftcn shown with spirals and rib-cagc malkcd orr drL' clrcsr l4S, 62. SSl.ln about -5so a leathcr corselet appcers, and by thc clrly iilth ccntury hrs taken ovcr in popul:rrity [E6, r4r]. lts shouldcr picccs arc ticd icross thc chcst lrld rherc arc rectansulxr fltps bciow thc bclt. A short slccvclcss chiton is rvorn belrcath both typcs of corsclct. a;rcavcs protcct thc shitrs end so:ne pattcrncd thiglt guards J64.-r, 66, too, zrTl (paranrcric{ia) and arm gtrards Iroo] arc slrowr. Archcrs corrre to hlvc spcciel dress of Scythian typc wirh thc pointc(l lclthcr crp (as Ir14]) .rncl thc closc fitting tunic, lons siccves and lcsgirrr:s, oftcn geily p.ttcmcd. Thc pointcd cap alrcady eppcars or1 rhc Fran.-or\ Vtsc1q6.1;c.l. d3 /rlil end on c of tl.rc figtrrcs wcerin g it is called ' Kimmcr ios', ' (linrrcriln' kin to thc Scythiens whonr thc Crecks r,vcrc conling to know

\\rc can sce that victorious action is nornlrliy shown from left to rieht rr)(l thc dcad bodics normally lic with thcir hcads dircctcd towards their fi icrrrls. \4tlics with chariots may bc scct, but not oftcn with horsemcn. C)ollep'rrg ,rrd fallen Egurcs of rnen erd horses rrc rcndcrcd with varying succcss. Popular :clatcd sccncs ilrc of ilrnling, whcre x chlrxctcristic posr rs \tu)opirlq to clip ol1 r grcave [,u.;71, or thc ,,',,rrrior dcparti q lr96]. For rhc lrttcr e cha:tot rn.),be showl ;rnd ."r,ilc end chilcl nttend. tlv thc cncl ofthc .cntlrry thc sccrlc is usually nrorc rcllistic, u,ith I rvifi.pouring from rjug lbr hcr husbancl to nrrkc r liberiorr, or siurply stanciing rvith r 11thcr or br.othcr rs hc scrs ofli A cournron pertici1rlnt in drcsc letcr groups is ltr trchcr in firll rrg .rs rlso ir li87l rvhcrc orncrs lrc bcitlir tekctl bv i:rspcctiotr ofcutrxils. ()n sornc nrid ccnturv v.scs \vc scc ir nroulltccl squirc lc:rcling his nrestcr_'s

lrorsco: accorrpanlinghisfullv;rnncdmesrcr [4d],prcsum:rbly]rliudiceri!)D of contc'nlporaly prxctice ilr tlaining or scrvicc. Ol1 occxsion thc wrrrror hinrsclfis secnjuurping fronr his rnoviug horsc iu the militerl c:<cr.cisc ofthc 'irnlrblltcs'. Clhrriots, rvltcthcr for reci[g or tiuhti g, erc tr,r'r>horsc, soDrctinlcs wilh orlc or l\vo tr:lcc horscs, ntcl thcrc arc son)c liDc hilnrcssing lronr Exckias on (ct-. [.93, ::5]).

Wine, women, boys and song ' I(orrrst' denccrs rppc:rr on (brinthiarr

on thc


Sea shorcs.

rnay bc worn xlso by Amezors. Quivcrs havc a top flep to kccp thc arrow flighrs dry, usually folded back, lnd somc cluivcr bow-cases ofscythian cypc rrc ilso showD. Thc Scythiaus, likc the northcrn horscnrcn with thcir pettclnccl cloaks, erc thoLlght to havc bccll introduccd to the strccts ofAthcns

Alier lbout J4o thc tilll drcss:rppc'ars Il6o.t]


by rhc tyr:rnt Pcisistrrtos. Thcrc are lightcr arrns too a slingcr (ci l95l);and lightcr shields of \\,ickcr ancl skil, cithcr of the ' Bocoti:lr) ' shape, but sccrl in profilc worn orr thcir backs by cheriotcers Ir:6], or thc clcsccnt-shaped pclta crrried by

blow lt

Atttazons and othcrs. Trrrnlpctcl 691, lcft hand on hip.

s usu:L1ly

rrrcrit scperatc studics, stxltcling ft)

Sonrctimcs rnuch ofthc ernroul is olrrittcd arrd with ncar-nakcd cornbet:rnts it is hard to say how nruch is duc to thc Creek lrtists' intcrcst in 'hcnrir

to Athcnien vilscs bv thc Ko:rest (ilorrp irrtists, rcnra;rinq populrr bcvond thc micl ccnturl. Thcv rvcer short, tiehr, paddcd chitous [.u3] e d pcrt'irnr drcil botronr slapping, kickirrt dlucc olrcrr rvith clrirrkins honrs or cups Ln thcir hlnds. Sotttc m:ry bc nlkccl (nrorc oftcr lrs timc p:rsscs) or lvith a shoulder r-irrg likc the slccvc ofthc chiton brLt probablv intcndcd ftrr r wrclth or- ribbon [-u r], :rs it is sccn rvorrr by nrcn d:rnccrs letcr in bleck fiqrrr.c (on thc Allccter's vlscs)- Kornasts lrc nloltirl, atld mev daucc rvith nakcd rvonrcn who lercly thcmsclvcs clon thc disrirctivc costunlc 1221. Ilcforc thc :rid ccntlu_y i (ioriDth thcy bccontc essirrrilatccl to utyrs errd c r iDtrudc rn l)ionvsirc sccncs. In Athcns the trensition is lcss clcer arrd ir mly sinrply bc thrt lncn grve Llp thc spcci:ll dtncillir costLllnc, llrt hter Alhcrrirn konlusts inrpcrsonrting satyrs contr_ibutr ro the clriy history ofthc (lrcck thcltre, erld rhc p.rddcd costtrrlle is sccn xgltilr nl thc fitth ccltrrry ior irctors in coltcdy. A lcrv v:rscs of about 5oo sho\\, rrrcD drcsscd up rs horscs suppor.rinrj riclcrs lr37l, or rs bircls, in denccs u.hich sc.-nr to lnricipetc Old Oomcdy choruscs, rvhilc onc drcsscd as:r slt),r, dllcirg lbr L)iol1,sos, rtri.ght bt'orrr crrlicst rc:rl rcror i2tgl. L)thcr latc vescs sho\. rlrcn ridirlE dolphiDs errd
rnighr be 'live' trrnslatiors of nnrDllncr\,. Sccncs of pick-e-back (cphcdrisuos) ;rncl rncrl olr stilts It14] rnav bc in likc casc ancl tlrcrc arc latc vescs u,ith wlnior dlrlccrs pyrrhichists (c1. lttll).
ostrichcs, or drlrccs

vlscs belorc 60<l xnd lrc' iutrochLcccl

nudity', how truch to coltrelllpor:u y pr:lctice dict:ttcd by hot wcrthcr or thc pricc ofa bronzc panoply. Cornbat schcrncs are stereotypcd and without inscriptions it is llot possiblc
to tell whcrhcr

of' rninotrur-s'.



pipcs pl:r 1cr ettctrds clrlcc rhesc too

hcroic cncounter


beir,g portrayed. !7hcn wc arc so guided


i lrrrrlrt

tl ()r)t() .()uchcs lor thclr

fc:rsts b-v

rbout 6oo, lcavirrg thc

w()nler) l() sit .rt tlrtir lcct, or ilPrrt o11 chrils, cxcePl whc'rc solllc lllorc irrrirrnrc scr'', icr !!,lr rcquil-cd oftl)crrl. Thc coLrchcs on Atherriatr vescs usu:rlly

c[Ibrrcc of 1lllr1 ttrcl rvifc Izt r]. Thc srrppli:urt lover- approrchcs r,r,itlr
hancl rriscd to thc boy's chi:r, thc othcr lo,,vcrccl tow-ards l-ris loins


hrvcblocklcgsrvirhcut-outsbclo\\,,p:rintcdwilhPrlrncttcsII6r,26i],btrt. fiu,huvc thc trrlncd lcgs, rvhich rre probrbl)'an crstcrr fclt!(tlc. tleiorv (that is, bcsidc) thcrn r rhrcc-lcggcd tablc usurlly stincls \\,ith ctkcs o1 slriPS ofntcitl upon it [3d], but this is often onrittcd iu latcr scclcs, r,vherc drinking errcl
sollgs :rrc lhe prinle coDccrDs. Thc mcn rcclinc on fhcir lcfi clborvs, suppottctl

cock l136l or e clcacl hare. Clonsunurltiorr rs rchievecl stuncling, from thc 6-ont, inrcrcrurel Ii-;6], r:rrcly Lrndcr covcr L,l .r clolk, lncl thcrc erc rrsttllly tualc' onlookcrs. The sccncs appcrr regulerl), tr (,nr

ol bcarjng thc lovc gifr ofa



rbout 16o on.

b1, cuslrions 1t77, zrgl- The full parephcnralia of thc syrllposion is llcsl stuclicd irr red figure and thcrc:rrc comparttivcly forv black 6gurc sccncs exccpt on sonlc Siena cups eud lalcr, irr rhc rc'd 6gurc pe:iocl, but thc r1lusicll' instturncnts used hcre ancl iD othcr sccnes ntay bc- mcrlriollcd. Thc doublc pipcs arc playcd wirh the hcJp of a moulh bend which is nor alrvays slrou,rr l-r37, r6z, zzo, zzzl.Thcpipcs crse, with a side pockct fbr the motrtlr piccc, nrav bc sccn halging in thc ficld or frortt lu erm, ol clscrvhcrc lz3 5 r l, but clrly oncs lLc a rvholc srrrall rnimtl skin. Metr or wonrctr Iuty play pipus; cleppcrs llc [rc1d onll' by wonre:r, rnae]rads or tty:uphs Izid,::t] eltl urdcrsterdrbl,v rccollrpxny da[cc, rrot soDg. Of thc stringcd illstrumcuts thcrc is the ordinary lyre r,r,ith hor:r shapcd arlns and tortoiscshcil sottnclbox 136 /r'/i, 77 a6olrl, or thc brrbitou rvhich is rnorc hc:rr t slupcd r,vith )orrg arnrs. Thc klthrrr is a hclvicr iDstrun)crrt rvith anguler sourrd-box lrld eltboratc arms, its protcctivc cloth oftcn shown haneing fiolt it lr4o.l, 165, t97, zr4, zzzl. Tl-ris is lbr rDorc scrioLls phying attd it is ofrerr c:uticd irv Apollo, o: by a soloist rvho mounts a st:tnd (bcm:r) to pcrforru bcrwccrljudqcs (conrplrc I{cllklcs, lr65l). SLrch corltcsts aPpc.r on somc Penathcneic arrtl rclltcd vases fbr pipes pltycrs in thc sixth ccntury, for I kitherodc iu thc filth. Morral lovc-nreking is nsuelly shorvn ls a grotrp tctivity u'ith couPlcs

Most rcprcscntetiols oflthlctics on bllck fiqtrrc vascs


inro o:rc'of three

u,c scc



oftbc nricldlc two quarrcrs ofthc ccntuLy

sccncs peirs ofboxcls squ:rring up, thcir r,,,rists rnd hauds bound il thongs of lcllhcr; r ptir ofrvrcstlcrs gtappline; a f<rot recc, juurpcrs with thcir.ju nrprrr; lvcights (l-raltcrcs) [r 5r]. Thcsc arc trcetcd ils qcllrc sccncs simply, u,ith no spccific lssociltion. Whc: c chrriot r-accs arc drou,l it is rlu,:r1,s possiblc tlut:r hcroic eveDt rvrs irrrclclcd, like thc firncrai gatrcs Ibr Perroklos on thc
Ft anqois Va sc and

fcrv stock



ofrutncrs hls alrcady bccn

b y Sophilos | .u dl. Thc ca11v, urotcsqLrc trcatnlcr ) t discusscd (p- t99).

The second class conrcs lvith rccl ftgurc urd thc grorviua irltcrcst in thc p]ttcnls of llratonr\,. In bleck 6gr.rrc thcrc lre feu,cr erd iess succcssiirl :rttempts lt shorvirg thc athlctc's posturinq rvith thc discus, tcstinli thc strrightncss or tip ofthcirjavelins, or prxctisirg ,,r,rcstlinq drrorvs, but thcrc rr-c somc, end rhc popullritl,ofathlctc sccncs paintccl ,on vescs in lhc ncw tcchrricluc crtcourtgcd l comparable renee ofsinliler sccl)cs on vescs peintcd


pc'tfbr'nring on couches as tt a fc:rsr, or tnorc ofteu stllldirlg il1 vafi()Ll\ poscs [6i ]. Entry from bchind is thc preferrccl poslurc. Malc nrrsturbatiorr is occ:rsionllly shown lE:.2], fellatio r;rrcly. Thcsc sccrtcs rlc coll)lll()llcst ()rr Littlc Mastcr cups (es by Elborvs Out) end drc Tyrrhcnian vascs. On the hltcr thc nlcn nl:ry h:rvc rcd bodics likc kornesls, and sonrc schol:us tirkc thc[1 fi)r sltvrs, :rlthough teillcss. lJut whilc cvclythiug iu tJrc c:rrlicr hislory ofkontasls seenrcd likcly to lcrd to rtris liccntious', ttrcrc is uothing in thc latcr' lrltbits lnd:rppearurcc iu bJlck figtrre ofseryrs and tulcrr:rds (t1r,vtys drcssctl) to sullljest that thcy ltlcl cvcr so cavoftcd. It cotrld be thet thcse kolrlasts rrt' beginning to cleinr sorne sturdirrg:rs sltvts, rvilh the occasionel ivy r,vrc:tlll ,,,irrc or largc kurtharos, which erc Dioirysiec, but drcsc hxve nothin!i lo (ll)
rvidr thcir' sc\url gyllrn:rstics. Malc honrosexull activi!y is sct cortrrnonly show11 thtl ir acqttires icorlo_ grlphic convcntioDs of its ou,rl, ancl is pronrotcd to bcing a lnaill sccnc oll largc, fine veses a status vcry rlrely echievcd irr bleck figurc by tht hc'teloscxltt] crlcountcrs, cxcePt of nlacrlad lnd satvr, or I wcll-ntltt'tncrctl

thc oldThc lhircl class co:upriscs thc scclcs shown ot thc r_cvclscs ofl)lnlthcn.rre errrphorlc or oD vlscs ofl):rDethcnaic typc r_cfcrlirlg to cvcDts in thc llxntcs ltt Atlrcrrs. Thc carlicst have thc foor racc lrg5,2gill, horsc racc l3ool, I chlriot J29gl or boxcrs. ln thc last qrLartcr of thc sixth ccnrLrrv wc scc' thc firil pcntrthlon ransc-discus,jrvclir,jrrr p, foot rlcc, wrcstlil1q. Spcciel cvcDts on th csc lnd othcr vescs in volvc th c rrcc in :rrrrr orr r (fbr ' ho plitodrorloi ') usuallv

only a hcinrct end clrryrng shicld lncl spcer {3o61, :rrd .j.rvclirrtirrowing fron horscback ljoq.zl, fron rbour 4oo on. Panathcnaics of the

latcr shor,r, thc ncr,r, hcavy bcrxilg gloves in usc. Thc ithlctcs erc usuaill,nakcd encl thc odd rvhitc loin cloths woru in thc Pcrizoma Group are cxccpriol)el [:lg]. Thc toilct gclr ofstrigil (scr:rpcr'), oil bottlc ltnd spongc, is r:rrcly shorvn ir bJack ligurc, comnron iu red fiqurc. Tr;ritcrs ltrcncl or intervene r.r,ith drcir lorrg cancs [30 r. r], riud thcrc mry bc adnriring bystruclcrs rlcvcr wonrcl)- A tripod clulcLon ls dtc nrost v:rlueblc
33os ancl

but oftetr only wrceths or fillcts, rvhich ntay bc ricd around the hced, ernrs rnd icgs, iuclicatc succcss.


Commerce and ind ustry

l_hc lrlur'l llgrrrc r,.rse p.rrrrtcr obscrvcd a rvidc varicty ofbarlusic lcliritics btrt dcpictLd thcl) rirrclv possibll orr clclund try proii-ssiorel cLlst()nlc1s. In Anrlsis'sccrrc oilr,ourcn busy rt thc loorrr l78l rvool is bcing rvciglrcd otrc, lncl a fcw yclrs latcr Tllcidcs shows nrcn wcighilg bundlcs, pcrhaps of wool Iru5]. A gcrlcration carlicr x Lrconian paintcr had shown !hc Cyrcncal kiug, Arkcsilas supcrvising similer activitics. As usual in this pcriocl, likc is wcighccl against 1ikc, not a!!ainst wcights. Of othcr sccrrcs of rtailing rhcrc erc lerv until the hst quarter ofthc sixth ccntury and thc carly 6fth, whcn wc scc oil bcing clispcnscd into llabastra fronr pclikai via funlcls [zrz], for men or' wonlcD crtstonlcrs. But such sccncs wcrc rcvcr vcry popular and latc strrdics ol' e fishnrorgcr (cL l,:r6l), butchcr [;E7] or cooks erc cxccptiorlal. Illdlrstrial arctivjt,v rvas closcr ro rhc intcrcsts ofthc pottcr/pilintcr who rvcll placed to observc thelr. Srnirhs et r,vork on tripods rrc sccn soon rftcr S j() lncl thcrc erc a icrv latcr sccncs of lorging showirllj a good rlngc of tlrc cxpcctcd tools [:6.5]. C:rrpcurels arc shorvn also, and cobblers, t]rclt clcnt: stll)ding orl thc rvork rablc so rhet thc lcathcr c:tn bc cut ot l11elkcc1 irrollr)(l thcir tc'ct. and rvith a borvl bcneath the reble tor-wetcr rvith rvhich to solicn thc lcethcr for cutting l.z,tgl. Thcsc scclcs too erc rrre, but thcrc llrc rxthr'r rnorc ofpotring, fronr a Lirtlc' Mestcr cup shorvinq rvork or1 thc \\,hecl buinl{ rur_ncd by r sqrirttilr!! boy, !o e lrtc sccnc ofthc rvhoic shop r,vith r,vork on tht u,hccl, ins1'rcction, rnd thc kiln trcirg rekcd out. Of fiurrriug activitics ploulihing and so\rirrq;lrc sccll lr1()st oftcn, carlicst ou ir Sian.r cup (llurgon Ciroup) whcrc thc essocixtion nrel bc' rcligt.,us. Othcru.isc wc hlvc olivc pickins IrE6l, thc o)ivc prcss end scvcrrl sccncs ol thc vintlgc rvith thc grlpcs bcire pickcd (rr en Acropolis plaque) or nrore oftcn bcing trodclcn. Thc pcr_sorncl lray bc srtyr s bnt rhc ccpipmcnt is sixthccntury Athcni:rn. Anlsis ollcrs thc cerlicst and bcst ofrhcsc sccncs l8g]. W:rrships r,r,ith r ranl prow, sorllctilnc! in thc forrrr ofar elinr:rl srrout, rlrtl l triscd stcrn, erc sornctilncs choscn to dccorxtc thc inncr riln ofdinoi Ir o-z]or' cretcrs, fioru Exckias on. Thc stceli:rq oars ancl laclclcr-glugplank:trc shorvrr e! tllc stcrn, end thc seils:trc trrrued fole a:rd ift so:rs to lppc:Lr in thc profili' vicr'v. Sonrc ofthc o:rled ships shorv trvo bluks of o;lrs rrrd oll onc virsc rr piratic ilttick is pcrlr:rps bcilg rnountcd on helvier, rourrd-bottonrcd nrcr-

irvoked rrrclv attcrlds, in '1ivc'or slltu.ry lirrnr. It is usuelll Athcru lr but rhcrc erc scveltl latc sccncs rvhcrc an irulqc of Dion),sos is xtcnclcd
cllncing rvonrcrr, rarcll clurlctcr-iscd

reisccl ls a fornr of rtirrcl brcrk lirl tlr, brrrrirrr srrll.rce 167,, r.l.;i ,rrr,l \ol]rctiDrcs Nidr thc architcctu(tl cllbor,rtiorr ol s, rolls. lrr sacrilicc srcrrt.s ofli'rings ar-c cerricd irr blskcts, lrnd erirnrls urc Icrl trp ro thc' :rlrer, oficrr r,, itlr nrtrsical eccolrplninlcrit- Tlrc boncs lr)d fit ;r c bu rrrr orr thc elr:rr itsclfurrl rr c nrel scc the r:ril of rhc stcriflciul aninel tu,isriDs irr thc llenrcs. 'l hc rlcitt,


nlrcnads and widr satyrs. Eerlicr rhc

rulskofDiorrt,sosalone isshou,u,such.rsrnrghrl.r. Lft.rchtdr,,rprli.rr.r..rcult

liqlrrc. Thcl c arc r nuubcr oinrinor rcligious sccncs on lltc vescs onlt, a brrli llter or levcr rnly bc cnough to indicacc sacrilicc; u,l_vsiclc shlines rvith e hcrur und sonrctirrrcs an;rltar also eppclr, r',,ith lnen or wonrcD .r ttcnditl g th cn. Thc hcrm is a piliar toppccl b1 e bcardcd hced o f Hcrnr cs, :rnc1 u,ith nrelt'gr'nirels, usullly crcct, listcncd or cervccl il f'ront l:7_;1. A iibation is conulonlv poulccl at the dcprrturc of I rverrior or or l rimil:Lr occasion, cvcn bl dcitics lz46]. A rvilc or nrothcr holds drcjue, rhc nren e yrhirlc. ()r rhc u,rrrior irrtv iuspcct chc cntrails of e secrificecl aninral (cxtispicv) to-judqc it thc olrcns lrc llood lor thc crlrcrprisc Jl (t71. Thcrc is not rruch inclic:rtioD ofspccial fcstivels. Ilr sontc l)ionysiac sccucs tlrc agricultural and fcrri]ity aspect ()f rhr god is intlrc.rtcd, lncl rirc nr,,nstcr phellos clrricd on a lip cup ntrst illusrrate a rustic cclcbration for rhc same god. His impcrsonation by the rrchon basilcus rnd pessAgc through !hc strccts of Athcns in a whcclcd ship durrrg thc Andtcstcria fcstival is also shown [:247]. Thc l)ionysiac associations ofmost dccoratcd vasc shapcs rrlay accorlDt for this intcresr in tlrc ntorc colorrrful sccncs ofhis worship, rathcr dltn those in honour of thc city goddcss. Thc Circcks hld no mlrriagc ccrcnrony. Arnasis shorvs us thc pro.cs\i()l) to !hc gloom's hoLlsc, ilcconrpanicd by thc wilc's ruothcr rvith a torch, rvhile thc
,rlonc b1, an

groonr's rnothcr, llso rvith a torclr, rvlits at thc rlcw housc1771. Ncxt Dronrirrg eUcsts errive with prcsclts. Thc grcat fricze oD thr'FriLllqois Vasc
b: inqs el1

Sinrplcr sccnes shorv thc cerlicr proccssioll rvith bridc :rnd groour ir thc cbrrior, rccotnplnicd by dcitics end prcscnts ofboxcs (oflitcu, prcsumabll)
Harntotri:r, and rhc crrlicsr, Hclcn lnd Menclaos (Sophilcan) but u,hcrc thcrc arc Do inscriptions ol lttributcs wc nrav rcrsonebly think oir sccrrler

Olyrrlpus to l)clcus :rnd Thctis in chariots or on loo t l$.5 ; c.l. 24-


iuld c:rlrlcl-oDs {z671.


l)clcu s and Tlr cris, Keclurosaucl

cluntnrcn Ir,90].

Religious occasions
Wc scc littlc cuough oftcurplcs in black figure: ar nrost a tokcn colurnn, brrt elters eppelr qrrite often, sonlctinrcs in myth sccncs [67, r35, r13], likc tlrc clcatlrs of Prianr or Tr-oilos, or- thc litbcllcd altar on thc Fran!-ois Vas.^ outsi(I. Pelcus'housc 14d.5l. Thcv rlc uencr.rily block likc', souretiurrs rvith onc sirlc 2r2

Thc laying out ofr bodv (prothcsis) appcars on hurcrary phclLrcs lz65I rrrrl sonrc lourrophoroi and phorrniskoi. The dcad lics on a bicr, his hcad r,,,cll proppcd up erd thc chin strep kccping his mouth closed soructimcs llso \hown. WoircD arc busy or [1or]rDing by thc bier itscJf, according ro prcscribcd custotr, brt rnalc' nournc'rs rney approach with onc hand reiscd il lhc rittrll gcsturc. A column rnay indic.rtc rhc scttitlg, in the house porch. ()l trl-l

including- chariots' Exckias' phcluc scrics wc have also the procession-ofguests

iir thc ho.rse and preparation in the courryard[lo5] fo-r the -o..";g ;Ipho."Y Lydos anJsome latet artists show a Procession oFmele
to burial.

foot or horseback' The Sappho Painter is -o'or.r"., [7r], halrds iaised, on fond of fu.reral scenes, and apatt from his 'prothesis' plaques he shows us pr"p"r"tior, ho-e for the '&phora' [266], interment [264]' and mourning "t Onc or two earlier scenes show the 'eLphora' itself' by cart or L, ilr. nr"u.. oifr"., lzzol. Rounded or rectangular grave monuments are shown' Lrr,rl v p"-,'"a *hit. rnd wirh some ;ildlife uPon them They correspond monuments of the same date A very few late scenes show *i,t "r'.^rr","d ,h"r. blo.k -orlrl-ents topped by a sphinx or siren, perhaps a grave marker' with men attendir-rg.

Chapter Thirteen


The conventions which govcrn the depiction of myth scenes in Atheman black figure havc been discussed in an earlier chapter. Here, by way of introduction to the description ofthe scenes themselves, it is necessary only to
sound some notes ofwarning. Athenian black figure gives us by far thc dchest corpus of mythological


Archaic Greek

at, but

there are limitations on its value


representative ofArchaic Greek iconography as a whole, and although these limitations are not too constrictive, they need to be kept in mind and cxplained. First, there is the clear indication from other sources in Athens, notably the architectural sculpture, that it was possible for an Athenian artisc to set a scene in a different way and possibly with very different narracive dctails. Secondly, Athens is not Greece. There are, for instance, rich and carlier series of myth scenes in Peloponnesian art on bronze reliefs and Corinthian vases. Sometimes Athens' debt to this tradition can be traced, sometimes her independence ofit. The stylistic and technical influence ofEast

Greek artists in Athens in the sixth century is clear, and we may suspect iconographic influence too. Although Ionia so far has ofered little with which to control this, it is clear that there was no absolute 'commonwealth' oficonography in Greece, and that lonian artists too had their own views. So this is an incomplete account of the Archaic Greek artist's view of myth, rlthough it represents the bulk ofthe available evidence for it. ln this chapter it has proved convenient to group scenes by their protagorrists or by thematic association in a poem, like the Trojan cycle of epic. It should not be thought, however, that the artists took a similar view oftheir sources. Aitists may be shown to be individually interested in particular rtories but not, for instance, in the lliad as a source, and the rather haphazard ;rnd scant illustration ofthe Homeric poems shows that the artist's interest was r)ot in the poem as such, but in the opportunities offered by particular cpisodcs, such as the companions of Odysseus, translated by Circe, or welltricd themes like the blinding of Polyphemos. The situation improves, but rrot impressively, towards the end ofthe sixth century and with red figure, l)Lrt not to lead us to believe that a poem alone could have prompted a serics or cycle of scenes. The Theseus episodes seen on late vases may well have becn



rc.rnt p()cur, LrLrt thcir gcncral poptrlrritr', eud ther of tltc pocru problblr rcl,rtc to thc rcrv polirical significlncc ofThcscus in Athcus. I hlvc :rrgrrcd elscrvlrcr c thrt Ilcnklcs, xs proriga of Athcn:r, ruey h:rvc cn-jo\ ccl his crlornrolls poprrlrliry in l)r-isisrlatid Athcns (ofthe ycers fr()nl lbout ja)o to .llour jlo) bcceusc tlrc tvmnt Ircisistrrtos idcrtificd hirnsclfrnd his lorruncs *,ith thc hcro, plotcctccl bl thc city llodclcss. So ifthc picrurcs cer)nor illwir)s hclp us towrrds l bcttcr apprcciation ofcurrcnt litcirtrlr_c (ltlostl,v lost) thcy llrey hevc cvcn 1]rorc to oficr ()n a broxclcr_ social o: proiirical lcvcl- Thts ts .r strbjcct rlillicult to cxpl()rc :u)d fi eught with incolclusivc lrgultc:rt. Frnallr,, drcrc is thc tict thxt fi onl 5 3o on, rcd fiqrrr c bccanlc thc scDior vesc pilirrlin!l tL'chrliquc in Athcns, eud hcrc uo noticc is takcn of scc'tlc's oD r-cd figlrrc v:rscs. Ilut whilc rhis nrc:ur s thet this lccoLult ofnlyrh ol Athclriln vrscs illtcr jJo is seriously incorrplcrc, it still has a siqni6cant unity end indcpcndcrcc, sincc thc black figurc iconogrrphy is scncr:rlly difiircnt f'rorl rhc rcd figurc, both coltirrrljrlij au olcl treditior:urcl clcvclopi:rq ncw illtcrcsts.
sur)s ir) .r

thc goddesscs of chilcl birth, I'ilcithvi:ri lt7,5l. A scxtcd Zcus, xrtcn(l.rl b\ \\,on1c11 (',r,i1gccl o1 [t3,fl) bLrt \\,ithoLrt Hcphiristos, is plcstrrrruhlr trking prc-netal cirrc. l)iol vsos " scconcl birth'6orrr Zcus'thigh rvhcrc hc hrcl bt'cn scu,n b,v Zcus for tirll gcstariorr eftcr Scmclc's plclrlltlrrc dcliver \. nlxy be sh()wrl or1 thc l)iosphos l)linlcr's rlemc vesc [:72]. [le:e thc yorrrrrl god strnds on his 1lp holcling torchcs ard is hailed xs 'light of Zcus' - l)ios plros, btLr sonlc scc yoLlrlg I lcphaistos hcrc. For ZcLts' lnronrs rvc hevc to l,eir tt: : cd flqutc, which cxpllins r latc b]:rck figurc pursuit of(irrttyrrtdl (l yourh with r c()ck), but Errr,r)pd is sccn orr sotrrc lrtc vxscs riding thc Zctrs bull [:14] not to bc confuscd with the mlenad u,lro is sccn siruiltrll,

tl)c t\\,o



The Gods Thc ()lynrpien dcirics;u_o sccn vcry ficqucntlv ou black figurc vilscs: llot oftcn rs protrgorlists ill lllyth, but xs supportirrg fillrlrcs to hcrocs or in thcir orvn right with no lction invoivcd. As individual patrorr dcitics oftorvns thcy hed a morc irlportant furcrior il thc living rcliqion of(lrcccc tharr hclocs likc llcreklcs or ThcscrLs, lrd it rcqtLircd rrorc ingcnuiry on thc prrr of rhc epic poets :rnd thcir lollorvcrs to iltcgratc rhcnt iu rhc schcntc of rlryth history. 13ur rhcir :rttribrrtcs erd scperltc ftrnctions as ' cc1r.rrl ' m enrbcrs ofl firnrily ratlrer thal individuel loc:rl dcitics h;rd alrcady bccn clcfilcd in sonq rnd litcrrtlrrc by thc cighth ccntury aud this is the spilit of rhc v:rsc rcprcscrltrltioDs, :rt sorl)c rcnlovc iionr cortcnr1rollly rcligious pracricc end rcflcctirrq r-:lthcr thcir rolc in nyth history. We look irt thcrn first scprr:rtcly, \\,ith solrlc n)),!hs in wJrich thcy tlkc thc lced, thcn as:r fenrii_v, rr holrc arld il b;rtdc; but chcy will rccur oftclr in scenes dcscribcd in l:rtcr scctions of this

thc nlaDv dtildrctt o.l Nnr/rr l6ol, rvho had borstcd of hcr supcrlo[ity to l nrothcr oflrlcrc ru,iDs, aDd nlctiDq out tlrc s;r1]rc trcltrucnt to thc giaDr Jir),o-r, rvho tricd ro cerry oil Lcto. Tityos is shot in the birck, ancl orlcc showrr hrir). likt'u sutvr, rn indiclcior ofhis holrid rletulc. Lct() st:tnds bctwccrl rcscucr_s

Apirr.r-o is uslrally bcalcllcss It91, :t4; but r4o], dresscd rncl nrrv holcl r a lrrLrcl br:rnch or a kithrrr. His silrlatulry rDey bc ilrdic:rrcd b1 e tripocl (I)clphi) and hc is olcc shown ridirle x t: ipod ovc: thc sca, or by rhc peirrr trcc (Dc1os) rvhich supportcd Lcto whiic shc borc him ancl his sistr'r Artcrnis- C)l two l:rtc vxscs hc drarvs l bor,r, agair)st the sclpcnt Pllro- [Ic lcts oiicrr rvit]r Artclris or ferrril1, efleirs. ():r Tt,rrlrcniau vascs thcy itl c scdr shooting dowrl


159]. Tir_vos'


is secn

or fi't later blrck figurc vascs. Wc sllall

havc to rctunr to Apollo's l)clphic dispLrtcs u,ith Hcrtklcs.

Hnirurs is bceldcd and, in his rolc of rllesscngcl ilr1d hcrilcl, is rlsu:llly

drcsscd for trilvcl with x short chit(nl xncl chhrnys, as or1 [io-r, r-i7], sonlctinrcs rvith rn lllillll skil or top, but in a fc'rv scencs belorc thc nricl ccncurv hc u,cars a lorrg chiton (l6"zl, rvhcrc hc idcntilics hinrsclfas ofKyllcnc). His sun hrt (pctesos) lus r widc brinr end sornctirDcs :L hieh colricel crowD with tlrc brirr ttrrncd up rt thc beck, Robin IIood stylc, as on l t o 7, t 5 4. t, : z6l. Hc is bootcd ard cxrrics :r hcrald stlll'(Lcrykcion, cedr.rcclrs) \\,ith thc opcl) 8shrpcd tcrnriurl rvhich is only lttcr styliscd as cntwillcd srrxkcs. His hxt ancl thL' tongucs of his boots mry bc' wingcd, end orcc or rrvicc hc is wingcci hilrsclf I r 4o ]- Hc is sornctirn cs eccornplnic'd by a dog, ranr or golt, u1d r11ry evcn riclc thc llst trvo. His orly rcgulrr follor'virg is a group ofuranphs [,u r.9]. (icncmlly his firnction is to lttcrd divinc end hcroic sccncs, n()t to beconrc involved, ancl ls a rcstrlt hc is probabll, rcplcscntcd xs oftcn xs lry major dcity cxccpt Athcrla erld L)ionysos. 13ut hc tlkcs ]n activc p;rlt with Kcrircros whcD Hcraklcs llas to fctch thc rlroustcr lronr th c urrdcrrvorld { r 6 ; ], end som cri nr cs h:rs to holcl Plris to lris Jrrclgenlent. As;r b:Lby hc stolc,42ol/rr'r rrrtrfu'and is

Zrus, in conurorr rvidr thc othcr rlr:rturc rn:lle dcilics, is usulllv shorvn bieck figurc drcsscd, :rJthorrgh iltcr he genctall,v irppclrs nrkcd, or ncarly so. His plincipal xttributc aDd wcrpon is :l thLrndcrbol!, styliscd lroot a selecrion ofspikcs, winss rncl florlls, es on l6:, .to6l, but hc mly holcl a finc sccpt[c lik.'a kiug, and his thronc is ot'tcn r vcrl cllborttc piccc of fumiturcHis cagJc is not often sccu. llc is sc:rrcd ktr tbc Birth oJ Athud, u,lto spnngs fully rrrncd frorn his hcad, ard u,ho eppc:Lrs crncrqing frorr it irr scvcrll sccr)cs lronl :lbolrt 165 orr | 6.u, l zj. r I and sttnclinq on his lap I r 75] liorn about JJo on. Hc 1l1ty rceistcr surprise or pain at hcr appcer:urcc., arrd Hcplrlisrus rs often showll stitl-tirlg away frorn hirn, shouldcring thc axc with rvhich lrc has just dclivcrccl his sistcr goddess. Orlc or two womcrl [6?l lnly ltrcnd ZcUs


sllo\\,1 is lD rdult u,ith r lrcld ofbulls on x Tyrrhcniirtl alllphorr x11d litc vilscs I.ud2]. His slel.irg of ,,1r1os, rvho hacl bccn sct to r",,,atch lo, trenslltcd by Hcre into e cow, is llother-r'ali6. iu black fignrc. Argos is showu as a tu<rficcd urln, lvhilc Io end Hcre arc in thc pictrrrc too Iio7].


I)rrNysos, qo<l ol '.rinc, is bcardcd, firll_v dressccl xncl usr.rrll) hcevily \\rcrrlllcLl \\ith ,.irrr'or ivr.:rrcl holdiDL x cup (lrorDrxll,v il kiulthrlos or' drirrkrrg horr), err,-1 sonlctinlcs r vinc lcndril. His ship u,ith thc virlc rlrlst on Exckias' fiurous cup { r o4-31 problbiy rc'lirs to his cncourrrcr s,ith rfrc pir:rtcs whorrr hc tornccl irto dolphirs. Othclrvisc hc rir-lcs a donkey or trxvcls b,v chllior [-2.1-2, -256], oltcn u,ith a u,ornan, bridc (Ari;rc1nc) or ruothcr (Scurclc), Ittcl since he \vrs ir conlplrrltivc ncwconlcr to ()lyrnpus rhcsc scenes u,hich bcgin lborrt thc nrid ccllturv, 11rey rllrrdc to his errivrl thcrc. Most co111nlonly hc stelds, sits or rccl;rcs [,2;,s] (iatc) oftcrr rvirh a consort [(ti, ,7i], plxcidly, ufiilc his tloop of s:ltvrs xld rl)lclxds clilrcc or plil)' rbolLr hinr, ancl on rhc A:rresis ['aintcr's vascs hc witcl]cs his sutyrs lt thc vintilac lEgl. 1-hc rrost inrporterrr f)ion),siuc pr-occssloD was rhe one thet cscortcd thc dr-unkcu Hcpluistos brck to Olyrlpus- Thc Frlrgois V;rsc givcs thc carlicst and ftrllcst vcrsiorr [,16.7] ofrhc Rrr/r,r ttl lfuphaistos rvith thc qocls rttcndr[g, urd rvith Hcre pirrrcd to hcr thronc wlit;rg to bc rclcrscd b_v Hcph:risros rvho hed prcpalcd thc trrp lor hcr bcforc Zcus c:lst hirrr fi orrr ()lyrupLLs. Fronl thc qht Dionysos end his follorvcrs cscort thc god whosc rclucturlcc had been ovcrcollrc by r'r,inc. This is thc prototyl'rc for nr:rny hrcr lcss cxplicit proccssiors whcrc thc gods in arc ornittcd [65]. Dionysos' facrng hclcl or nlsk lbnls thc ccntrc piccc olr a nunrbcl ofvascs li 7.91, end hc rud Atircnl lrc rhc ouly C)lyurpiarls $'hosc Norship wxs rl xll oftcr) sho\\,D in Athenian bhck figure l:,171: Athcnl as city godclcss, l)iorysos probebiy bccltrsc'ofthc lirnction ofso n)xn)r ofthc vxscs irrvoivcd. Orr rhe Frlnqois Vasc HEpHAIsros is bcrrdcd, fully drcsscd, his ]:rrncncss shorvn b1 a nvistcd foot [46.7]. As cr:rftsrr:tn god his rrtriblrtc is cornnronl)'a cloublc rvoocl axc, cspccillll, in rction sccncs, es et thc birth of Arhc

bib, its ctrrll,cclgcs sr,vlisccl lilc srr;rlcs l-97, 1ot.zl.l)rrr not rrsLrell\.bcerrnq thc gorgoncion conrnrorrlv shorvrr lutcr- l::71. Hcr on,1 scldo:l appcrrs, :rrd o:r rr fiu llrtc vlrscs shc is sho,,vrr lr'ingcd l?:o7l t trrit leerncd fronr lnst (ircccc- Ap:rrt fronr hcr birrh, rl:circlr.consiclcrcd, hcr- tppcerarrce in bleck figurc is trsLr;rl1y in hcr rolc as piltr-or ofhcr()cs ofHc[aklcs rncl to r lcsser
clcgrcc of1)crsc'us. Ii,v thc nricl ccrrrurl,lrcr:rssocietion rvirh a cherior mey hevc


()r1 thc

lrtt'r v:lscsishc giver slrortcr lvorkire drcssand tongs

r'vhich rcfcr llror-c dircctly ro his rolc es snrith.

Tht' scl god l)osr:IDoN lllilrlcs littlc, looking likc Zcus bur holcling a triclcnt I r o-; /r,/i, t t z, l4ol, a fish or ;r dolphin. Thc 6glrrc with a tridcnt ridiuq l horsc lislr (not r rruc sL'x-horsc) oD liltc vilscs lz5ol nright bc PoscidoD, Nereus ot lrnothel rttlliuc porvct. Anls, in thc I{,r,knos elirir (scc urrdcr Hcreklcs) or fighting gients is sinrply a hoplitc lvlrrior. Or ()lvrrrpus hc rves rirthcr;n oLltsidcr xnd his positioll u1
FrarrCois Vasc sccuc of thc return of Hcph;ristos [46.7 /rli] indicatcs his iiilure ro rchicvc bl forcc rvhat Dionysos had acJricvcd b,v r'r,inc. Of thc gocldcsscs AtrrrN.t is nrturllly thc most pog'r.rier. Shc docs not rctnlarl,v appcar arrnccl bcforc thc sccord qulrtcr oftlrc sixth cclltr-lry spcarr onl)r on 194] lnd in thc Judgenrent [-]B]. Hcr helrrct is ofthc Attic vrriery. ottcn in its 1l1ost sunrnl:lry lorrr a mere cap to slrpport a high crcst [-t35]. Shc r'r,cers e pcplos :rncl, cspccillly on P:truthcnaic vlscs Ir15.r l, e ktrcc-or crlfllcngtlr ovcr-garDreDt lrJJ, tj9, t6z, zzj] (cpcnd,vtcs) sornctinrcs opcn et rhc siclcs. Thc Acgis, n scllv uilgic uont skin givcn hcr by Zcus, is u.orn likc a


bccn c'stirblished bl thc sccnc of Hc'raklc's' Lrtrodrrction to Ol-vrrrprrs (scc bclow) but is uscd eqein letcr in sisrutomrchies [:.!4]. It is intcrcsting to norice how thc Aulrsis Plirrtcr sccnrs to insist on :r lriendly relltionship rvith Poscidon, rvhilc Cllssicel ar r du,clls or thcir strugglc ftrr posscssion ofAthcns, :rs in dre ['artht':rorr pccliorcntHrRa is qivcrl no spccill rrtlibutc's in Athcniiin bllck figurc c'xccp! lor xn occ:rsionrl lincr cLou.:r uDcl sccFtrc. Shc is rttlckcd b), sltt,rs on e vasc of lror.rnd 54o au cvcnt rcclllccl iu rccl ligurc b,v thc llrygos l):rrrtcr. ApHRorrrE, rhc third of drc soddcsscs in thc Jtrdgment of Paris, is htrdl,v bcttcr scrvcd. As ;7o shc is sho\\,n witl) Elos ill hcr arns, blr! Erar i\ to bc thc deriilg of rcd tigulc not black figurc'. Arllurs is nrorc iutcrcsrilg to thc icono!jraphcr. In thc scvcnth ccnturv shc had bccn shou,n as r Mistrcss ofAnrnrals, oltcn rvingcd, Iiolding onc or lrvo bcasts, usr.rrlly lions. Shc appcers thus o11 thc Friulqois Vrsc hrucllcs [4 6.2 ] lnd :r fc'w othcr Athcnian v:rscs, but not much rfter the nricl ccntntv; ltst o:r t lckythos b,v thc Aruasis Pailtcr. In nr),th shc is idcntificcl b,v hcr bou, or clccr end eppcrrs oftcr in support ofher brother Apollo [59, 6o]. Shc causcd thc huntcr,4trrrirrl to bc torn b,v his dogs for rn ofli'ncc v:rriousl,v spccificd il ;rnticluit,v (bo:rstirg, lrrstine or vicr,vinq hcr- nakcd) and lre srrflcls this fltc llonc, orr occ:rsiorrll vascs l.z5 t] t'ror:r rborLt 56o on. Ints carrit's r likc Hcrnrcs. Or thc Frangois Vesc shc is $,ingless, but latcr usualJy rvingccl, erd on sonrc Ixtc vilscs shc xrtcDds Hcctor's drr!llirnq rouncl thc rvalls ofTrov. Thc Diosphos l)lirtcr has hcr clrryine e Jcttcr end on r letc'cup shc appcars u,ith sat)'rs, rccalling thc asslrlt on Hcr:r (scc ebovc). l)lr,rrrrn enrl hcr diLlqhtcr PLrrsEpnoNr. clrr'y torchcs or cers ofconr, btrt rhcy:rre inlrcquent on Athcnian bllck figurc. Thcrc arc, horvcvcr, occilsion:ll picttrrcs of thcir rrlrlc prr-tncr ilt Elculis, 'l t'iprolut:rts, scatcd il his u,hcclcd rhronc Ii 4 6] (soou to becomc r wingcd ch:uiot ir (lrcck :rrt) md holding cers ofcom on his mission to ciny thc blcssxrlls oflgriculturc to cilth. Thc gods actirrg rrrcl 6ghtiug rogcthcr as l firmily proviclc nrlny, inrpor tant black fignr c teblcrux. Mosr dcitics, cvcn I)cmctcr, rnly bc sccrr r,vith r chlr i,r

supposc drcm to bc ol1 thcil wlly to ar1 Olyrrrpiln colrrrcil, or prcp:lrirrg tbr thet orher qrcrt nruster ofthc qocls at thc u,cclding ofPclcus and Thctis. Thc gocls sit togcrhcr ro grcct thc rcrrr r'rl ofl lcph aisto s on thc Frln qois Vesc l 4 6. Tl and oftcn latcr lor no spcciflcd occesion. Morc often they stnucl, convcrsc, oL lrccollrpirlly c:rch othcr's chuliots lro-3, tt2, tlo, 15j, tg3l. Tlrerc lrc sonrc



c\ \\'lr iclr utc c;rsily cxplicablc: Artcmis end Apollo, Zeus ;rntl bcr'llin I lcrrrrcs I r 5 51, Athcne rnd rhc r1cwly promorcd Henklcs. 'lll bntlt ol tll ladr arrrl.qi,:ar-r:rppcnts lirsr ot Arhctian vrscs in rhc 56os and thc lincsr sccucs ofthc nlass ltcti()r) :lrc carly on li-xgllclrtxr\, vrscs 6-0rlr the Acropolis iry Ncalchos, L,vdos 164 | end othcrs. On liucr- vrsas the actorl atoluld ZL'us' che ot! ol sepal.atc cncoLrnter s occasiolally groupccl in tr,vos orl \,! (rs, )rn

p()pu lx r


l:is ch;r


thrccs erc prcferrccl. Itisthccallysr:crrcsu,lrichcourecloscsttotilcspirjtofthc

ryprcciably )atcr (:rbout 5-:5), and on rhcsc onll,is (ic, thc clrth nrothcr, \ccn suppliceting Zc'us tir hcr qiant childrcn. Thc qiltts urc drcsscd rnd fight:rs

finc stonc rclicf friczc frorn thc' Siphriarl trcxsrry ar Dclphi rvhich but;r 1lw


whcclir)q chat.iirr hcrrcll rid rns d.rl r r -r gi.rrrt. Th e sccrc Hcr-aklcs stands bcsidc hcr l:d41. Hc,r spccirl edvcrsarv is Enkclados I t z tl. Zc,as is scldorn shorvn i:r arnrour. Hc rvields ;r rhunclcr bolt es hc nlourlts his chariot, or, hrcr, fights oll fbor. Hcrrlrcs is solllctirltcs i11 tu morrr, btrt rrrcly fights itr I scp:rrate dUcl, whilc Arcs appclls ls an ordinlry rvarrior. Poscidon is arrncd oniy irr thc cerl1, scqnc5 tru; i5 1116li1 oficn nakccl or lishtly <lrcsscd. He fiehts witli his tridcnt, rercly a spcer, encl his spccirl contritrutiol is to crursh rhc gia:rt polybotcs wirit en c,nornrous rock, brokcn fronr thc islerrd of Kos which, whcn ir [:ri]s, u,ill beconrc thc island Nisyros. Apolio end Artcnris rarely fighr, with bows. L)ionyros, wrcarhcd xnd wllppcd il rn aninlill skirl, fights r,vith spclr ald shield and is hclpcd by liols. Hcphaistos, on lu Acropolis vasc, plics thc sacks ofhis bcllor,vs to heat tirc $,hich he will hrrrl at titc giar)ts, as on thc Siphnien trc:rsrrry friczc, but hc is not to bc lookcd for in thc later vcrsioDs. Hcra dons hclmct and sl-ricld and fiehts rvitir vigour by hcr cousort's sidc. A good cxarnplc givitg nrosr of rhc sccncs is [154] whcrc our il]ustririons shorv il acri<;l Hcrmcs, Hcra and l)io:rysos wc;l r1g an lnimel skin and helpcd by a snakc aud iions; thcr a sod in a chlriot and a goddcss (not shown) ; finllly poscidon, aDother goddcss, lnd AtheDl i hcr chariot. The whole spirit ofthese sccnes oftlrc Olyrupi:rns rs a farrrily is l new onc
shc is sccn hanclling a

ccntrc piecc is gencrelly Zcus'chrriot, wirh Athc,:ra fighcrng bcsidc it ard Hcrlklcs uporr it, u,itlr onc foot on riru ch.,r r.r pt,lr. f.l1 in{ h ri b,,rr,, \^ hicir is hisonly r,r,c:rpon in this ectioD {.206]. HcrJkles rnrcr\ iJnrr.,n .r rhc srdrofthc gocls rvas dccisivc alrd Athena natumlly kccps closc,. Ou nrlnv vescs altcr 53o
is thcD en isolarcci

h:rvc sctly cor-sclcts arld \or1le tllro\\r rt.irrr"r. Tlr.

oIc, but oncc

origil r PcloPorr lr c\iir rl hcro, bcclttrc tltc tttost PoPLllar rlrydlological figurc orr Athcniau blrck Iigurc vxscs Probirl)ly bccausc his petroncss \\'ls Athcrle \\,ho was goddcss lncl is rcgrtlarll' shou.n rvith hinr. TJre rssociatior l)l:ly have bccn cxploitcd politictlly llso and Pcisisoatos, thc Athcuiln tyrert, rcturncd 6onl his sccond e\ilc with x chxrlde rccilllirtg tlothing mor-c thlln Athcra's inttocluctiorl ofHcraklcs to C)l)'rr rPos by char i()t. Thcseus' cvcntuel chellcngc to his populerity in Athcrriel xrt llso had its political oveltorlcs. On thc vlscs hc is :r bcl-deci figrtrc, oflerr wcxring his liou skin t ith thc prrvs knottcd rcross his chcst rnd usually with irs mesk as his cap. Thc skitl nrel bc hcld ur b,v r bc1t, or-, lltcr, fly lrcc likc- :r capc lz-u 81. Bcnc:rth urly bc :r short tunic or chitorr. Hc is oltcn whollv rrekcd, rerely drcsscd es a htlplitc and rrcvcr heLuctccl. I lis usurl wcxpon is r clLrb ftrot belorc abortt l70 on Arhenl.Ln v:rscs) bou or-sword, Irol x sPcrr (but rlotc 16.91). As en archcr hc nrr,v :tPpc'ar ill Scvthien drcss LIrt not \\,ith r Scythi]n crp. Thcrc lrc rilrc cxlllnPlcs of rl bc:rldless Hcluklcs aftcr 5:o, bccomirrg corllrllol)cr irr thc filth ccnturl'. Athcru is vcry oircn shou,n hclping or cncouragirill him Thc onll othcr rcguhr attcndlnt frgLrrc is Iolros, his chrriotccr, wlro rttly bc weitiDg rvith thc chu iot, holdirg Hcreklcs' usclcss rvcapoDs whilc hc wrcsllcs with thc lion, o:' sinrply'lvetching Ir9.z, tg7]. Hisonlvictivcltclp is:rgilinstrhcHyclr:r. Mostof
LJcraklcs, by

Eurysthcus of MyceDae. Thcy eppcer' 6rst iu Adrcrrien black 6gtLrc il thc sccoDd quxrtcr of thc sixth ccDlurv, but thc cxnonic T\vclvc Lebours of thc Chssicrl pcriod rncl latcr lvcrc nor l1l cquall)' Poptrlar in ctl licr cl:r,vs. Most of thc othcr Hcreklcs sccrlc! lrc rlso rro cerlic'r thln thc scconcl qullrlcr of dlc ccntLlrv c\ccPr lor sonrc involvi]lg Ncssos, othcr cclltrurs, Nclctts etrcl

thc sccncs lrc of violcn! :Lctidl elrd involvc thc Lebours sct bl King

!Vc trkc thc LxboLrls filst. .lJrl N'crttratl 1-rorr rvas invr.rlncreblc ro ordinarv werpolls- Frorr lhc nlid ccrlttlly orl Hcreklcs sotllctilllcs tlkcs a sword to it, ollcc lli\ bcnt s\'\,ord is shou,n, and oltcn his usclcss wcepons rrc hurtg up, laicl rsidc or hclcl by Iolaos who is cor)rn)oll,v ;r xttenchncc. Slalrditrcl sclrerlrcs t'br thc fight elc rs follor,vs:
(.r) thc

Lion Icxrs Llp:lgtiDst Hcleklcs \\,ho thrc]tcrls it, grasps a pl\\', rlrlror.gltlorrgt.rrrrrlr.tirrrhcH,,rtrL.rrcpocrrrr. flrc.,crre,l,cErrr to appcar abour drc tirne ofdrc'rcorglnisation ofthc paD.rtheDaic Festival in



it rt


566. This possibly involvcd Honreric recirals or conrpctitions, and rhe pcplos robc' brought ro Athcna on thc Acropoiis et thc Crcrt panetheruia was crnbroidcrccl with scencs lio[r thc war with the (]iants_ Thc vasc sccnes which beiong to thc cxrly years ofrhc rcorganiscd festival, ancl werc rnany of them dcdicated on the Acropolis, surcly rct'i-r to it.

Hcr':rklcs' lrrrrs rloLlnd rhe Lion's ncck arrd thc Lio:t solllctirnes cla\virr'j llcraklcs'lcg l97l; (c) rs thc hst bul with thc Lion's hcad turncd en'rv; (d) with botlr bodics going right, thc Lion bc,vond Hcrrklcs I91l; (c) rvrcstlilrg o1r tbe qrourlcl, Hcrlklcs kncclrrtg with his arnls iuotuld lhc Lion's ucck, rhcir boclies cxtcnded i:r oppositc dirccrions, or (t) iu thc s.tnlc dirccti,,rr; (r) Hcllklcs krccls end throrvs drc Lion forlr,ard ovcr his shoulder (vcry r1[c).

[rEgl; (b) r steDding fight with thc

r:t1 lDav boclies crosrirrg.


'1'lrc l:rst

thlr'r'rrl thcsr'r'crsions llrc sccn r)D1\'ri'tel ebout ijo. All !hcsc groops rcscnri)1. ordirrrr'\ \\rc\tliDq tllrows o: holc1s. Thc rrlists oac:lsi(rrrllv sho\' tltc hcro rvc.rlirrrl l llon skin, firrgcttirg th;rt hc lcrluirccl it firrur rhis vcrl Lion. ()ncc hc is slro\\rr qLrttinq llie crcrtur-c.'l'his is rhc nrost poptrler ofrJl thc Lebotrrs

krorvr l

lnd ucll ovcl fivc hundrcd bl:rck figLrrc rcplcsclrtlttiol\ .llc pcrllrps nror'e thilrl rhosc of :rll rhc othcr Lebours put togcthcr.

71rr' Hydra hls lrorr trvo to ninc (usu:rliy ninc) snekc hcrds cnlclging li or plurrrp, coilccl bod\,, sorrrclirrrcs r,vith I tbrLcd t:til, likc r nrirssivc shcll-lcss sDlil. Hcr-rklcs usLlxlll :rtt:rcks r,vith l srvord, soltrctitl)cs rvirh e sicklc (herpc) :rDcl is olrcn hclpcd br. Iollos. Thc AthcrirD ar-tist scldorrr adrlrits thc cr;rb, scnr br Hcr:l to ctclrtc ir clivclsion by nippilg Hcr_eklcs'lrcci, ol Iolilos'tolch u,ith $hich Ilc sc:rls thc scvcrccl uccks, or thc rvlitirrg chlriot, lvltich.trc olicrr

Hclmcs mrv bc shou.n couxing thc rr()nst(r', lrLl l)crscpltouc u,utchinq. Ircu, letc sce:rcs sbor,r, Hcnklcs' lc(lri\iri()rr of drc ,4pplr,r o/ tirl Ht-rpt,rirlr,-r, cirlrcl ,iuppoltirls thc hcevcns uhilc Arles li'tchcs thc litrit Iz5z], :rs or) rhc f.ulroUr ()lt,nrpil rnctopc, or hinrsclf lrt:rckirg thc st'rptrtt coilcd :rrorrrtrl thc trcc [2.i3]- ()n his u rr. u'cst hc nrc't Flli()-r (thc Surl) rnd :r fell' 1:rlc vnscs shorv thc confrontetior, Hclios ir Jris rvingccl cha:ior, olic'n frolt:rl [-z6o], lncl tlvo hrvc Hcreklcs seilins ir thc (loldcn llor"vl u,hich llclios providccl [:3:]. Thcrc erc no sccr)cs of thc cicxr)sirq of Au{c:rs' stlblcs. Hcraklcs' fighr egeinst thc.4rrra.'olr is gcncrrlly conducred es r rcguhr btttlc, :tncl chc hcro hls u,arriol contpltuio:rs u,ho oftcn turc ler lcss u,cll then hc- Hcllklcs'opporlcnt! oficu shorvn filling arvey fronr hirrr, is sonrctul)cs uilDrc(l Androrruchc l ;6l. Thc fight is sccond in poprrlrritl orl; to thc Lion rnd bcttcr rcplcscntcd th:ul nrost L;rtrorrrs in thc sccond cllrilrtcr of thc
1-or thc L:rbours, bLlt thcrL' rr'c subsicliar'l cpisodcs. To cliscovc: his routc to thc I lcspcriclcs I lcr uklcs qr appics r,r,ith Nlrlrr r, thc Olcl Mln of tlrc Sce. 'fhis is e sccDc cllr-r-cnt x1lcady in thc 6rst qrrlrtcr_ ofthc ccntlrr\'. Ncrcus h:rs t lturtrln lotcpatt arrcl long frshy bocl1, lrom ,,vhich brclk orit r[iulif'Lst.rtions ofhis skill rr lnr.rtilrion into srllkc, lion or' fir c. Hcrlklcs tLrrrrs his hcrd to obscrvc rhesc [16]. 13ciorc thc nricldlc ofthc ccrtrrrl thc r)utiltiorls clislppcxr, Hcraklcs lhccs lirrrverd, lnd thc rlonstcl sccrlls to hlvc cherrgcd iclcntity irnd is latc'r ne:ucd 'l ritott lzt 3). The poi:rt ofthis chirrgc rDiv hivc bccrl r nrrttcr oi polirical s,vmbolisrrr radlcr tiriul ln,vth()i()gy. On a fcrv llitc vuscs Ncrcus rcrppciLrs, but l,holly hunr:rn [-:o.z], u,ith flrc sterting fiom his bodv lncl enirrrrls eroLrnd, likc his dauehtcr Thctis nttcnrpti:rq ro fighr oli Pclctrs (scc

sho\'n irl rron-Athcllirn rrntrsuellv crplicit-

sccncs; thc lrlollstcr too is

nollll.rlly iurrcr. l'u7ol


acrtLu ),. So rrruch

Hcrrklcs cnptLrrcs thc l:r'ytnntltiat l3oal rvith his berr. h.rncls lnd rrrl,v bc sllou rr !l.rpplurq rvirh ir, lltiine ir, cerrf irg it o:r his shouldcr. or tr uudlirrq rr \\'hccl-l):rrrow leshior I r 661. Eurysthcrrs, obsc:ving his rturn, hicl ir I p.ut buriccl storlucjlr lncl L{cr:rklcs is oltcrr showri rboLlt to tip tlrc bol: i:r on top ofhinr {19:] thcon11 L:rborrr rvhich lc:rdsitsclfrohunrour-. 1hcc:rpLruris sho*,r brrcll bcfbrc rhc nriclcllc of thc ccntuly; thc confiont:rtion rvirh Ettryslhcrrs burclv bclbrc thc lesr cperrcr. 'l-lr Kcr),uiti,lt 1)r,tr,"r'as Ar-tcuris'bcest errcl hecl I golclcrr horn. licr.rklcs cxptLrres it rliv. l.:ogl ucl is oncc shor.r'rr brcrkinq oft its lrorr. Iloth Artenr: ;rrd Athcrrr rrrilv lttcrlcl (scc:rlso bc-lou rvith Apollo). Of his orhcr aninrel tlr.rlrrics thc St,r,nrphrli:rn Bircls erc rercl\ showD, rittrtckccl bv swor-d, bow or slirrr: [951. end rhc Thrrciln Horscs of Dionrcdc\:r]c its !c.rrcc lr7o.r]. oncc
to br^ blought brck lli,,,c, is fir morc conrruor, tlonr drc lticl ccntut y ou. Apnrr ironr sccrcs ofthc cirptlrrc, thc nrost clr:rrlctcr-istic clolrp, ofthc l.rtc pcliocl, shorvs thc BLrll brorrght to lrs knccs ltS+, :Z+l errd bcirg ticcl bv its nruzzlc, ,'-.,.rr,I .,.rr..r trr r. ..,.rrrr,.l.. Hcrlklcs'cucountcr $ith (l(,,),ori errd thcfi ofhis c.tttlc, wls onc ofthc ruorc cotrinroulv rcplcscrted Lrborrls- (lcrvor .rppcilrs ilr il triplc wrt-ri(rr, joirrcrl .rt thc $ilist, iuld Hcrlklcs:rdr':nrccs on hirrr u,ith bou, or club h:r,.rrrr1 :rlrc:rdy disp:rtchccl rvith rn rrrorv onc oi thc rhrcc Lrodics, rvltich is collepsinr 196 ]. C)thcr fisurcr sho\\ 11nl:rv bc thc skirr-c;rppcd hcr rltnrrn ELr ryu()l uho hes rlrcedv bcc[ stIUck dowD, his nronsrcr doq ()r'lhos, rvho:tltry bc
l-u 5

bclo rv).

shou n rvinqcd :urd ettecLccl u,ith


7l. Thc CrcreD


rvh ich h.rcl

Arrothcr cpisodc lssociltcd u,ith l Lrbour wxs thc fiqhr with rhc (,i,rrt,rrrsL)n his rver, 1br thc Ilo:rr hc pcr suedcs thc ccntaur l)/ro/os to opcr thc ccr)li1rlr s' corDtliunill rvincjlr to Jct hirtr cltiDk. Thcjar is sho$ n es e sunkcn pithos u ith

its sllb licl lcrlrovcd whilc Hcrlklcs rncl Pholos sterd by ol drc iieht lr97l. Ihc rLo:uu uttractccl thc othcr ccntrurs rvho :rtceck, ;rnd ur-c toutcd by Ilcreklcs, so wc hrvc n1a1ly sccr)cs with sinrply Hcrtklcs fightrnq _fhc ccltarrls I i.z.: ]. sinrplc ccntarrr fieht is shou D bcf'orc 6oo bu t ill sollt c litcr ccnt:tur'om:tcltics thc cclrltc-\t ol cvcrl thc idcnri|t, of e Hcr;rklcs lrirv bc
qLrcstionccl {9a, i r 7]. I'hc ccltaiu Pholos .^pisodcs bcgin ir drc 5t o'r'I hcrc arc othcr cncountcrs, lcss ()ttcl sholr,n : oncc' $ ith (i,ra-r, Olcl Aqc,

lwo-hc.lclcc1.,rncl tltc crrttlc.

Thc lrorrstcr is trsu.rllv shoun with tlo hclcls lucl sornctimcs u,ith sn:rk) c\crcsccnccs. Hcrrkles n.'eotiiltcd lris strrrcnclel lll.l clocs Dot hlvc to 6ght hinr, rnclelv to lced hirr, brrt lrc kccps his club rclclr',:rs \\,cll rs thc c|.rrn.

showl rs I \\'izcncd dwlrf; rvirh thc gilrrr,4rrt,lirr-r rvlth rvltonr hc wrc,itlcs IIgg]; rvith thc qilnr hcrclslllllrl .4/t)ro,rarr-r rvho is rrstL;rllr' slton,u rccLrrbcnt ol slcc'pine, holdinq a rurssivc club fzo5l r,vith rhc snrell u,rrllccl f-rgrrre of Hypnos (Slccp) pcrchcd or hirn end drc Clttlc of drc Sun, uiich hc ltrrcl stolcrr, nciLr bv; u.ith thc trvin robbcrs, Kr,r'Aopc-r, r,honr hc pursucs or', nrorc ofrcll, crrrics otl likc glnrc, sllspcrrdcd Llpsidc clo\\,n fionr ir polc ecr-oss his
shoultlcr' l:341, a position fiorn u,hich rhcy.libccl :rt his huirincss until hc fi ccd



thcrr);rnLl sh()()tir)g (lo\\,r thc lirtrily ofllarltos for rhcir doublc rlc:rling. For thc iight rvith li.ylrror, ulrich is morc popular, Herakles rna1, rvcur clir,lucly providcd rrrr)olrr (brrr ro hclntct) lnrl is often supportccl by Atlrcnl rvhilc I{vknos is hclpcd bv Arcs l-z:31. llirrclv our- hcro is fightine A rcs hirnsclf (as or1 thc KolchosJug [6dl) with K,vknos clclcl a1rcacly. Athcne or Zcus rrav bc
showl) scpxrxtirrg tLrc colrrbatants, aDd lxter Zcus' thllncicrbolt rlonc is shou,n

:rl\\':rvs I)e ()lynrpus. Hc rrrrrriccl rvcll.:rucl ir shol,r in a cirerior rvith rhc qoddcss Hcbc. Lr rhc lest qr.rertcr of thc ccntu r-r' hc is sh ot n ulonc u ith orlrcr

hovcring betu,c'en thcur. Br-rir/-r, en Esl,ptier king, slcriliccd ail foluign

visitors. but Hcreklcs turns thc tablcs on

rrrc (rLniquc?) ir Athcnil:r black fir:urc'll43l. Hcraklcs hld to light trorh ro rvin errd to kccp

hin ud

his Africar) steli-. Thc s.cnL is

l) lncl sclvcd b\ s.rtvrs, occlsion.lily hinrsclf conrribrrtirg !o thc rcvcis on thc pjpcs. His othcr lsvrcietiorr rvirh srtvrs orl bhck ligllrc is orr t\\ o littc vlscs rvhcrc hc is robbcd bv thcnr, :urcl lclcling tltcrr ils prisoncrs. Scenc's of hi:n s:rcrificing (et dlrvn on [:60], ls a victor lr;9]) or lc:rding r bull to srcrificc holdinq e burdlc of spirs lr67l prcsurr)ilblv Iclcr lo his lilc o:r c.rrthli'.rst

gods cspcciellv Athcn;r l:.761, u,ho conqrrtuhtc




hin rs hc rc.lincs


his briclc Dc-iuuin. Hc fiqhts thc rivcr god ,4rlrr,/oos, rvho is like r centaur but wirh :r bull's bod,v, or, rarcly, shown islr human hcadcd bull. Thc crclturc's horn is ofrcn grrspcd l-:oEl, btrt not, in bl:rck frgurc, brokcr o1l ls it should bc in rhc stor\.. Thc ccrrrlLrr rV'JJo-r tricd to rlpc Dcirnir a hlving fi'rriccl hcr lrcloss a rivcr'. Hcr:rklcs kiils hinr u.irh srvord, rrrorv or cluLr. In thcsc cpisodcs l)ciarire hcrsclfrnl,, stlucl to Nxtch, is irr Ncssos'illn1s, on his buck [7g], or is omitrcd. Hc'rlk['s rncl Ncssos eppcrr ir bleck ftgulc llrclcly bclirrc 6oo on thc Ncssos Piintcr's narlrc vtsc [5.-r ]. Thc sill Hcsiorlc hls llso to be rescucd, b1, killing l sc:r nronstcr, .rr,d tlruru L,t. .,.r'.', ol H, r.rLt,.., rrl(rrr- it\ r.,pinr j.,rr.. ln \ r,l ,.ul rr\

Theseus and other heroes (lrcfln :rdvcnttrrc ofThcscrrs figtrrcs irttportlrlth, i Athcrliitn blrck figurc, r.r'irh thc sh liug of thc Miroterrr lnd thc vicrory d:rnca- Thc lxrtcr wrs sholvn b,r'l(lcitils oncc oD thc Frlur(_ois Vrsc *.hcrc thc ship cornine to picl



nlc two spcciel crlcourtcrs n,irh Apollo in rvhich the,v disputc ofcitircr ,4 pollo's tripol or a der, rvhich nrrl bc tlkol ro bc Apolio's :rninrr1, or his sistcr Artcrnis'. []oth Artclllis alld Athcne xrc usuallv shorvu rrr



up thc girls rr)d vouthr rcscucd bv TltcscLrs is elso scct 146.,r1.'l-hcscus hcrc lclds or thc ly rc lrrrl is a bcrlclcd, scrtclr' lirarrr-c. This is lrorv hc ls shourr br Erckirs (on e h-eqnrcrrt) uho rlso p:rirts l cluict sccnc ofhis sons t,ith tltcit holscs. llesidc Thcscltr at thc dilcc oll thc' FlilDc-ois Vesc strrtrls Arildnc. holdine thc skcrr of rhrc:rd r,,hich h.rd lcd hirn through thc l:rbvrirrth lncl a
wr'cxth, xnd t() hcr siclc hcr nrrrsc. Ari.tclnc rncl nursc :tlso lrtclcl thc s1l1,ing of rhc ,llirrorirrrr on thc sisncd brnti cup bv Archiklcs .rnd (iirukirL's lr r6..u ], whcrc Athcllx \1,rits u,ith thc lyr c rrd voung Athcllirlns \iltch thc cn(1)Lllltcru hich shouid h:rvc tlkcn phcc oLrr ofthei: siqht ir thc isollrcd rcccsscs ofdrc I:rbl rin tlr. Thcr , or lcpr-cscl)trtivct, l c shou n in olh cr clcpictions o fthc frlaht, \\,hich \virs vcr-\ populrr fiolr itbollt .i60 on. Thc ltonstcr hrs :t hLnlel bodr., soDrctin)cs hairr,, rlith :r bLrll's hcllcl e d t:ril rrtd nte\' bl-il riish lr stol]cThcscus, bcrrdlcss, rttrcks \\.ith a srvold. holclirg thc bclst's horn, r.r,r.ists or rrcck. Thc c()nlnr()ncst scl)cllrcs huvc thc ruunilg tiolr hlnt, or ullLpplccl lncl uith its irced turncd towerds or aull,frolr hirtr. OD vcry lrrc vascs thc nloDstcr hrs fillctr to tltc rrtounrl bcillg dritrlgccl liont fltc lebvtirrrh in rhc rcd flgut c :rurncr-- Thcscus usuJll\' \\'cirrs :r short chiton, u.irlr :ur lrrimtl skiu on thc crrp citccl, but on vascs oflround 54o bl,Lvclos {66-:l lttcl l compllion, hc ucirrs rvlrrt rntrsl hilvc Lrccrr r-ccoqniscd as r C)-ct:rn loin cloth,lnd in sonrc ofthcsc sccncs his cloak lics foldcd ovcr.t storlc. Of lris.rnrouts, thc rlpc of Hclen hls bccn suspcctcci in sccncs rvith n,, cr YoLlths accostiDrl ii woll):lt1 (Antesis I)lintcr) or trki g hcr to I chlrr.,r (Lersros Cilorrp), but drc Anrlzon QLrccn,4r,r/()l)t' i\ idcrti6:rblc bv hcr.drc\s rld oucc br inscription. Shc too is clrricd to I chrriot, t\viac \\'jth Posciclon ill)ctting ol1 Lcrirrirl vitscs l.:ool. Thcscrrs is nuntccl otr thc Frenr.ois V.tsc ccntlurorrrrchr', hclpirrq Pcilirhoos:rncl thc L:rpiths, but rot in othcrs. Lr thc sirth cclltllr_\ AtltcDx is or l]tuch lntcrcslccl in thc hct-o rvho rs rLr bccorttc hcr citt,'s hcro prr cxccilcrrcc. His Dc\\. st:rtu\ is l)irrdh, lchicvccl

sr.rpporc, encl thc plotxgolrists eithcr' ftcc cech othcr rvith thc prizc trctwccn thcnr, or Hcreklcs lrolds it bcncath hls ernr rnd Apollo fbllou,s ro \\,riJ\r rt lroru hinr ltE,l, 22t. j2o; tq1). -lhe tripod sccnc is corltlotrcr ltrd ln;r\, htvc

hcld sonrc syrubolic signilicaucc in Dclphi :rfrcr thc First Slcrcd \Var. 1)rorrlr,//rcr.r-r, bourrcl lnd inrpllccl on e stake, is frced by Hcr:rklcs who shoots doun Zcus'clglc u,hich contc\ diil).to cilt Pronlcthcus' livcr. Tlrc sccnc :rppcilrs llrcxdy by 6oo [6.2], rnd on a 1i.\\,Tyrlhcnian vescs. I Icreklcs' only qui.t orolrlcrlts in blrck figurc erc rvirh lris pltrot or lt Jris :rporlrcosis. His IttrLtdrrctiort rtt ()l),npus js efc'ctcd b,v Athcne rvho lcecls hirl bclirrc Zcus. C)thcr gods nr:Ly be in attcuclrrucc, notrblv Hcrnrcs rvlro cer lcacl thc proccssion es ushcr lr.u3.zl. A liw carlv sccncs show his rpproech bv chirrio!, but Athcnu hcrsclftakcs thc rcins only iiorn !hc 55o's ol lnd cithcr flglrlc lrrav bc shour nrountinq ol disnronntcd lr6E]. Iol:ros is sornctrrrcr rrr)cxpcctcclly ptcscrlt, rrsu:t1l) es cheriofccr. C)thcr gods rrray accomplnv thc proccssion, copicd oI rDspirccl b1. l)cisistraros' rcturn to Athcrrs lr]d lhc Acropolis irr thc earlr'51o's (Ilcrodotus i 6o). Soructinrcs thc herncssing r' shorvr, errd with i scttillg of c()hul)ns u.hich suqgcsts thc Acropolis rtsclf[22J1. L)n L)lylrpus Ir5-il Hcrlklcs plavs t]rc irtcllcctuel, cnrcrtrinin,j rvith thc lvrc or kithar':r, aDCl nlilv xpperr rllolmlinlr e pletlbrrn (bcrre) to pcrfbrnr ll65l, but orcc ;r bLrrrirg lltlf is shorvn, so thc scttillg nrilv not 2)4


bcftrrc ;rboLrt .,ro. rvhich sccs thc cDd of Pcisistr.rrirl r.rrlc lr Athcns. Ihcn Thc-scus c:ploits on thc ro;rcl tl-onr Troczcn to Arhcns Lrcgin to rrppcer-olicn orr \ilscs, cspccirllv rcll figurc, bLrt drc Thcscus P:rintcl shorvs him u,ith .Prrrr.r.rrr/r,r (lopplrrg hirr). Sirrr-r (prcprrlrq to strctch hinr ou his pil)c trcc) ;rr11 S(ilr,r (toppling lrirrr) f-u;-s l. Hc is irlso non sccr biurline rhc ,\.lat.ttltnlidit Bulll24)lt1.l
thc schcnrc used b,v I lcr'.rklcs rvith thc
Yrsc sho\\'irrs.t uirkcd bc hc.

Athcnlan bleck 6gure artists, but tlrc Ncssos I)airltcr in his cerlicst deys (rs tlre




cr:rr bcrst. brrt thcrc is :r nrid-ccrrtury Lrrrll ,,,"ith ir suord (?) lrtl rlris rrright rhc

l)rr' rvooing of


srrng in thc Epic Trojun c)clc (icc l)clo\\,)- C)ihis clr.licr Drisrdrcrtulcs orrc. \\]tcrc hc uls trccrl, bY l /irrir tl n badr.ltIpc.lrs orr rwo lltc vuscs l:.;ol on onc ofrvhich his rcscucr- thc ccDtilur (lhirorr is .rlso shorl,n. H c n lcstlcs rvith th (. sp()r ts\\'o lrllll .ltalatttd <lt e r'.rsc oiebout j6olucl sorirr uncl



lrld rtrurrirgc to fhctis tirltccl rhc pt.olouuc to

fonncr Chinracra l)ailtcr) lbrms thc rlronstcr in more close:tccord wirh thc Horncric formul:r, and rnakcs the whole of thc hind qutrtcrs illto il scrpcnt I7l. Thc subjcct docs not survivc into lrte black figurc but Pcgasos alolc does, ils :1n isoiated motif (notably as thc shicld dcvicc ot thc Klcophrf,dcs P:tilltcr's l)enathcnaics [Jo].2]), just as both llcllcrophon rnd thc (lhimacra ntly appcar in isolation c:lr-lier and evcn Pcgllsos tlonc with thc (lhimlcre. Aolarros had to yokc l lion and boar to x chxriot to win his bridc, lnd
Apollo, tenlporarily obligcd to scrvc llin), pcrtbrms the task for-him. Thcrc arc a fcw latc sccrles ofthc chlriot group, with Apollo | .::10 ]. A hcro iightrng .r sclpcnt is possibly Kaul.os with thc dregon which hc killed and those tcctlr hc sorvcd. But thc sccncs, nreinly latc, are not cxplicit tlld thcrc is thc possibilitv ofconfusion hcrc rvith HcrakJcs with thc slakc guardine rhc eppics of the Ilc'spcridcs, or with arl .rb:idged H,vdr.r. On thc Franqois Vesc thc (larvuoNIAN lloAR hunt is shown in a silglc


lJr,r/rr-irr llcl nndc oE uitli hcr hced. b1'hcl trvo sistcr-s. Thc pLrrsrrit occrrpicr bhck ligLtrc.r:.tisrs r:rrhcr thilD the rttick, [Tccrusc thc ltrnniug (iorgorrs rvcrc so c]ccor.lrlr.c, in,:lccci il

I)lttslus decrpit:tlcrl thc (lorgorr


r.ith thc boar at thc cclrtrc heving brougbt


l dog tnd

thc lrttc sct crtfh ccntLrrY rhc Ncssos l)uintct-giVrs lrs ol]lv thctrr Nirh thcir dc]cl sistcl on his nuntc \:lsc! rhc cloJphins bclorr, indiclting pLrrsuir t>vct. scl J 5. -.l. ()lr x tr;rglicutitry bo,.r'l u e h.r vc his PcrscLrs :rncl ;.rrolcc!rcss Athcnl, u hilc tltc


I).rjrrrer. on his n.rnrc vlsc, hrs thc wholc sccDc errd lclds Hcr-rrrcsJrr.-ul. schcutc, brrt rhc srrbjcct Loscs popul:rl.itt clrDrn{ thc tlrircl rltr.rlrcl oithc sirtlr ccDtur'\'. l)crscLrs is drcssccl i:r ] shorr chiron, fbt spccd, ltis rl:rqic cr1) ofd.trkDcss is ll fctlrsos:rld It is r:rlqic b()or\ ;u.c sollclllLs

iruntcr [16.3]. Flcing it ere Peleus and Mclcagcr, Mcllnion arrd Atelette, rrrd rrnorlg thc othcr hLrntcrs we find thc Dioskouroi. This is thc usLrxl schcrlrc for tlrc hr.rnt, rvhich with rarc cxccptions is dcpictcd orlly rrr thc sccond quartcr of dre sixth ccntrrry Ir i 6.1]. Thc hcroc's lrc morc Lrsually not rrxrlred rrrd evL'Il rhc firir Aralanta rrriy bc orrlittcd but thc schcnrc of rhc dogs .tt.ckjnq thc boar bccorncs st:rndtrdiscd. Thc tridcnt boar spcar is soluetinrc's ttsc'd eg.rtnrr thc bclst. Sonrc boar hunts with horsenrcn arc Icss ccrtairrly idcrrtificd rs thc





or'hrrpc'-sicklc. llrc (iorgorr

hc:rcl is

crrrrcd irr

b.rr: (kibjsis) slrrns round his ncck lr7o..:1. Thc (iorqorrs rlso u,c.rr shorr chilorls, lloots sollctirllcs rvirgccl, irrrd :rrc tllonsclvcs t,inqcd. Thcil. r:rolcsquc tiontrl hclds lblloll rhc (lorirtltiln invcrrtion ofr liorr nrrrk u ith ruskccl jlus, lollirrq torrguc, squrshv lo!c! but hurtrrtr ctrs.incl cYcs. Strekcs rppclr oftcr in thcir'hair, \o tctjntcs in thcir harrds or. ls e bclt. Thc Atu.Lsis Paintcr shor.i's thc :rcturl r.lcclpitarion [,sol, rvidt Pcrscus cerclillr. lookine :r\\'xv, xnd it itppclrs :-lrclv letcr in bluck tigurc. The dvirg Mcdrrst gilvc birth ro Pcgx$s:urd thc lrumrnoid (lhrvsror ijrrr her scvcrcd ncck irnd thcsc figurcs, or thc fitnrcr- llonc, xrc vcrv occlsior)illy sccn crncrging or.lir.clrl\' f'rcc of hcr bodv {.u 691. I-hc (iorgon }rced elorrc l69l is r fhvouritc rorrclcr dcvicc fiorn the Ncssos l)irirrtcr's lckrnei to latc cups [.:go.-:], r,r'hcrc u,c oticn scc folche.lcl dots ulich nr:rv clclivc f'ronr thc hiliry wrrts in this posirion on oricnlirlisilrq liolr rnrsks. (lor gonciu llso ;rppc.rr rs tlrc prilrcipiii dccorirtiorr on l groLrp ofskvphoi ofthc -i:os irud rs shicld dcvir.cs. BlLtrloprror.r riding thc \\inqccl horsc [)ci]rxrs, ettlcks thc Cihirnlcr-r with e sircer. Thc monsrcr's tirrnt is;r lioD, uith l gr)et's llcil(l llrtd Dcck spritqinu fionr its b:rck end occrsionrlly brcarhins firc, rrcl ,,,,lth:r srekc

lltcrcst in rhe story of thc SEVEN AcAINST Tnrlrs is sporaclic, bcgiDDiDg wirh thc hcrocs Adrlstos ar1d,4,i?ridldo\ sctlirrg orrt in chariots. C)n x later v:rse Hipporncdon is sccn with his wit'et tn eltir, .ud othcr 'warrior dcplrtirrg' sccllcs with chrrjots rllty rcfcl to lhc stol)', espccially whct thc wo[Ien and chi]drcn rrc prcserlt, since tlrey arc importlnt. Anrphieraos' rvilc Eriphyic hed bccD bribcd with ar xnLrct nccklacc (u hich shc is oucc rt lcrst showr cllrtchinq) to scnd hinl to his dc:rth. Anothcr
or) TyrrhcDiarll vascs

aonrnrorl figurc is ll scatcd and sorrowillg maD bcforc thc horscs, prcsLlrDablv ir sccr, arld therc rDay bc othcr cxpressioDs ofglicfor disrDa,v. Eriphylc r,vcrtt on to bcheve in a sirnilar \\,xy to hcr soll Alknlcon in thc sccoud cxpccliric,rr end his vcllgcancc on hcr, by kiiling lrc'r it hcl husbild's tonrb, nlxy xPpcar on another Tyrlhclrian vesc l63.zl. A srukc lirr,v rcxrs r.rp eqainst lhc rnrtricide. Atonynrous sccncs of wxrriors tightirrg errd bcinq separrtcd by a nrarr (ir thc schcnre ofHcrakles, Kvknos arlcl Zcus) rrc doLrbrfulll'rcfc'rrccl ro rhc fiehting at Thcbcs (as Irai]). Thc (l l);rintcr oncc, lrnd hte lrrtists nlo1c oticn, show thc THtrBAN Sl']IItNx clrrying off a youth, clinging bcncath hcr bcl1y. Thc Thcbln prirrcc Hrirrroo wlls olrc victinl aDcl givcs his n:lnlc to the late lckythos p;ri[tcr lvho fevotlrs



5:]. lhisis:rrolhcrstorlshichu.rsillusr:urcdbvthccarllcstofthc


this sccnc l:7.yl. lhc cncountcr wirlr Ocdlpur appeers only on vescs lirllorvinq thc rcd 6gure schcnrcs, with the sphinx on

r ferv latc t rock or

drc tlucc- goddcsscs rrc not dillcrcntiittccl, btrt uticr thc nrid ccDtllrv Ather.r r. iuclicttcd br hcr anrrour, ard Hcre rvho nslrell,v lceds thc trio nr:rv curr'\' .r

scc'ptrc. Apl)roditc
MtrDEA dcr)onsn;1tL'd to thc l)drq[r.r-{ (ll R,i lrl-r horv rhc',v could rcjuvcnltcthcir f:thcr bv clrttiirs Lrp a rrm and boiling it. Wc see the u,orncn ancl thc ranr

l)il)'holcl l

sccptrc. Peris is bcerdccl, sorlctirr)cs



end the fune:ll genlcs

()l:r fi'rv



575 :rrc inscribed rs f()r hinr.

sccprr-c ol lucc. Hc makcs ofi-irlirrnrcd thc clivinc ippar iti()rr l.rJl xrld sonlctinlcs hirs to be :-cstminecl by. licrrncs, but liorn thc bcrri:rrirrrt o itlrc scrics it is :rlso possibic- k) sholr. hinr qLrictlv grccting his visirors. Thc fir ll sccnc nlrY bc c\ccr-ptcd, ol11ifting Peris, or ollc or two of thc godclcsscs. thc first cpisoclc surlg .ulcl showrl is thc,4rirlrisl ol TroilLts.



At Irov

The Trojan Cycle

lronr the Trojrr) Cyclc are treated herc i:r the ordcr ofthc srorv. ()fthc cpic pocrn! $c Ilied;rnd thc C)dysscy nrev bc thc clrlicst corrpositiolls, r11d hlrve srrrvivccl intact, bllt thcy arc rot thc ciulicst in thc nxrrrtivc, Dol thc Inost popullr with blrck figrrrc .rtists. Othcr post-l lornclic c'pics cornplctccl thc stor,v of Troy, stnrting with thc remoter ciu.lscs, including rhc contship of Achilles'prrcnts errd cnding with the rcturn ol'the Clrccks aficr rhc wer. Of the poems the KypRIA deal with Achillcs' parentagc rnd carly lifc', prcscnrirlg thc hcro ofthc Ilild; rvith rhc Judgclrc[t ofPrris aucl Rapc of Helcn, which wls thc immccliatc cruse ofthc wu; ;rnd with thc opcning shots oD thc Trojtn Plarn. Scvcral cpisodcs arc wcll iliustratcd by b1:rck figurc artrsts frorn aborrt 575 ott. P(l s u,rtstlin,{ u,ith'.1firtis appcars 6rst in about 57o, irr the Corinthien schelnc with the hero surprising her end puttilg hcr to flight with her Nereid corrpanions. He grapples with her lirst in the mid ccntury, lnd latcr sccncs displty hcr ability to chrngc xrto diffcrcnt forus rvith cithcr figures of lious and snxkes or thc flanres which spring frorn hcr body [19 5, 29-r]. Thc ccrltrur Chiron, who hrd :rdviscd Pclcus, and a prrty of flccing Nereids nrry also be shown as well as the seashor-e pallll tree scttir)ri. Thctis' rcluctancc is ovcrconlc, by frrrcc, and thc nuptials arc cclcbratcd. Thc Wcddin,q ol 'l'hctis an d.l1,/r, rvas thc occasion for thc challenec u,hich lcd to thcJrrclgcnrcnt ofParis ancl thc Trojar War, but bleck frqrLrc artists shorv rrs or)lv thc rnegnificcirr proccssion ofdcitics in chariots and on foot, who atrcrcl thc couplc on thc nrornins followilg Thetis' flrst nig)rt in Pclcus' honrc. Sophilos lz4 5l (twicc) and Klcitias 116.5] (orr thc Frxrr(-ois Vesc) rrakc this thc prinlc sccnc oflargc and costly vascs which may hevc cclcbratcd rnortll narriagcs. Peleus greets che gtrests before his hornc where Thetis w.rrts nroclcstly. From thc nticl ccntr,iry on x tttarricd couplc, thcnrsclvcs in ii chari(,t lnd with ln cscort of di,",initics, trrry rlirin be Pclcus urd Thctis, Ii:st approaching thcil rcrv honrc. Thcir thild Acli]lcs \4,:rs txkcn !o thc ccntllrr Cliriror lor his carl,v cd ucetion. Thc Hcidclbcrg Pein tcr shows th c sccr c t\\'ir ,, about J60 r'vith PclcLrs holdirg his infant sorr l4ol, and tJrcrc :rrc scvcrll letcr vc1-sioDS- Cl)iron $is llr ir)poltirnt flgurc in tlrc story arld I(1eiti]s pllccs h irrr at the hcacl ofthc proccssion ofgLrcst divirlitics on thc Franqois ^fhc -ludguutt rlf l),r,1-r ippcrr-s ou Athclliarl vascs by about j7J. Thc b.rsi. scc11c shows thc thlcc goddcsscs lcd by Hcru-lcs to Alcxrrldlos (t)aris). At frrsr
Scerrcs 228

in scve:ril stagcs. Achillcs croLrchcs bchind thc lountrirr r,vhcrc Poll,xcnr liils hcr h1,dri:t u,hilc l loikrs, hcl brothcr, wJits u.ith t\\'o holscs, olr foot or nloLrntcd LiJ]. ()r' Achillcs lceps out prrrsuine thc nrountcd Troilos, still \'\ itl) two lrorscs, l,hilc Pol,vrcrl rlllrs e\\'il\;, hcr hlclri:r:rbandoncd:rrd sonlctillrcs brokcn [16.51. l]oth vcrsions rppcrr bcitrc eborrt j6o ir Athcrril:r bllck fisr.rlc. Thc ibunteilr, ol liolvxcrr:1, ol both, nrel bc onrittcd

dotrblcd), end tou,rrds tlrc cnd ofthc cclrrur-\/ srirqc onu rs rv:rs killcd ir r s:lllarrr:llv of Apollo Iu o i ] lnd witlr thc' hc1p ofrcd figrrrc sccrcs :rrd sonrc bhck flqlrrc wc scc thrt rhL'stoly thc rltists knc\\, htcl Achillcs drrg hirrr lroor his lrorsc bv his hlir rud bchc.rd hirn.rt thc rltlr- Alrcrdy orr Tyrrhcni:ur r,:rscs hc flghts Hcckrr ovcr rhc dccepitetcd body ofthc youDra prince. (Scc rlso bclorv ou thc l)c:rth of IJrianr :Lr)d Astyell:l\.) Thc Irtarr is poorl1 : t'prcsentcd i:r Athcriru black flqule, the sccncs b.rnq :rll t'rorn rhc last p:rrt ofthc pocm, r ftcr- Achillcs' rctrrrn to tlrc bettlc ficlcl, :rnd rhcy arc bcttel r-cprL'sL'r1tcd in contr'nrponrv rt'd figurc. Thcsc incltrdc thc (lrccks' Missiou to Achillcs, i (lxptulc of I)olor1, aucl v.Lrious dlrcl\ or walriors sctting oLlt, onlv idcrrtilicd b1, irscliptions. Aclilhs dra,q.qitt,q lt Il(.n)r bchillcl his chlriot is ilnothcr poprlar lltc sccnc l:o3l in u,hicb L is rrlv :rlso xppcrl iLnd x t;)y ghosr ofP:rrroklos (sonrctinrcs rvilqcd) bcsidc hrs ronrb. Tr,r,o wiuqccl dcrnons, S/r'r'1.r ttnLl L)L'dth, clrrrving ll bocly, arc sccl on solllc 6fth-ccrtlrrl vescs encl rr):l)' bc bcernlll Selpcclol or Mcrlrrorr tr_onr thc field l:5 i ]. In about j7o thcrc:llc two vcrsio:rs oftlrc chnriot rrcc in thc C,i,,r.-i o/ l)dtlot/()r' (by Sophiios [26] end on thc Frengois Vesc [1d.3]).Tlrcre rrc a nLrllbcr of sccrlcs ol AchillL,s ttccittifi.q his nn otu, b:ut thc carlicst l zol (about J70 or1) nllv tcfcr to his lrrli:rq :rt honrc bcfo: c slilirlq to Tro\., ltttcrldcd b). figurcs ill rvhonr lve nlight rccogr)isr' Pcicus, Thctis, Petr-oklos lnd ettcn,:llnt Myrnridons (rs br. thc O:rnrt:rr Plintcr | 51] :rncl thc Pejntcr ofLonclon 1376). After:rbout jjo, with Thetis hendinq over tlrL'rrnr()rlr, the sccuc nrust bc 'l roy encl thc irr-nlour thrt r,,,,hich rcpl:rcccl thc suit i()st rvith l)etroklos lE6]. Thc nrein piccc oflrruour is usually l fincll.crubJezoncd lloeotiln shicll. Noticc too Achillcs hanrcssing his horscs, bl Ncarchos, encl thc l)eirtcr ,rt' Lotdon 1376's frontll chr:iot iclcutiEccl by r dcpultur ir (,1' (on







onriltilq Poly\c-l:l. Troilos

Hcctor[57].Trvoothcrtro]1tllchariotsofdrisd;rtc:urclclrlicrarcfbrAchillcs rnd l)iorrrcdcs- Also apPcrrinq iirsr c:rrlicl th:r:r the rrrid ccllrLrry lrc rlrc


sccncs of thc .l?rrrlJo,/r rr'lJc.l()r'-{ bod} with Priam approaching Achillcs'couch bcncrth u hlch thc b,-rdy lics; lucl in the j,tos the fi!!ht over Prt: ok1os' body. On Izl r I thc lansoul is rcprcscntcd by thc bou4s crrriccl by thc boy bchiud Prilrl. So thcrc sccrlrs eD curlv intclest in scencs involving Hcctor's rlceth. Thc rrcrv iurcrest irr rhc llird letcr in rhc sixth century nray bc thc rcsult of Hippurchos' promotiorr ofHo:ncric rccitals at thc Crcat Panerhcn:ri:r, bur tlre tirllcst h:rr vesr of rhis is rceped by rcd fisurc lrtists.

'l hc At r uroprs follorvccl the lliucl. Intcrcst in it or rt lerst in Achilles. sccrns

fiorlr Troy u,ith his son Askurrio: iln(l sorllctiulcs rvith his rviti rrrrtl fricncls. Thc groLrp bclongs to thc llst qLlnrtcr ofthc ccntury;lncl rrr:rrv rr.r\ hevc bccn cspcci;rlll irtcndcd for lhc rreclc to Itrl\', whcre the nryth hrrd:r spccirl rclcvrlrcr trrcl l high proporti()ll ofthc vascs sho$.ing ic havc i>ccrr lotrrrcl. Mcrrr,/aor rttot)trs HLlLtt thrc:rtening her lvith his drlwrr srvord 1671, holding hcr cloak lrtd ftcirg hcr, ol lerdirrg hcr:ru,e-v [9o], rlrclv puLsrtn{ hcr. Rr/y,r'crra js carricd to sacriEcc et thc romb of Ar:hillcs on l Tyrrhcnl.rrl
Ilc'einla vasc [57], lc'cl to

Exckirn.Tlrcrrrtstcrt\\,iccsho$s,4.rrllcskillitt.qPcnthtsilul[9E],thcArurrzon quccn (rn cpisodc not ccrtainiv attriburcd ro this cpic), end e Lcesros (lrolrp v:rsc hls hinr .rlr)'inq hcl lronr thc licld l,u o1l. Hc shorvs Mcrunorr nidr his ncsro tbllo\\,cr\ | 9g I orcc killing Antiiochos, eld Mcrnlon eppcers too letcr irr thc ccrtLrrv. Lr Achillcs' fieht widr Mcliriorr thc hcrocs erc rcqnlarly
sccondcd by thcir nlothcrs, Thctis end Eos [,2r 7]. Thcsc appcirr frorn a;roLrp E oD, possibl! cerlicr, rDd thcrc,, rlc a uunrber ofothcr fights rvith rvonrcrr wiitchnrg \\,hiah rlret, bc essocietcd with thc cvc t. Hc'rrncs is scc'n wcighilrg in thc balancc rhc li,,,cs of Achillcs arld Mcmrlorl [:61] (p-ryr/rostnsirr), rl acr pcrhips nlorc f:rrrilirr to Lrs liorD thc llied rvhcrc Zcus rvcishs thc livcs of Achillcs eld Hcctor. Thc nenrc vilsc of thc P:rirrtcr of thc Vrti..1r) Mourncr'It34] r)ii) show Eos lvith hcr dced sor, but hcr rcrnovel of thc boclv l:71I is l sut-rjcct o11l,v lor thc liltcst bllck figrrrc ofthc cirrl), fifth ccr)tLrry (but ci lzo7l, rvcerirs lris lrclnrct?). 'Wc co:nc norv to the evcnts sung in thc LI'l t l.ri ll-lAD. The derth of Achillcs is rlot lho\\,r1 or1 Athc'niiln filiurc virscs Lrut /fdx.drtlrlq,{,J' body ovcr his shotrlder hed lo:rg bccn popultr in Greek art, irs is seen lrorn thc Frangois Vrsc 116..2] on, cspccially in thc rvork ,of Exckixs, thc ADtlnlcrlcs Paintcr rnd on Lcrlrran vrses. ,4f.r.!' qrnrrLl wih Od),-r-v rts ovcr Achillcs' rttnrour ls sccn bcforc rrbout joo, but othcr hcrocs qultrclling rlld rcstrili)lcd by thcir tiicnds I l4 i ], ofthc sccond helf of thc sixrh ccnrlrrv, nrisht bc thcy, :urcl thcv lrc par tcd by Athclr on htc lckvthoi. Iixckias' srudy of mrcl Ajlx pr('p:lrirrg suicidc lldr I is uniquc end thcrc is orlv onc nrid ccntrrlv l'lloodla -fhc Littlc Ilild rlso tlcelt rvith rhc Srck ofTroy (lliotrpcrsis), rvlriclr 11orrr,. \\,;rs !lcrtcd by othcr pocts, ll,ith virirtions possibly to bc idcutiflcd in rlrc

ii on r Lclgre[

Thcr e is ouc othcr Tro.jiur sccrrc Nhich is populer on bleck ligllr-c virscs t)Llt tbr vhich rro litcr:rry inrtholitv sLrrvivcs. Acltillts aul Aiax ythv e borrd q:rnre scrtcd, lully arnlcd or with s()nrc of thcir rrlnour prlt ilsidc IIoo, -??7]. Sonrctimcs thcv rre alolre, cllling thc scorc, blrt oltcn AthcDa xppcurs bc !\vccn thcr11, rppelcntl) sun)rlronil)!! thclu to thcir duty. Thc occusiolr Dllly be

at ALllis \\,hcrc thc hcrocs \\,rited fol a u,incl to clrry thcrn to Tlo)' lnd
Pellrrrcdcs iuvcnrccl gallrcs to \\,hilc rwey thc tinlc, or rnorc prob:rbiy oD thc

Trr>jlt Plair irsclf (:r p:rJrn trcc is sonrctirnes showu). Exckirs intr-ocllrccs thc scenc in bllck figurc rnd it rcnrrirls vcr) popular ir)to thc c:rrl,v fitih ccrrrrrrv,
shorvn also in e sculptural grollp olr tlrc AclopolisThc ()l)yssriy sccnls to ofli'r cvcrr lcss scopc therr rhc Ilild, but thc Po/ypllcaros (Cyclops) story hrd appcaled to Athcniln vnsc ptiuccrs in thc nrid sevc'nth ccntrrry. Thc pairtcr ofthc 13osrol Poll phcmos (littlc bcforc sso) has en odd sccnc shorving thc gillrt bcill!i rnldc drunk, end on thc sanre cup (rrrcl rnothcr) hc shows C,'rc rvitl-r Od,vsscus. Hc hes hcr rekcd, mixiug a cup lor thc conlprnlons rtho arc lll lrLrrnen, bLrt for aninral he:rds, r,r'hile Ocllssc'us epprolchcs rvirh e chawn sword. In thc sccrrcs oftlrc cnclofthc ccnturv shc is drcsscd end cirhcr shc or Odyssctrs rurv bc shorvn scarcd l:3 r l. B-v this tirur rhc Blinding of l)ol1'phcnros is shorvn il1 thc Lrsu:rl wxv, *,ith thc gient scetccl ol) thc groLlnd but rlot rrronoculilr_l:4o'1. Thlorrghout thc sccond h:rlf of thc ccntrry wc hlvc groups shor.r,inq r (ilc'ck csclping 6olt thc O;rvc of l)olyphcmos, clingirg or ticd k) r ram [.255], lnd thc lltcr cxenrplcs hevc scvcrel rrilrs lnd Polyphcnros seatcd bct'orc thcrn. Lltc too arc scolcs oi ()dvssc'lrs rvith thc S/r'r,ris, thc hcro ticd to his rlirst, tltc Sircns pcr chcd on rocks plrl irrtl pipcs rnd lyrcs. Ou thc onc I figurc Oclysscus bcgs to bc ticcd l:E6].

dilliring trcirhncnt of prrticlrler cpisodcs bv rrtists (xs ior thc rccovcry o1: Hclcu lnd dclth ofl)ri;rrl). Thc Sien:r cup p:rintcrs oficr-thc cerlicst l)t,otlr rr/ Irrlarl, l\lpc ofKlsslrnclrl and rccovcl_v ofHclcn. l)rienr is souck dorrn lt or'
lr1 ;r1rrr, b1, Neoptolcnos, who sonlctinrcs sw;rgs;lt hirn thc clcrtl bodyorever thehcacl aloncofltis grand-chi1d Astyarux [67]. Whcrca l'n.rru is not bcrng.rtt]ckcd it is possiblc tl1:rt slrch sccllcs lcprcscrrt riltl)cr Aahillas' trcxtnrent ofTroilos l.zor ] at thc altlr. Ajrx (thc Lcsscr') scizcs Ka-rsardra tior rr hcr supplilnt position belirrc'or cllspirrg dre stltue ofAthcnl, rvhich llicr thc nlicl ccnrury is shou,n in chc striding l)er:rdrcrreic posc l9-ll. Tl-rc prophct... i' often showrl lrlrlost or wholly r1akcd. ,4r'ntds ct1ffi(s Ancltis(s oD his br.k 12,9-ll.



Other f igures of myth .4ria.-orr-r rrc iclcutified br. rhc coloul of thcir ilcrh- Thcy do not hevc prorrilcrrt L-rrc:r,rts l:rcl lrc cquippcd likc enl nrelc rr,:rrrior or alchcr'. ()n letc
ll)cy rlrirv oltcD bc lighr-:rrrned u,ith a pcltr shicld, errd on]r thcir bertlcexcs r'r,hich llc nrrcly,shorvn in bhck 6gllrc, erc stlictlv rou-Gleck n,capons (orrc hclcl bv au alcher on lzoq ri.qht)). Aprrt frolr the common fiqhts u,ith Hcnrklcs drcrc lrc vcry nlrnv sccncs of thcru lighting anonynrorrs Grcck rvrrlirrls, ftorrr about l7o on I t:6, t7q, zgzl. Al1 t1,pcs ofconrbet erc edrrutv:rscs
23 r


tirot, r,uith iror-scs or chrriols, end thcl luvc thcir-contplt'rucnt of subsidiary lrrilitary sccncs arnring [26-i], harncssing, clrying offthc dcad frorn field of battle. Wingcd 6gLrres urc not rlw:r)s casily idcrrrificd. Of thc nrelcs rhcr.c lrc l lcw ofthc frrst quattcr o fthc ccnttrrv r.vho cer 11. ilrplc'mcrts or e beg .rrrcl arc tholrqht to bc ,4r'i-rtrrir,-r Ii 71, :r rrruror bcncfictor oinrlnkincl, lrrd thcr.c is .rn /Iaror on lu Acr-opolis fnrgr:rent ofaborrt -i70, but $.c h:rvc onlv ltis lcgs and wilrgccl bo()ts. Winqcd rllnncrs iu prirs erc thc roas o/_Bo(,ar. Wc havc rltcit. cluerrY elonc, thc Harpics (u,i:rgcd wonrcr), oD :lI ilrcotDplctc vesc by thc Ncssos l)lirrtcr, rnd no firll vclsiorl ofthc cltisc. A ti:ry rvirgcd rv:rrrior- rrr:rv rcprcsclt thc ' soul ', es o fAchilles, fi ccd lor hisJourDcv to thc Islcs ofthc lJlcst by tltc sacrificc of Polvrcru. Somc virrgcd rnalles with sclpcntirrc lowcr-p:rrts, irlld solllctirlrcs nlorc lhilI oDe torso, nr:rl bc rhc rlt()ltslrolis Tl,p/rorr, bLrf his

tccl or

lor Dionysos also rneke rrlusic, s()rlctinr.\ tirlr rluppcrs, ilnd xrc usueliy fullv clrcsscd, sonlctirnes with al1 rninlll skin ovcr-rll, rs on 16 5, t5l. Srtlrs secr:r to huvc becn inventcd by, Athc:rien er-tists by rbout jllo tr:. Thcy trc ncvcr rcrlly involvccl ir nlyth cvcrl thc ettrck or Hera (scc ebovc) ctDbetukcnus'evetldrl,life'for s:ltyrs but thcv uttcnd l)jonvsos on cvcnls such ls thc Rctutu oi lJcphlistos cl1- or1 lrrc v:lses, cvcn irr qiganbrrr:tchv,
rvhich :ra,v cxplain sornc urnlcd setyl s. Thcir contribution to dr:rm:r is e li tthccrrtrlr \r phcnoll)cnon but thc'rc nlxv bc :r bl.rck ligurc sltyr lctor, clrcsscd iD e

hi:netion, rvith reil rttachc'd, rud rvtrchecl by f)ionysos rogcrhcr wirh r 'rcel' slrtl,r'lucl rrrrcnrds, o11 .l vilsc of lboert soo l:dgl. Thc occasiollrl vcr\'letc xrrrl ccl slrtvr drn cin !l or tb c !!arr g cniclly tortru-in !l r worr alr l-u 77] may :rlso bc
st:rgc s:rtyIs. S/lclos is

light uirh Zcrrs is not shorl,r. Of thc rvingcd rvomcn, 1rr'r ancl Nik, (Victory) rrc nor rcedilv clsrrrrluishcd ulllcss thc fblnrc-r hes hcr hcruld's ceclLrccLrs, oL whcrc thc litttcr. on vcry lelc black 6gurc, is sccrr rvith a buli l-2761, b,v an tltlr or wirh e w).cad1 in thr':ed liqulc nt;rnucr-. Iri-r is oDcc urrncd. Of othcr liqurcs nrcntioncd .ilrcacl1, tlrc firllorvirg nrly ()n occilsiorl uppc:lr win!!ccl: Hcr.rrrcs, Adrcna, Artcrlis (oftcn crrl1,), Thctis (pcrhaps orlcc rt tllc lighr with Mcnruon), Slccp

r rcll figtLrc oI rrryth :lnd rcprcscr]tccl as lr scoior lncl indivicluel sityr, rot palt ofI)ionysos' troop- Hc u,rs iutoxicatccl trv r fouDt:riD flo\ in{ with rvinc, crrrght, bouncl rnd lccl to king Midas. Wc scc him rvith his cscort oD r fcw varscs from thc mid ccrltury on! ilDd or1 two hc is srrrpriscd et rhc fbunt:rin itsclf[,lro]. Thc namc could:r1so, howcvcr, bc uscd gcrrcricrllv for
sityrs, rs on tirc FraDgois V:rsc [46.7], and somc schohrs distirLalrish bcnvccn the purt-auinral silenoi:rnd konrest setyls. .1)rrl is rrot sccn bclorc ebout ;oo end thcu in r fcrrnr fhr fronr lris hlrilitr Classical appcarence. He is all-goat, st:rnding on his hitd lcgs, bcsidc it rnrcrrad or1 onc vrsc [:Er ] and piping firr :r ti'est on xrrothcr. It wiil tekc his intcr-vcntion at Merarhon to cstablish hinr in Athcnieu ert. Onc stor\,, ncithcr cluitc thct nor fiction, is shorvn occlrsionllly. in thc sccond qrrrrrcr and thc middle of thc ccntlrry. It is thc fieht of PygtttiLs tttl Cr,ncs | 46.8,5 o. r l. On thc lirot of thc Frrucois Vrsc tbc I)yErrics riclc golits rnd ply sliugs es well as thc uscftrl curved sricks which arc thcir usllirl wcxpon\ in thcsc sccncs. (lrlncs qo fo: thcir cycs. Thc Iliacl mcntions thc light, bLrr;r ncw pocnl ol pictLrrc rrlxY have rer\-akeDed tlris intcrcst, rvlrich llpscs a,;.lln f<rr halfe ccntury. Thc [-irrdlrrlorld hc]d littlc irrtcrcst but thcrc rrc a fclv sccucs of Sisvphos trr.urdling his rock uphill in thc scconcl hllfofthc ccnturl . I Ic is on his or *,atchcd b),PcrscphoDc, eDd orr onc vesc thcrc irc eiso souls porrri q wrtcr into :r Lc:rk1, l)ithos likc thc J)eneids lr98l.

(ivith Alkvoncus), Elos (noluralll), Eos. (,i,llarr-r uc hrvc nrct elrt'acl\' iuvolvcd rvirh Ilcrlkics (Pholos, Ncssos), end r'r,ith PclcLrs ((lhiron). Ar thc rvccldiur ofthc Lepith I{ing Pcirirhoos rhcy nss:rullccl thc Nomcn Ird this lcd to il qcnclill coDlbrt, rvidr thc L:Lpitlt r'vllr_iors helpc'd bv Thcsctrs- Thc Athcnietr hcro is nlnrccl only on thc
Frlnqois Vesc, rvhich is thc clrliest black flsr.r'c rcplcscntrtion. Onc spcci:Ll cpjsode occLrrs hcrc errd occasionrlly in larcr ccntau ronl ach ies : Kainca-i, arr ilvirrciblc Llpith, hes to bc lircrllly bcatcn into thc groulcl bv his advcrsrric', and rpperrs ptlrtl), bLrricd- Wc occrsionally scc ccntilLtrs attacked by othcr volrths
cquinc legs, r-xccpt sonretil)cs for (,'rir"orr rvlr o displlys his superior status rvith a rvhollv hrLrren fbrcplrt, and evcn cJothcs. A ccntlur's hair is LrsLrrll_v wild, his nosc snub, his clrs sornctinrcs ;ininrll; his wceporls i:trc branches and stoncs. Salyn urc likc abbrcviutccl cc:rtaurs, without the,hor-sc bodv, but with e horsc's tail and clrs lrd uslliLlly snub noscs end rvild hair, r,vhilc sonrc hevc hrirv boclics too. On thc Fr;rngois Vrse 146.71 and rerclv latcr lr67] thcy havc rvhollv aninrrllcss, rnd oncc in Athcuilu black hgLrrc thcy rppc:lr in thc Easr (lrcck nrrnncr rvith hrrrnrn lcgs brrt ccluinc feer. Undcr thc n)orc sobel c\.c of thcir rnlstcr I)iony sos ancl oftcrr widtout him, rhcy nrekc utsic, claDcc, work iit thc virltaqc Itgl, irllrnlc or rap.' xDiilrals f2681. With nxcuilds thc\ rrc

or olrt huntirrq 194 tt7l. lD Athcnien bieck ligurc thcy h:rvc ell-

qcucrelll rrrolc

cirr:r-rnrspcct, at lltost clrlyitrg thcrtr oli, but the_v rcgulxrly disphy proud crcctions, u,ith or rvirhout :Lr)y laoxl in vieu,, lrncl rrc cluirc oficn cxcrcisinq thcnr thcrusclvcs l5o.:]. Thc rlrrcllrds - rvild ."vorucn r,vho dancc





B Utti of!h( hnihtu it Clnlsi l




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ar.hiol ori \ h0t

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ArthaiologikL t:plmru ;:

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rL iI LI(lldit Srtdi.\ l]nthiau lli c[|h d, rpn'/<k

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J. D. llcrzl.v,

dr.hiiolo!|lu li\tirtk\ in /it

R0n! Archioh!iqft
R(N! d6 Lttlt:! Aftit Rin i\lt( 11itti|n.g1t 6

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D Bctrzlev, 't lk, Dtrth,t t. t if Ati. Blo.k lri.qn. (r9rr) brill;rnt lcctlrer. quitc wcll ilhBtr.tcdi lr;. l3lnk t:i.l l l,1!t Pdi tt^ (r9i6) lists ofpinri$s rrcl groups, sufplcnrc',itcd n1 Pardlip . . {.tt7 t). J. U. Hotfnr, ,4 H,,,//,.d1 or()".1 8/d.I r.i(,,.,/ I.'dn,r (,!ra) picnrres ofsigD.d and sonrcatriburc.l vx\cs. L B. L. \)vcbstcr. Por..r d d iAlth\t itl Cld!!iL\11 AtltuN (rrz:) ruscful discussn on pon$srrrctor sLrLrjccts. L H,l" .. .{//r. Bl,"r l'i:.'. t l\t''tt'- \.1 ,y E.ttljil,Mnl.tuir dZ(id x .sdLt ()itcholtezt) t

I, lNTROI)UC]TION Hirtory lt. M. Cook irr C akPni ttlPotuych. t\. Tcchn$,c J.V.Noblc.7/a. I!.l li,lt.s il Pdi .d
Atn P.n.r) \ry6t)tv.E. Cortr.rr, /I/S
prchuinrr,v skctchcs. SigDrtlrr.s rDd stxtLL

l\x\!. r6lI

lt. M. Clook,JH.! xci. rlTf-.r C. M. Rob.rtnnr.-/Hlj xcii. r8(rlf.


A ciot AtMs

).D.l,cazlc.\.P.ltur Il\i


.g d

- < Z < O:l

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lirll {rNci, for lts clay. Thc lollorvirrg h;rrrlbooks havc usclil sccrions on black iigure: It. M. Cook. ()kk h1i t.d 1\,tk1'l (r97r)..nd ll. B. Shc'lton ir 1,. Arias M. Hirnr.r, /-I;rn,I ,,/ Cr..! l'A. Pdn,tn( (r962)i C. M. liobcrinrn. C,..4l,,rn,rn( (r969)i E. SinroD. Dn (;ri..,i\.r.,r I.'dJ., (re8'). OD thc gcucral artstic bi.kgroun.l: (;. M. A

r ttu A n!i! Pni t(t I lti\ l,ti)r// (cd. M. 1,uc re37)r l. Schciblcr, a;r. Ti,/rir tl,rs/ (r)iil). Ncrv rctcrcuccs to vrscs in llcrzlcy's lists in T. H.
rspccts nr l)a1ur LlurpcDtc.r, Dftr/.),,.Id,/dnl,rr (rese).

Solor Vrrrrr

l')ric.s I). A. Anryx, H.!, \).!ii. rilTB-. lxpott frttcm lJ. L. Dxilc,v,,/HS lx. 6oli-.
Plnttrrch, Sol,)lr 2a.


llichtcr,lr.rdi. (1r..[ /, (r9+9)iJ. Bofdr]nu, PftHinoty


htnlopedit dLll'.4ttt drra.i (r9jN r9rr., til] brica iccouDrs olirrdi!rrhu1 plir)tcrr iurd Srorrps. o\y' t:dlt)flir Alttittrolr, (CLl)is i scrics dcsisncd

ilCftck A ltgj\).


C)rilildtilu (r967)i M. Rob$lson,

'.'p,,1.1,,1),1.u,fi.,,o,,..r.r1,1.",,r.rr,;,,,< tPrrxrc grouPs of ftsciculcs lirL creh nruscuD,


I givc no rcfcrcnccs ftr ,,lAl,'or P,," ti)r n)(livnlrrl rntr{ 1). rl).I,.,si( kxrls lin studcnt ivotk D r libr.rry rri(l qiv. llrll rcfcrcrccs for c..h vrs.i Dor. utrlly. Lo thc,rthcr gcncral books rlrcrdy listc.l. Arri.lrs r,.l lr(,(,1\.,,. citcd which rvill IcrLl thc r.i(lcr n) rlin rsi(,r\ oi \1\ l. or usciil collcctn s oa pi(rutus. ltcli.rrr(rs t,, prrticuhr poin!s ir lhc trrt rrri,giverr rr rly ii rhcy ,rrr rrot crsilv rccovrnblr tiorr .l/i1 {,, /ri,,r
artists or groups snr.c drcsc works


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lr /1.. /'. | \4'r,,'rl,,irr.r. ''.K ' . '.1..'' 'r.tJ,/l\, j +8ft-. JDd l\\\. 76lllr D. von Ilod),rier. ii,l/ .V.r'. l'r\.rJ l'\irrr

\r,,r.\,h..'.,r ,,

(,e+.r)rJ ll. Bc.,zlc!..1/l \lvii,++rril J,,(l i).r (1, J. lt. Ilfundt. .'1./i I,r,.. R.,,. N.rr. !ni, l]l (ll

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M. li\r,io\. l-f,/.r lni /,r dd-r,r r(r, lr(116). W. L l(l.inLrru.r..l/-l l\viii. ttill r.l.lli01]\ \itll

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prirtc*. goo.l piLnrrcs.
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(irrl rcd (;. M. A. BSI xlvi, r1rti.. rnd Nr1rr,/,"rii )iirl,oot,/i, Hi!triy ol ,'11't !. LrTH:r M. Frrrrsrvorth rDd H. Wircly..l/l l\ii. r.)i1l: Whitc ground to rcd figrrc Ar(l{)kid(s llrnrtt (.{n t +. |). l'}rscis, A (;r.if.rhrg.D. lxJd),j lntrl./
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N. U.c. .Sir/, d l llih.a t\, totkry lt. khitflR (r9r7) i7fi. sklthos groups. all'.1 Louyr. \r
l(rokonx Group A. ll. U,c. /H.s lx\v, ()o1ll (iorso,,cio,i \k,vphoi ll Fr(ycr-S.hlr.rl)LLrg, /i// kxsv. rlt.:,'l.l r97r. j.tsB.: r976. rolil ..., 1r( 1.. \.(;. r..1.1,,-,,1j.r",4." .\/,...r.i..
rru F1 Lu\.hcv,

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Srx. C,r--.'lr./r. r sNS. i 9rli.. :N r tf.i l. Fh\, IIJL IoaEl rnd ]\.LJr iii. rllt-i lj l'hiliptrki, 1r. .lt,i. .Sr, ,,or (19.7) riH-.:.1 lt a;i..,,. .4I re7o. 17sRi


ti,lly rllu\rr.rrL\l: ll\.h. .\/,r. \\, +.t ll-.r M. ll. Moor.. . t/.1 t\\ii.

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I). l].i/k\. /)rr. rh ; rnd ///5 Ili. r.7fi] iists: IL Illo.l.Jl /ir,,;l,r,^,/t, S,/r,/,, (rr+o)i F. Vill,r11. R/,.1 \lvIi, rjen dcicJopnrcrrr oa:h.,1)e\ (ll --1 l.ourr. riii. rxi Lorr(1.,r ri. (iol r] .u|s (i. lVl li,,Lrcrtror. /H.s hri. r1:n' .ul.s $rh p.rr.l\ l{. lJl.rr(....1 .1 re67 rrtu U,rdcrti,or Jccrr rrions A (;rcrt.Ihrq.,,. l\\\vi. Nori_.r K Sch:rucrburs, .1..1 rrir, rr;rn_ ./rI l),i)of .nfr P. N. Ur.. /ts/.s lii. iiril rj,.l s,,,/n.r
R./)ir,,,, ii. tiH- Thc Il.ri,]1oDi,r. 1)ro{)tJ ruf. t,,,d

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1,. .


\ ,,. l. ( i.



llrr, I', .',ri.r I I' l,.r ... ttl:|.. lll.l l' (,1' " i 1. .,,,..^,tr,,_.-n 'Ill.r.L irhzcLl' .,,|s .J. Ih!.rllr.J Bo.rn{r Iin .rjr J J H.'v.s. 1i,trr i. sHl (ll .'l Lon\r( \iiii 1.or).1(ri ii. H. llr!d.r .\n ,, (l,rr /r.rn,/,I I (rrNr )

.uf\ .l l). B..r,l.v.-/H,s hr, rerl ()rllr s)r rr\r\rrft\ 1Nr) Nrr(\llI \rs I rn. t,. Ir. j ._ t..r. .-t) tt ,.,.: .L\ I \$ . l,ri f I 1t,.t,r.1,.. \.r Ljr ..arl.. , ,..1 (1. Nilo(\ -l Iloppnr, H,urr11,,,,,1 rrrrl. lri.rLr.\i ll. lJl{).vlr. ttnttt attittrt S,ltattt yfi'_ .up\i ll Lll,rr.r, l-l 97o. r6?rl:: H. (;mju\. /?..1 re66. l]tl. .rrnphorrcr l. l) LJc.rzi.!. /ir/llr,iti ... ll, .r.sri,. ,,.,,i, '..11 .,rl ,1,A .li. ,i. Ni., , . ,r. l,.. , ,.,,, r'"j l'""'"rr'''l'' " ,)l orh(r \ign.rmrcj. Aliccrcr H Momnr\.,,. 1)r1 .1ti.ti.r lt97\).,.lrn l ,rJ.j (rr7.r.
V. TIIT A(;1] OF
loDi.,,) n,H..,r.c 1). A. Jr.lur, lirn (;tr.1 /|d,k"n

tlorrdnur. Rrl re7:. 6llI.i w. Moo,r, -'1,.. (;n1 1.'1,/ anl Iatu'!alhy lt L,(\) Ltltl.


K. SchrucrLrurg, R,\'/


6ortil J.

LMr(r^N1\,\\1) IMrrAroRs

NiL.r.n.\ l'i,.h)i,1.\ I)r;)r.r (i. M. ,1/,1 lx!i, Ir rlu

E. .4lllI1'hit( L(kytLri

lJr rNcLrsrs II


l. lhxrdnru. lrs,l xlvn. rod.; A. l). Urc. /HS lxxx. r.)oli,.r,cll\xxii, r-lrifil, B1(lS !i, li-. rDd xii. -r.rlt., /ls,l l\riili l). vor Borhnr.r, -V.Ir.,V/^.


B. A. Sprrk.s.-/FtS

l\x\vii. r:rlt:

.hs j, 6i I). C. Krttz, ltln


Lhcus J lJorrdnrin. (;,rrlr orrr,,?r (,eNo) :6ji (lt'l Hcidclbcrg ir. t;l: I M GDk. '/7r Truil
(r971) rrI A. Wriblinscr. ti,dr.oDnrg. (lli\ iDilvsis .1. Bo.rr(lDr,rr. /J.S/ l\\ili, 167i1-.

e7 \).

VI, T]IE LA I LS 1 BI-A(]K i:I(]UIII, 11. lhrp.l!. l8l-.1,s.6.7i 1' N. Ur., Sir,r,rirl /i/i],(nt ty trtt.ty lt. Rhit!or,r (i9r7) iefili airtrl, xjii.

IX, SIJAPIS l- I). Crsk.v. ( ;i!,.r'),

al. M. A. R(.ht(,.



l:dj.J (rer-:)i

l)nr)r l'j,rirllcr Il. lt. W Srrrirh. tlt Ihrttr





\o,, Llorhjjr.r..tA ii. ir1.


Athcrr Prnrtcr S. Kdon,o ir) Kdn.j (Srlonikr.

\ 8tl_.


M. M. Li$nr1r.,'U.l lxxv, roo.


(r9rj): M G Kr.o\ ski. al,!rd,r!r,r (lh\i.di().... (r9s4): M Moor. io,1q.r,:r. +ft-.i1). A. AnrIx. /J.if \\vi]. r rJ4H. r,riri$:.4//!1rr!,,1.(,,,d \ii ( r e7o) phnr (rr7o)i FL\.,, irrd Il. C. A. It(,ttl:i1,d(,. lr.rd..,x1r), xii, ril91l: strD(hr (lsrtior.


r dr,/

Nn,r,l,r rlrlx,,i rr





h. Ktrrydi.


l\\vii. roiit.
lla1i\t tlnn



.luylutttt (rNer)r t). rorr lnrt]rnrcr. .l/ I \lriri. r.rH.: ,lrl .l/\ \ji. ].)ri.

Ihrcrsclr. ^NrIrorr^r, tynltLttittu


llo.rrJrrrr. .llr1,i,u/ ft.,/ /ri(,,. l'J:,ii ,r. .l,,r,ir

A. l1i.hL(.r. .1 iL linl 1:i.\\|!l L/j.J (rejN)i.1.


K. P.rcrs. .Srir/r ,


ALrbrstron H. l. Arg.nrcicr. l)dr


:r r.rl\M


Anlpho[c H.


l]lo.sch. /F/-s lx\r. reii-.: R. I-ulli.j



,4K vii, 85ff As 'kados'

Antiqua (Lnztrn)

t3t. Aryballos,4Kxii,pl.S.r with



Cab. M6d.

zaj rnd lru Il.



two handles;

Bothm$, Mddid Mitt. xii, t25. llronze v,ses W. Lamb, Creek aad Ronat Btunzes (r929); E. Djehl, Die Hydri^ \rs64t BelL. Metr. Mus.
196r, r 38f. - psykrerCrrters - H. Hn*eL D r Cie'sener Kehhkrdkt \1s67) j 81T. - calyx craters; S. Karouzou, BCH lxxix, r q6f.

'tretqt'tligutqa, (roro) o r. Vasetotalta und der 2kil,:?r,rgcx l'/urri& (bhck figure), r7f. (carly red 6gureand rhc SiphuiaD Treasry), a3li: (kalos namer. E,rly brrck 6gurc ,nd Corinrl, I'aync. Nrrrororin-

I)ATES glor/.

Corintlrian preccdcnts H- Paync, Neercwifihia

t Zt,tb?ltinmut,g tet

(,93 r) ch. ro.

ANIMALS AND MoNS'rrins S. Vos. S, yllri,n ,1r.r, rr

196j, 8Joe; K.J. Dover, Creek Hohto:cxudli|)' \1978). Slippering -J. Boardmai, AA ts76,2a6ff.


Hippalektryon G Can)po-eale. ALh. Cla,., xix.


SloRr andA,imr5p\

H. A. H.trrit, (jftek Athktcs lrsTsJ.


N. Garctiner, ,4rrlzri.s oJtht A eiut World (ts3o)l

- H. Bloesch, Fornetattischu Schdk \19ao)tF. Villard, RE4 xlviii, r5em Dhoi - R. Lulties,,4K xiv, Jon Epinetra D. M. Robnrsoq 4,4 xlix,48of.; G. Brkahkn, Ojl, xlv, Bcibl. r99tr Funerrl vases D. C. Kurtz andJ. Doardmal, Creel
Burial Cunons (1971).


(raJ r) jaaff. E. Br,rn, Ath?aian Ago'a viii.1. z'. Srnyma -J. M. Cook. 8S,4 liii liv, 29. MrrrGorr - t HJspelr. 4BL or l. t3qt.: AAA iv.


248tr Sphhxes

- H. W

ter, Antile rurd Abendland ix,



runulu-: rlre



questiorll]ble). Athens - Athenian,4gora Acropolis +23tr.

Lion figlrts J. Boardman. Athan Geek Gen' 12ttr. Frontal ch:rriots - G. Halier, Viugtlpan e nt Vordo-


a,ri./rr (I9.18). summary


G. M. A. Richter, The Craft oJ Athotian AA \969. \41. Ships -J. S. M. Morrison and R. T. williars, Greep Oared Ships \1968); L. Cassoi, Ships and Seand ship (r97r) rndJHS lxxviii. r4ff. pirates?: K. SchaueDburg, ,4( Beihcft 7, 3a.
Potety (1923)t REtlcIoN A. B. Cook, Zcrr (rer4-4o) prssin, for cult md myth sccncs; L. Deubner, , Fcsk (r932); w. Durkert, C/ccl Rel,j,ol, (re8i).
rJ 8lT.

Rcvisionism ADswered

- w.

D. Dinsnoor, ,4J,4 xxxviii, aoslT.




Boardman, ,4,4


Hytuid (re64.


see amphorae (Blocsch);

E. Dichl, Dir



P. Courbin BCH lxxvi, 3641r. L Scheibler, //I lxxix, ?2li: and ,4,4 1968, J. Borrdman, BS,4




Lckyrhos E. H:spels,,4BL-


M. M. Eisman, AJA lxxvli,7ltr.

liii liv,


Lolrtedon D.

Kallipolitis-Feytmrns, Ler lorrlrid

H. Himmcimarln, Erza M:< tud Fktit in der archaiv then Kunst (r967)t J. Boardman, R,4 1972, J7f. political symbolisnrJHs xcv, re; R,4 t97a,227tr; ,4J,4 lxxxii, lf., Ane. Crcek and rclated Pottery (Ansterdam r98j) 239f4

(ed. w. MooD re83). Dress pattems A. Kloss, Mrt. /er tuil. v.8ofi: Drcss pins P., C/cl]& P,'nr (rej6) ro6f. Fountain houses B. Dunkley, BS,4 xxxvi, r4zf.; R. B alanau ti k( (t s62).

Sec bibliosraphics


,4rc. Geeh


d leano{aphy


- V.

lVrcde, ,4M liii, 66fr

J. Boaidman, BS,4

xlvii, 34f. and liiiJiv,


GiIoLi! Slaves N. Hi:urelmann,

Burial W. ZschieEnann. AM 1iii,

attitves (1965)

Loutrophoros E. WalterJ<arydi, ,4M ixxviii, goli ABV 26,2i-

Cestures H. Kemer, ,vcirc, mtl

gtiechischea K',,$t (1960);


C. NeunanD,


in du

Atrhaologsch?s zun Problen der sricchischcn Sktueti (197 t). Sdlts F. Brommer, ,4K xi, Jofll Negroes F- M. SDowden. Bhcks ii Antiqsity ltg7o). Horscmcn and horscs, fronral K. Schauc,lburg. ,4,4

,Sl l. jrtri D. C. Kurtz

Bffial Atsb : \ts7l).

r7lT.;J. BoardJ. Boardman,


,{,?c. Crcek


Women sh:rhg a


MJsro. H. Palnc. N.,ra, tnthia ttt: l(X PJ t.r Bothmcr,JHS lxxi, 4o1T. Phiale H. Luschcy, Die Phial, 1t93 . Phornriskos O. Touchefeu-Meynier,

Ccbilrd \1ebi.

Pclikc D. von
93tr. Plate

Ocno.hoe K. l'}eten,Jdl lxxxvi, ro:{L

ABV 23\ to \Pdru rcq. Red-black greaves Cr,4 Munich vii,

Mistakes and mixed




38 and

4r; Herakles,

j3ri; K. Schauenburg,

cloak M. Guarducci,

w. Moon re83).


dnd teo osnphy

,4M liii, Mlxxi,68f.| AA te't6,zLStr.

The nyrhological tudcxes to,4BIland Pdru are basic

sourccs for sceircs o:r attriblrtcd vascs.

rcenes K.

J8, pls. 3i






Ixxxv. 28fl.

S des

A. M.

Snodgmss, Atnls dntl

Affiaw of the Creeks

F. Brommer, VdseDlkte'1 zlh gtieehisehen Heltensage (r97J) lists also unattributed vases rnd gives a brief bibliography for each scene.
uscful sources are W. H. Roscher, .4rrr,irldct rtieehisehe utd ftjnk.len M),thologil (1884-1937) now scriolrsly outdated; E"ci.lopdi, dell'Ate anna (r9j8 1966); Lexnon der olten WeLt (Artenis Verhg, re6j) - ror rcccnt rcfcrcnccs; E. KU]1ze, Archaisdrc Sdtildbrrlc ( r gJo) ror Pcloponnesian scenes rnd general discussion; E. Haspcls, ,4Bl.i Lutitot Ineoflographial'll Mytholoriae CL$shae (r98r ) for full illustr.ted accomlts offigures rnd myths. ln thc followirlgDotes Ireferco usefulmonognphs or collcctions of pictures, refetence should also bc


PIaques, disc D. Krllipolitis-Feytmans, ACH lxxix, 467tr. PLqrrcs. Iirnera, y - J. Boardmru. 8S,4 l. s,6. Plaqucs, 11. Cmef and E. Langlotz, Di? d rihet Vaset wn det Aktupalis z't Ath?n Gsz5) nos.


D. Kallipolitis-Feytmus.
oires 11e75).


plats attiqaes

I,rr/r s,rdic, (rgoe); L. Gtiilf,del, Dic Daddl LauJens h du sriechischat K,,,r/ (re34).
Pcrspcctivc G. M. A. R;.c\tet, P?\peetire
and Ronan


E. Schn:,idt in Mirchntr archaalo-




Slriclds G. Lippold itr Mii thtd

Painhg Os6i.

J. G. P. Best, Thrueia pebnlts (r96q. - S. vos, Scythiall Arehe$ in Atchdic Attic









Greifenhagen, Jb. Bttliner Drougor. Der dllir.r. Psyktet \r975).


iii, 92; K.

D. BeAzley, Crcek



J/I lxxx, 76i A. Muft?, iii, r23f.; S.

in Balto ii,61.

- B. Philippaki, The Artic Srdn as \1967). Staidlet - Athenian Agord x;i. 1'79f. Stards - L. Talcott, Hejl v. J9fr Impoltanr publicatiorls of large collections (Dot in CIl,4) represcnting all shapes rDd styles fe:
E- Langlotz, Cti?ehisehe Vasen il1 Wiirzbutg (t932). C. Alb;zatt;,, Vasi antitli dipinti del Vatnn o\t92519). P. Mingazzini, Vasi della Collezione Cdstelk li (t93ol h Villa Giulia Museunl. Rone). T. CarFcnter, Srmmary Cuide to CVA \rs84 6str. nldicrres Cr'/,{s wilh coDentratioDs of particulrr

(r8ea);L. H.Jetrery. 'lrc Loedl Seript' oJ Archaic Creeee (re6r). Krlos names - D. M. Robinson :nd E. J. Fluck, ,4 Stutdy olhe Creeh Low NanrJ (r937). Lstsh,4Bland Para. K. Schauenblrrg, Cymnsium lxxvi. 49f. gods and heroes (addnrg Lero, C/,4 Ncw York iii, pl. 3z).

Kretschmcr, Die gricchischen Vaseni'\ehtiften

strdicr (reoe). warrior's cleparture w. wrede, /M xli, 22rft Armed dancers J. C-Ponf t, BCH xcii,55of.
'w'tNti, woMljN, aoYS AND soNG Komasts A. Greifenhagen, Eiac dttiyhc .f/nhe! Dtana
gzt)) , E. B|oschor ,

rutire Vasenratt"ng lr

w!e' lreTr).
Cftek and

(reaj); A. Seeberg, Cotinthia

'ehwntzjSatyfinzc w

Munmers A. Pickard-Cambridge,
Festtual! of Ath? s (1988);
RonLan Theatre

The Drtmdtic
aJ the


R. Hrckl iD Milrhner drchaoLog\ehe Studkn

Vases GsTs).
a scparatc

M. Bieber, Hktory


a Cfttk

... A. FrnwangLet lrsasJ;A.W.Johnston, TruderldrAs

rcBisrcr, Ctl,4 Louvre vi, pl.


As61); F. Brcmmer, ,4.4 dolphtu ridcrsiJ. BoardmaD, BICS v. 6f.


(re66) mainly earlier;


Schefold, Myth dnd Leretd itr Larly Ctcck Art

Cdtter nnd

Hcldutsd( dtrCr.

Inscriprion in

Ituiin lctrcrs Jctrcry, op. cit.,297; 'Srl],ian' - Metr. Mus. Bull. 1969. +121. E. Homrnn-Wcdckhg. Archdivhe Vase\o anentik (1938) 37li: H. R. W. Smith. The Hea$t Hydtia (reaa): t'. Ircobslhal, or ankrtc lriechbcher Vase (Lsz7), D. C. K$rz. Athellio Whnc Lekythoi \rs7i),

Symposia l. M. DcDtzcr. RA 1971.21Str. cf. G. M. A. Richtcr. The Fureitutc oJ the Crcaks, Etrurars a priechische Romdtls (t966)t B. Felxr, Otientalische
Celd[e (rs7
r) .

H. von Steuben, Fiitu Sage da$tclh qc ilt Koti tlt '\d Att \Nt N) wrrh vrlrr.rt'lc corrl,.rrrriv.
For the stories in literarure scc rny Chssicrl crrcyclopacdiai H. J. Rosc, Hd'rll,ool ol ()\\'k Mytlll'lily (r960); Apollodorus (Locb Libr!ry trlllrsl LnnrwithJ.
THE GoDs E. Simon. Dis


Music- M. Wegner, Mxsihges&i&te in Bilden 11964. Da! Melikleber der Ciecl'e ($a9). Love-makhg - G. Vorberg, Clolsatiun Erotic n (1965). Honosexunlity - J. D. Beazley, Some ,4rln
Valesikthe CWLts

M setln.6fir

K. Schxllcnburg, .4,4

Cotrl da Crid



,r.rr i iii (rer4 re4o). ThNdcrbolts 1,. Jicobsthal, D.r Blir: (r906). Bjrrh of Adlenir A. B. Cook, Ze ! i;i, 656tr; F. Lirommer. Jb.R6m. Crrn,. 7cnfllln,u,r,,,,,. \r,.
A. B. Cook,



vlan, Ld Crctrc




Cld,ii (r95r);

KtnlpJ der Ciittet u d Titd


l)6ris md O.


THrsrus E. Kunze. Atthats.hc Schildbd del r27tr.i C. Dngas Nd R. Flaceliare. Thlsie, Imdpe! ?t Rhits (tssg). ,]nd Hclcn L. Ghali-Kahil. Les L.nllmots et le rctottr

Shrucnburg, J./l lxxxv, 461T. Hector's Body tr. T- Vonlculc, ts,//. Mrr. /;nx, .4 ij. Borro, lxiii, 34fa; K. P. St:ihlcr. Crd, xrl PIl,./,c ./.I

lxv lxvi, rrr.


Birth of DionysovHephaistos
(Ie36) Ii31I.; goddess o,r bull

- H. Fuhrnrmn. JdI - w.
Techrlu,J,/l lii,

de la Cosre Messeliirc, Au Musie de Delphe!

Drommer, Hrrrll?r (r9j3) on thc Lrbours; HeratlA II ( rqsa) orhcr rydls. F. Bromnler, Denk^nletlistd zu yieehiyhet HeLden rdj? i, Heraklcs (r97r) bibliogrrphy aDd lisrs of scencsl1o,on vascs. Lucc's earlyarricles Gecbclow) are still useful but his lnts arc incomplete. v. Lion S. B. Lucc,,4J,4 xx,46off; benr sword

d'Hllinc \1e5i 3o5tr. and Antiopc D. von Bothmer, ,4nazans


Sleep and Creek

11957) r241tr.


M.J. Milne. B,ll. Mett.



r953, Achillcs arning D. von Bothmer, r,/1. M,r. Ftue ,4rtr, BoJror xlvii, 8J6. R,n,or, .l Hecro, - J D. Ucrz[1. B,4B"r,/r x\ix.

Deatlr C-Pi.ard. Cannc 1?? roltr

ry67) .





Niobids R. M. Cook,

Niobe n d hd Childrclt (re64l H. Hoffmann,,,l,4 r960,77: K. Schauenburg, K,srr nr



Schauenburs,J/Ilxxx, e7n

6j.1i gutting - Mllnich j63; K.


a[d Gorgons R. Hampe, ,4M lx/lxi, :85fti;

/ebel . . .

K. Schiuenburg, 2.8.,s (1960).

Psyclrostasia J. D. Berzley, Bojld, Vases ili, 44tr. Achilles v. Mennrotr -J. D. Belztcy, Bosta Vases;;,

v. Hydra F. Bromnler, MWP| tt)+9, 3ff,:,

Amandry, Bull. Fat. des Letne!, Snasbotur< K. Schauenburg, ,4,4 r97r, r62fi-. v. Birds E. Haspcis,,4Ba 27.


A. Creifenhascn, Jh. Berliflet Muscc ;. 5tr. Kahil, Mlld,g.' Mnhdbulki lts66) a8t tr.
Wandel det Herncs*nah


Bcsig, Gorgo und Corro&ion (r9t7); T. G. KaraAio$ha. Catreie Kephdle (re7o); V. PoulseD. Meddr-


Menelaus regatus HelcD L. GhaLi-Kahil, l-r eflltrrnents et le retoal d' H(Lt'i. (r95j); P- Clcmcnr, HeiI


xxv, rJtr

v. Btl]1 U. Hatlsmam, Rdjefljethet

v. Ceryon P. A- Clement. Hf? xxiv. rf.; C. M. Robertson, Clasica/ Qrdrerli, xjx, 2o7n:; B.
(r,,(v) uvrr.

P. As


T. J. Durbabin, Studies
rlT. (early type);


xxvii,471T. Death ofPrian M. l. Y/icrckc, ,4J,4

der auischan

Rohi sot ii, 11641T.; F. Brommcr, M l,I/P/ r952li4, if.; K. Schauenburg,Jdl Hlller, Belkrcpho (\97o).

Vasnnakrei \r965).

j./ xii, Iof. w;rscd K. Schaucnburg,




N. Gialouris, AErs53l4,)i. t62tr.

H. Hoffmann,-/b. Ha rb"ryet Kunnsdr1nlt1l1-

C),&,ari,,r lxx, , r4f. Whgcd boots N. Girlouris, BC-H lxxvii, 293tr


Neutsch, Ca"y,,ed (r9a9) 29fr Hcspcrides and Atlas - F. Bronher,JdJ lvii, rojlT. Helios G. J.copi, Boll. d'Atte xxx,3etr. v. Amazons D. von Borhmer. Anazon! itt Cft& Att
Oe57). v. Nereus, Triton

and,4,4 r9J8,2rli; D. Ohly,,4M lxxvi, M. L. Schmitt, ,4J.4 lxx, l4rtr; S.

K. Schancnburg,,4,4 r97r. r 62ff.

K. Schruenburg, Cynnasint \xiv, z.totr.

Davrcux, Ld Ltrude de La proph&asse Cassa re (rgaz); J. l). lleazlcy, Borrofl ,/ds.r iii, 64li; K- Schauenburg. RM lxxi, 63fi Arrr.r. ,rrnr. An.hi\. K. sch:ucnburg. t-larraJnfl lxvii, r76ff.: Ixxvi. 4zlf. Achilles and Ajax playins - K. Schefold, J,/I lii, 68lL; J. D. Bcazley, Borrofl l/drer iii, 2tri E. Diehl, aclh,.r M,r..x xii. l)ff: s. wooJford.JH\,'ii. r,,lT.

Ajax rrd K:rsudra


lviii, 28jf.


F. Brommcl,JlUlii, r98ft

G. Ahlberg, H.

-I.,llnschot. drl rre S.a-noxrd (r9s4): R. clynn.



O. ToucheGu-Meynier, Tltincs odysluB tian\ I'dt

dntiqrc 0e68).
de s Po

Scc Dionysos.

P. Bruncau, tsCH ixxxvii. jo9f.; J. Wiesrcr, ,4,4



U. Hcinl,crg, Ddr Bild r/u

Vasennglerei (1968)
See Zeus.


de( *tieellnehen

AJA 8s, 121ff. v. Cc,,.Jurs, Ph.,lo. P.V.C. Urur, C,,r,drrr n, Ancient Ai (rstz\ K. Schaucnburs. ,4M Ixxxvi,4Jn c. Ceras F. Brommcr, ,4A 1952.6atr. v. Alkyoncus B. Andreae,Jdl lxxvii, r3of. v. Iturkopcs P. Zancani-Montuoro, Henio alla Fo.s del Sele ii, rSJf. v. Kykros F. Vian, RE 4 xlvii, Jff.; hoverins bolt Atft late Pdinting! in NcL2 E fland 48f., Canella i pl.

dc la Costc MesseLare, Au Musie de Dclphe' (r%6) r2off; D. vor Bothnc., B ll. Mus. Fin Att\, Bostott xlvi, 42tr; It. Blattcr, .4L v, 4jlii K- Scluucnburg,

h e


Fellnann, Dir


ab c tt


Darsttll rut
xix/xx, 2r2tr

AA 1962,765tr. C. D^ltrop. Die


Sirens B. Candidr, Srrdi

\ t e7 2).

Clasl. ? Or.

Ka\,doniyhe Jdgd

Amazons D. von Bothmcl, Anldzo t iu

(,si7). Nikc.



Attributes A. B. Cook.

Zeus iii, 747f.1 M. H. Groothand, 8,{acrr/r xliii, 3 jli: Wnrgcd J. lloardnlan, Archdn Crcek Cefls rcof. Attackcd by

v. Acheloos


-H. P. lsler,,4rkloos (rqzo); S. B. Lucc, ,4J,4 xxvii. azjfl.;1. N. Loraro, Kledrlror viii, 13rff. v. Ncssos - P. Courbin, aCH lxxxvi, 3478:
Hcsione F. Bromm.r. MWPI rqJJ,4tr; E. Diez,

I'crr ix,7tr.

R. Lullies. Fertirlrf s.i,weitzu (resi, 4atr. U. Hausr]1ann,Jb. S/dar. K,ttstsdnnl- Batl?n Wiinen-

Arisuios B. F. Cook. Btll. Met. M

Hr I ROIAN LYCIL K. F.Johmsen, The tliad h Eatly Crcek

satyrs Hrspek, .48L

xlv, Beibl. r7off.; A. Lcsky. Anz. Ostett. Akad.



\Vith Eros i. D. Bcazley,,lHS xlix.26zf


Mistrcss of Animals C. Christou, Potnid Thetun (1968); E. Spartz, Da! Wappobild ds Hum nntl det



P. Jacobsrh:r1, ,



Kithara playnrg - C. Dugas, REC 1vii,6rff.; K. Schauenbu, JdI lxxvii, s8f.; bcsidc altat CVA Tarquinia i, pl. r2.3.
with Arhena -J. D. Beazley,,4Kiv, 5511'.; G. Bcckel, Ciitterbcital)d in det BiLd bfliaft [ priecllncllet HeltL sarer Ae6t). Eurytos G. M, A. Richrcr, ,4.1.4 xx, r3oli; K.

J. Boardman, RA t9?8, zzttL Prometheus S. K^ronzon, Aggek tou Andglromtos (re63). Introduction to Olynr pu s - P . Mi119tzzi1i, Mtn. Atti dei Li eei 1925 6,4r,]R'.;J. Boardman, RA rsj2,6oE.


Weddnlg of t clcns and Thetis M. Heidmreich, Mitt. ies. Inn. !. r34ff. Aclillcs raken ro ChiroD K. F. Jolunsen, D/a.(na



Nrtr (re6e). Centaurs I'. V. C. Bau. Centatts h Aneient At (rer,). IkiDc'us K. Schaucnburg, AA 1962,745ff. saryh F. Brumm(r. .sd,/roi ( rl7): S. K ,ro,r?ou i,,
Kc,ror (Salmika, re7,) J8rt (armed); J. Doardnar,

t-n ,rd wirgcd wollr(n C







JudBcmcnt of l,atis

Troilos M. Heictenrcich, Mnt-

a"tike K,ltst lt95t).

- C. Clxir oni, D0'


Pa],l!ftt?il nl

Arhan Crcck CMs 11968) J7r. (csr. SilcDos F. Bronncr,,4A 1941,37tr-



Brommer. MdrrwrerJb.Jin K,m'twtsse sehal

st.iv, ro3tr.K.




Mllanrsr lxii,



N. Hinlmclman., MLlPr r96(r,4rffi H. Kn.ll, Die D stell sr id Cij eludsdnnrl t,q (1965).

1*vii, r6ze with Saryrs F. Brommer. Sd4,,ryielc (r9J9) 7rtr sacrifichg l. D. Bcazlcy, BoJro, I/"s.J iii, 8tr
Fittschen, Ci,n,dJnlfl


Hanovcr, Kcstncr Muscuni

Munich, Antikcnsurmlung.n t432- AIJV 102.98.

Fun.l. tlonr


Viri /1lltl ria,


r9j4.,lr. Pdr.28, rbis. Photu

Frorrirp ir,.. Vrtican Museums 344,





London, Bruish
r 81,

Musurt B
,4tsr7I, I. 6l

Berlin, Sttlatlichc Musccn r7o4. fronr Cacrc. ,4Br 96.

Arh.Ds, Agora Muscunr P r2a)2il.,4BIl r Ji, 64. l)horo

fronr Mclos.

lrom Vulci. ABV t45,




F.l(.L,sis sis.

- Hirncr.

LoDdoD, Mrs RusscU.,4tsr

- Mllscunr.


Athcrs. Nationil Muscum r 6 t j4, f(nn V.ri. Prf r r, 2.

Athens, V1.sto CollcctioD.


See also

Mnrunr. 1'ronr ElcuH(;rPpls. rr, rl. l'hoto

9, r7. After ,4Bl pl. r.l. ItulI.lo, Albrighr KDox Art Ci.llcry G 600. Atsr t2.22Paris. Louvrc

Florcn.e Muscurn,l2o9, from Chiuri. ABV 76. t; I'dr, 29. I']hoto Hirnlct,

inv. 484r, fron

r4. Photo Muscutli. Bcrlin, Staatliche Mrseen

Londor, British Museum B +zr, from Vulci.,48l t st,




Photo Mlrserm.





2. Pho-

rrd aticr FortwnDglerlacichliold, Cr,tlisrlr I/asrarralrrri pls.3. t t-t z. Adrcns, Acropolis 6()6. ,431l

Phoro Muscunr, rDd rficrJ/Iviii. pl. '. AthcDs, Acropols 607. ,4Ar rlr7. r. Aftcr, (lr:rcl ,4!r.
97, 22.

P.ris, Louvrc

Vulci.,4drl rJ6,8 L Photo

BostoD, MuseulD

75, from





Munich. Antikcns:trnrtthniJl,. gcD inv. 8764. Mi Lltt hildtndu Krnsr xri, tto. Formcrlr Ilcrlin. Steetlichc

(:A 821, fronl Bocoti..,'181, r2, 2.t Photo

r628J, ffonr



Mlserm 7(,7, frorr

8r, r. Aft$, Cracf,,4!r.


Ncw York, Mclropolitrn

I/dr.'r i, pls. 13, rJ.

Arts ro.6Jr. ABY 1t7. 86.



Arher)s, N.rional Muscunl



Elcu\is.,4Br 2r. L Photo (iennrn hrstitutc, Athcns Taranro Muscun ro.$8J,


BcrliD, Stxrtlichc


,4ar r, r. Aticr CI,7

r. z. Phoro

A:+, fron Acgnu.



l. Photo Mr:jcun.

TfcDttun,4lirl trt,


:3. Adlcns. Ker.or.ikos Muscuur lJor, lrom Athcns.,4lllz

Lonclon, llntish Mu\cu r r964.+ rJ. r.-/H.S x.ii. pls.8, r r.. Phoro Mnscun. Athcns, Natirnrl Mnscrrr


Anrstcrdrnr, All.rd l']icrson Museunt r94r. ,481l 4i, 23. Arhcns, Nation.l MLr\eun)

itrv. 482r, fronr Liosl:r.,4Br 8r,4. Photo - Muscurn. ArllcDs, Acropolis 61r. ,44/ 82, r.l'hoto HirDcr.

M0scDr11 3I. r r.rr. ,4BIl r08, j. Photo - MuNrm. Lordon, Bflti$ Mlrscum 1l r48.,48Il ro9, 29. Photo

Kings Pont, Schimmcl Collcction, lrom Vulci- Para 67.


Oxford, Ashmoicau Musetrnr I9l9-1rli. i4Bll IJ7,89.

Paris, Cabinet des M6drillcr 221, fron vt],i. ABV ts2, 25. Photo - Hirnrer.

Bcrlih. St.atlichc
r a,8


s, from Vulci.


Ncw York, Mcropolian

Muscun) ra).49. froDr Aft;(r-

24. After Gcrhard. E/r.

kanp. t/asothiLru pl.


fronr VoLlrva. ,4tsr 24,


7. Photo

- (;cflnaD Lrstitutc,

Jll. ,'18l


ABV a3. 4. l)hoo


Bcrlin, St.xdichc
r7t2, fro1n Vulci.




Boston, Muscun
Arrs or.8027,



fron Orvicn).


Ncw York,
84, 4.


AthcDs NxuoDal Murcunr rooz. from ArhcDs. r'drn:, (,-


l lirmcr, xDd aftcr A 1. Dt kn.ilu i, pl- ,,7. Athens, NrtioDai Muscunl r6-18+, fronr Vari. P,t., l. r3. Photo Muscum, rncl rftcr Karruzou. ,4,qlci t tor ,4ra Adrc,)s, Kcranciko\ Musc-

llhodcs Muselln) joo8. fio r lrly$s. ,{Br 24, L

Ncw York.

lltitish Muscunr u

MLrscNr J6.17r.28. Fletchcr

37. Photo Muscum. 6, Mlrnich, Antikc,rsammlullgcn inv.li76(). Para 46.I)hoto


ABV t52,


Photo Mu-

l8(], liorn Sirni.,4Br 5i,


2:.r39.:r. Rogcrs


Muscnnr. London, British Muscum 1l

I'rnd. fronl T.r.ntnn .4Br :7, 1. Photo MuselD. Pr:tgue U iversri,v L2lto,

lron Nola. lBr ji. j.


t'hoto Muscunr. llrscl, Blocb Collcctur. Pdra 3r. to. Photo Bisel

tron C:rmirus.,4Al'

Berh). Sraalliche Musccn inv. :;:ro, frorr Vulci.,43l Wiirzburg, Martin


Oxford, Ashnlolex Musc


Wiirzburg, M.rrtnl
W.gDcr Museum


ABV 3t,



um 1j4, liorrr Ather\.

1.9. Photo



GernrxD Insri

/Bf lr,


(loriDdr. ,4Atl J7.



Muscunl 7. Photo

llcrln), Sri.tlicllc
1961.7. Jdhtl tth

MrJr., iv, r$.I'jhoro Mu-

ttt llulnw

lltiti$ Mtsclulr t.'- I./d r9, r6bis. aMQ xxxvi, pls. 14 J7.
Adrens, Acropolis r87.

l8 l']iris, Louvrc CA 616, front Thcbcs.,4B, jtl, r22 Phon)


London, British Muscum ll 76. from Crnirus. ,48Il 85, r. I']hoto MusculD.

llostoD, MuserlD of Finc Arrs 2r.2r. ,48Il 84, t.

1966.768. fion Imly. ,{a/ rr-1, 80. l')hoto Mu-

rJr,2r. Phoio Museu,r.



von WagDcr MLrs.-LnD 26J, from

(?). ,4Bz rir,


Arhens, Vlusto CollcctioD,

from Spxta. AtsV tl3.




lltitnh Muscum 97.7 )1.2. ABV 86. 8. Phot<i

London, llostob. Muscum

After Runpf. pl I4.


Brscl, Anrikcnmuso,ut Ki.

42o. Pdrd 65.




Tocra MNcuDr Io27.


Photo Au$or.

Britrir. Privxtc. Photo Widnrcr.

l']aris, Louvrc A 478, froD) Cfi llitlls.,4Br'66, 54. t'hon,

Athcns, Nirtionrl Musctrnr 1jl, fioDr Pirxcus. ,lAIl r. Ali.r,4I r897, pl.6.

19, rs. A[tet




Wnrzblfg, Mrrtin vot

Wagncr Muscnm 4iz. fionr Vulci. ,4AIl 61. 6. Photo

of Fine Arts 98.9r6. fron Vulci. ABV 98, 46. Photo MuLondon. British Muscunr
ARV 97,21. Af97.7 tcrJHS xviii. pl. rs.
,.7.2.. 75

V.ticln Museums JC,9, liorn

C1cre.,4tsr I2r. 7. l'hoto

Munich, ADtikcns.rnnrlungcn ntv. 8763. I']arr 65. Pho-

Prrr, Louvrc E 8q- AllV r20, r. Photo Muscunr.

Oxtord, Ashmolcan Muscu[r rqo, from Gch. ,4l]/

MLniich, Artikcnsanrmllrn-

ger 1468, fron Vulci.,4Brl

i, pl. :6.

r15, 3 eitnrter of (]


Nc$, York. Mcropolitan

4. Photu

JE.r r.

ro, Flctchcr

fion) Cree.e.

l8ll r, lBll9,

Arhcns, Nrtional Muscnrr I J499. lron l'hrtsxlos. ,4tsl J9. r6- Photo E.1il.


I,rris, Lorvrc CA j76. fronr Bocorja.,431.'61, 3. Phot)

14, 16- Plloto

Ignrzburg, Martirr vor


P.lris, Louvrc E 87+. ,{31/ 8,


A&cns, NrrioDiri Muscu 99r, arom Vorrrv.. ,4Brl rll r. Photo (lcnnrn IDstitutc.

New York, Meftopolitrr

Muscum r2.214.3,

Wrgncr Museum r68, iroDl Vulci (?). ,4BIl Iol, ,Ia.


Munich, Arrtikcnsamnrlungcn r169, fron Vtrlci.,4AIl


brldgeaT).Photo Muscum. tsulm, Stearlichc Muscen r698, trom Vulci- ,48I/116,

r. Photo Hirmcr.
l']aris, Lolvrc E 8r7. 7. Photo Muscum.

Athcns. Nrtio l Museu r 995, frorn Vo(r?r. IBIl J9,


Fund, from ncar Nrplcs ABV 69, 3. l'l1oto Mu43

P:rr;s, 97,

HaDrburg. MuscirD fiir

KuDst und (ic$,ctbc r96(). r. Pdld 40. Photo Mnscum.

ll. Irhoto

Lolvrc l.

u64. ABV

Photo Musc!nr. Ncw York, Mctropolitxn Museum 56.r r.r, gift of

r26. J,]. W. C. B.ker. Prrd 66.l']hoto

Oxlokl, Aslnnolexn Mus.UD I96J.]3J, ABV






London, British Muscun) tl

16l, fron Vulci. ,4BIl

r 11,


MnDich, AnrikcnsrnrnrluDgcn inv. 87j7. l1rd 7, tl5-

r. Photo Ccnnin lDst;

llolognr Mls.unr PU ro4, fr(nn Errurir. ABV 7a. 7-

New York, Mctropolihn Muscurn Fletchcr

2iJ. Photo 96

traris, Louvre


F jr.



Vulci. ,4lllr rr6, .re l'li,)r,i

B.rlnr. Snrtli.l)( M!na

r7ro, iorrr Vul.i.

ll,)Jr(ir, M,,{\,,r of FiD. A,t\ e\. r7, llorr (;11x. /,,1f


W.gncr Muscunr +.,6, froDr

Lordor, Ilriush Musc'r,r ll rIo, tiom Vul.i. lBt'ra4, 7. Photo Hi,ucr.

Londou, tsritish Mrr!or B ro9. ,{a I,' r,r4, 8. I'hok) VaLi.aD Muscunrs 144, fioDl Vulci. ,4ts1,'r4j, r3. I']hoto

r. l)hoto Museu,,,.



()\l;tu1, Ash rolcrr M!scNrr rr r, tionr BolscDx.



Vul.i. lAri66, r. l']hoto

B :97, tiorii Cr.rc.

arcr( (?).,18I.'.r6,






IBIl r4i,
146, 2lr.

lloulorDe Mrsernr j jti.


ra\, i. Photo MuscuDi. Mu,rich, ArtiLcrsirrnrlun gcn 2r6i, tlonr Vu].;.,lIt' r7r, r. Pl)on, Mumlr. Munich, Anrik.nsanlmloos(n 2r41, t-ronr V!1.i. -43r r6l, r. l)hon) Muscnn. Vrticrn MllscuDr\ lto. ll:ll,' I ltr, r. l'jhoto Musdrr.


r3l rt1 i:9.rtlo.


rrs. r6. Phoro Muscurr. l'rris, L.o!!r( I roo, ll'onr


Wrgncr Muscur -i9r,


Vul.i.,{Bl'26r, 4r. Pl)ot(l

Ilous.. Pdr, 9lr. 47. l)hom

l).ilrccror lllll

A. l).


WiirTl),,rir. M,rr, r \,,,' Wrgr.i Mun,,,,, t ,\ /1,, , roo. r. ljl,or() M,,n,,,,i Itcr lir, Srr.rtlr, ltc ML rtrr
r9iN.7. /'],r1, r{)l,.tb,\. l'lr(JI()

Tr crclull.

i67. pl)onl


ti.rlir, Stxrdi.h. Musccn r80s, fioDr Vnl.i. lrL" rr3.


VrricrD Muscu,r)s -ijo. |ro Vllci.,.lBl' r4(), r. l)hoio

llorrrc Vilh (ltulir Muunr


Phoro Mus.!!).

Muri.h, Anukc,)srrrr)luD{c,r zlo:. iioDr Vul.r. lBl,' -r94,:rt. l)hoto Hincr LoDdoD, Eritish M!scunr
1l i9o.

Lordor), lJrrush Mus.urn



tr. ,4lJl'216, j. Phon)


/lArtr9,l, rr. Phok)'rgnll, HclrDitrg. Mu




Ncw Yoi k. MctropolitrD Mulcunr r7.2ro.j. tioDl

Vulci. l']dra 7E, r. Phoftr

Srxrd;.he Mrsc.n r6s6, froD Vulci. .4rll 296,

Florerr.c Musc!nr

lionr Orvicro.,l8l,' rrr.




B r-:a), t_roDr Vul.i. .,llJl.' r r6. l'hot1r MLL\.!n). llru$cls. Mu\a.s llo\ x!\ l\ :9r.,.181' -:70, .i-r. l'}hoto

Photo rsti

Arlcshcinr. Sclirvclzcr Col-


Muscunr. l-oDdon. llritidr Muscum


llonrc. Vilh Gluli:t Muscunr

ioj99, flonr

Athers. Aqoti


('.acrc. AtsV

W.l9, l.rom Vulci,4/ltl,97,


lloston, Muscunr




Bcrh1. St.rtlich.

tom rlr. A.rcpol,s

Amcr;.rn School ol (lhs\F Munich, AntikcnsrmmlLur gcn ro41, fiorn Vulci.,liiil

r4.i, trr.

lBr 4i, r9. Photo


Arts 69. ro52. Urrlir(rdr Md.(d:rx,5epr. r97o. Figr. r,9j.

r697, fiom (}crc (?). ,lal 297, r7. l)hon) Muscrnrr. uDr r6l, fion Noltr. ,44trl r99, rr. Photo Mlrich, ADtik$srDrnrlur gcn |7i1, fronr Vulci. ,4Brl :r99, r7. l)hoto Muscu r.

MuscuDr. Musccn

Ilou\to., .lc M6ril (lollcction. I IolliIrnn, /?, (i1rirrii thdt lnl\'l th ,ftn Do r7i. Irhorc .ourrcs) of
O\tbrd, AshDrolcrr Mrs.
unr 5or.
Ll r 5().

Wiir2burg, Mirtii




Wrgncr M!r.nDr 4r6, lroin

6. l)h()t()

4r. Phok)

(liF.sthoDc I I.rll, lionts lc)-l)ivcr)port (loll(ctior).

(lop.nhrg(n, Thor wrlclsert

Athdrs. A.roNlis rj$7 .l),, i6lr Altcr Cincl, ,41,. l{ichnrord, Virgmir 62.r.r r. I)dri r.)9. ]'hoto
()xtbrd, Ash,,,olcrr Musc-

l'ilccton Uni!crstr!


M!!cu,r j.1. ABt' zq, WiiPbnrg, Mrrtnr




-:rr, i. Photo

IlostoD, Muscurr oa Fnr.

Arts 6r. r()7r. 7lr? 69. l)hon)

Lordorr, llrin5h Muiconr

lBI,'24r). 84. l)hon)

WigDc, Muscunr r99. ,'lBI,'

(bpcDhrg.n, Netrnrsl Mu-


Phoro Hirmft.


in! rt966

ri7 O\li,d, Ash,,) Mulen,n

L,\ r965. rra).

uri r166.9i4.

/1x? li6, 8bis.

Pd,d 4rl. Musccn

r, r8r4, fto,r)

Staatiichc Musecn

AtsV t4(,

).2.l'}horo Llir

llcrln,, Studichc

Lonckr,. llritish Muscunr u rr2, from Vu1.,.,'lilLl




Nc\\' York, Mctr4rrliur

Mus.uDr 06.ro97, l\ogcN
lu\,1- ABI' t99,

London, Ilritish Muscurrr B r6r, &o,,, Vul.i. -tBI'

:79, 47.

i. l)hoto


I717, fronr Vulci. il,?r 7j.

LoDdoD, British M!scuD1 B

r. Photo MuscuD. Mur)i.l). Artik.nsin)Dr1uD

Norrhin)p()r), (1.\rlc A\hb), [oDr Enu,'i. l.8l'218,





O\ti)rd, Ashnrcl$n Mun' urr j r r. lB I,':8:, :o. l'jhot,)

Munich, ArtilcrsrnrrrlLrrrScD r,ro7, trotrr



I{rrlsruhc, l}rclischcs t-anenr)useuir) 6j.4J, fiorr V!1-

scD r4r r, t-rom



ldrd 6I.Sbis.l']horo

4:,r. fio,r Vnlci.,48r


LoDdon, Bflrish MusLlrnr

1l r64. [to,D
r4N. tr.

l. Photo Mus.uDr. Wiirzburg, Martil von

Wrgncr ],rr. ,4ts1l r49,5. Photo Ncw York, Mctropolitr,)

MusclD. Eotton, MusLrnr of Finc





l)riv.rr.. P,rd r !r.

Houston, clc Mlnil Lirllcc rion. IIoliirIrn. li, Crlrir

Arrs 9t!.9rtr. ABV 3.6.

P.rlcrnro Mus.uDr V 6io. frorr (lhnrsi. A13l );6..t-

ttu llt\t thdt 'it! r7(). Phoo '10|olcourr.s) oi. Do.


Vrl.i. l/ll


:ro. Phob Mus.urr. London, llritish Muscu,,,

rnv. 1604, fronr (;ordion,

,18I,' 78, r3.

l'hot,) MuseLrr). Ilcrhr, Suadichc Musror


(li..inn.ti, Art
r9j9.r. I)rfu



ind r tlc,

Oatirrd, AshDrol.iD Mu




.17. r

r.j, fioD


zltcr. Pho-

Jrl/iv, pl. a.


A.r.grs. ,4Br


r. l']horo

Chr;st Cburch (Nc!v Zcrland), Un;vcrsity ol (1.,)tcr4r


Munich, ArtikcnsrmnrlLur gcr Sl- 462, fror! Txrcntrrn.


r8o, 4,1.

Phob M!

6', Ro' (l.rpux. gcrs Fund, frorr

Ncw York,

Mctropolnar Mu





Mu,rich, ADtikcrnm hr g.D rlor,I'roD) Vul.i. lri" r5 j. 4. 1']hoft) Hirnrcr. Paris, Louvrc Ii ro4. ftorr


\.onr r97.1. -1,14. ,4,1 r976, ]li rtl Photo Muscum. Brlti,rorc, W.ltcN Art Cillcry 4E.4:. l3t' roi, l T.rxrto Mus.unr jrr jj. (- 1.7 iii, pl.:.t.l,hoto Mu,r. lJrrish Mus.u"r lJ ,fr6. J.115- lxxrrli, pl. 5

tl)7 r9s

Vul.i. ,4llL':i.t,

ll trrj. fi!,r V!I.r. ,4/11' r.l'jhoro Mrs.n,I Nc$,Yo.k. MeropolitrD Mus.uDr +r.Ni. IBIl rllr, r-l.l'jhoto Muscnnr. Vati.rD Mus.Lrnrs .] 8rl. ,81' rsj. 9. Photo M!!c!D.
MuDi.h, Anrikcnsinrnrlun gcn I491. UoI Vul(i. .tBI,'

1. lJhoro


ABl, r<r,


London. Ilrltish Mrscunt Ll r44, fionr Vulci. lAr

3o7. Je.

I-ondor, llritish Mrlcurl

r8r. r.

B 4:r, frorr Vul.i.,4BIl

Txrrrto Mus.unr
:. Phoro MLrs.unr. Wiiizburg. Mrrt;r
Wrgn$ Mrsernr
Wrgncr Muscunr


froD Tir.lnrD.,481,'


l'horo Muscn|r. Brusscls, Mus6er 1lo) rux A r 3o.,4BIl 1o8,82.l)hoto

()xford. Ash,roicx,) Mrsc un) r946.rS:. ABV |sb. 1'

um 7o. lionr Trrquirir. /l/j I,' rjj, $. l']hom MuIJostoD. Muscunr

Moscos, Hi\toricrl Musc

r6. 7.



MuDi.h, AnrikcDsrnrnrluD gcD r+I7, Eonr Vulci. ll]I,'

167, Il6.


Iioston, Muscrr) ol_




jlll. ,,liil.' .1ii,




l)hotir Muscrm. l)hoto Mus.urr.

dcs Ma.lrillcs

143. l',ir1r

9l. r. Photo Mu-

MuDi.h, Anrikcnsrnrnrlungcr r4r4, tlonr Vtrlri. l/il,'

-167. N7.

Arrs ,8-92o, I_rom Vulci.



t. Photu Mu-

4|. Wiirzbtrrg, Mrrtni


LoD.lon, 1]rirsh MusLrnr


B +zt, lroD V!lci..,1ijl./

Oxtuk1. Ashn,olcrD Mus.-

London, Brltish Muscurr B jS6...,lijl- r9j, r-t.l)hoto London, llntish


Muli.h, Antilcnsrr!,,rlungcn rJ7J, fioD Vul.i lB I,'

-:56, r6.

Hcidclberg Unrvcrsii! Mu

Munich, Anrikcnsrurnrlun


256, r9.


Wiirzburg. Mftnr loD

B 4er. froD VLrl.i. lBI,'





l'horo Mus{nr.

rlil '1onnrto, lLolil ()rLrrro MuscuDr 211. l),n, sl, r7.

scum r77, tlorr Ath(n\.11r" 93, r. Pl)ot() Muscf D.

gcn r7oo, fronr V(lci. lli l' 16.r, r7. l)hoto M!sc!n). t'rris, Crbinct dcs Midrillcs

rji. lioD Vnl.r. lrl'Jr,r.



Ph()ro Munrnr.



tsoston, Mnseurr ()i lrir. Arts ar3.,17t. /),x? r64, rrl,,s.



Lo.dor), Ilritish MuvL,,

B l2l, fronr Vulci. ,llll 36r. ll. Phoo Mus.nrr. London, Brnish MLtscrrr ll lr4, fronr Vul.i. l3l' l6cl, i:. l'hoto Musetrm.

,,.J rell l'horo



(:.,btct drs Mattrilles


Mllscu ) (lll 61957tro:, tr+.


AIJL, l/,i..Srxx

l)horo Muscl,m. London, Eritish

t7-t. ABV 47t, tt7.





()xiin(1. An[,ol..r! Musc !ri r4o. .lBl, -r.1i, rr. Pho()

ftom Mrmrhon. ,4i]/-

l-onrlor, llritish Muscurt B roo, lionr Vul.i. lBr t2+, t9. Photo Muscu,rr.

r.l, oxlo . Adrrolcin Musc umrjo.IBLrr6.2. Photo

New Hxvcn, Yrlc Universrry Mfscnnr

:trr, r. Aft.r ,'lBl. pl. ro.r. Srn.usc MnscuDr t4jar. frollr Gcii. ,1lrl 2r2, L Afrcr /81- pi. ro.r.


To$ D. Sourh Atricr Muscrnr. /ltri 186 Photo

fio,r ( )l) rrl)!s .l/ll .rs. rj. l)hok) Mr!1,,r Loncl(,i, llril rslr M1 "1,,i


Copcnhrgcrr. Nx(k),,.,1 M1r


iiiv. rl76i. /'rr



Lordon. llritish Mrscun

It 3j6.,,lBL r45, 8tt. !hok)
r 2<)t


Muscums4r8, fronr Vulci. ,4Br 319, r. l'hot(,


Athcns, Nationxl Mrs.!Dl

.r89. ,181/ joo,

H.ll. UDivcrsitv
ABV t1a.

v i6lr.


A t-ricr 27E

Vaticrn MuseuDs 4ir2, fronr

la /


ARL 1z1.

r6-1,4j. Phok)

Londor, British Mlrru


J29, fronr Vulci. ,4?lr r14,

Paris, Crbnrct dcs M6cLillcs

26rl, from (laDii.!rs.,4Bt' I7lJ,2j3. Photo Muscrnr. llerhr, Stratlichc MusccD 18J I, fioDr Vulci. ,4Br 18.t,


l)ara t47-



r. Aftcr,4!Jorii vii. pl. r. Edmblrrgh, l\o\?l S.ottish Mlscunr L224.u79.,4I1l2r7, r9. Photo M!{uD.

Crpc Town, SoLrth

Nrtionrl Musurm r29. froD Erctria. l8lAftcr,43i. pl!.4r, io.

Muscu r 6. I1tu -:16. Phoro

166, r. Nationxl

O\rord, Ashnrcl.iD Musc

unr 2r2,

Tolcdo, Musctrrr ol




-13 r, i. I)hoio Mlscum. Oxtord, Ashnolcrn Musc-

iror, (licrc.,4al.' rrll. /aLl lli,


Oxrord, Ashmolc.n Muscum i:,16. /nL 217.20. l'ho-

Musc!trD 4 r.16r.::9, fio,I Atticr. lBl- r2aJ, ar.

Ncw York,


Muscum j99. ,4iJL tr68, i6. Al-ter l8l-

London, British Mus.nnr

B 658. ,481.269, 67. t)hoto

London, British Mrscurr B r30, fro,)r AthcDs. lBr 89, r. Phoro Musclnr'. London, British Muscunr Il r34. fionr Vulcr.,4all l,r. r. I'horo Mnscurn.

London, llfltish Mlscum

t] 619. .4iil- trr7, rll. l)horo

Munich, Antikcnsanmlun gcn r4J.], fronl Vulci. /fir




Lonctiu, Brltish Muscutn W'f :ro. lBl- 2 rq, 6i. l)holloston. Muscum of Fmc Ats 76.4r. ,4BIl .r78. i. Tolcdo, Museum ol Art r)-1.27. Cift of Edw cl l).
Libbcv. /rdrd 257. l']l)oto

Adrcns, KcrirDeikos Mus. tti\. ABL 266.6. A.(tat ABL



9E87, ra)9.

Terinto MuscuD i1)v.

r9j8.69. G;tt of Bdwird 1). Libbcy. i1r. r6N, .rbis. Pho-

Toledo. Mnsctrrn

N.$, York.


Muscur) 49.r1.1, Rogcrs

Fu,rd.,4Atl 184. I9. l'horo W

of Art (lilt ol Edwxrd l). Libbcy. turd L19. r tbis. '1.r.} Muscunr 1l(l
6E47, fron)


Adldrs, Nrtionrl Mus.!nr ij2. ,,lB/-::7, r7. Al-tcr,4illt,l I5 l.

fionr tLrm. IBI/

Crpe TowD, Solrth Africr

Muscunr. Pdrd rlr2. llorrd-

r rl. Phoro MuscuDr. Ncw York. Mcropolrtrr

2r34.,48L 2rl, il. After

Adrcns. Nrtorral Muscunr

nun rnd lbpc.


London, Brttish Musc!nr


,48I, r84, ro. Photo

VrticrD Muscunls 4 r.1. Alb; ztlti, Va \i Mtihi dll l/ dtitr.

il, L I)hom Mus.nDr. Oxtord, A\hnrolcrr) Musc!nr r63, t;oD llhodcs.,43r


Trrquili.. lB


Adrcnr. Nrtiorrl Mlsctrnr 4jo.,llJl- r29, 59. Phok)

Paris, Louvrc MNlJ roJ ,4Bi- ::r!, Jtl. Photo MuLrusrnnc. (;il1et Collcction. Pdr, r47. Ktrrrz rnd Ilorrdr84

pl. 34).

h Cap. ld,l pl.2r8.


Muscunr 07.2i16.8o.,48f


Ncw York, M.oopolitrn

Museum alR s29. .48rl6.)2,

lol Lcidcn,
,1o4. 9.

.169, r r4.


xv.i.79. t-rom Vnlci.,4tsll


Londou, Britislt Muscum r90:.r: rlr.l. ABL 219. 9.

Phon) Muscrm. LoD.lon. British Mus(LIn

3o: Bcrlm, 30t


ro. 4r l. Plloto Muscnnr.


Ncw York, Mcropolit.r Mrleum 46.r r.7, Pulit,cr

Bcqucst, turm Vulci. .431u 43,1. l. Photo MrscuD.




Karlsr!,he, Brdischcs LxrF

Atlrcns, A.ropolir I:8r. ABL 4a, a9. Afi.r (;r.ct, Akt Vt\t i, p|.74.
Pxris, Louvrc F 34::.,"lBI-

I] 2iJo, fron Vul.i. l8tl J89, r. Photo MuscuDl.

42-:. li.

Staxdichc MusccD r8.]2, lionr N01.. ,481.'4.:)il.



BologDr Muscunr

6i.r4. /)flr I7I,

nrrir, L-ft,l B0n, C,Jrr,,r



A!chen, L!ds,ig Cdlrcrion. Pdn t1o, D4 l'hoto Nig

T.rrDto Mu\cuDr 9tzi,

froD rrrcrttrnr. ,4BI- ie7. 7. Atier Touchcfcu Mcy
Dicr. Trl,x,r O/yJr(xJ pl.
Boston. MuscumolFinc A, ts

ri], 70. A[t$



Ri.hnlond, Virsnria Muscum ofArr 6r.r.i. I)rrd Ijo,


Mcyniu, pl. s.r. l,rrls, Pctit PrhN lll. IBII jr9. 6. Photo Bullrz. OxiiTd, Ash,role.D Muscum r47 ,4AL 2jJ, 19. Photo


ArhcDs. Vhsto




Phonr Muscun). r8j London, British Mrscunr IJ jo7, lion Vulci. ,44Il
426. 9.

Lordo., Brirish Mlscunl B +qq, from Vulci. lAr

L ,4ilr

Altcr CL,4 ii, p|.3.

to{.r Lor1.lon, Dritish MuscuDr B 6os, f.oDi Truch.ira.,lBr


Orford, Ashnrolcrn Mun'

!nr I9r9.lj lIlI-





SnickholDr, Thronc-Holst Collcctior. l')r,r 18r. 2rbls.

,1rr.4. Phorc Hirmcr. Londo11, British Muscurl r9c,t.2 r7. r, frcrn Bcngl)rzl ,4ilr4rr, r. Phok) 6()7, fronr Crcre. lBl,' 4r 5, 4. Photo Mus.unl. l']aris, Louvrc MN 7o4. fron)

Nelv York, M.tropolitrn

Mus.unr oo ro7o, l\ogcrs



l. Photo Wi.trro.
r 5(J,

q.783. AI3I. t97, t5. Aft$


BostoD, Muscnm

Bcrltu, S rr[chc Mns..n

+. Photo

Bctlirl, S rrli.hc M!sccn

inv. 3:r6r. ,4tsL r98,2. lJhoto

pl. 17l.

B.rhr. Stldichc Musccn iDv. i:j-r. IBI- rJj, tr8.

rJ2 Adrcns, Nrtio]1il MuklrDr rr.l:. ,{BL 156, ro. Altcr

/8/- trli,

7r. l)hokr

Aris 99.j:7.

l8f 4to. :r.

of finc

3oi London, Bnrish


BrusL'ls, Musac\ Royrux A 7rtr. ,lB I/ j2o, -1. t)hoto

Prris, Louvr. CIA i9s.,4BI-r1r, r9. Aftd 1']c$or-(lhi pi.z, ts/ir'()n1,r, 1'.1rr x, 6li9

Toronro, llo)ul Ortario

Muscnm l2(). .48Il 442, Cl4: |r/d r92. l)hoto M!1scum.

lc,6 t07



,{llr arJ, I'hom



Muscnn. MuDich, Antikcrsrnrmlunge,r nr\,.7767,

rl4 :tJ

Muni.h. Artik.nsrllrrlurgc r49o, frollr V!lci. IBIl


Agrigcnto Muscum. fronr ,4t /- troj, :. Photo

AthcDs, Nrti(nrxl Muscum J,lr. IBI- 208, 49. Aftcr lIllPl.21.1.

Bosto,r. Muscum of F!).

Arts 98.924. ABL 26a, t2.)a ABV t24, t. Photo - Mu-

ARt, p|. +7.3.

Mrscunr s6. rz r.::, Flcrchcr Firnd. ,4ni. ::y. rru. l'hoto

Pirtis. allL)in.t d.s Ma'dr;llc\

No$ York, M.tropolitrr

Lordon, Hruilton-Snrith
Col1cctio,r. Pnra Ili


Pit, I4r. Phoro MuABV

1t,3, 6.

(lhic.go Univcrsir), froDr Vuld. ,48f 6rr, r. Phon)

Oxtard, Ashrnolc.! Musc



ABV +17,2.


U$lin. Sraxrli.hc



Oxrord, Ashuolcrr Musc




Bcrlnr, StIdich. Muscc.

r913. ,4tsI- 26(),

2re. ,18/-

IBI-:18. rro. Phorc,


2l. Photo

Muscunr 84.

.{fl/- 2rr, IJ8.

Lon.LoD, Llritish
F,tzrvillian, Muscl,n) r.ro8i.

l'iris, Cibllct Ll$ Mndriilc\ ljl, frou Vul.i. llJL'r+a), 246



Bi- pl.26.r



.nr 217. from (l.ulrl$. ,{fir 641, rjo. i'hoto - MuAdrcns, llrttish


Pxris. Louvrc F )14. AIJV r26. I)hob MuscuDr Konigsbcrg Univcrsitl inv.
F r 98.


5o2.,4B1- 16(r, 126. Phon)



Wars:w. Nationil MDsclfr (excoluchow 3,)..4812,8, 56. Aftet CVA pl. t6.1.

um jr6

r93o.r68. ,48trl 6Jj.

Hall, Brom3r7

LoDdon, British Museum

32o Boston, Muscun of

Museum rJ. Pard r59,


ABV 672. JHS lxxyiii,

pl. ro b,

ley-Davenport Collection.






ABV 662. 23. Photo

- Mr-


(?). ,4Bz 616, rr;




Principal page rcferencs are bold. Figure numben are itulni'ed Acheloor P. rIr; 2o8-rl Ahiles P. rrl, 169

3r3 Rhodes Museum. After cfua Rhodos iv. Pt. 3. j14 Vimna, Kunsthisrorisches
Museum r923.

Breuron Museum.

Nr,/e sstubuqen \AK Beihelt i,




Oxford, Arhmolean Muse-

Athenq Narional Museum, ex Empedocles Collection.


B 378. Phoro Museum. Fro,t .o/e/ Neck amphora, Antimflean. M2sk of Dionysos.

l2r London, Brirish

315 28i Y.tic^n G4? r soi z8z



P. 33, 54 st 39-4r Hermogenes 59-6a, 6zt 113-4,

Hobbl Group 169; Joz Horse Heed amphorae r7-8; rE Hyblaea Class I83 Hypobibazon Clas r rr-2; 215-6

Taquinia Museum RC



Sourh Africa


ABV 275, 5. Photo

Affecrer 65, 186,2o9i 1t5-z Altenburg Cless r5o; 284 Amasis P. rr-2, J3, J2,54-{, J7, 60, 62, 66, 106, 1o8, r8J, r9o, 197-8, 206, 2t2-3, 2r8, 226i


Group IrJ;


Cypro-Jugs r87

DaybrerLP. tr+; zlr-z Diosphos P. 148-9, rJo, I78,

19o,2t7i 268 72 Dolphin Group r8i Dot Band Cless I5o; 24t Droop Cups 6r-2,64. 126-8

Heights ofsome vases,s showD are giver in cenrimerres


Th author and pubhhers arc grateful ro fie many ofiicial bodies, insrituEioDs and individuats men.ioned above for rheir assistance in supplying originat ilustration material

P. P.



Kealres r90


I2, i9, Io3-4, ro5,

Antidoros 6r; r2z


P. roFro! I rr-2;


I47, r48, rJo, r89;

Class rJo; 28J-6 Kleitias ,r, 3r, 33-4, 35, 187-9, 197-8, 2oo! 2o8, 21\-3. 2t8-9,

Archikles rr,59, 60, 225; Ir6 Atho. P. rr3-4, t47, t18, 149,
t82i 250-5
BeldAm P. r4F5o, tgoi 277-80 Bellerophon Class 6i Bellerophon P. 16 Brlin P. I13, 169; Jo2-J Bleckneck CUss 63-4i ,48 BMNP, 64_5; IJz


Elbows Out 65-{, 186, 2ro;







P. ,\, t68, 22'71



P. Jg-{r; r2r


Klitomenes 62; r, Kolchos 12, 6r; 6,


Ergotimos r1,34, 60, I89 Eucharides P. rr3, 168]. ,29

Eucheiros 60 EuphiletosP. ttz, 167,169.

t87-9, ,95, 2o9t 19-23

Krokotos 181-,

Group r8,20, 31


Group ro8, r47;

169; Jo4


Exekias II,52, i4,

Borkin Class 60 Bowdoin P. Ii3-4,

Bulas 296


P. rro; r9E

r68, r85, 187, r9r, rg8, ,ox,2\4, 2r8, 23o-t t 97-106, Frontispie& Eye-Siren Group Iro; t95
FP decoration Io7-8 Franeois Vase see Kleitias



Kuhn Class 28d Kylenios P. 37;


Group rio-I, I94;


Group I79;3td Burgon Grcup 36, 168, 212;

Leagros Group ttt)-t, L68t 199-213, z99,3oo


Cr.t]usP- tr4i, r3j


32-3, 59,62,2271 35-8

Camel P. I83 Camtar P. 35 6; J2-J


1t4, r47t 234-6 claukytes . Ir,60, 225i ,16 GokytP. 3'?;56


P. 37; Jq, 60 Centaur P. 60; r 17 CeBmeicus P. 17; rZ Chalcidising Cups Io7 8; ,26

Cups 62i 1J,

Gorgon P. rZ I8-2o, r83, I87, t89, tg4-5, 226; 1 1-6 Grimn Bird P. .rJ; 45 Group E 56r, 168, r98; $-6

Lion P. 16: io Litde Lion Class t49, r9s; 261-2 Lydos 12, 3r, 33, 3s, 52-4" 56-7, 64, r68, r88, r9o-I, 194, I98,
21+, 22o, 22Si 64-20, 295

Lysippide! Ma.athon
Mastos Medea





Ma&idP. Ltz

Group of Courting Cups rosi

P. see Nessos P. ChiusiP. lrr;2rJ Civico P. 33 i 44 Class of Athens J8r r.18, r5o, r94t r54 - C.M.2[B trti 214 - Skyphoi Ar and A2 ro8

Group Isr, r94i


the Oxford






148, t94:. ,56-7 IoJ; rdz

Rhodes 12264



Group rtz; zt8





3oJ lro;

196-2 ro8-ri r78 37; 6,

NeaDdros 60; r20

Nearchos ru, 35, f,o, r89, r9o,

Nessos P. 232i 5-8


491 50

Guide Line Class 289

r5-{, 173,

226 7,


tgt, tg4; ,D-6


62, r48, r49, rJo-r,

NikomachosSeries JoJ-6

Nikosthenes rr-2, J3, 6r, 64-5, 249


106, roU.

l'. 'rl Orkcshott P. 60; I td 9


'78. !49 51, 17.1,;1D9

rNr), l8N




rr I r06, t15.

r95 lo8

Skythes r2,



59, 60; r22

l),r\(rs rot,




PiiDtcr N 65i r.tq-Jr, rJ.I P. ofAcr.606 jsi{z I

l'crizorDr (;roup rt2,,111| l,hrDyllir (;r)up I rir ?J7 l'h.n)s l'. 6tI /.17 l)hr_vDor l). j9. r)o: r:r-./

106i r72

So )ilos I2, r8-9, ro, .t4, 16, r89 9r, r9i, r17, roI, rrr, 2Il,




lndex to tcxt ofChapter Thirteen only: ,nd

ngurc numbers irdlLiJ.,i



Iterli0 Berlin 1686

5j3 i2iJ4 A34 rJ; _r, I CA

:t3; 42

6t: r-rJ

thc l)rcsdcn Lckxnis I9i J2





19: Jr


75 Mnnich r4Io 63 i ,4r thc Ni(osir Olp. Lo8i r7J


F6 j4i


36,229t 51

t1r 6 l'. 19, 2.ri-rJ P. r12 3:22? J Trleides P. 60-r, trIri r2j Priapos r9r 'fersirs I ri.l Princcton I). 6l i rjd ,o l)sirx ro,1, 106, r rl, r7lJ. rgoi Thcscu\ P. r47, I.19, rjr. r90i )68 71 45 e Thrax rz Proon P. 35, ro3: J r Three LLrc (i!up Irrr 2rl Timiadcs Ir. .l7i J6 7 TlcsoD l'. 6oi rd9 ?r llcd Linc I. rio: ?8r-2


r.i r I 29,/

Uroup r79, rlt8. r9ri rrJ S!'nrg 1,. 63, r6lJ. r88, 106;

A.heloos rr4ird,t Achillcs ::r 3t; 2o, Ja,




tr -z.ri ri


222', t7o.t.

16-5- 49, 51, 55, 86 7. 9it. )oo,


Aductos 17i 2lo

,o1, roJ.201, ,t 7. ,27. 211. 26'

23a 1t 16.,. ioa-1,

Didr\$s rr7

Drcskouroi i:roxriJpn.. rr7 Eilythyirri 2r7i


8, rro. rlr; sli;p - tot. ,47. b;th l?) ,2,

Adlcnr. birth

Aktrion :r9i.?JE



ADxrohs 2r3,

I 2dJ

rrr 2i J6, Jlr.


Erkclados ::o; r.u r Eos rlo, rlri t.)1,,07( ?),,71

116, 171, ro1, 163.



Trrquiuia l{C6847 r13: Vrtic.n 3o9 J4i Zl 4

tl1c Vrtican Mourner



tlt 216 7 rj

Top urDd Class r jo


Eris r-l r Eror rr9,212

Eurysthcus .r-::

Kassardn ::3o I 9, l(crbcros :tz,:::r t6: I

(etkopcs tr:r i 2 r.t

I{_vknos rr8, 2r+j 68,


1l.nd SteDl.sscs rogr ,E+

s.konid.s S.Dd.l t'.

J9. 60r ,


rnrphonc 16r, ro4,






Pxmphaios r2,64-5,

' vrscs Il. rr3, ch.7,

1.16, r I

i ./., Sappho P. 148-9, r51, r7ll, 91. ]oa. 2t4t 260 6, 31i SegDcDt Class ro9: r EJ Siketos r2. 169

2 t

2::i j 20, 2 r9. tr:9i 61.2


Apollo :r7,

LioD, N.nrcrD 11t 1: 9,1,

t89 r88,


)19, )24. )z7t t40,

l). 6I, to8:

r9J, -:loi rnd



2 2 1


x.noklcs 6lr: rr2

Mcdusr 216i
(ligxDtonrachy !t.), 22a: 6$ )j4,
(;orgons, gorgoncia -:16i J,
69, Eo,269 ?J,



McnrnoD rr9 toi i-Jt, 2o7 (?),

Arrcmis rI7. rr9,::r-r, rr4.


Mcnchos .rtt;

Minofuu, rrj:

62, oo

66, , r6.:

AthcDr rr6, rI8 rr, rr\-6, )9, r3r r: birth 62, trJ-1. 175 Bcllcrophon ::61 /,



Ncrcu\ rr8, rro, rr,]i ,6, ?o2 N$v)s :trr, tr:liJ, Z.l Nikc r3rr ?16 rr\, rlo li iJl,2tE,

Hc.ror :r9, )3ot 51, 2al, ,11 Hclcn 2rr, rl I i 67, oo

65 I

llirds, SrvnrphrlixD .rrri


rr7:o, rtl I


Borr, alalvdonirD r:r7i 16.J,


l{gxklcs rr6, -rr9 :rii lnrod!.(lrchr rrri

l.ri r' 7 2.), 2r9

BLrll, Marrthonirn

llusiris ::,1: r4J

C.nrifnrs :trt,2.1:ri t17. t22. (lhinrxcre ,6 7t 7. j9, 1:2

tiof/Olvnlpus i 21.2, t5t-, vicror r.lq: s,ith Athcnr - r6r. ,,J, ,.76, JE4: kithrx t65l chrriot ,68, 12t. 28,/r bo$l ol Sun z.i:; unstcr z,i_l; mcrili.cs r6r. .16rr rud scc undcr rdvcrsrrics, lhcrc :tlso witlt

Irxn 2ll i zEr Prrir r r8-9, I8-9t


l'xtroklos, ganr.s ,.29 jot

Pegrsos 216 7; 2., J,
46.J scc




l']clcns rrg, 223, r.r6-it: lvcctding



(lhiron (l;!.c .1r i, :t r ; :rJl


Hcrnr$ :17, -::o, -rr,l, -r19 3o, 1l1t 107. 11o. 115.1. t5j. t:7,
r6-r, 2d8, 218, 26r, ?.\2 (crrrlc)

I'}cDdlcsilc. ,6s



l)crflrs zr9,

P$scphone 2r9, :rr, rt l


2j. to,

KcrInitirD trI:209

1)clinir.r :r4r


l_lcsitr). 14r,79 Hcsp$i.ics 2:rti 2rJ


Polyphcmos 2rJ,

z.tri /,


Polyxena .r29, z3tt j?, 262 PoseidoD 2r8-2o;,40, 2Jd


23o.,67, 21t

2r9, 22j,232 Silcnos 233;219 SiDis 226 Srrens 23 r i Ez, 286


66. t16.r, roo, r4g

Thris 223, 126, 228 3c..

,o,5j,86,87, i95, r93

21J 22l]; 46.5, 55, z3z


Procrustcs 2:6;2rJ-r Prometheus 12r, 224i

Psychostasia z3o; -z6r Pytho 2r7

Sisyphos 233; r98



Sleep :.23. zzs, zjz; Sphnrx ,27-8; z7J


'ft)ton 24i

Ti.tyos 217:,59 Triptolemos 2r9a,46




Sarpedon 229i 2jr

(seven) 2,7 Thcseus 2r5 6.2r5 6,232:16-4,


228 3r

216, 2za, 23o:


1 55,



Panrthcnaia 167. 169 70. tg4,
Peisistratos ro9, 114 2a6, 2t6i



r94, 2zo

Artists' starus r2 3, 2ot

Egyptien 54, r94 Elaeus r8l

Eleusis r9, r82 Etruscan 9, r2 3, 36, 64, rrr,
146, r78. 189, 197 r83

Beazley 7, ro tsiiingu:Js r03, r05 6,1rr, rr3-4

Boeotia r28, r il3, r89 BrauroD r82

Chaicidian 64, ro7-8


Eyes ro7 8, rro Incision 9,

55, 1o3 4, 16, ro3-4

Red Figlrc 65, ro3-7, rro-r.


r3-4, r48, r68-9, r99

ReJicfLinc ro3-4 Sign:mres r r-2,

Six Technique 64, r78, r88
J8, 64

Chinrl Colour

r79, r89 16, 32

t78 9. r97



r8, 16, r98, ?o9






Corinrhjrn 9, 12. t4 5,

57, ro6

t.), 31-:1,36, J4,64, r Jo, r78, r86-90, 19+-6. za4, 2o9, 2r5


6r-2, r9J

Trade r7,20,33,
Trick vase




Manncrism 6j-6

Vari rj,
r9, 34, 5J, ro3, r49

19, r82 Greek 3r-2, rt!5,2o4,2rJ

j8, 6r,


\ghue Ground 35, roj 6, rro,

r47-jo, r9o


Athenian Black Figure Vases John Boardman. 3li3 illustrations
Athenian black 6grrc vases bear the work of consun.u'nate artists, like Exekias, who depicted on therD scenes ofmyth
and everyday life which deepen our knowledge and

understanding of Greek antiquity. In this har.rdbook Jol.rn Boardman enables the reader to study the many aspects of the vases, and to grasp the essential style ofa painter or group ofpainters, without having to consult a number of
expensive, and not always easily accessible,

A final section is devoted to the nlythological scenes and other decorative features of the vases. 'l )emonstrates a broad and penetratinJ grasp of Greek art and archaeology


comprehensive and concise yet never offers less than

adequate discussion in crisp, lucid prose' (The Tir.r.res

Literary Supplernent) 'Will undoubtedly become a standard work ofreference for nrany classical sttrdents and teachers' (fournal ofHellenic Studies) Thanes and Hudson

g+oi c,-

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