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S.C. VIROMET S.A.

SAFETY DATA SHEET



according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.1 / 25




1. Identification of the substance / mixture and the company / undertaking
1.1. Product identifier
Trade name : Methanol
Substance name : Methanol
IUPAC name : Methanol
Index no. : 603-001-00-X
CAS no. : 67-56-1
CE no. : 200-659-6
Synonyms : Methyl alcohol,Methyl hydroxide,Monohydroxymethane,Wood alcohol,
Carbinol
REACH REGISTRATION NUMBER : 01 2119433307 44 0062 ; 01 - 2119433307-44-xxxx

1.2. Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against

Note: The following uses are compliant with the identified uses in the Chemical Safety Report (CSR) and in
the Exposure Scenarios (ES) of the CSR, annexed to the Safety DataSheet.
Identified uses : Industrial uses : Manufacture of the substance/Use as an intermediate/Use
as an process chemical ; Distribution of the substance; Formulation and
(re)packing of substance and mixtures; Use as a fuel in industrial settings ;
Industrial use in cleaning agents; Use as a laboratory reagent in industrial
settings; Industrial use as wastewater treatment chemical;
Professional uses : Use as a fuel in professional settings; Use as a
laboratory reagent in professional settings ; Professional use in oilfield drilling
and production operations;
Consumer uses : Consumer use of cleaning agents and de-icers (liquid
products); Consumer use of cleaning agents and de-icers (spray products);
Consumer use of fuels indoors (Domestic/hobby use e.g in model engines,
fuel cells, etc); Consumer use of fuels outdoors (gasoline additive).
Most common technical function of the substance : solvent

Uses advised against : no data
1.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet

Manufacturer and / or distributor:
Company : S.C. VIROMET S.A. , VICTORIA town, zip code 5050700, Aleea Uzinei Str. no. 8,
Brasov County , ROMANIA
Telephone : 0040 / 268 / 241 120
Fax : 0040 / 268 / 242 484
e-mail : gendir@viromet.ro; tehnic-reach@viromet.ro
1.4. Emergency telephone number:
S.C. VIROMET S.A.-Working team REACH-- 0040 268241120 / interior 1395/ 1241 Schedule: Monday -
Friday (workdays) hours: 8-16
National Institute of Public Health, Office of International Health Regulations and Toxicologic Information
0040-21 318 36 06/ Schedule: Monday - Friday (workdays) hours: 8-16

2. Hazards identification

2.1. Classification of the substance

Classification and labeling information of the substance

Substance name : Methanol

Classification according to (CE) Regulation no. 1272 / 2008 (CLP) :

(CE) Regulation no. 1272 / 2008 (CLP)
Hazard Class / code Hazard category Hazard
statements
Obs.
Flammable liquids / Flam. Liq. Cat. 2 H225 -
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.2 / 25



Acute toxicity / Acute tox. Cat. 3 H301 oral
Acute toxicity / Acute tox. Cat. 3 H311 dermal
Acute toxicity / Acute tox. Cat. 3 H331 inhalation
Specific target organ toxicity single
exposure / STOT SE
Cat. 1 H370 Target organs : optic
nerve (nervus opticus),
central nervous system

Specific concentration limits:

Concentration Classification
C 10 % STOT, SE, cat. 1, H370
3 % C < 10 % STOT, SE, cat. 2, H371

Classification according to Directive D 67 / 548 / CEE :

Directive D 67 / 548 / CEE
Classification Danger
symbol
Risk phrases Safety phrases
Highly flammable

F R11
Toxic

T R23/24/25
Toxic

T R39/23/24/25
S1/2
S7
S16
S36/37
S45

Indication of danger : F- Highly flammable ; T- Toxic

Concentration limits:
Concentration Classification
C 20 % T ; R23/24/25
3 % C < 20 % Xn; R20/21/22
C 10 % T ; R39/23/24/25
3 % C < 10 % Xn; R68/20/21/22

For R and S phrases text see section 16.
The most important adverse physico-chemical human health effects
Toxic if swallowed, by skin contact and if inhaled. Causes damage to organs. Target organs : optic nerve,
central nervous system.
The most important adverse physico-chemical environmental effects
Methanol is not classified dangerous for environment ( see 12.5).
2.2. Label elements

Label elements according to (CE) Regulation no. 1272 / 2008 (CLP)

Substance name : Methanol
Signal word : Danger

Hazard pictograms:

GHS02 : flame





GHS06 : skull and crossbones




GHS08 : health hazard
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.3 / 25









Hazard statements

H225 : Highly flammable liquid and vapour.
H301 : Toxic if swallowed.
H311 : Toxic in contact with skin.
H331 : Toxic if inhaled.
H370 : Causes damage to organs.
Additional text : Target organ : optic nervous (nervus opticus), central nervous system.

Precautionary statements

P210 : Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. No smoking.
P280 : Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303 + P361+ P353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin
with water/shower.
P301+ P310 : IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P321 : Specific treatment (see supplemental informationfirst aid instructions on this label).
P322 : Specific measures (see also supplemental information on this label).
Supplemental information

P304+ P340 : IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P307+ P311 : IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P263 : Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.
P240 : Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 : Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting// equipment.
P242 : Use only non-sparking tools.
P260 : Do not breathe mist/vapours/spray.
P264 : Wash with soap and water thoroughly after handling.
P270 : Do no eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 : Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P403 + P235 : Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P405 : Store locked up.
P233 : Keep container tightly closed.
P501 : Dispose content/container according to national/international regulations.
P370 + P378 : In case of fire: Use water, dry extinguishing media, carbon dioxide, alcohol resistant foam for
extinction.
Hands protective equipment : Protective gloves from natural/butyl/nitric rubber (recommended)
Eyes protective equipment :anti-splash goggles
Face protective equipment :Helmet with visor (if necessary)
Protective clothes :Individual cotton equipment

2.3. Other hazards

Methanol does not fulfill the PBT criteria (not PBT) and not the vPvB criteria (not vPvB).
No other hazards were identified.
3. Composition / informations on ingredients

3.1. Substance

Main constituent :
IUPAC name Methanol
CAS No. 67-56-1
CE No. 200-659-6
Typical concentration >99.90%

S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.4 / 25



Impurities :
IUPAC name Ethanol
CAS No. 64-17-5
CE No. 200-578-6
Typical concentration <500 ppm
IUPAC name Water
CAS No. 7732-18-5
CE No. 231-791-2
Typical concentration <=150 ppm
IUPAC name Acetone
CAS No. 67-64-1
CE No. 200-662-2
Typical concentration <30ppm

4. First aid measures

4.1. Description of first aid measures

General Measures : Remove immediately contaminated clothing. First aid personnel should pay
attention to their own safety. Do not induce vomiting if the victim is
unconscious.
Avoid mouth to mouth resuscitation. Use alternative methods, oxygen or air
devices are preferred.
If inhaled : Keep patient calm; remove to fresh air, seek medical attention.

In case of skin contact : Wash with water and soap.
In case of contact with eyes : Wash affected eyes for at least 15 minutes under running water with
eyelids held open.

In case of ingestion : Rinse mouth immediately and then drink plenty of water , induce vomiting;
seek medical attention. Administer 50mL of pure ethanol in a drinkable
concentration. Seek medical attention.

4.2. Most important symptoms and effects , both acute and delayed

In case of ingestion
Acute immediate effects : Formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis

Delayed effects : occurs only after an asymptomatic period of about 12 to 24 hours;
see also 11 Information on likely routes of exposure - oral and inhalation
routes of exposure

Delayed severe effects are anticipated, even if first aid and proper treatment measures are applied, because
asymptomatic period is quite long.


4.3. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed

Note to physician : Treatment: symptomatic (decontamination, vital signs ) .
5. Fire fighting measures

5.1. Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media : water (fog)/dry extinguishing media/alcohol resistant foam/carbon
dioxide.
Unsuitable extinguishing media : direct water jet not to be used.

5.2. Special hazards arising from the substance
(5)


Substances emitted in case of fire : Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide

5.3. Advice for fire-fighters
(5)


S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.5 / 25



Special protective equipment.
Wear proper breathing apparatus and chemical protective equipment.

Other information : Collect contaminated water resulting from extinguishing separately,not to reach
in sewage or effluent.
If containers are exposed to fire should be kept cool by spraying with water.
If possible, use sprayed water to lower to the ground the smoke resulted from fire.
6. Accidental release measures

6.1. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Recommendations regarding accidental spills and dispersions:
For the staff not involved in the emergency procedures:
a) Wear proper protective equipment, according to 8.2 to prevent any skin, eyes or personal clothing
contamination.
b) Ensure a sufficient level of ventilation. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Avoid inhalation. Take off
contaminated clothing immediately.
c) Evacuate the dangerous area.
For the staff involved in the emergency procedures:
Advise for the proper cloth used for personal protective clothing: see 8.2.
Precausions after the intervention (fire fighters): wash the contaminated suit and the breathing apparatus with
water before removing the face mask and the suit.
6.2. Environmental precautions

Do not release into the environment.
In case of accidental dispersion into the environment, avoid water and soil pollution and take the
environmental isolation and cleaning measures as under 6.3. In case of contamination, inform responsible
authorities.
6.3. Methods and material for containment and cleaning up
Advice regarding isolation of amounts spilled :
a) collection in retention tanks or sewers around the storage areas.
b) bunding with absorbent materials.
c) capping procedures.
Advice regarding the cleaning way of a spilled amount:
a) cleaning techniques :washing with water jet, recovery and decanting in proper packaging or intermediate
tank; aspiration.
b) absorbent materials: sand, sawdust, general-purpose binder, Kieselgur
Substance spilled can be isolated by covering with foam resistant to alcohol.
c) equipment needed to isolation and cleaning: aspiration device, brooms, shovels.
Use pumps resistant to flame. If they are electrical, min. T3 class is requested. Insure proper grounding of
pumping equipment
(5)
Wastewater are directed to a treatment plant. Traces of remaining substance can be cleaned with absorbent
materials.
6.4. Reference to other sections

For individual protection see 8.2.
See Exposure Scenario (ES) attached for each identified use.
7. Handling and storage

7.1 . Precautions for safe handling

Handling : Einsure protection against fire and explosion.
If containers are exposed to fire, should be kept cool by spraying water.
Prevent electrostatic charge - sources of ignition should be kept well clear
fire extinguisher should be kept handy. Ground/bond container and
receiving equipment .
Ensure thorough ventilation of work and stores areas. Handle in accordance
with good industrial hygiene and safety practice.
Protection against fire
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.6 / 25



and explosion : Insure ventilation. Vapours may form explosive mixture with air. Take
precautionary measures against static discharges. Keep away from sources of
ignition - No smoking.
Hygiene measures : Do not eat , drink or smoke in work area. Wash with plenty of soap and water
thoroughly after handling . Do no eat, drink or smoke when using this
product. Take off contaminated clothing and protection equipment in the eat
areas.
7.2. Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Advice on specific requirements to risk management / effects control :
a) Adequate materials for containers: Steel, Aluminium, plastic materials, composite materials.
b) Inadequate materials for containers : -
c) Recommendation to mentain integrity of substance: tanks located outdoors must be protected with parasol,
breathing valve, nitrogen blanket, spraying water for cooling and lightning rod installation.
d) Other recommendations:
-Keep tightly closed containers in a cool, well ventilated area.
-Take precautionary measures against static discharges.
-Use explosion proof electrical equipment.
-The warehouse floor should be waterproof and equipped with retention tubs to avoid spreading in
case of accidental spill and connected to the organic sewerage.
-Access to the warehouses is permitted only for instructed personnel
-Requirements regarding ventilation : ventilated storage areas should be anti ex.
-Incompatibilities regarding the packing : see 10.3;10.4;10.5.
7.3. Specific end uses

See note to 1.2.
Specific end uses with the corresponding number for the Exposure Scenario:
ES 1 : Manufacturing of Methanol / use as an intermediate / use as an chemical process
ES 2 : Distribution of the substance
ES 3 : Formulation and (re) packing of substance and mixture
ES 4 : Industrial use as fuel
ES 5 : Professional use as fuel
ES 6 : Industrial use in cleaning agents
ES 7 : Professional use in cleaning agents
ES 8 : Industrial use as a laboratory reagent
ES 9 : Professional use as a laboratory reagent
ES 10 : Industrial use as wastewater chemical
ES 11 : Professional use in oilfield drilling and productions operations
ES 12 : Consumer use of cleaning agents and de-icers (liquid products)
ES 13 : Consumer use of cleaning agents and de-icers (spray products)
ES 14a: Consumer use of fuels indoors( Domestic/hobby use e.g. in model engines, fuel cells, fondue sets)
ES 14b: Consumer use of fuels outdoors ( gasoline additive )

Most common technical function of the substance : see 1.2.

8. Exposure controls /personal protection

Detailed information : in the attached Exposure Scenario
8.1. Control parameters

8.1.1. Occupational exposure limit values:

Occupational exposure
limit value Type of
limit value


Name of
substance

Nr.EC

Nr.CAS
8 ore Short term
(15 minutes)

Biological
limit value


Indicative/
Observation

Source
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.7 / 25




Maximum
value
(Romania)

Methyl
alcohol

260 mg/m
3


or

200 ppm

-



5 ppm
VLBO

6mg/L

( methanol in
the urine,
end of shift)

P*

Law 319/2006

HG 1218
/2006 -annex I


Limit value
(UE)

Methanol

200-659-6


67-56-1
OEL
260 mg/m
3


or

200 ppm

-



-


Not provided

Skin

Directive
2006/15/CE


* Can enter the body through intact skin or mucous membranes
8.1.2. Recommended monitoring procedures:
Determining methods according to referring standards in force
8.1.3. DNEL values for critical health effects

a. workers : DNEL Dermal : 40 mg/ kg body weight /d : acute toxicity acute systemic effects
DNEL Inhalation : 260 mg / m
3
: acute toxicity acute systemic effects
DNEL Dermal : not quantifiable : acute local effects
DNEL Inhalation : 260 mg / m
3
: acute toxicity acute local effects
DNEL Dermal : 40 mg/ kg body weight / d : acute toxicity long term systemic effects
DNEL Inhalation : 260 mg / m
3
: acute toxicity long term systemic effects
DNEL Dermal : not quantifiable : long term local effects
DNEL Inhalation : 260 mg / m
3
: acute toxicity long term local effects

b. general population :

DNEL Dermal : 8 mg/ kg body weight / d : acute toxicity acute systemic effects
DNEL Inhalation : 50 mg / m
3
: acute toxicity acute systemic effects
DNEL Oral : 8 mg / m3 : acute toxicity acute systemic effects
DNEL Dermal : not quantifiable : acute local effects
DNEL Inhalation : 50 mg / m3 : acute toxicity acute local effects
DNEL Dermal : 8 mg/ kg body weight/d : acute toxicity long term systemic effects
DNEL Inhalation : 50 mg / m3 : acute toxicity long term systemic effects
DNEL Oral : 8 mg / m3 : acute toxicity long term systemic effects
DNEL Dermal : not quantifiable : long term local effects
DNEL Inhalation : 50 mg / m3 : acute toxicity long term local effects
The leading effect in humans is CNS toxicity and neurotoxicity including optical nerve toxicity.
8.1.4. PNEC(predicted no effect concentration values ) for critical environmental effects:
Water : PNEC fresh water : 154 mg/L, assessment factor 100
: PNEC marine water : 15.4 mg/L, assessment factor 10
: PNEC water intermittent releases : 1540 mg/L, assessment factor 1000

Sediment : PNEC sediment : 570.4 mg/ kg, dry weight

Soil : PNEC soil : 23.5 mg/kg, dry weight
Sewage treatment plant : PNEC sewage treatment plant : 100 mg / L, assessment factor 10
8.2. Exposure controls

8.2.1 Appropriate engineering controls

Appropriate exposure control measures for each identified use, are presented in each exposure scenario (ES)
annexed to SDS.
8.2.2. Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment

Technical conditions and measures to control dispersion from source towards the workers : ventilation as in ES
General safety and hygiene measures : immediately remove contaminated clothing.
Individual protection equipment

S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.8 / 25



a) Eye/face protection : Tightly fitting safety goggles (antisplash goggles) (e.g. EN 166 in force)

b) Skin protection : It will take note of information provided by the manufacturer on
permeability and breakdown times, and specific conditions at work place .
(i) Hand

Gloves : Chemical resistant protective gloves
Material : Suitable materials also with prolonged, direct contact to solvents
(Recommended :Protective index 6, corresponding > 480 minutes of
permeation time according to EN 374 in force): e.g. natural/nitrylic rubber or
another material
Body protection : chemical-protection suit ( according to EN 14605 in force)
Equipment : coat / suit
Material : cotton
(ii) Other
c) Respiratory protection : lower concentrations on short-term: Gas mask with filter for organic
substances (concentration of noxa exceeded in the working media, in case of
accidental spills)
higher concentrations on long-term: Self-contained breathing
apparatus.
See also 5 : protective equipment for firefighters

8.3. Environmental exposure control

Risk management measures : it was not necessary to estimate exposure, because in PBT / vPvB
evaluation was not identified any risk. Therefore, all identified uses
of the substance are assessed with no risk for environment.
9. Physical and chemical properties

9.1. Information on basical physical and chemical properties

Physical state at 20
0
C and 1013 hPa : liquid colourless
Odour : pungent
pH : 4.5-6.5
Melting / freezing point : - 97.8
0
C ( no atmospheric pressure data)
Boiling initial point and boiling range : 64.7
0
C / 64
0
C - 65.5
0
C (at 1013 hPa)
Flash point : 9.7
0
C at 1013 hPa [Method EU A.9 (Flash point)
Abel-Pensky closed vessel]
Evaporation velocity : no available data

Flammability : highly flammable liquid (the flammabily is deduced
from flash point and boiling point ; in accordance
with column 1 of Annex XI REACH, the study does
not need to be performed as based on the chemical
structure of the substance pyrophoric properties are
not be expected and the substance does not
liberate flammable gases in contact with water)

Superior/inferior flammability or explosion limit : 36.5%v/v air6.7 v/v air(at 20
0
C and atmospheric
pressure)

Vapour pressure : 169.27 hPa at 25
0
C
Vapour density : 1.1
Relative density : 0.79-0.8 (relative density D20/4)
Water solubility : miscible
Partition coefficient, n-octanol / water (log value) : -0.77 at 20
0
C

Self-ignition temperature : 455
0
C at 1013 hPa

Decomposition temperature : no available data
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
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Viscosity (dynamic) : 0.544 0.59 mPa.s at 25
0
C
Explosive properties : non explosive properties (in accordance with CSR,
the explosiveness of the substance does not need to
be tested)

Oxidising properties : no oxidising properties (in accordance with CSR,
the oxidising properties does not need to be tested)
9.2 Other information

Miscibility : completely miscible in water at 20
0
C
Stability in organic solvents and identity
of relevant degradation product : is not considered critical (in accordance with CSR,
the stability in organic solvents does not need to be
tested)
Dissociation constant : substance does not contain any ionic structure
under environmental conditions (in accordance with
CSR, the dissociation constant does not need to be
performed)

Surface tension : no surface activity ( in accordance with CSR,
surface activity does not need to be tested)
Granulometry : not applicable [in accordance with CSR, the particle
size distribution (granulometry) does not need to be
performed]

10. Stability and reactivity

10.1. Reactivity

Methanol shows no reactivity hazard under normal pressure and temperature.
Keep it in container tightly closed because methanol is water avid.
10.2. Chemical stability

Methanol is stable under usual temperature and pressure. For handling and storage conditions see 7.
10.3. Possibility of hazardous reactions

Explosive reactions with : chloroform + sodium methoxide, diethyl zinc

Violent reactions with : strong oxidizers (e.g. : chlorine, bromine, fluorine, hydrogen peroxide,
sodium hypochlorite, barium perchlorate ); alkyl aluminium
salts; acetyle bromide; chloroform + sodium hydroxide;
KOH + chloroform ; CrO
3 ;
cyanuric chloride ; ( I+ ethanol+ HgO)
Pb(ClO
4
)
2
; HClO
4
; P
2
O
3
; nitric acid ;
Measures : avoid storage with materials that can give dangerous reactions

10.4. Condition to avoid

Heat sources of ignition, sparks, open flame, hot surfaces, static discharge.
Measures : be kept away from heat, sparks, open flames, hot surfaces; use only
non sparking tools ; no smoking ; at loading/unloading ground/bond
container and receiving equipment.
10.5. Incompatible materials

Incompatibility : metals (eg. potassium, magnesium) ; oxidants (eg. barium perchlorat,
bromine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide); carbon
tetrachloride + metals (eg. aluminium, magnesium, zinc).

Measures : avoid storage in recipients of incompatible materials

10.6. Hazardous decomposition products

See 5.2.





S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.10 / 25



11. Toxicological information
All data from this section are according to the Chemical Safety Report (CSR)
(1)
Information on toxicokinetics : absorbtion, metabolism, distribution and elimination
Methanol is readily absorbed after inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact and distributes rapidly throughout the
body. Metabolism in humans, rodents, and monkeys contributes up to 98 percent of the clearance, with more than 90
percent of the administered dose exhaled as carbon dioxide. Renal and pulmonary excretion contributes only about 2
3 percent. The metabolism and toxicokinetics of methanol varies by species and dose. In humans, the half-life time is
approximately 2.5 3 hours at doses lower than 100 mg/kg bw. At higher doses, the half life can be 24 hours or more.
The mammalian metabolism of methanol occurs mainly in the liver, where methanol is initially converted to
formaldehyde, which is in turn converted to formate. Formate is converted to carbon dioxide and water. In humans and
monkeys, the conversion to formaldehyde is mediated by alcohol dehydrogenises and basically limited to the capacity
of those enzymes. In rodents, the oxidation to formaldehyde predominantly employs the catalase-peroxidase pathway
which is of less capacity and rate-limiting. Upon saturation at high doses, methanol accumulates in the blood of rodents
and primates. Formaldehyde is further oxidized to formic acid and, finally, formic acid to carbon dioxide (CO2). In
primates, the last reaction step, conversion of formate to carbon dioxide by the formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase, is of
comparably low capacity which may lead to a disproportionate increase of formate in the blood and in sensitive target
tissues (such as CNS and the retina)
In humans, when exposed via inhalation up to an air concentration of 0.065 mg/L, no increase of blood methanol is
expected. Up to 0.26 mg/L (single or repeated exposure), the methanol blood level is likely to increase 2 to 4- fold
above the endogenous methanol concentration in humans, but still remains significantly below 10 mg/L. Air
concentrations up to 1.6 mg/L resulted in similar blood methanol levels among rats, monkeys, and humans. However,
above 1.6 mg/L, a steep exponential increase occurs in rats, a smaller exponential increase occurs in monkeys,
whereas humans exhibit a linear relationship between air concentrations and blood methanol levels. Baseline levels of
formate in blood are about 3 to 19 mg/L (0.07 0.4 mM) in humans. Toxic blood formate concentrations are reported to
be 220 mg/L and higher (> 5 mM formate). Inhalation of about 1.20 mg methanol/L for 2.5 hours contributed only
insignificantly to the internal formate pool in monkeys (in the M-range). This also held true for folate-deficient
conditions. After repeated inhalation of 2.6 mg/L for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 1 or 2 weeks, monkeys showed no
discernible increase in formate concentration in blood (estimated body burden 200 to 300 mg/kg bw/d). Formate
accumulation, however, has been observed in primates upon bolus administration of more than 500 mg Methanol/kg
bw . The critical methanol dose that saturates the folate pathway in humans is estimated to be 200 mg/kg bw. Based
on data produced in monkeys, metabolic saturation in humans is also less likely to happen during inhalation where the
dose is distributed over several hours.

11.1. Information on toxicological effects

Humans (and non-human primates) are uniquely sensitive to methanol poisoning and the toxic effects in these species
is characterized by formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis, ocular toxicity, nervous system depression, blindness, coma
and death. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute
rather than chronic exposures. A vast majority of poisonings involving methanol have occurred from drinking
adulterated beverages and from methanol-containing products. Although ingestion dominates as the most frequent
route of poisoning, inhalation of high concentrations of methanol vapour and percutaneous absorption of methanolic
liquids are as effective as the oral route in producing acute toxic effects. The most noted health consequence of longer-
term exposure to lower levels of methanol is a broad range of ocular effects.
The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the absence of medical treatment is between 0.3 and 1 g/kg. The minimum
dose causing permanent visual defects is unknown.
The symptoms and signs of methanol poisoning, which may not appear until after an asymptomatic period of about 12
to 24 hours, include visual disturbances, nausea, abdominal and muscle pain, dizziness, weakness and disturbances
of consciousness ranging from coma to chronic seizures. Visual disturbances generally develop between 12 and 48 h
after methanol ingestion and range from mild photophobia and misty or blurred vision to markedly reduced visual acuity
and complete blindness. In extreme cases death results. The normal blood concentration of methanol from
endogenous sources is less than 0.5 mg/liter (0.02 mmol/litre), but dietary sources may increase blood methanol
levels. Generally, CNS effects appear above blood methanol levels of 200 mg/L (6 mmol/L), and fatalities have
occurred in untreated patients with initial methanol levels in the range of 1500-2000 mg/L (47-62 mmol/L). Visual
disturbances of several types (blurring, constriction of the visible field, changes in colour perception, and temporary or
permanent blindness) have been reported in workers who experienced methanol air levels of about 1.6 mg/L
(corresponding to 1200 ppm) or more. A widely used occupational exposure limit for methanol is 0.26 mg/L
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(corresponding to 200 ppm), which is designed to protect workers from any of the effects of methanol-induced formic
acid metabolic acidosis and ocular and nervous system toxicity.
No other adverse effects of methanol have been reported in humans except minor skin and eye irritation at exposures
well above 0.27 mg/L (corresponding to 200 ppm).
11.1.1. Information on relevant hazard classes

a) Acute toxicity

Animal data
Oral:
LD50 (rats) : 1187 - 2769 mg/kg bw (male/female); concentration of the aqueous solutions 15 - 35%.
LD50( Rhesus monkeys): 6000 mg/kg bw (4/8 animals have survived after bicarbonate application
LD50 (( Rhesus macaca monkeys): 7000-9000 mg/kg
Inhalation:
LC50 (rats) : 87.5 mg/L (6 hours); (male/female)
LC50 (rats) : 128.2 mg/L (4 hours) ; (male/female)
LC50 (rats) : approx. 79 mg/L air (134 minutes).
LC50 (cats) :approx. 43.7 mg/L air (6 hours)
LC50 (cats) :85.4 mg/L air (4.5 hours)
Lethal concentrations (Rhesus monkeys) :1.3 mg/L air (after 41 hours), (male/female)
Lethal concentrations (Rhesus monkeys) :13 mg/L air (18 hours) (male/female)
Lethal concentrations (Rhesus monkeys) :52 mg/L air (1 hour). (male/female)
Dermal:
Methanol is classified according to Annex I to the Directive 67/548/EEC with T; R 23/24/25. Therefore, animal testing
regarding acute dermal toxicity is not necessary.
LD50 (rabbits) :about 17,000 mg/kg bw
Human:
Oral ingestion dominates as the most frequent route of poisoning, but percutaneous absorption or inhalation of vapours
are as effective as the oral route in producing methanol acute toxic syndrome.
Serious ocular symptoms appear above 500 mg/L ranging from mild photophobia, misty or blurred vision to markedly
reduced visual acuity and total blindness.
The minimal acute methanol dose to humans that can result in death is considered to be 300 to 1000 mg/kg by
ingestion. Fatalities have occurred in untreated patients with initial methanol blood levels in the range of 1500 to 2000
mg/L . In conclusion, formate is considered to be the ultimate toxicant in acute methanol intoxication in humans.
Acidosis and ophthalmologic changes are typical effects in primates. They do not occur in rodents or rabbits, which are
able to remove formate more efficiently. In these animals, CNS depression, narcosis and death are the leading
symptoms of intoxication.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
Oral:
LD50 (rats) :> 1187-2769 mg/kg bw
LD50 (monkeys): 7000-9000 mg/kg bw
LD50 (monkeys): 6000 mg/kg bw, but following bicarbonate supplementation

Dermal:
LD50 (rabbits) :17100 mg/kg bw
Inhalation:
LD50 (rats) : 128200 mg/m air (4-hour s)
LD50 (cats) : 85400 mg/m air (4.5-hours)
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LD50 (cats) : 43700 mg/m air ( 6-hours)
Justification for classification or non classification
Although the lethal dose of methanol is high for most experimental animals (mostly > 2000 mg/kg bw after single oral
administration), the substance is classified as acutely toxic by oral, dermal and inhalative exposure, and as capable of
inducing serious irreversible effects upon single exposure by all of these routes.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC : T; R23/24/25; T; R39/23/24/25.
According to (CLP) Regulation no. 1272/2008 the classification is :
Acute toxicity category 3: toxic if swallowed; toxic in contact with skin; toxic if inhaled.
Acute toxicity on one specific target organ, STOT single exposure, category 1 (route of exposure: oral, dermal,
inhalation), H370.

b) Skin corrosion / irritation

Skin corrosion

No informations available.
Justification for classification or non classification
The substance is not classified corrosive since no data are available.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.
Skin /eye irritation

The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
Skin : not irritating (rabbit)
Eyes : not irritating (rabbit)
Value used for CSA:
Skin irritation / corrosion: not irritating
Eye irritation : not irritating
Justification for classification or non classification
Methanol exhibited no skin irritation in one reliable study.
Available studies show that methanol is a slight to moderate eye irritant, but with reversibility of effects documented in
one reliable study. High concentration of methanol vapours may be irritating to mucous membranes. Based on the
vapour pressure of about 130 hPa at 20 C, the molecular weight of 32 g/mol and the molar volume of about 24 L/mol,
it can be estimated that the saturation concentration was 150 mg/L and, thus, clearly lethal.
In conclusion, methanol is not irritating to the skin and the eyes.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.

c) Serious eye damage/ irritation

See conclusions of point b) .

d) Respiratory or skin sensitisation

Skin sensitisation
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
A guinea pig maximization assay gave no evidence of contact sensitization after induction and challenge doses of
50%.
Value used for CSA:
Not sensitizing.
Respiratory sensitisation
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
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Not required.
Justification for classification or non classification
Methanol exhibited no skin sensitizing potential. The low number of 4/22 animals with slight erythema (score 1) gives
no evidence of a notable sensitization potential of methanol.
In conclusion, methanol is not sensitizing to the skin. No classification is required.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.

e) Germ cell mutagenicity
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
In vitro
Gene mutation (Bacterial reverse mutation assay / Ames test) : S. typhimurium negative except TA 102+S9
(ambiguous) (OECD 471)
Gene mutation (Mammalian cell gene mutation assay) : V79 negative, L5178Y+S9 positive (both
comparable to OECD 476)
Chromosome aberration (in vitro micronucleaus assay) : V79 negative
DNA damage (Damage and repair assay in bacteria) : E. coli positive
Genome mutation (Mitotic chromosomal segregation assay) : A. nidullans positive
In vivo
Chromosome aberration (Chromosomal aberration): primary lung cells negative
Chromosome aberration (Micronucleus assay): erythrocytes negative (similar OECD 474), primary lung cells negative
Chromosome aberration (Synaptonemal complex): pachytene spermatocytes negative
Value used for CSA
Genetic toxicity: negative.
Justification for classification or non classification
Based on the negative results in the in vivo studies, methanol does not seem to be mutagenic. Furthermore,
carcinogenicity studies indicated no evidence of a carcinogenic potential in rats and mice exposed to methanol. No
need for classification.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.

f) Carcinogenicity
Justification for classification or non classification
From the present evaluation it is concluded that methanol is not needed to be classified as a carcinogen.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.

g) Reproductive toxicity
Effects on fertility
Animals
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
NOAEC (maternal toxicity) (rats) :1.3 mg/L
NOAEC (teratogenicity) (rats) :1.3 mg/L
NOAEC (maternal toxicity) = 2.39 mg/L for monkeys
NOAEC (teratogenicity) (monkeys) :2.39 mg/L for
Negative for spermatozoon morphological anomalies: NOAEL (oral) = 1000 mg/kg bw/day

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Developmental toxicity / Teratogenity
Animals
NOAEC(maternal toxicity) (rats) : 1.33 mg/L
NOAEC(teratogenicity) (rats and mice) :1.33 mg/L
LOAEL (maternal toxicity) (mice) :1700 mg/kg bw
LOAEL(teratogenicity) (mice) :5000 mg/kg bw
Human
There are no relevant epidemiological studies or case reports which describe an increase in the incidence of
malformations in children of mothers exposed to methanol during pregnancy.
The limited data available on methanol exposure on reproductive and developmental effects do not show an
association (NTP, 2003).
In an epidemiological study, the reproductive effects of various occupations and associated exposures to complex
mixtures were examined in women who gave birth to infants with and without cleft lip or cleft palate (Lorente et al.,
2000). No association was found between methanol exposure and oral clefts. The small number of subjects exposed to
methanol, the lack of individual exposure data, and confounding factors by other chemical exposures did not allow to
draw firm conclusions as to the role of methanol on these outcomes.
lower methanol blood levels.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
NOAEC(maternal toxicity) = 1.33 mg/L for rats
NOAEC(teratogenicity) = 1.33 mg/L for rats and mice
LOAEL (maternal toxicity) = 1700 mg/kg bw for mice
LOAEL(teratogenicity) = 5000 mg/kg bw for mice
Toxicity to reproduction: other studies
Not required.
Justification for classification or non classification
Conclusive, but not sufficient for classification.
Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.

h) STOT ( toxicity on specific target organ)single exposure

See point i).

i) STOT ( toxicity on specific target organ)repeated exposure
Animal data
Oral : LOAEL subacute = 2340 mg/kg/bw in monkeys (mortality 7/7 after 3 days exposure)
Inhalation : NOAEC chronic = 0.013 mg/L air in monkeys (7 to 29 months exposure)
Human data
In male and female workers exposed to methanol from 0.3 to 7.8 years, the highly exposed workers (4.7 - 7.3 mg/L):
-more often complained of blurred vision, headache and nasal irritation during or after work.
-nobody stated to suffer from photophobia.
-no retinal changes.
Among three workers exposed to about 1.0 to 1.6 mg/L and one worker exposed to 0.12 to 3.6 mg/L:
- two showed retarded pupil reflex and one exhibited mild mydriasis
- other common complaints were forgetfulness and skin sensitivity
At an health hazard evaluation conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
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with concentrations of airborne methyl alcohol ranged from 0.48 to 4.0 mg/L showed blurred vision, headaches,
dizziness, nausea to the comparison group.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
Oral : LOAEL subacute = 2340 mg/kg/bw in monkeys (mortality 7/7 after 3 d exposure)
Inhalation : NOAEC chronic = 0.013 mg/L air in monkeys (7 to 29 months exposure)
Value used for CSA (route : oral)
LOAEL: 2340 mg/kg bw/day
Target organs: neurological: eyes (retina, optic nerve)
Value used for CSA (route: inhalation)
NOAEC: 13 mg/m air
Target organs: cardiovascular / hematological: heart; neurological: brain (multiple sections); digestive: liver
Justification for classification or non classification
Chronic studies in monkeys clearly demonstrate the potential of methanol to cause neurological and myocardial
effects.
Although there is a clear potential of methanol to cause adverse health effects especially in primates, the experimental
studies in animals do not provide clear evidence for the necessity for classification.
However methanol is classified as acute toxic by oral, dermal and inhalative exposure, and as capable of inducing
serious irreversible effects upon single exposure by the oral, dermal and inhalation route.
Due to the much higher sensitivity of humans to CNS- and optic nerve toxicity, the rodent studies are of little relevance
to the human situation.
According to Regulation no. 1272/2008 (CLP) on classification, labeling and packaging of the substances and mixtures
the classification is : (STOT SE) single exposure category 1 (route of exposure: oral, inhalation), H370.

j) Aspiration hazard
Non applicable.

k) Other effects
Specific investigations: other studies
Methanol intraperitoneally dosed in rats conducted to inhibition of dependence of formate oxidation with folic acid. After
the initial dosage of 4000 mg/kg bw, 12 hours later an injection of 1000 or 2000 mg/kg bw followed. Formic acidemia,
metabolic acidosis and visual toxicity occurred. These functional tests provide functional evidence of direct retinal
toxicity in methanol poisoning at stages not yet pronounced in histopathological changes
Formate oxidation was found to be about 50% lower in human than in rat retina
A subacute oral toxicity study in monkeys indicated that repeated methanol dosing caused ocular lesions after a high
initial dose of 2000 mg/kg bw followed by lower doses for up to 6 days, depending on the animals acidotic response in
blood, while acute methanol toxicity did not yield signs of ocular toxicity.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk assessment:
LOAEL(ocular toxicity) intraperitoneal = 5000 mg/kg bw for rats (no NOAEL identified)

Justification for classification or non classification
Based on available data it is concluded that methanol is not classified as a neurotoxic substance, according to
Directive 67/548/EEC and the UE classification according to the (EC) Regulation nr. 1272/2008 (CLP) .

Based on available data, the classification criteria are not fulfilled.
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Information on likely routes of exposure

Exposure routes : oral, dermal, inhalation.
: oral ingestion is the most common route of poisoning.
: vapours and percutaneous absorbtion are as effective in producing acute toxic
symptom as oral ingestion
Effects : metabolic acidosis, ocular and central nervous system toxicity.
Oral exposure route
Immediate effects/ human / : no data available
Delayed effects /human / : the signs occur after an asymptomatic period of 12 to 24 hours
Clinic symptoms : headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, visual disturbances,
abdominal pain. It can progress to coma, convulsions and death due chronic
respiratory failure.
Visual disturbances generally develop between 12-48 hours after
Ingestion: range from mild photophobia and visual disturbances to
markedly reduced visual acuity, narrowing the visual field, changes in color
perception and complete blindness.
at sanguine values of 200 mg/L : transient CNS effects
at sanguine values> 500 mg/L : serious ocular symptoms (varying from a
mild photophobia to complete blindness)
at sanguine values 1500 - 2000mg/L : death (in case of untreated patients) ;
convulsions and coma had unfavourable
prognostic
Inhalation exposure route
Immediate effects / human / : no data available
Delayed effects / human / : at low concentrations ( ~ 200ppm) a wide visual disturbances
at high concentrations (~1200 ppm) visual disturbances :blurred vision, visual field
narrowing , changes in colours perception , temporary or permanent blindness
Subsequent effects / human / : at low concentrations (~200ppm) may appear minor skin and eye irritation
Dermal exposure route
Immediate effects / human / : no data available
Subsequent effects / human / : see Inhalation exposure route

Symptoms related to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics

See also subchapter Information on likely routes of exposure.

Symptoms at low exposure :
- inhalation / human : see Information on likely routes of exposure oral and inhalation routes of exposure
at low concentrations (~200 ppm) : for 4 hours without significant physiological effects

- dermal / human : see Information on likely routes of exposure-( Dermal routes of exposure)

Symptoms at severe exposure:
- oral / human : see delayed effects at Information on likely routes of exposure- oral and inhalation routes of
exposure

Information on delayed and immediate effects as well as chronic effects from short and long term exposure
Delayed effects : effects of severe exposure occurs after a latent period asymptomatic of 12-16 hours

Immediate effects : no data available
Chronic effects from long term : blurred vision, headache and nasal irritation during or after work hours, forgetfulness
and skin sensitization ( for highly exposed workers : 4.7-7.3 mg/L) ; blurred vision,
headaches, dizziness and nausea (for exposed workers : 0.48-4.0 mg/L);
: see also Information on likely routes of exposure inhalation route of exposure
Chronic effects from short term : see Information on likely routes of exposure oral and inhalation routes of exposure
(at high concentrations)
Interactive effects

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Methanol metabolism is slowed by the presence of ethyl alcohol in the body.
See also subchapter. 4.1.
12. Ecologic information

12.1. Toxicity
Aquatic compartment (including sediment)

Acute toxicity
Fish
LC50 (96h) = 28100 mg/L Pimephales promelas
LC50 (96h) = 20100 mg/L Oncorhynchus mykiss (=Salmo gairdneri)
LC50 (96h) = 15400 mg/L Lepomis macrochirus
Aquatic invertebrates
EC50 (48h) > 10000 mg/L Daphnia magna
Algae
EC50 (96h) ca. 22000 mg/L Selenastrum capricornutum (new name: Pseudokirchnerella subcapitata)

Chronic Toxicity
Fish
NOEC (200h) = 7900 - 15800 mg/L Oryzias latipes
Microorganisms
EC 50: 19800 mg/L activated sludge
IC50: >1000 mg/L activated sludge
IC50: 880 mg/L Nitrosamonas
Algae ,
Toxic limit concentration: 530 - 6600 mg/L Pseudomonas, Microcystis aeruginosa.
The results indicate a very low acute toxicity for aquatic organisms, well above 10000 mg/L. Also for microorganisms
data indicate a low toxicity. The PNEC for aquatic organisms was derived from the LC50 (96h) = 15400 mg/L Lepomis
macrochirus using an assessment factor of 100. Although the available information on long-term toxicity in fish is not
used to derive the PNEC, the reported no observed effect concentration of 7900 - 15800 mg/L in Oryzias latipes
confirms the low toxicity of methanol also after chronic exposure.

Fish
Short-term toxicity to fish
In continuous flow-through systems values were:
LC50 (96 h)= 29400 mg/L (Pimephales promelas)
LC50 (96 h)= 20100 mg/L (Salmo gairdneri)
LC50 (96 h)= 15400 mg/L (Lepomis macrochirus)
LC50 (96 h)= 20100 mg/L (Salmo gairdneri)

The following information is taken into account for acute fish toxicity for the derivation of PNEC
LC50 (96 h): 15400 - 29400 mg/L
Value used for CSA
LC50 (for freshwater fish): 15400 mg/L
Long-term toxicity to fish
In an early-life-stage bioassay conducted with Oryzias latipes available by Gonzales-Doncel et al. (2008) NOECs range
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between 7900 - 15800 mg/L. Although this study cannot be used for the derivation of the PNEC aqua (in-vitro study
with reduced duration of exposure) the result indicates that methanol has a very low long-term toxicity to fish.
The following information is taken into account for long-term fish toxicity for the derivation of PNEC
NOEC : 7900 - 15800 mg/L
Value used for CSA
EC10/LC10 or NOEC for freshwater fish: 7900 mg/L
Aquatic invertebrates
Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
In a reliable standard static test with Daphnia magna no adverse effects were reported at 10000 mg/L after 48-h
exposure (Kuehn, 1989). Toxicity values well above 10000 mg/L reported also for Daphnia magna in other studies
support this finding: 22200 mg/L (EC50, 48h) 20803 mg/L (EC50, 24h), and 22910 mg/L (LC50, 24h). Additionally
short-term toxicity data are available from tests conducted with other test organism: Mytilus edulis, LC50 (96h) = 15900
mg/L and Moina micrura, LC50 (96h) = 4820 mg/L. Although the lowest toxicity was reported for Moina micrura this is
not a standard organism, which does not occur in cold-temperate regions. For this reason it is considered less relevant
than Daphnia and was not used in the PNEC derivation.
The following information is taken into account for short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates for the derivation of PNEC
EC50(48h) : >10000 mg/L
Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
No studies on chronic toxicity of aquatic invertebrates are available. However, several acute toxicity studies clearly
demonstrate the low toxicity of methanol to aquatic invertebrates with EC50 values well above 10000 mg/L. Long-term
studies with the structurally related substances 2-Propanol and 1-Butanol revealed no reproductive effects at
concentrations up to 100 mg/l (NOEC > 100 mg/l) respectively 18 mg/L.
There is no need for the further conduction of chronic tests.
Algae and aquatic plants
Effects on algae / cyanobacteria
Alga Scenedesmus quadricauda:TGK (toxicity threshold)= 8000 mg/L , during 8 days
Blue-green algae: LC50 =0300 - 43290 mg/L.
LC50 = 28400 mg/L, inhibition in growth rate during an exposure period of 10 14
Green algae ( Selenastrum capricornutum): LC50 = 22000 mg/L, 96h inhibition in growth rate , method OECD 201
The following information is taken into account for effects on algae / cyanobacteria for the derivation of PNEC:
EC50 : 20300 - 43290 mg/L
TGK : 8000 mg/L
Value used for CSA:
EC50/LC50 for freshwater : 22000 mg/L
Sediment organisms
Methanol has a low potential for adsorption or bioaccumulation, exhibits a very high solubility in water and is readily
biodegradable in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In addition, results from the aquatic studies indicate no
harmful effects. Therefore exposure of sediment organisms is unlikely and testing towards sediment dwelling
organisms not necessary. The expected low toxicity towards sediment organisms is underlined by a case study where
EC50 = 71700 mg/L (Tubifex tubifex ).
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The following information is taken into account for sediment toxicity for the derivation of PNEC
No relevant information on acute or chronic effects on sediment organisms is available. However, since the substance
exhibits a low log Pow and low log Koc exposure of sediment organisms is unlikely and testing towards sediment
dwelling organisms not necessary.
Other aquatic organisms
This information is not available.
Terrestrial compartment
The available experimental data methanol are not appropriate for a derivation of PNE Csoil.
The substance however, exhibits low potential for adsorption, is not bioaccumulative and readily biodegradable in both
aerobic and anaerobic environments. The results of aquatic tests revealed no harmful effects of methanol, and by
thereby suggesting little hazardous potential towards soil organisms. Therefore, the equilibrium partitioning method has
been used to assess the hazard potential of methanol for soil organisms.
Arthropode
Effects on soil macro-organisms except arthropods
Taking in account the potential for adsorption to soils, bioaccumulative potential, and the results of aquatic studies
regarding the harmful effects of methanol, the equilibrium partitioning method has been used to assess the hazard
potential to soil organisms.
Based on the result( study similar to OECD 207) : LC50 (48h) >1 mg/cm
2
was determined for Eisenia foetida (used as
a marker, for the relative toxicities of several chemicals and other soil invertebrates) ,methanol was classified as
relatively non toxic.
The following information is taken into account for effects on soil macro-organisms except arthropods for the derivation
of PNEC
LC50: > 1mg/cm
3

Effects on soil arthropods
For methanol there are no appropriate data on terrestrial toxicity available for a derivation of PNEC soil.
See the second paragraph referring to the potential for adsorption, bioaccumulation and biodegradable, the results of
aquatic tests, methods used to assess the hazard.
The following information is taken into account for effects on soil arthropods for the derivation of PNEC:
No relevant data available.
Toxicity to terrestrial plants
Though there are no guideline conform studies available for plant toxicity tests, the results of various literature studies,
show that methanol do not exhibit toxic or harmful effects below concentrations of 100 mg/L. Therefore , according to
CSR the evidence approach for short term toxicity to plants may be applied.
See paragraph 1 and 2 at Terrestrial compartment.
The following information is taken into account for toxicity on terrestrial plants for the derivation of PNEC
Weight of evidence approach for short term toxicity tests to plants.
Lactuca sativa: IC50 (3 d): ca. 41000 mg/L test mat. based on: germination
Onoclea sensibilis: IC50 (63 h): ca. 20000 mg/L test mat. (nominal) based on: germination
Triticum aestivum: EC50 (7 d): 60 M test mat. (nominal) based on: cell elongation (dark)
Triticum aestivum: EC50 (7 d): 900 M test mat. (nominal) based on: Cell elongation (light)
Triticum aestivum: EC50 (7 d): 70 M test mat. (nominal) based on: Cell multiplication (dark)
Triticum aestivum: EC50 (7 d): 60 M test mat. (nominal) based on: Cell multiplication (light)
Toxicity to soil micro-organisms
According to the CSR conclusions, there is not necessary to perform direct or indirect exposure studies for soil.
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The available experimental data of methanol are not appropriate for a derivation of PNEC soil.
Toxicity to other terrestrial organisms
This information is not available.
Atmospheric compartment
Abiotic effects
Global warming
Since adsorption bands of methanol are not within the range of 800-1200 nm a potential greenhouse effect is not
expected.
Stratospheric ozone
The atmospheric lifetime of methanol is not long enough to allow for transport into the troposphere. Furthermore,
methanol does not contain one or more Cl, Br or F substituent. Therefore, ozone depletion potential is not expected.
Tropospheric ozone
Methanol is expected to show a low reactivity so that it is unlikely to contribute significantly to the ozone peak values in
the troposphere.
Acidification
Due the molecular structure it is not expected that acidifying components are formed.
Microbiological activity in sewage treatment systems
Toxicity to aquatic micro-organisms
TGK= 530 mg/L in a 192h test with Microcystis aeruginosa.
TGK= 6600 mg/L, Pseudomonas ,cell multiplication test for 16 hours,
EC50 =20000 mg/L , activated sludge
IC50= 880 mg/L, Nitrosamonas
IC50 >1000 mg/L, activated sludge, according to the OECD Guideline 209 ( respiration inhibition test considered the
most appropriate for assessing the risk for wastewater treatment plant.).
The following information is taken into account for effects on aquatic micro-organisms for the derivation of PNEC:
EC 50 : 20000 mg/L
IC50 : 880 - >1000 mg/L
Toxic threshold values (TGK): 530 - 6600 mg/L
Non compartment specific effects relevant for the food chain (secondary poisoning)
Toxicity to birds
The following information is taken into account for effects on birds for the derivation of PNEC:
No reliable information on acute or chronic effects on birds is available. However, since the substance exhibits a low
log Pow, secondary poisoning is unlikely to be a relevant exposure route.
Toxicity to mammals
Secondary poisoning is not relevant for methanol. Therefore, toxicity data on mammals are not considered in respect to
this section. It should be noted, that is a large amount on information on the toxicity to mammals available (see section
11 ).

S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.21 / 25



12.2. Persistence and degradability
Biodegradation in water and sediment
According to screening testing : Methanol is readily biodegradable in freshwater based on the results of standard
ready tests that show 71.5 95 percent removal after 5 and 20 days. In marine water degradation rates were found
between 69 - 97 % .
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk / persistency assessment
Biodegradation: 71.5 - 95 % (freshwater, wastewater); 69 - 97 % (marine water)
Value used for CSA
Biodegradation in water : readily biodegradable
According to simulation testing : Methanol is readily biodegradable in freshwater and thus no additional information on
degradation and simulation tests in soil or sediments is required
Additional data on biodegradation in soil and sediments are available and presented here for the sake of
completeness.
The degradation of methanol in anaerobic sediments collected from the upper 15 cm of a salt marsh in San Francisco
Bay. The sediments were highly reduced and contained methane and hydrogen sulphide. The sediments were
homogenized anaerobically with San Francisco Bay water and 310-340 mol methanol/flask was added to make up the
inocula. After 3 days incubation, 83-91% conversion of the methanol had occurred. The products of methanol
degradation were methane, CO2 and water. It has been showed that the time needed to eliminate 50% Methanol by
various inocula is =< 8 hours.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk / persistency assessment
Anaerobic degradation: 83-91 % conversion after 3 days to methane, CO2 and water.
Biodegradation in soil
Methanol is readily biodegradable in freshwater and thus no additional information on degradation and simulation tests
in soil or sediments is required. However, additional data on biodegradation in soil and sediments are available and
presented here for the sake of completeness. A study showed that degradation in soil was higher under aerobic than
anaerobic conditions. Looking at CO2 evolution, biodegradation was 53.4 and 46.3 % after 5 days under aerobic and
anaerobic conditions, respectively. Tests with radiolabelled material confirm the higher degradation under aerobic
conditions.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk / persistency assessment
Aerobic degradation: 53.4 % after 5 days
Anaerobic degradation: 46.3 % after 5 days
Abiotic degradation
As regards the compartment air methanol is degraded in the atmosphere by photochemical, hydroxyl-radical
dependent reactions, with a rate constant of 0.932 x 10^-12 cm/molecule*sec . A half-life in the troposphere of about
17 18 days can be estimated. Methanol is thus slowly degraded by photochemical processes. With respect to the
aquatic environment methanol, as an alcohol, lacks hydrolysable groups and is chemically stable in water.
Biotic degradation
Methanol is readily degradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions in a wide variety of environmental media
including fresh and salt water, sediments and soils, ground water, aquifer material and industrial wastewater.
Degradation rate in water: 1-7 days
Degradation rate in sediment: 1-7 days
Degradation rate in soil: 1-7 days
Degradation rate in air: 1-7 days
12.3.Bioaccumulation potential

Methanol does not significantly bioaccumulate in fish. Experimental BCFs of < 10 in fish species, including Cyprinus
carpio and Leuciscus idus, have been reported, according to data below
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.22 / 25



Aquatic bioaccumulation
The study needs not be conducted since the substance has a low potential for bioaccumulation (log Kow < 3).
However, the studies available on aquatic bioaccumulation are summarized below.
Cyprinus carpio / aqueous (freshwater) / static / Total uptake duration: 72 h : BCF: 1 (blood and tissues (gill, muscle,
liver, kidney, intestine)
BCF: 1 (muscle)
BCF: 3 (gills, liver, kidney)
BCF: 4.5 (intestine)
Leuciscus idus melanotus / aqueous (freshwater) /Total uptake duration:72 h : BCF: < 10

Terrestrial bioaccumulation
This information is not available.
The following information is taken into account for any hazard / risk / bioaccumulation assessment
BCF < 10
Terrestrial bioaccumulation
log Pow =0.35 indicates a low bioaccumulation potential.
12.4. Mobility in soil
Distribution on environmental compartments
Adsorption / desorbtion
Adsorption on soil is not to be expected due to the high solubility of methanol as well as its low octanol-water partition
coefficient. According to CSR studies on adsorption of methanol onto three different soil types at 6 deg C:
Adsorption coefficients: 0.13 and 0.61
Koc= 1 , calculated value
These coefficients indicate that methanol has a low adsorptive capacity on soils.
The following information is taken into account for any environmental exposure assessment:
Koc : 0.13 - 1
Volatilization
A value of 0.461 Pa m/mol for the Henrys Law constant indicates that volatilization is not a significant removal
process from the aquatic compartment .
The following information is taken into account for any environmental exposure assessment
Henrys Law constant : 0.461 Pa m/mol
Value used for CSA :
Henry's law constant (H) at 20C: 0.461 (in Pa m/mol or dimensionless)
Discussion summary on environmental distribution
Adsorption on soil is not to be expected due to the high solubility of methanol as well as its low octanol-water partition
coefficient. Adsorption coefficients between 0.13 and 1 measured and calculated indicate that methanol has a low
adsorptive capacity on soils. A value of 0.461 Pa m/mol for the Henrys Law constant indicates that volatilization is not
a significant removal process from the aquatic compartment
12.5. Assessment of PBT/vPvB Properties
Persistence Assessment
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.23 / 25



Due to the results from chapter 12.2 Persistence and degradation, the substance is not persistent (not P) and not very
persistent (not vP) in the environment.
Bioaccumulation Assessment
Due to the results from chapter 12.3 Bioaccumulation the substance is not bioaccumulative (not B) and not very
bioaccumulative (not vB).
Toxicity Assessment
Due to the results of the aquatic toxicity studies (see 12.1 Aquatic compartment, including sediment) and the relevant
mammalian toxicity studies (see 11.Toxicokinetic information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination ),
the substance is not toxic (not T).
Summary and overall conclusions on PBT or vPvB properties
Regarding all available data on biotic and abiotic degradation, bioaccumulation and toxicity it can be stated that the
substance does not fulfil the PBT criteria (not PBT) and not the vPvB criteria (not vPvB).
As the substance does not fulfil the PBT (no PBT) as well as vPvB (not vPvB) criteria, the characterisation of emissions
is not to be done.

12.6. Other adverse effects
Are not known
13. Disposal considerations
National regulations : OUG 195/2005, Law 107/1996, HG 621/2005, HG 856/2002, HG 352 / 2005,
HG 351 / 2005 , Law 211/2011, with the subsequent additions and amendments.
Community regulations :Directive 2000/60/CE, Directive 2008/98/CE, with the subsequent additions and amendments
13.1. Waste treatment methods

a) waste treatment containers and methods

Containers : to clean by washing with water.
waste container are managed in compliance with legal requirements applicable in force
Waste : water contaminated with methanol, are sent to sewage treatment plants, to be biological
treated; see also 5.3.
b) Physical/chemical properties that may affect waste treatment option : no data available

c) Disposal

Dispose of container contents to hazardous or special waste collection point, in case that user does not own
wastewater treatment plant.
d) Where appropriate, any special precautions for any recommended waste treatment option shall be
identified.

Wear protective equipment according to 8.2.
14. Transport information

Terrestrial transport: road (ADR), rail (RID),inland waterways (ADN) :
14.1. UN Number : 1230

14.2. UN proper shipping name : METHANOL
14.3. Transport hazard class(es) : 3
Subsidiary risk class : 6.1
Classification code : FT1
Labels : 3+6.1
Hazard identification number : 336

14.4. Packing group : II
14.5. Environmentally hazardous : no
14.6. Special precautions for user : no data available
Special precautions : 279
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.24 / 25



Transport by Air (ICAO)
14.1. UN Number : 1230

14.2. UN proper shipping name : METHANOL
14.3. Transport hazard class(es) : 3
Risk class subsidiary : 6.1
Classification code : FT1
Labels : 3+6.1
Hazard identification number :336

14.4. Packing group : II
Maritime transport (IMDG)
14.1. UN Number : 1230

14.2. UN proper shipping name : METHANOL
14.3. Transport hazard class(es) : 3

14.4. Packing group : II
Labels : 3+6.1
14.5. Environmentally hazardous : is not environmentally dangerous
14.6. Transport in bulk according to Annex II of
MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code :
Product name : Methyl alcohol
Pollution category : Y
Risk : P
Ship type : 3
Tank type : 2G
EU regulations : Directive 2008/68/EC
National (Romania ) regulations : HG 1326 / 2010
15. Regulatory information

15.1. Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance
Relevant Community provisions : Directive 2007/30/EC , Directive 2006/15/EC ,
Directive 96/82/EC (Seveso substance )
National (Romania ) regulations : HG 398/2010, HG 937/2010, Law 319/2006, HG 1146/2006, HG 1218/2006
OUG 122/2010, HG 447/2009, HG 804/2007, Law 360/2003, OUG195/2005,
with the subsequent additions and amendments
15.2. Chemical safety assessment

For methanol was performed a chemical safety assessment .

16. Other information
(a) Revision
Changes to the vers. 2.0:
- at section 1.1 : completed with one more registration number
- at section 1.2 : completed with "/ or" at manufacturer and / or distributor
- at section 11 g) : the title " Developmental toxicity " is completed with " Teratogenity"
- at section 13 - Legislation on disposal : amendments and additions at the repealed / in force legislation
(b) Legend of acronyms / abbreviations:
ADN : Deoxyribonucleic acid
BCF : Bioconcentration factor
CAS : Chemical Abstract Service
EC : European Commision
CLP : Classification, Labelling , Packaging
CSA : Chemical Safety Assessment
CSR : Chemical Safety Report
DNEL : derived no-effect level - is the level of exposure to a substance above which humans
should not be exposed.
S.C. VIROMET S.A.
SAFETY DATA SHEET

according to (EC) Regulation no.1907/2006 (REACH) / (EC) Regulation no.1272/2008 (CLP) / (EC) Regulation no.453/2010
METHANOL
Version 3.0 / date : 29.03.2012
Code PS-MI-14-F09 / 26 pag.25 / 25



DNEC : derived no-effect level - is the concentration of exposure to a substance above which humans
should not be exposed.
EC50 :effective concentration of the substance that determines 50% of the max. answer.
ES : Exposure Scenario
ECHA : European Chemical Agency (Helsinki, Finland)
F : highly flammable
SDS : Safety Data Sheet
HG : Government Decision (Romania)
IC50 : average of immobilization/inhibition concentration
IUPAC : International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
K
oc
: organic carbon normalised distribution coefficient
LC50 : Lethal concentration 50% (median lethal concentration ) - concentration at which 50% of the
population is expected to die
LD50 : Lethal dose 50% (median lethal dose ) - the estimated dose at which 50% of the population
is expected to die.
LOAEL : Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level
NIOSH :National Institute for Safety and Health
NOAEC : No observed adverse effect concentration
NOAEL : No observed adverse effect level
NTP : National Toxicology Programm (USA)
OECD : Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
PBT : Persistent - Bioaccumulative -Toxic
PNEC : Predicted no effect concentration
P
ow
: partition coefficient, n- octanol / water
SNC : Central nervous system
STAS : Romanian standard
STOT SE : specific target organ toxicity single exposure
UN : United Nations
vPvB : very Persistent - very Bioaccumulative
vs : versus
Xn : harmful
T : toxic
TGK : Toxische Grenzkonzentration
(c)Bibliographic sources:

(1) Chemical Security Report (CSR) of S.C. VIROMET S.A. Methanol
(2) The registration dossier of S.C. VIROMET S.A. according to (EU) Regulation no. 1907/2006 of the European
Parliament and the Council of 18 December 2006, concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and
Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)
(3) Hazardous Chemicals- Desk Reference, (Richard J, Lewis, SR.), fourth edition
(4) Coopers TOXIC EXPOSURE, Desk reference, 1997
(5) ERICard Methanol (ERIC 3-15)

(d) List of risk phrases (R) and safety phrases (S) :
R11 - Highly flammable.
R23/24/25 - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/23/24/25 - Toxic : danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if
swallowed.
R20/21/22 - Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R68/20/21/22 - Harmful : possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
S1/2 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S7 - Keep container tightly closed.
S16 - Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking.
S36/37 - Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
S45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible).
In ANNEX: Exposure Scenario (ES) corresponding to the identified uses ( totally 15 ES)

Closing Safety Data Sheet