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BACKGROUND AND GOAL Revolution in modern information technology science has made the world a smaller place with all countries within easy reach. The western developed countries have massively capitalized on the new advances of science and technology and have improved the socio-economic and the quality of life of their people to great extent that is inconceivable in the developing countries. Access to quality education, health care service, quality food, shelter and social security with the provision of all the necessary services have, become the essential needs of the common people in the developed countries whereas these very essential needs have become the exclusive privileges of the wealthy and affluent class in most of the developing countries. Access to quality health education and services has more than any other factor, significantly improved the quality of life in the western world. The improvement in the quality of life has stemmed from a substantial public and private sectors investment on health education and services over a long period of time. t is universally recognized that until and unless a country can produce high quality and adequate human health manpower at various levels needed by the country, it is inconceivable to bring intended qualitative improvement in health sector. The production of high quality human resources in health sector at various levels must be based on country!s needs and the priority.
"epal faces a ma#or challenge in providing basic health care services let alone provide high quality health services to its population. $ne of the most limiting factors in meeting this challenge is the severe lac% of health wor%ers at various levels ranging from #unior, medium to higher levels. A large number of #unior and medium level public health wor%ers are needed to deliver the basic health services to the people at various levels &community, district, regional and national'. The present rate of production of public health wor%ers at various levels relative to the need of the country is so small that it may ta%e more than many decades to meet the present demand of the country. Realizing this dire need of health professionals in public health sector, ()* has encouraged private sector to invest in public health education to produce quality manpower to meet national needs. t is in this context that +urwanchal ,niversity has initiated bachelor programs in health sciences with the goal of contributing to the improvement of public health services of the country through the production of quality human resources in health sciences needed by the country. +urwanchal ,niversity is a multi faculty innovative university involved in the production of high quality human resources in various disciplines of sciences. Therefore, developing curriculum in bachelor of public health &-+(' is certainly an innovative step in producing qualified graduates in health sector. (is )a#esty!s *overnment of "epal, )inistry of (ealth has committed itself to raise the health status of the people of "epal pursing the strategy of +rimary (ealth .are &+(.' in order to realize the ob#ectives of health for all. All of the components of +rimary (ealth .are call for intersectoral coordination as well as active community participation and involvement. t is in this context that effective dissemination of relevant, technically sound, and feasible public health measures are necessary in order to increase individual and community capabilities for involvement and selfreliance in health sector and to promote healthy behavior with respect to disease prevention and control, environmental health, family health, nutrition, healthy life-styles and so on. Thus, it has become essential through understanding of all relevant branches of public health with special emphasis on the most appropriate public health measures, which are necessary for promoting individual and community involvement.

The country!s health situation and the indicators of health reveal that the production of public health professionals and graduates at various levels must be carefully planned and accelerated in view of the dire needs of such manpower to provide essential, preventive, curative, promotive and rehabilitative quality care services and ensure everybody!s access to health and realize Alma-Ata Declaratio of which "epal is a signatory. Therefore, +urwanchal ,niversity has envisaged contributing towards this noble goal of providing quality health services and improving people!s health through the production of public health professional graduates required by the country.

PURPO!E OF THE PROGRAMME The bachelor of public health program &-+(' aims to prepare professional public health specialists with the highest technical and managerial competence in district level health programs, including problem identification, planning, implementing, training, health education, and research. /uch specialists can serve in various types of positions at national, regional, zonal, district or local levels. They will be needed in various %inds of governmental or non-governmental health agencies, hospital, schools and institutions, other possible area of absorption may involve special responsibilities, e.g. wor%ing directly with local communities and individuals, wor%ing primarily with school teachers, administering health education services, and preparing health wor%ers in public health fields. n general, the graduates of -+( program should be able to carry out the responsibilities designed for the district public health officer, including a health inspector. OB"ECTI#E! OF THE PROGRAMME The ob#ective of bachelor of public health &-+(' program is to produce competent graduates with advanced %nowledge and practical s%ills necessary to deliver high quality health services needed for the country. /pecifically, the program entails the following ob#ectives0 +rovide advanced %nowledge and practical s%ills in +rimary (ealth .are for graduates of certificate level programs in general medicine, nursing &staff nurse' and health sciences and for certificate graduates in science with biology. 1evelop required s%ills in designing, analyzing and evaluating applied public health science research and management. 2quip public health specialists with communication and group organization s%ills for promoting community participation in health and development activities ultimately leading to the individual and community self-reliance in health services and improvement in health status of people. 2nable public health professionals to deal with existing realities in district public health management issues, concern and problems. 3oster positives attitudes in health professionals and encourage them to provide more accessible and equitable +rimary (ealth .are services for disadvantaged groups and communities. 1evelop the leadership capabilities of public health professionals in the management of +rimary (ealth .are and district level public health programs. 2nhance vocational competence of public health professionals through advanced education in health strategies, health promotion and health programming.

COMPETENCIE! TO BE ACHIE#ED B$ PUBLIC HEALTH GRADUATE! t is envisaged that the professional public health specialists graduated from +urwanchal ,niversity should acquire %nowledge, s%ills and attitudes, which will enable them to carry out the following activities0 4. 5iew +rimary (ealth .are in its totality with respect to biological, environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors, and 6. -e able to identify and implement promotional, preventive and curative components of public health programs. 7. 1etermine existing community health problems by use of epidemiological investigation and prioritize the problems. 8. Apply problem-solving and community participation approach in planning, managing and evaluating programs designed to deal with priority public health problems in appropriate ways to achieve optimum impact from public health programs. 9. 1emonstrate attitudes, which reflect acceptance of, and respect for the important roles of colleagues, sub-ordinate staff and community members. /uch attitudes is expected to enable them to0 +rovide direction for smooth functioning of a public health team. Train, supervise and support existing public health staff. Arrange for intersectoral co-ordination and cooperation Raise awareness among community citizens concerning the existing public health problems. $rganize health actions, which will address these problems especially bearing in mind the needs of disadvantaged groups and communities.
n view of the above considerations, it is quite evident that a tremendous responsibility has to be borne by a professional public health specialist in order to provide leadership to the community, to middle level and grass roots health wor%ers in order to bring about health for all.

DURATION OF THE PROGRAMME The course has been designed for three academic years concentrating in general public health courses. There will be concurrent and residential fieldwor% during the second and third academic years. ADMI!!ION CRITERIA To fulfill the entry-level requirement for admission to this course, the candidates should have proficiency certificate in general medicine, or any other certificate level course of the nstitute of medicine, or any other recognized certificate level course in health sciences, or intermediate science certificate or ten plus two with biology with second division in aggregate in certificate final examination and a pass in the entrance examination conducted by +urwanchal ,niversity. There will be one paper carrying one hundred and fifty mar%s each consisting of general and health sciences and 2nglish respectively. The questions will be of multiple choices. The duration of examination will be of three hours. The candidates must secure at least 9: ; mar% to pass the entrance examination. The candidates will be selected from the merit list in descending order

TEACHING AND LEANING METHOD! A number of effective and participatory teaching and learning methods will be employed to facilitate innovative learning &acquisition of %nowledge and the s%ills'. The choice of the methods largely depends on the nature of the sub#ect matter and the situation nevertheless the following methods will be emphasized and adopted0 <ectures using overhead pro#ector, multi media and white boards. *roups discussion and interaction Reading assignment 3ield study, analysis and group presentation 1irected study and seminar. TEACHING AND LEARNING !ETTING A participatory teaching and learning environment is created. The concerned teacher will facilitate and motivate the students for participatory learning through group discussion and interaction. The use of modern information technology will be emphasized and students will be directed and encouraged to develop their analytical capacity for the acquisition, processing, interpretation and presentation of the %nowledge acquired. E#ALUATION There will be final examination at the end of each consecutive year, which will carry =: percent mar%s. Three internal assessment examinations consisting of 6: percent mar%s in aggregate will be ta%en throughout the course-class schedule before appearing in the final examination by the respective college, campus or institute. The qualifying mar%s for theory classes will be 9: percent and for fieldwor% and practical >: percent. Co%r&e E'al%atio !c(eme
Theory +apers .ommunity 1iagnosis &6nd year' nternal Assessment ?6: percent 3inal 2xamination - =: percent Theory -)* +ercent nternal Assessment - , percent 3ield @or% and +resentation - )- +ercent +re-field wor% -:9 percent ndividual /%ill &Team +articipation' -4: +ercent +resentation by /tudents at .ommunity -9 percent )icro health +ro#ect +lanning - :9 +ercent +resentation by /tudent at .ampusA nstitute -:9+ercent .ommunity 1iagnosis and Report @riting - ) .ommunity 1iagnosis 3ield Report &@ritten' -49 +ercent $ral 2xamination -49 +ercent 2valuation by <ocal 3iled /upervisor -:9 +ercent 2valuation by .ampusA nstitute /upervisor -6: +ercent 1istrict /eminar -4: +ercent +resentation of 3iled @or% at .ampusA nstitute -49 +ercent 2valuation of @ritten Report &1istrict +rofile' -6: +ercent ndividual Report on )icro-(ealth +ro#ect -6: +ercent

.omprehensive 3ield +ractice &7rd Bear'

$ral 1efense of @ritten Report and 3iled @or%

-4: +ercent

COUR!E OUTLINE The bachelor in public health science &-+(' consists of seven papers carrying a total of C:: mar%s each year and a total of twenty-one papers with 64:: mar%s in three years duration, which is shown below.
Ta.le /0 Co%r&e O%tli e o1 Bac(elor o1 P%.lic Healt( (Fir&t 2ear)
Course Code BPH-/-/ BPH-/-* BPH-/-) BPH-/-3 BPH-/-4 BPH-/-5 BPH-/-6 Course Title Applied /ciences and 3irst Aid -io-/tatistics and .omputer Application 3undamentals of 2pidemiology +ublic (ealth <aboratory /cience +ublic (ealth <aboratory /cience ? +ublic (ealth, +rimary (ealth .are and .ommunity (ealth 1evelopment 3ood and "utrition Total Credit Hours 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: ,3Full Marks 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 6-Pass Marks 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: )--

Ta.le *0 Co%r&e O%tli e o1 Bac(elor o1 P%.lic Healt( (!eco 7 2ear)

Course Code BPH-*-/ BPH-*-* BPH-*-) BPH-*-3 BPH-*-4 BPH-*-5 BPH-*-6 Course Title Applied /ociology and Anthropology 2nvironment and (ealth Applied 2pidemiology +ublic (ealth Administration D (ealth 2conomics ntroductory (ealth 2ducation and /chool (ealth 3amily (ealth, Reproductive (ealth and 1emography .ommunity health 1iagnosis Total Credit Hours 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: ,3Full Marks 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 6-Pass Marks 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: >: )5-

Ta.le )0 Co%r&e O%tli e o1 Bac(elor o1 P%.lic Healt( (T(ir7 2ear)

Course Code BPH-)-/ BPH-)-* BPH-)-) BPH-)-3 BPH-)-4 BPH-)-5 BPH-)-6 Course Title +ublic (ealth Research Applied 2nvironmental $ccupational (ealth and /afety (uman Resource 1evelopment (ealth, Credit Hours 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: 46: Full Marks 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: 4:: Pass Marks 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: 9: >:

(ealth /ervices )anagement in "epal Applied (ealth 2ducation and $ral (ealth Applied 3amily (ealth, Reproductive (ealth and )ental (ealth .omprehensive 3ield +ractice







F%ll Mar80 /-Cre7it Ho%r&0 /*Pa&& Mar8&0 4-

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course has been designed to impart basic concept and %nowledge on Anatomy, +hysiology, +athology, +harmacy and +harmacology in relation to structures and function of different systems and organs, pathological, changes and abnormalities. The course also aims to impart the basic concept and %nowledge on pharmacy and pharmacology and the mode of actions and effects of drugs on human health and the use and management of the first aid treatments.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 2xplain the structures and functions of different systems of human body, relation to health and diseases and actions. 1escribe structures and the function of the cells, tissue, organ systems and types and their relation to each other and to the physiological homeostasis. 1escribe pharmacy and pharmacological related terminologies and the actions, reactions and the side effects of important drugs. dentify the various adverse effects of commonly used drugs and enumerate the name of the certain emergency drugs, their procedure of administration and their mode of actions. 1escribe the basic clinical system related pathological terminologies, basic pathological changes in the cells, tissues, organs and the systems of the body. 2xplain different life threatening casualty condition and apply first aid s%ills to save life and promote health and recovery of the patient.

Co%r&e Co te t

/; Ge eral I tro7%ctio 3 1efine various important anatomical terminologies Anterior, +osterior, /uperior, nferior, +roximal, 2xtension, 3lexion, Abduction, Adduction, 1istal, /agital, &.oronal, +almar, 1orsal and 5entral' dentify the structure of human cell, tissue and organ. *; Or9a !2&tem& i; M%&c%lo !8eletal "ame and identification of appendicular and axial s%eleton. "ame of different types of #oints and their characteristic. ii; Ne%ro&e &or2 !2&tem *

)ention different components of nervous system. dentify different parts of the brain and coverings )ention extent and covering of spinal cord. "ame main tracts of spinal cord. "ame the cranial nerves and their area of supply. iii; Re&+irator2 !2&tem "ame different parts of respiratory system. dentify +aranasal air sinuses 2xtent of larynx, trachea and bronchus dentify different parts of lungs and pleura )ention different parts of bronchial tree. )

i'; Car7io'a&c%lar !2&tem ) "ame and identify parts, chambers and valves of heart. "ame the extent and branches of abdominal aorta, external carotid artery and internal iliac artery. "ame, identify and mention the extent of Axillary artery, -rachial artery, Radial artery, ulner artery, 3emoral artery, poplitial artery, Anterior and posterior tibial arteries, 1orsalispedis. "ame and identify /uperior 5enacava &/5.', nferior 5enacava & 5.', 1ural 5enus sinsues '; L2m+(atic !2&tem / )ention area of drainage of thoracic ducts, axillary group of lymph nodes,. nguinal group of lymph nodes +re and +ara-aortic lymph nodes 'i; Re+ro7%cti'e !2&tem "ame different parts, situation and extent of male and female genital organs. 'ii; Uri ar2 !2&tem "ame different parts 2xplain parts of %idney in coronal section )ention different parts of nephron. )ention different parts of urinary bladder. 'iii; G;I; !2&tem "ame different parts of *astro ntestinal Tract )ention name, position of salivary glands and pancreas )ention position lobes and structure of liver "ame and extent hepatic billary appendages. )ention basic concept of peritoneal folds. i<; E 7ocri e !2&tem 2numerate different endocrine glands )ention their +osition, secretions and their functions / *



/; Ge eral P(2&iolo92 ) "ame different components of animals! cell and their function. <ist different tissue of body and their characteristics 1efine body fluids and electrolyte balance, classify them and mention their composition. *; H%ma !2&tem i; Car7io'a&c%lar !2&tem a 7 Bloo7 3 <ist the function of heart 2xplain pulmonary and systemic circulation, cardiac cycle and heart sound. 1efine blood pressure and explain the mechanism of its regulation. .orrelate physiological aspects of the schemic heart disease, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. )ention composition and functions of blood. 1efine haemopoiesis and disorders of blood components 1efine blood groups and mention its importance <ist the clothing factors and explain the steps of coagulation <ist the function of spleen. ii; Re&+irator2 !2&tem ) 3unction of the nose, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, trachea, bronchus and alveoli of the lungs. /urfactants of lungs *asses exchanges in the lungs <ungs volume and change in volume in different respiratory activities. .$+1, 1isphnoea, 1isphnoea, +"1 and orthopnoea. )echanism of coughing. iii; GI !2&tem ) )echanism of mastication, deglutition, digestion, absorption, defecation and vomiting. Activation of different enzyme system on smell, ingestion and hunger. 3unction of different glands involved in digestion i.e. tonsils, buccal glands, salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, liver etc. +eristalsis and regurgitation. i'; M%&c%lo !8eletal )uscles contraction and excitation )ovement of different #oints i.e. shoulder, hip, %nee, an%le, elbow, wrist etc. .o-ordination of movement .ellular respiration )

.ellular dehydration .ellular contraction

'; Ner'o%& !2&tem <ist the function of different parts of brain and spinal cord and its coverings )ention the function of different cranial nerves. )ention the function of special senses 2numerate the function of sympathetic and para- sympathetic "ervous /ystem .orrelate physiological aspect of meningitis, encephalitis and epilepsy 'i; Uri ar2 !2&tem <ist the function of different parts of %idney and urinary tract. 2xplain the mechanism of formation of urine and micturation .orrelate the physiological aspects of polyuria and the renal stones. 'ii; E 7ocri e=Re+ro7%cti'e !2&tem 2numerate the main function of different endocrine glands .orrelate the physiological aspect of *oitre and 1iabetes mellitus. <ist the main function of male and female genital organs 2xplain the physiology of menstruation. 2xplain basic concepts of spermatogenesis, ovulation and pregnancy. 2xplain the physiological basis of contraceptives.


/; I tro7%ctio +rinciples of pharmaco-%inetics and pharmaco dynamics *eneral concepts of anti-microbial therapy.


*; Im+orta t 7r%9& a 7 t(eir actio & /3 <ife saving drugs0 classification, mechanism of action, fate of drugs, side effects, ndications and contraindication .holenergic drug0 classification, mechanism of action, fate of drugs, side effects, ndications and contraindication ); Im+orta ce o1 7ate o1 ma %1act%re> e<+ir2 a 7 7r%9 &tora9e 3; Im+orta ce o1 'acci atio a 7 col7 c(ai met(o7& ) )

UNIT-30 PATHO-PH$!IOLOG$ *3 /; I tro7%ctio ) 1efine basic terminologies 2xplain the general concepts of "ecrosis, inflammation, Thrombosis, 2mbolism, wound healing, shoc%, $edema, "eoplasia, Antigen and Antibody Reaction

*; H%ma !2&tem& i. M%&c%lo !8eletal !2&tem 2xplain the basic concepts of fractures Arthritics, $esteomyelitis, leprosy.

ii. Car7io'a&c%lar !2&tem 4 2xplain the basic concepts of Rheumatic carditis, myocardial infraction, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart failure, anemia, leu%emia, hemophilia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura & T+'. 2xplain immune deficiency disorders. 1efine hypersensitivity reactions. iii; Re&+irator2 !2&tem ) 2xplain the basic concepts of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, .$+1, +neumonia, carcinoma lung. i'; Ga&troi te&ti al !2&tem ) 2xplain the basic concepts of gastritis, peptic ulcer, T- intestine, Appendicitis, carcinoma stomach, hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholecystits and choleithiasis. '; Ne%ro&e &ar2 !2&tem a 7 !+ecial &e &e& ) 2xplain the basic concepts of meningitis, epilepsy, encephalitis, con#unctivitis, Trachoma, Retinoblastoma, Eerophthalmia, Acute otitis media and ./$) 'i; Re al electrol2te !2&tem 2xplain renal failure, "ephritis, "ephrotic syndrome, Renal stones, ,T . *

'ii; Re+ro7%cti'e !2&tem a 7 E 7ocri e !2&tem ) 2xplain 1,-, Abortions, 2ctopic pregnancy, -enign +rostatic, (yperplasic &-2+', .arcinoma cervix. 2xplain nodular goiter, 1iabetes mellitus <ist different cause of breast lump.

UNIT-4 FIR!T AID *3 1efine shoc%, types of shoc%, identify first aid measures to the patient, / dentify first acid measures in case of poisoning &insecticides, rodenticides, drugs, alcohols' ) dentify foreign body in ear, nose, throat and eyes and provide first aid * .lassify in#ury and identify measures to provide first aid appropriately. / .lassify types of hemorrhage and identify to provide first aid to control external bleeding ) .lassify burns, its percentage and first aid measures to thermal and chemical burns ) 1escribe measure to manage the case of frost bite / dentity the fractured bones and dislocations and its first aid measurement ) dentify heatstro%e and its first aid and measurement * 1escribe the dangers of rabid animal bites and its first aid measurement. * dentify first aid measures in case of drowning / 1escribe the measures to be ta%e in case of sna%e bites / dentify acute mountain sic%ness and its first aid measures /

Recomme 7e7 Boo8& a 7 "o%r al&

4. 6. 7. 8. 9. >. C. Anatomy D +hysiology ? @illison Ross. Recent edition. Anatomy D +hysiology for "urses, Recent edition. .ams published by -io-gard medical services, recent edition. *rays Anatomy, Recent edition (amilton /ystemic Anatomy, Recent edition. ntroduction to medical laboratory technology ? 3.F. ba%er &2<-/', Recent edition )edical laboratory manuals for developing countries )onica .eesbrough &2<-/', recent edition. =. +harmacology by /atos%er and -handaran, Recent edition. G. R.1. 5ade mecum, &4GG=' published by Royal 1rug <imited. 4:. Text boo%s of 3irst, Aid, Recent edition,


F%ll Mar8&0 /-Cre7it Ho%r&0 /*Mar8&0 4-

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course aims to provide the basic concepts and s%ills in statistics for analyzing and interpreting the biological data generated in health and life sciences. The course also aims to impart the basic s%ills on the use of computer and the statistical software programs for data analysis including the use of nternet for the acquisition of relevant information in various disciplines of health sciences.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to Apply statistical concepts and %nowledge in collecting relevant data, planning, implementing and monitoring public health programs. *enerate statistical information, participate and provide statistical information to conduct operational research designed to provide effective health care delivery for the community. <earn the basic s%ills on the use of relevant software programs used in the data organization, analysis and interpretation <earn the basic s%ill on the extraction of relevant information from nternet search and website browsing.

U it-/0 I tro7%ctio

4. -asic .oncepts and ,sefulness of /tatistics ) -asic concept of statisticsH definition of bio-statisticsH scope, role, usefulness of statistics in the conduct of community and public health research. 6. Types of 5ariables 4 -asic concept of variables, types of variables &discrete and continuous, nominal, ordinal and categorical variables'.

U it *0 Data Collectio a 7 Pre&e tatio /* 4. 1ata collection 5 /ources of data, collection and recording of statistical information on public health and its related fields from primary and secondary sources &census, vital registration, ad-hoc surveys, population registers, hospital records and surveillance system, health post records, public health #ournals and bulletins'.
*; Ta.%latio a 7 9ra+(ical +re&e tatio 5 +rocessing and presentation of statistical data0 frequency distribution and different types of tables &one way, two way and manifold tables'.

+reparation of diagrammatic and graphical representation &graphs, histogram, bar charts, pie charts, etc'. nterpretation of statistical data including simple analysis of tables, chart and graphs.

U it )0 Mea&%re& o1 Ce tral Te 7e c2 a 7 Di&+er&io 4. )easures of central tendency

ntroduction )ean, median and mode 1ifferent partition values &quartiles, deciles and percentiles'


6. )easures of dispersion 4 ntroduction Range, inter-quartile range, standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation.

U it 30 Pro.a.ilit2 Di&tri.%tio
/; .oncept of probability and chance, simple probability distribution *; +robability distribution of continuous variables &normal distribution' ); +robability distribution of discrete variables &binomial distribution' 3; +oisson probability distribution

*3 , 5 *

,nit 90 !am+li 9 //; 1ifferences between population and sample &sample statistics and population parameters'

*; );

* /ampling distribution, estimation of population parameters and sample size * 1ifferent types of sampling techniques0 simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic and cluster sampling and multistage purposive samplings. 5

,nit >0 (2+ot(e&i& Te&ti 9 a 7 !tati&tical I 1ere ce *3 /; .oncept of hypothesis, null and alternative hypothesis, formulation of a statistical hypothesis, level of significance, type and type errors, beta and power of test 3
*; 2stimation and test of significance for large and small samples &I-test, t-test, binomial test for proportion and E6-test' *-

U it 60 !im+le Correlatio a 7 Re9re&&io A al2&i&


4. -asic concept of regression and correlation, definition of correlation, correlation coefficients, /pearman!s ran% correlation coefficient 5 6. /imple regression analysis describing cause and effect relationship, scatter diagram and residual analysis, interpreting regressions coefficients and analysis of variance. 5

U it ,0 Com+%ter A++licatio /5 4. mportance and the scope of computer application in database and information management, use of computer software programs in data analysis 6. ntroduction to various health and bio-science related software programs &use of 2pi-info 6::6, /+//, /preadsheet and other relevant programs in the analysis of statistical data' 7. Assignments on data analysis using software programs U it ?0 I ter et a 7 @e.&ite BroA&i 9 , 4. nternet library, internet and website browsing 6. /earch for relevant information on nternet &electronic #ournals, reports and boo%s' 7. Assignments on the extraction, organization and presentation of information from nternet library and website browsing.

Recommended Books
4. 1aniel @. @ayne, -iostatistics0 A 3oundation for Analysis in the (ealth /ciences, Fohn @iley and /ons, 4GG4, "ew Bor%, Toronto 6. 1awson and /anuders, -asic and .linical -iostatistics, +rentice (all nternational, 4GG8. 7. Rao, +././ /undara and F. Richard, An ntroduction of -iostatistics, +rentice (all of ndia, "ew 1elhi, 6::4 8. -a#racharya, -" J-asic /tatisticsJ, )K +urshotam and 1istribution. -/ 6:8C 9. .alton T. J/tatistics in medicineJ <ittle -rown and .ompany -oston 4 st edition. 4GC8 >. )aha#an -K J)ethod in -iostatisticsJ /mt. ndu )aha#an +usa Road, "ew 1elhi, latest edition. 4GG> C. )aha#an -K J)ethod in -iostatisticsJ latest edition published by /mt. ndu )aha#an +usa Road, "ew 1elhi, latest edition, Recent publication. =. )anual for 2pi info-6::: version JA word processing, database and statistics system for epidemiology on microcomputers, .1. Atlanta ,/A and @($, 6::4. G. +atha%, K- D Ram 3. JTechniques of 1emographic AnalysisJ (imalaya +ublishing (ouse, Recent publication.


Full Marks: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Marks: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course has been designed with a view to impart fundamental %nowledge on epidemiological concepts, strategies, method and the information that can be used for the diagnosis, planning, control and the management of the community health and the prevention of occupational diseases.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, the students will be able to0 1escribe and apply epidemiological concepts and strategies in planning and implementing health programs. 1escribe and generate epidemiological information for community health diagnosis in order to manage, control and prevent health problems. .alculate epidemiological indices and apply these to manage and evaluate health programs. ,nderstand epidemiological methods and conduct epidemiological studies and be able to use field epidemiological tools. ,nderstand host, agent and environmental interactions and investigate an epidemic and prepare a plan to manage it. ,nderstand and implement preventive measures to manage prevalent diseases in the district. ,nderstand occupational epidemiological and prevention of occupational diseases.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/0 Ba&ic E+i7emiolo92


1efinition, scope, concept and use of epidemiology. (istorical development of epidemiology and its practice. /pectrum and determinants of health and disease. )easures of frequency of disease +rinciples and methods of measuring diseases frequency 1efinition and calculation of morbidity and mortality rates and proportions 2pidemiological classification of diseases0 dea and need for classification +rinciples of classification /ources of data0 +rinciples sources of data <imitation of sources of data .haracteristics of persons ntrinsic condition of person0 age, sex, religion and ethnic bac%ground

2xtrinsic condition of person0 education, language and socio-economic status, culture. .haracteristics of place *eographic0 rural, urban, national and international distribution .haracteristics of time ntrinsic and extrinsic conditions of time .omparison of trends for the disease .yclic fluctuations of disease. .lustering of disease with in a period of time Types of epidemiological studies 2mpirical studies, experimental and non-experimental - descriptive 1escriptive studies and case studies- analytical Analytical studies0 case control and cohort-observational ntervention and experimental - experimental .ause and effect relationship Types of associations! art factual &spurious' causal and value of understanding community for prevention of disease. /trategies of epidemiology @ays and means of assembling facts on types of people affected by disease and by various circumstances 3orming a hypothesis and testing it Reviewing various epidemiological studies. nvestigation of an epidemic in a district situation and planning to manage it 1iagnostic Test and .onfounding 5alidity Reliability /ensitivity /pecificity +redictive value <i%elihood ratio +roblem-solving exercises on the epidemiology of infectious diseases0 gastroenteritis, foods poisoning, infectious hepatitis, typhoid outbrea%s, etc.

UNIT-*0 I 1ectio%& Di&ea&e E+i7emiolo92


Terminologies used in 2pidemiology on communicable diseases0 nfections, communicable disease, case, host, agent, environment, carriers, vectors, reservoir, incubation period, common source epidemic propagated source epidemics, endemicity, sporadic enzootic. )echanisms of transmission of infection, prevention and control0 +rocess of transmission (ost-parasite, and environment relationship @ays of brea%ing the infectious disease cycle +revention and control of communicable diseases .oncepts of control versus eradication of diseases, including consideration of diseases surveillance. 5ector control including description and demonstration of common insects and parasites.

1efense mechanisms of the body0 mmunization, immunity mmunization programs- planning and implementation $ccupational dieses0 effect on human health and its prevention.

UNIT-)0 Fiel7 E+i7emiolo92


3ield techniques +roposal development 1evelopment of test instruments 2thics, ethical guidelines and ethical clearance0 +roposal approval )ethod of collecting information0 nterview schedule0 interview techniques and schedule development %ey informants, focus groups. $bservation0 concept and observation chec% list0 Muantitative measurements0 /econdary data analysis nterpretation of information, including content analysis of interviews Techniques for presentation of community diagnosis to community and in seminars at campus. Recommending health intervention programs on the basis of community diagnosis findings. Techniques for wor%ing with community members to determine priority macro-health actions on the basis of community!s step!s, components and format.

Recommended Books
4. -ar%er 1F+ J+ractical epidemiologyJ 2nglish <anguage -oo% /oc. 6. -ennett 3#. 2ducation. J.ommunity diagnosis and health action A manual for tropical and rural areas 1ept. of .ommunity (ealthJ ,niv. of "airobi, Keny, <ondon, )acmillan, 4GCG. 7. -urent and @hite, J"atural history of infectious diseasesJ, .ambridge ,niv. +ress, .ambridge. 8. 1avey and @ilson, J1avey and <ightboy!s control of diseases in the tropiesJ, 2<-/. 9. 3elsenfeld and Thomas, .harles .. ThomasJ The 2pidemiology of tropical diseasesJ +ublisher /pringfield. >. 3lower 3F Fr. J/urvey research methods applied social research methods seriesJ 5ol. , Rev. 2ducation. /age +ubl. "ewbury +ar%, 4G=8. C. (ulley, /- and .ummings /R. eds. J1esigning .linical ResearchJ @illiams and @il%ins -altimore, 4G==. =. )ac<eod F. J1avidson!s +rinciples and practice of medicineJ, 2<-/. G. +ar% F2 and +ar% K. JText boo% of social and preventive medicineJ, 6::: 4:. +aul RF J.linical epidemiology JThe ,niversity of .hicago +ress, .hicago /. -anarasidas -ahnet, 46>= "anier Town, Fawalpur, ndia. 44. @($ $ffset +ublications "o. C: JThe place of epidemiology in local health wor%. The experience of a group of developing countriesJ @($, *eneva, 4G=6. 46. @ileox, )anson--ahr. )anson!s tropical diseasesJ.


F%ll Mar80 /-Cre7it Hr&0 /*Pa&& Mar80 4-

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course aims to impart the basic concepts in general microbiology, parasitology, bacteriology, virology, pathology and disease development. The course also aims to develop the basic and practical laboratory s%ills in identifying and diagnosing the fungal, bacterial, viral and parasites related causal agents, organisms and diseases.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1escribe the concept of microbial diseases &fungal, parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases'. 1escribe the life cycle of common intestinal and blood parasites. .ollect, process and identify the parasites from stool and blood samples. +rovide the treatment, prevention and control of parasitic diseases. 1escribe the morphology, physiology and requirement of growth factor of bacteria. 1escribe the normal, opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria. ,nderstand the mechanism of infection and development of immunity. 1escribe the methods of sterilization. dentify the common and important bacterial communicable diseases. 1escribe the collection and transport of bacterial specimen. ,nderstand basic concepts and acquire the basic %nowledge of virology and immunology ,nderstand the basic properties of virus. 1escribe the viral diseases of community concern. ,nderstand the importance of immunology in diagnosis of viral diseases. 1evelop basic s%ills to conduct virological and immunological laboratory tests. 1escribe the collection and preservation of viral specimen.

.ourse .ontent
UNIT-/0 Micro.iolo92 5-

4. An introduction of microbiology
ntroduction to microbial world .lassification of microbial diseases ntroduction to community acquired microbial infection


*; Para&itolo92 *4 .lassification of human parasite ntroduction to parasitic diseases associated with poor personal and public hygiene.

-lood parasites &)alaria parasite, Kala-azar, microfilaria' <ife cycle and mode of infection. .ollection of sample, processing and identification. Treatment, prevention and control. ntestinal protozoa &Entamoeba hystolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporia' <ife cycle and mode of infection. .ollection of sample, processing and identification. Treatment, prevention and control. ntestinal worms &Roundworm, hoo%worm, pinworm, whipworm' Tapeworm0 T. saginata, T. solium, Echinocococus granulosus. H. nana <ife cycle and mode of infection. .ollection of sample, processing and identification. Treatment, prevention and control.

) Bacteriolo92 *4 .lassification of bacteria. "ormal bacterial flora on or in the body. .oncept of opportunistic and pathogenic organisms. -acterial physiology and its growth factors. )echanism of infection. Resistance to infection and immunity. /pread of diseases, pandemic, endemic, epidemic and laboratory infection. +hysical sterilization, chemical disinfects ion and radiation. .ollection and transport of specimen for identification of common bacterial communicable diseases &Respiratory, genital and gastrointestinal diseases' *ram staining and A3- staining in identifying bacteria. Practical0 *4. +reparation of slides &smears' and identification of ova, parasites, cyst trophozoites from stool specimen. 6. .ollection of specimen, preparation of smears, staining and identification of blood parasites. 7. +erformance of *ram staining and A3- staining and identify the bacteria. 8. ,se of autoclave, hot air oven and preparation of chemical disinfectant. UNIT-*0 #irolo92 ntroduction .lassification of virus Replication of virus ntroduction to viral disease of community concern .ollection and preservation of viral specimen for laboratory study +revention and control of viral diseases *-

UNIT-)0 Imm% olo92 ntroduction to immunology 1efense mechanism of body Antigen and antibody (ypersensitivity reaction -asic concept of immunology in diagnosis of viral diseases.


Recommended -oo%s, )anuals and Fournals

4. .heesebrough ). J1istrict <aboratory +ractice in Tropical .ountriesJ 5olume and , .ambridge low +rice 2dition, 4GG=. 6. 3uerst R J)icrobiology in health and diseaseJ @.-. /aunder 4GG9. 7. )ac%le and .artney ).. J+ractical )edical )icrobiologyJ .hurchill <ivingston 4GG8. 8. .hatter#ee, K. 1. J+arasitology +rotozoology and (elminthologyJ .hatter#ee )edical +ublishers, 46th edition, 6::4. 9. )u%her#ee, Kaanai <. J)edical <aboratory TechnologyJ 5olume , and , )c graw-(ill +ublishing company <imite. >. +ara#uli K. <aboratory +ractical +arasitologyJ 5dharthy +usta% -handar C. +ara#uli K. <aboratory +ractical )icrobiologyJ 5dharthy +usta% -handar =. <yd Bard +) J mmunologyJ


F%ll Mar8&0 /-Cre7it Ho%r&0 /*Pa&& Mar8&0 4-

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course has been designed to impart the basic concepts and %nowledge on laboratory sciences particularly in biochemistry, entomology and toxicology. The course aims to impart the basic laboratory s%ills in conducting chemical, biochemical, entomological and toxicological laboratory tests.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 ,nderstand the basic concepts and acquire the basic %nowledge of biochemistry and physical chemistry. ,nderstand the basic concepts and acquire the basic %nowledge of toxicology. ,nderstand the basic concepts and acquire the basic %nowledge of entomology. 1evelop basic s%ills to conduct biochemical and chemical laboratory tests. 1evelop basic s%ills to conduct laboratory tests. Analyze diversity of toxicology and its application in understanding and controlling problems related to toxic substance in industry, agriculture and medicine. 1escribe the role of arthropods and rodent in public health. 1escribe the characteristics of different arthropods and rodents of medical importance and diseases transmitted by them. 1escribe different control measures of arthropods and rodents. 1escribe the usability, problem of resistance and health hazards of insecticides and rodenticides.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/0 Bioc(emi&tr2 -asic concept of acid, base and salts, acid-base indicator. @ater &properties of water, ionization of water'. .oncept of p( and p( meter. .oncept of buffer solution &definition, types of buffers present in body fluid and their significance. 3-

.arbohydrates &definition, classification, physical and chemical properties' *lucose homeostasis. +roteins &definition, classification, physical and chemical properties'. <ist essential and non-essential amino acids and their significances. <ipid &definition, classification, physical and chemical properties. 2ssential fatty acids, cholesterol 2nzymes, co-enzymes, source of enzyme "ucleic acid &concept of 1"A, R"A, nucleotide and nucleoside' )acro and micronutrients i.e. iron, calcium, iodine, vitamins, cupper, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium.



)easurement of p( &solutions and buffers' ,sing p( paper and p( meter 6. +reparation of different types of solutions i.e. normal solution, molar solution, percentage solution 7. .olorimetric estimation of serum glucose, protein and albumin 8. )easurement of micronutrients A electrolytes. UNIT-*0 E tomolo92 )-

4. ntroduction0
ntroduction to medically important arthropods and rodents. *eneral outline, classification of arthropods and rodents &with special reference to medical important groups'.

6. (abit, habitat, external morphology and control measures of0

Arachnids0 /corpions, spiders, tic%s, mites. "on-dipterous insect0 <ice, fleas, bugs, and coc%roach. 1ipterous insects0 - - )yasis -+roducing lies - +hlebotomine- /and flies - /imulium - -lac% flies - )osquito - .ulicine, Anopheline

7. (abit, habitat, morphology and control measures of rodents; 8. 1isease and health hazards0
1iseases and health hazards associated with arthropods and rodents. 1ifferent methods of controlling arthropods and rodents. nsecticides, rodenticides and their usability.


- +roblem of resistance - (azards

Practical0 /4. dentify medically important arthropods and rodents. 6. .lassify up to the species level of mosquitoes, flies, bugs, arachnids &scorpions, spiders, tic%s, and mites' and rodents of medical important. 7. llustrate the different stages of the life cycle of medical important insects. 8. +repare the temporary and permanent slides of medically important insects &different stages of the life cycle' and arachnids to study their morphology. UNIT- )0 To<icolo92 4. ntroduction to toxicology. 1efine toxicology. Toxicology as an analytic science. 6. 1iversity of toxicology $ccupational &industrial' toxicology. 2nvironment toxicology. 3orensic toxicology. .linical toxicology. ); To<icit2 Toxic and toxicity. Toxic substances. Toxicity value. +oison. .auses of poisoning. .ase studies. 3actors that influence toxicity. )-

Recomme 7e7 Boo8&> Ma %al a 7 "o%r al&

4. <enninger, A< J -iochemistryJ, @orth +ublishers, nc 6. )urray RK, *ranner 1K, )ayes +A, Rodwell 5@ J(arper!s -iochemistryJ Appleton and <ann. .alifornia, 64st edition 4GG9 7. /tryer, <. J-iochemistryJ, @.(. 3reeman and .ompany, /an 3rancisco 8. +* 3enemore, Al%a +ra%ash Japplied entomologyJ "ew age nternational &+' lit. 9. -. /. )ishra and 1r. R. +. /ingh J A Text -oo% of )edical IoologyJ. 1uga -oo%s, 6::: >. )atthew F. 2llenhorn, 1onald *. -arceloux J )edical Toxocology 1iagnosis Treatment of (uman +oisoning J 2lsevies. C. .uris 1. Klaassen, +h. 1 and et al, J/asarett and 1oullJs ToxocologyJ 7 rd edition, )acmillan +ublishing .ompany, "ew @or%.

Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours.: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course offers an opportunity to develop a holistic understanding of health and disease in the context of community. The course attendants will not only learn the historical development and methodology of public health and the public health care, but also apply the theoretical and conceptual %nowledge to bring changes in the health of community. The course is expected to internalize the dynamics of community development facilitating the integration of health sector with other sectors.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 .ritically analyze the historical development of the field of public health. 1emonstrate holistic understanding of health and disease. dentify the ma#or international public health problems and the strategies to overcome them. .ritically analyses the development of primary health care &+(.' before, during and following the historic Alma Ata .onference. 1emonstrate the understanding of dynamics of community development. Apply the strategy of community participation, integration of health and development in the context of "epal.

Co%r&e Co te t UNIT-/ I tro7%ctio to P%.lic Healt( 3,

Co ce+t o1 Healt( a 7 Di&ea&e +reventive (ealth and <evels of +revention .oncept of public health from medical model. .oncept of public health from non-medical model. 1istinction between public health, community health, community medicine and social medicine. Pre'e ti'e (ealt( .oncept <evel and scope of preventive health +ractice of prevention

Healt( Promotio .oncept including $ttawa .harter of health +romotion. +riorities for health promotion in 64st century in reference to Fa%arta 1eclaration

/cope of health promotion !co+e o1 P%.lic Healt( 3ield, which needs community-based public health services and activities. 3ield, which deals with preventable illness, disability and premature death. 3ield which needs organized official leadership Research De'elo+me t o1 P%.lic Healt( The +re-.hristian period The middle ages The age of the blac% death The Renaissance period The 4=th and 4Gth centuries &enlightenment period' )odern age 1avid @erner!s critique

A o'er'ieA o1 co ce+t a 7 &co+e o1 c%rati'e> +re'e ti'e a 7 +romotio al (ealt( a& 7e1i e7 i atio al (ealt( +olic2; !i9 i1ica t 1orce& i 1l%e ci 9 +%.lic (ealt( (ealth awareness and health habits. Resolution of selected internal tamale conferences related to health o Alma Ata o .1+ &.airo' o -ei#ing conference o (A- TAT 6nd & stanbul 4GG>' o /AAR. declaration o $ther subsequent (ealth related 1eclarations "ew mores and new freedoms 2conomically and culturally deprived populations. The consumer movement in health, -angladesh +eople!s Assembly.

Met(o7olo9ie& i P%.lic Healt( 2pidemiological approach -io-statistical approach +ublic health laboratory science approach /ociological and anthropological research approach De'elo+me t o1 P%.lic Healt( i Ne+al C%rre t I ter atio al P%.lic Healt( Pro.lem& )ental health, psychiatric problems and addictive diseases. Adolescent and reproductive health. )a#or communicableAnon-communicable diseases. 2merging ( 5AA 1/ epidemics Resurgence of malaria

U it-* Primar2 Healt( Care (PHC)


-ac%ground of +rimary (ealth .are &+(.'. Alma Ata .onference on +(.0 ntroduction and description of the deceleration of Alms Ata. The twenty-two recommendations of the Alms Ata .onference. .oncept and basic components of +(.. $verview of operational aspects of +(. $verview of formulation strategies for health for all by the year 6::: and beyond and its achievements. Targets for 6:9C -./. and beyond .omponents of -asic (ealth "eeds +rogrammes to meet -asic (ealth "eeds. Role of the 1istrict +ublic (ealth $ffice in meeting -asic (ealth "eeds. .hallenges to +(.0 /elective +(., structural ad#ustment programme and investing in health care.

U it-)0 Comm% it2 Healt( De'elo+me t



/; Comm% it2 Or9a iBatio .oncept and importance of community organization. /ome hypotheses about community life +rinciples and processes of community organization Role of health wor%ers in community organization Application of community organization theory and practice in community health program. *; Comm% it2 Healt( De'elo+me t 1efinition of development .oncept and goals of community development (ealth and different aspects of development &2conomic, +olitical, /ocial' @ays of viewing community development0 as a process, method, programme, and movement. Techniques of community development and their application in public health programs0 2xternal agent technique )ultiple agent technique nternal resource mobilization technique 3eature of community development program in "epal and their application in health programs0 2mphasis on all around integrated development 2mphasis on rural development. +rinciples of mobilization of local resourcesAsustainable development Aims of social change )aximum participation of the 5illage 1evelopment .ommittees. +overty alleviation *ender prospective $verview of health wor%ers role in community health development. $verview of community health development program different "*$sA"*$s

); Comm% it2 Partici+atio i Comm% it2 Healt( !er'ice&

ntroduction to community participation &.+' with special reference to health service delivery and utilization. <evels of .+0 .ompliance, collaboration, local control &community empowerment' 3orms and process of .+ in health programs. $verview of function health organizations and responsibilities of health wor%ers require .+. nvolvement of communities in health service delivery and utilization process0 +articipation in community resources identification phase. +articipation in community health needs identification phase. +articipation in planning health program phase. +articipation in health program phase. +articipation in health program implementation phase +articipation in health program monitoring and assessment phase. 2nabling factors for health wor%ers related to .+. .ommunication s%ills0 nterpersonal and group communication. +rocess of conducting a successful meeting +rocess of decision ma%ing in a group situation +rocess of conducting a discussion in a meeting. Resource identification Technique of involving community members in identifying resources &human and materials' available in the community for health programs. )a%ing a visit to the community to find out the leaders, local groups, and materials. /urvey of various forms of participation0 money, materials, man and moral support. Techniques of involving a community to find out their health needs, together with the community, and agreeing on priority health needs. Techniques of involving community in planning health programAactivities with the community. Techniques of involving community members in implementing health program. ,tilization of existing health committees. Assistance to the health committee to explain programs &1ecided upon earlier' to the people (elping to organize training and orientation for people (elping to put into action the assumed responsibilities for community health activities among the various members of the leaders groups +roviding follow-up support during program implementation. 2valuation of community participation including measurement of participation Roles of community leasers in community health program (ealth wor%er!s relationship with leaders and its impact on a health program ,tilizing leaders for community health program.

3;Gro%+ D2 amic a 7 Lea7er&(i+ .oncept of group dynamics +ropositions about groups "atural and planned formation of groups /tages of growth of a group0


ndividual oriented stage /tage of emotional status and conflict .onsolidation phase .ohesion stage. *roup roles0 *roup-building roles *roup maintenance roles *roup tas% roles *roup problems and their effects on community health programs Apathy or non participation .onflict nadequate decision ma%ing and hip poc%et decision (idden agenda @ays of reducing group problems and relating to a supportive group environment0 *roup counseling and group therapy .oncept of leadership Types of leaders 3ormal ? informal <aissez faire, democratic, authoritarian Techniques of identifying leaders Roles of community leaders in community health program (ealth wor%ers relationship with leaders and its impact on a health program ,tilizing leaders for community health programs.

Recommended Books
4. 1ixit (. JThe quest for healthJ 2ducational 2nterprise, Kathmandu, 4GGG. 6. *artoulla Ritu +rasad, An ntroduction of )edical /ociology and Anthropology, R2. 1A", Kathmandu, 4GG=. 7. *artoulla Ritu +rasad, Therapy pattern of .onventional )edicine, R2. 1A", Kathmandu, 4GG=. 8. (ale .. /hrestha -, -hattacharaya A J.ommunity 1iagnosisJ (<). 4GGC. 9. <al. Ramavadar, J.ommunity development0 +rinciples, practice and problemsJ. -oo%land +rivte <td. >. $a%ley, +eter J.ommunity involvement in health development, An examination of the critical issuesJ @($, *eneva, 4G=G. C. +radhananga B.+. J/amudaya vi%ashma swastha pa%shya. =. +radhan, (ari -ha%ta, A Text boo% of (ealth 2ducation, 2ducational 2nterprises, Kathmandu. G. Ramchandran, < and 1harmaligam, T J Text boo% of (ealth 2ducation, 5i%ash publishing house pvt. <td, 4G=7. 4:. Ross, ).*. .ommunity $rganization J(arper and Row, 4G>C. 44. /hrestha and +radananga J/amudaya /wasthya /hi%shy%ao Roopre%haJ, Kathmandu nstitute of )edicine, 4G=>. 46. .artright 1 and Iander A J*roup 1ynamicJ. 47. +ar% F2 and +ar% K. JText boo% of social and preventive medicine, 49 th edition, 6::6.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course has been designed to impart basic %nowledge on food and nutrition, nutritional requirements in different age and sex group, nutritional statue assessment, nutritional program intervention, nutrition education, nutrition survey, plan and policies, food hygiene, food adulteration and sociological aspects of food behavior. The course aims to improve human health by improving nutritional status of the people. The %nowledge will be applied to understand the relationship of food, nutrition and health, which will be applied to plan and execute different intervention activities to overcome the problem of health and nutrition.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 ,nderstand, define and describe the importance of nutrition, basic concept of food and nutrition science and its relation to health. ,nderstand and describe the nutritional requirement of individual and different age, sex group and factors affecting for the nutritional status. Assess the nutritional status of individual and group by different methods. 1escribe, execute and implement nutrition intervention program by utilization of different methods, media D strategies in the community to overcome the problem and for the health promotion.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ I tro7%ctio to Ba&ic Foo7 !cie ce a 7 N%tritio /* .oncept and importance of food .onstituents of food, classification of food, food composition. 1igestion, Absorption and )etabolism, ,tilization of nutrients0 .arbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water. "utritive value of foods0 cereals, pluses and vegetables, meat fish, eggs mil% and mil% products, spices.

U it-*0 N%tritio al ReD%ireme t& o1 #ario%& A9e a 7 !e< Gro%+ /* "utritional deficiencies, R1A, balance diets D its importance for various age and sex groups. "utrition in pregnancy, lactation, infancy, pre-school children, school children, adolescence, old age, advantage of breast mil%.

U it-)0 A&&e&&me t o1 N%tritio al !tat%& /, )a#or nutritional problems in "epal Assessment of nutritional status0 -iochemical, and clinical methods of assessment. 1iet survey, concept of consumption unit "utritional Anthropometry0 1ifferent classifications, -( , *rowth chart U it-30 N%tritio I ter'e tio /, mportance, ob#ectives and methods of nutrition intervention. "utrition 2ducation0 mportance, methods, ob#ectives, techniques, selection of an appropriate media. 2. materials, types, contents, use of 2. materials in nutrition education. @eaning and supplementary feeding, food fortification, nutrients supplementation. "ational nutrition programs, nutrition surveillance, emergency feeding. "*$s, "*$s, *overnment organizations involvement in nutrition program. .omparative effectiveness of pediatrics nutrition rehabilitation unit, nutrition rehabilitation center and home based nutrition rehabilitation. U it-40 Foo7 H29ie e> Foo7 Proce&&i 9 a 7 Foo7 A7%lteratio 3ood hygiene and the effect of unhygienic food on health. 3ood hygiene during preparation, processing storage and consumption. 2ffects on nutrients of food processing and storage. Role of mycotoxin on nutrition. .ontrol measures of mycotoxin production. 3ood adulteration, its causes and health effects. nfection, malnutrition and infection, malnutrition cycle. +overty, over population and malnutrition cycle. /*

U it-50 N%tritio Pro9ram i Ne+al /* 1ifferent "utrition programs conducted by *ovt. $rganization "*$/ and "*$/. 3ood fortification supplementation program. U it-60 N%tritio !%r'e2 /* $verview of different nutritional surveys done in "epal. Assessment of nutritional status of the community by carrying out nutritional surveys and interpreting the results. )apping out the magnitude and geographical distribution of malnutrition as a public health problem. .urrent nutrition research studies Results of nutrition research studies and their implementation in "epal. U it-,0 Natio al Pla & a 7 Policie& Role of ""+.. related to nutrition +lans and +olicies. "on-food pricing policies. <and resources and ownership. 3ood mar%eting and food transportation. /*

(ealth act and food legislation. /*

U it-?0 !ocio-c%lt%ral a&+ect o1 Foo7 a 7 N%tritio Trans-cultural impact on food practices. .ulture as determinant of nutrition status - useful and harmful effects. /ocio-economic impact on food production, distribution and consumption.

Recommended Books, Manuals and Journals

4. 6. 7. 8. .linical dietetic and nutrition - 3+A "epal. (uman nutrition - -e#amin T. -orton, @ills R. 3oster Text boo% of physiology - *autom /ocial and preventive medicine - K. +ar%






Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course has been designed to impart the basic concepts and understanding in sociologicalAanthropological theories, culture and belief system. The course also aims to impart the basic concepts and the %nowledge in health psychology, motivation, and adoption of health programs and provide a perspective on traditional health care services related to local practices in the context of "epalese society. The course provides a perspective on the relationship between politics and the formulation of public health policies.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 Apply the concept of sociologyAanthropology in health care practices. 1evelop a holistic cross-cultural approach in planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation of health programs. ,nderstand and describe historical evolution of society and health care practices. 2xamine socio-cultural patterns, environmental health and human conditions as related to health illness, sic%ness and diseases. 1escribe "epalese ethno-medicine health practices and belief systems constituting attitudes and human behaviors from sociological and anthropological perspectives. 1escribe the importance of health psychology in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of health programs. Analyze the factors influencing motivation in adopting of innovations on acceptance of modern health care facilities. 1escribe the relationship between health and political process. 2xplain the legislative procedures of health policy formation and sanctioning of public health laws and by laws.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ A++lie7 Me7ical !ociolo92 6*

/; Hi&torical De'elo+me t o1 !ociet2 a 7 !ociolo92 =A t(ro+olo92 5 ntroduction, definition, nature and scope of /ociology A Anthropology. -ranches of sociologyAanthropology (istory, present status and 2mergence of medical /ociology and )edical Anthropology. .ommon terminologies, society, culture, caste, ethnicity, fol% ways, norms and values, roles and status, conflict, co-operation, competition, stratification, sans%ritization, westernization modernization ethno medicine, acculturation, enculturation, ethno psychiatry and self medication.

*; Healt( a 7 Di&ea&e& i Di11ere t !ta9e& o1 H%ma E'ol%tio / (istorical development and introduction to medical sociology and medical anthropology (ealth and sic%ness in different stages (unting 3ood gathering stages Agricultural stages ndustrial stages 1efinition of health, disease, illness, sic%ness social role of illness and sic%ness /tages in llness

The symptom experience stage. Assumption of sic% role stage. The medical care contact stage. The dependent A patient role stage. The recovery of rehabilitation stage. ,

); !ocialiBatio a 7 !ocial Lear i 9 i Healt( )eaning and significance of socialization and health socialization. /ocialization of industrial A health elements and importance. Agencies of socialization in health. /ocial learning and its importance in health. 2ssentials of socialization in health.

3; Healt( !er'ice Pro'i7er Co &%mer Relatio &(i+ / )eaning and significance of the interpersonal relationship. +erson!s sic% role model. /waz and (ollander!s model. .ommunication pattern between modern provider - consumer and indigenous providerconsumer relationship. -arriers on effective provider consumer relationship. 4; C%lt%re a 7 Healt( /5 )eaning and definition of culture. .haracteristics of culture. 2lements of culture 2thno medicine A ethno- psychiatry "on-medical system, strength and wea%ness. +resonalistic, naturalistic medical system. .ross-culture examples of culture in relation to behavior and health problem in health care system. ndigenous healers in changing world with particular reference to "epal. Role of indigenous healers in primary health care. /elf-medication and other prevailing health care practice in "epal. +erception of illness, hierarchy and food habits in "epal. /exual health, its education and youths.

5; !ocio-c%lt%ral C(a 9e> !ocial Pro.lem a 7 Co trol; /* 1efinition and nature of social and cultural change. .auses and barriers of change )eaning, nature and cause of social problem. /ocial problems0 +rostitution, sexual abuse, alcoholism, drug models, crime, suicide, child labor and their impact in society and health. )eaning of social control. +urpose of social control. .ontrol by law, social sanction and other means. +ractice of social control in health in "epal. 6; Re&earc( Met(o7& i !ociolo92=A t(ro+olo92; / )eaning, steps and concept of basic, applied and sociological anthropological research. 1istinction between qualitative and quantitative research. )ethods of sociological and anthropological research. /ignificance of sociological and anthropological research. 2xamples of sociological and anthropological research related to health in "epal

U it-*0 A++lie7 Healt( P&2c(olo92

/. I tro7%ctio to Be(a'ioral !cie ce P&2c(olo92 1efinition and significance of behavioral science Relationship between, sociology, psychology and anthropology in health. *. Moti'atio )eaning and definitions of motivation. )aslow!s concept of human motivation, including hierarchy of needs. Role of motivation in learning and health education. )otivation and adoption of innovation. )otivation towards utilizing modern health facilities.



); Perce+tio )eaning and definition of attention perception and sensation. Role of perception +erception of health beliefs and practices +erception and attention in health

3; Termi olo92 Terminology and concepts useful in studying health problem. -ody mind relationship <evel of consciousness 1ynamic system of personality.

1rivers and motives Ad#ustment mechanism /tress, crisis and disease.

U it-)0 Healt( Politic&

/; Co ce+t o1 Healt( a 7 Politic& Relationship between health and politics. +olitics theories as related to health system. @orld trends of health politics.


*; Le9i&lati'e a&+ect& o1 (ealt( +olitical decisions and their effects on health policy formation. Role of health advocacy and lobbying in health policy formation. <egislative procedure related to health

); E<ec%ti'e a&+ect& o1 (ealt( 4 (ealth related role and functions of the executive. 2xecutive structure for health service administration and management. 2xecutive decision - ma%ing in health sector. The decision ma%ing style. 2xecutive decision and their effect on health policy formation. 2xecutive decision ma%ing and their effect on health program implementation. +olitical commitment and health services. 3; "%7icial A&+ect& o1 Healt( (ealth <aw0 nature, implementation strategies and challenges. (ealth behavior modification through legal measures and challenges. .ontrol of contra health products. .ontrol of health hazards through health laws and regulation. <egal protection against the threats to physical, mental and social health of public. (ealth law and preventive public health. 2pidemics and health laws. 4

4; Political I&&%e& i Healt( 6 +olitical pressure, propaganda and public health. +ublic health mandates of political parties. +olitics, business and public health. +olitical instability, war and their effect on health of public and health service system. The structural ad#ustment program and their effect on public health. Recommended Books and Journals

4. -hatia D -hatia - +sychology and "urses. 6. 1ixit (.0 Muest of (ealth-4GGG. 7. 1ifferent )anifestoes of +olitical +arties. 8. 1aily, @ee%ly and other "ewspapers. 9. *artoulla, R+0 An introduction to )edical /ociology and )edical Anthropology0 >. *artoulla, R+0 Theraphy pattern of .onventional )edicine, R2. 1 " 4GG=. C. <aw and "epalese .onstitution 4GG:. =. <egal documents of ()*. G. +ublications on 11A. 4:. Rules and Regulations AFob description of different professional organization. 44. Ramchandran <, 1harmalingam, T & /-" :-C:>C-676=->' JA text boo% of health educationJ 5i%as +ublishing (ouse, +vt. <td. 1elhi. 46. /anders 1, .aver R, The struggles for (ealth0 )edicne and +olitics of underdevelopment. 47. /harma, /arita0 +sychology, (<)1, $). 48. 5ol%ov 3), et al edited +sychology0 +rogess +ublsihers0 )oscow, 4G=>. 49. @erner 1 - The <ife and 1eath of +(. - 4GG9 4>. @ood - 3undamental of +sychology.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course aims to analyze how the occurrence of human diseases and health problem are casually interlin%ed to the structure and the function of the ecosystem &environment' on which people depend for their lives and livelihood. The course provides a framewor% for ecosystem &environment' approach to human health and the development of effective policies and interventions to improve human health through environmental management.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 ,nderstand the concept of ecosystem approaches and the environmental determination of human health. 1escribe and develop the ecosystem approach for assessing causal lin%ages between human health and the natural and anthropogenic environments. Apply ecosystem management approaches to improve human health with particular emphasis on the use of participatory methods. Know the existing states of the environmental problems and strategy of management 1isseminate the concept of improving human health through better ecosystem &environment' management that respects humans development imperativesH

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ I tro7%ctio 4.4 .oncept of ecology, ecosystem and environment. 4.6 (uman-environment interaction and human impact on ecosystems. U it-*0 Eco&2&tem A++roac(e& to H%ma Healt( 6.4 @hat is ecosystem approachN 6.6 (ealth as a generic and holistic concept. 6.7 2cosystem approach to human health and diseases Agro ecosystem <in%s between agro ecosystem and human health .oncept of human well-being 6.8 nternational, regional and national concept of health and environment. U it-)0 Commo E 'iro me tal Pro.lem& o1 Ne+al 7.4 2nvironmental +roblems in Rural Areas 1eforestation /oil erosion River siltation *


3looding and drought 1esertification ,nsafe drin%ing water +oor sanitation and hygiene <oss of -iodiversity

7.6 2nvironmental +roblems in ,rban Areas Air pollution, global warming and green house gases. ndustrial pollution @ater pollution /olid waste disposal and management.

U it 30 Air Poll%tio a 7 H%ma Healt( 8.4 Types and sources of air-pollution 8.6 2ffects of air pollution on biological system 8.7 2ffects of air-pollution on human health 8.8 2ffects of air-pollution on $zone layer and global climate 8.9 .ontrolling air-pollution U it-40 @ater Poll%tio a 7 H%ma Healt( 9.4 Types, sources and effects of water pollution 9.6 Rivers and ground water pollution 9.7 /ources of water supply and availability in "epal. 9.8 (uman health and water quality 9.> @ater and water related diseases. 9.C @ater purification, @($ standard and prevention and control measures. 9.= @ater pollution control U it-50 !oli7 a 7 HaBar7o%& @a&te& a 7 H%ma Healt( >.4 /olid waste production and disposal >.6 Resource recovery from solid waste >.7 Types, sources and effects of hazardous wastes >.8 .ontrol and management of hazardous wastes >.9 (uman excreta production and disposal >.> "ational policy of waste management U it-60 Pe&tici7e& Poll%tio a 7 H%ma Healt( C.4 +esticides0 types and uses C.6 +esticides pollution C.7 Alternative method of pest control C.8 +esticide regulation U it-,0 Foo7 Pro7%ctio > E%alit2 a 7 H%ma Healt( ,;/ Foo7 Pro7%ctio a 7 E%alit2 =.4.4 Relationship between food and environment. =.4.6 3ood contamination, adulteration and fortification =.4.7 3ood borne diseases. =.4.8 )anagement of food hygiene 1omestic






.ommercial nstitutional =.4.9 (A...+ &(azard Analysis and .ritical .ontrol +oint' =.4.> 3ood act and food laws.

,;* Mil8 H29ie e =.6.4 mportance of mil% and mil% products. =.6.6 )il% borne diseases =.6.7 )anagement of mil% =.6.8 1airy farm =.6.9 +asteurization ,;) Meat H29ie e =.7.4 mportance of meat in health. =.7.6 )eat borne diseases. =.7.7 )anagement of meat /laughterhouse and practices. /anitation measures. =.7.8 Muality control of meat U it-?0 !(elter a 7 H%ma Healt( G.4 1efinition of shelter G.6 1etrimental effect of poor housing G.7 +rinciples of housing and health G.8 /tandards of housing G.9 ,rbanization and health G.> .oncept of healthy cities and healthy villages. U it-/-0 E 'iro me tal LaA 4:.4 $verview of environmental law 4:.6 +ollution control measures and mechanism 4:.7 2nvironmental health program in "epal





Recommended Books, Manual an Journals

4. -eacon +ress, )$+2 &6:::', /tate of the 2nvironment of "epal, Kathmandu0 )inistry of +ollution and 2nvironmental "epal. 6. .arson, @alter &4GG:', The *lobal 2cology (andboo%, -oston, ,/A. 7. 2hlens and /teel, )unicipal and rural sanitation. 8. 3A$A@($ &4GGC', (ealth and 2nvironment in /ustainable 1evelopment @($A2(*AGC.=. 9. 3A$A@($ &4GGC', +esticide Residue in 3ood, @($ >. )iller, Tyler &4G==', 2nvironmental /cience. ,/A0 @adsworth nc. C. )$+2A . )$1A,"2+ &6::4', "epal0 /tate of the 2nvironment Report 6::4. Kathmandu0 ,"2+ A . )$1 =. $#ha. /&-/ 6:8>' @atawarniya swasthya re sarsaphai, Kathmandu0 (ealth <earning, )aterial .entre. G. +ar%, F2 and +ar% K. &6:::' Textboo% of +reventive and /ocial )edicine, ndia0 -anarasidas -hanot.

4:. 44. 46. 47. 48. 49. 4>. 4C. 4=. 4G. 6:. 64. 66.

/alvato, 2nvironmental /anitation. /teel. @ater supply and sewage. /loan, @) &4GG7' /ite selection for new hazardous waste management facilities. @($. @($ &4GG6', (ealth $rganization J@($ commission on health and environmentJ Report of the panel on food and agriculture. *eneva0 @($ @agner, 2* and <anoix F" 2xcreta disposal for rural areas and small comities. @($. @($ &4GG>', .limate .hange and (uman (ealth, @($A@)$A,"2+. @($ &4GG>', *uideline for 1rin%ing @ater Muality0 (ealth .riteria and other /upporting nformation, @($. @($ &4GG>', -iodiversity, -iotechnology and /ustainable 1evelopment in (ealth and Agriculture0 2merging .onnection. @($ @($ &4GGG', (A..+ &(azard Analysis and .ritical .ontrol +oint' +rinciple and +ractice. @($ &4GGG', )onitoring Ambient Air Muality for (ealth mpact Assessment, @($. @($ &4GG4', /urface @ater 1rainage for <ow-income .ommunities, @( A,"2+ @($, /olid waste disposal in /outh 2ast Asia. @hyte, A. &4G=>', *uidelines for planning community participations in water supple and sanitation pro#ect. @($

4:.4.4 4:.4.6 4:.4.7 -ioscience Fournal of 2cosystem (ealth. Fournal of 2nvironment and +opulation published by )inistry of 2nvironment and +opulation, (is )a#esty!s *overnment of "epal. /tate of 2nvironment of "epal published of )inistry of 2nvironment and +opulation, (is )a#esty!s *overnment of "epal.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course has been designed to impart the basic epidemiological concepts and %nowledge on different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The course also aims to impart s%ills and techniques to evaluate, assess and examine different interventions, surveillances and monitoring programs in the field of public health.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1escribe the applied epidemiology of infectious diseases prevalent in "epal. 1escribe the applied epidemiology of non-infectious disease and health problems commonly prevalent in "epal. ,se the epidemiological concept and tools of disease management to plan and organize control programs for diseases prevalent in "epal. .onduct an epidemiological study in a real life situation to understand the current prevalence, disease trends and management for the prevention of those diseases.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ A++lie7 E+i7emiolo92 o1 I 1ectio%& Di&ea&e& Pre'ale t i Ne+al
/; #iral I 1ectio & .hic%enpox, )easles, *erman measles, )umps, (erpes Ioster, (erpes /implex, nfluenza, .ommon cold, +oliomyelitis, Rotavirus and other viral gastro-enteritis, viral hepatitis, A 1/ and other /T1s of viral etiology, dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fevers, Fapanese encephalitis, Respiratory sensitial viruses, etc. Ric%ettsial diseases and chlamydial infections 2pidemic typhus, endemic typhus, trachoma, etc. *; Bacterial I 1ectio & /treptococcal infections, meningococcal infection, staphylococcal infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid, and para-typhoid, fevers, shigella dysentery and other diarrhoeal diseases of bacterial etiology, cholera plague, anthrax, brucellosis, listeriosis, tetanus, gas gangrene, tuberculosis, leprosy, /T1s of bacterial etiology, yersiniosis, cryptosporidiosis, campylobacter infection, food poisoning of bacterial etiology, including bacillus cereus, clostridium perfringens and botulinum, salmonelloses, staphylococcal and various 2. coli trains of importance. ); F% 9al I 1ectio & 1ermatophytosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis.


3; Helmi t( I 1e&tatio & 3ilaria, infestation by hoo%worms, roundworm, strongyloides and other nematodes, toxocara and visceral larva migrans, taenia saginata and solium hymenolepis nana and dimunita, diphyllobothrium latum, echninococcus granulosus and hydatid cyst infestations, trematodes and their infestations. 4; ProtoBoal I 1ectio & )alaria, leishmanisais, trichomoniasis, toxoplasmosis, pneumocystics carinni infection, amboebiasis, giardiasis. 5; Foo otic 7i&ea&e& Area of collaboration between veterinary and medical service. 6; Mi&cella eo%& /na%ebite, scorpion bites. 1iseases due to metazoa0 scabies.

U it-*0 A++lie7 E+i7emiolo92 o1 No -I 1ectio%& Di&ea&e a 7 Healt( Pro.lem& Commo l2 Pre'ale t i Ne+al *3
/; M%lti-1actorial Determi a t& *rowing nature of problems and their impact on the population )ethods of analyzing information to determine etiology dentification of problems encountered in investigations with respect non- infectious diseases and health problems commonly prevalent in "epal. Applied epidemiology of accidents, .$+1, .5A, cancer drug, abuse, chemical food, poisoning, industrial hazards. 1eficiency diseases0 Kwashio%ar, +.)A+2), nightblindness, xerophthalmia, ric%ets osteomalacia, beriberi, marasmus and anaemia. *; Healt( !er'ice& 1or I 1ectio%& Di&ea&e i Ne+al /creening and screening programs. /urveillance techniques .ontrol programs and health services. .linical 2pidemiology and Research 2pidemiology as a tool for health planning

U it-)0 Healt(=Me7ical A&+ect& o1 Di&a&ter& Ma a9eme t

Co &eD%e ce& o Di&a&ter .asualties 1isease outbrea% 3amine and starvation


Di&a&ter Pla i 9> Pre+are7 e&& a 7 Pre'e tio o1 Di&ea&e& !(ort-term ma a9eme t0 - )anagement of medical problems. - ntersectional course-operation and course-ordination. - <ocal resources mobilization. <ong-term management0 - 3orecasting of disasters

U it-3 A++licatio o1 Fiel7 E+i7emiolo92

+rinciples of field epidemiology &theory'. $rientation to and planning for and epidemiological study. Recommended Books, Manuals and Journals 4. Abralu /- editor! J.ontrol of communicable diseases in manJ 6. -ar%er 1F+ J+ractical 2pidemiologyJ 2<-/. 7. +ar% F2. +ar% K JTextboo% of social and preventive medicineJ 8. Report of department of health services recent publications.



Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course offers opportunity to learn the modern concepts and principles of administration in general and public health administration in particular. The student will also get an opportunity to familiarize with the basic concept of the health economics, financing and health budgeting. The course attendant will also develop the competency of pro#ect formulation and management.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 ntroduction to the concepts of administration and management,*eneral Administration, 1evelopment administration and (ealth Administration. 2xplain the modern concept of administration and principles of management. 2xplain the components of public health administration. 2xplain the need for competent administration in health services. 1escribe organizational development and techniques of improving administrative and financial effectiveness. 1efine health economics and its significance in health planning. $verview the health care mar%eting and price mechanism in the context of social mar%eting. 1escribe and define the law, limitation and importance of demand and supply in health. Review the national budget of "epal in different 9 years plan periods. dentify health service resources and health care cost. +erform cost effectivenessAcost benefit analysis and describes its significance in health policy and planning. 1escribe the significance of boo% %eeping and auditing in financial control. 1escribe national financial procedure and prepare budget for district health office. $verview of the (ealth cares various cost having sachems prevalence in "epal.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ I tro7%ctio to P%.lic Healt( A7mi i&tratio G Ma a9eme t ,-

I tro7%ctio / .oncept, principles and scope of public health administration and management. +hilosophy, methods and ob#ective of the delivery of public health services. 3unctions of public health managementAadministration. 4. +$/1.R$- model 6. )odels of +(A and )anagement Pla i 9 o1 Healt( !er'ice&; /-

ntroduction of health services. /trategy formulation. 2lements of planning. 1ifferent method of planning. /etting ob#ectives0 operations, research for planning. )anagement by ob#ectives. /ystem approach in planning. 5

Or9a iBatio o1 Healt( !er'ice&; ntroduction mportance of organization structures &organs gram' $rganization theory0 a' .lassical b' )odern !ta11i 9 A&+ect& o1 t(e Or9a iBi 9 F% ctio & /taffing pattern. Role and responsibilities Recruitment and placement .areer planning opportunities -training, +erformances appraisal /taff grievances and negotiations. (uman resources development Directi 9




/ntroduction (uman factor. Keys to successful directing 1elegation as a means of directing. )otivational aspects. <eadership. .ommunication )onitoring, supervision and evaluation. .ontrolling function in health services administration 4

Co-or7i atio o1 Healt( !er'ice& ntroduction Types of co-ordination - .onceptual co-ordination - 3unctional co-ordination - $rganizational co-ordination B%79et

) ntroduction, process of budgeting 3iscal planning &budgeting, accounting and auditing' /-

Ma a9eme t Promotio !trate9ie& $rganizational communication $rganizational development $rganizational behavior management

)anagement evaluation /*

Pro:ect Form%latio a 7 Ma a9eme t +ro#ect identification +ro#ect proposal writing. dentifications of funding sources. +ro#ect management +ro#ect monitoring +rogramme evaluation review techniqueAcritical path method Re+orti 9

3 mportance Techniques of report writing format and content

U it-*0 Healt( Eco omic&=Fi a ci 9=B%79et Co trol


De1i itio & o1 eco omic&> co ce+t a 7 t(e 1rameAor8 o1 (ealt( eco omic& a 7 it& &i9 i1ica ce i (ealt( +la i 9; * Healt( care& mar8eti 9 a 7 +rice mec(a i&m> critical o'er'ieA> tre 7 i (ealt( ma +oAer a 7 (ealt( &er'ice&; * Mar8eti 9 &2&tem&> 1orm& o1 mo o+oli&tic to +er1ect com+etitio to &ocial mar8eti 9 * T(eor2 o1 7ema 7> &%++l2 a 7 +rice &2&tem i (ealt(; ) 1efinitions, law, limitation and importance of demand and supply in health careH elasticity if demand supply. +ricing, policy change and externalities in demandAsupply analysis. Healt( B%79eti 9 3 .oncept, types of budget - regular, development programme and operating budget. -udget release and disbursement procedure of practical exercise. $verview of "ational budget and budget of health care in various 9 yrs plans. Healt( &er'ice re&o%rce i7e ti1icatio a 7 allocatio *overnment and private sources. (istorical allocation. )odern approach Advantage and disadvantage 5

Healt( care co&t co ce+t ) .apital cost, recurrent cost, opportunity cost, analysis, direct and indirect cost, fixed and variable cost, marginal, average and total cost. Eco omic e'al%atio .ost benefit, cost effectiveness and cost efficiency analysis in health. *

B%79eti 9 +roce&& i (ealt( &ector; +rinciple of budgeting +reparation, screening, sanction, receipt of budget. Agencies involved in budgetary process.

Boo8 8ee+i 9 4 1ifferent &various' method. /ingle and double entry. .oncept of entry. .redit, debit, balance, assets, liabilities capital and operating expenditure. Account and suspense account A%7it

) .oncept of audit nternal and external audit 3

Healt( 1i a ci 9 (istory of health financing +ublic and private source.

Recommended Books, Manual and Journals 4. 1ixit, ( JMuest for (ealthJ 2ducational 2nterprises, Kathmandu, 4GGG. 6. J2stimating costs for .ost - effectiveness analysis guidelines for )anagers of 1iarrhoeal 1iseases .ontrol +rogram. 7. J3inancial (ealth /ervice in 1eveloping .ountriesJ An Agenda for Reform, A @orld -an% +olicy /tudy @ashington. 1.. 6:877 ,/A. 8. *riffing .. J(ealth /ector 3inancing in AsiaJ, The @orld -an% Report "o. 1+>=, August. 9. (anion, (omian J+ublic health AdministrationJ >. <ee K &2ducation.' JThe 2conomics of (ealth in 1eveloping .ountriesJ $xford ,niversity +ress. 4G=7. C. )ills A. *ilson < J(ealth 2conomics for developing countriesJ A survival %it, 2+. publication number 4C, summer 4G==. &Reprinted August 4GG6'. =. Tripathy +. and Reddy +" J+rinciples of )anagementJ G. Boung 1@ J3inancial .ontrol in (ealth .areJ0 A managerial perspective. An Aspen publication, Aspen publisher. nc, Roc%ville, )aryland, ,/A, 4G=8.



Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The course has been designed to impart fundamental concepts and %nowledge in health education activities of various health service organizations and schools &governmental and non-governmental'. The graduates will be able to appreciate and apply the theories and principles of educational health and behavioral sciences to deal with +ractical problems encountered in real life and schools situation at community level

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 Appreciate the significance of health education in preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative ends. Apply the theories and principles of health behavioral sciences in the process of health education. dentify, select and utilize suitable health education tools, methods and media for successful implementation of health service programs. Appraise the need, importance, scope and areas of school health programs. )aintain inter and intra-sectoral co-ordination and conduct school health-program in the community.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ I tro7%ctio to Healt( E7%catio


.omprehensive preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative concepts and role of (ealth 2ducation. .ritical analysis of various definitions of health education. 1efinition of 1- "uswander, ..2. TurnerH R2 *rant, <.@. *reenH @($ scientific groupH /$+(2 A A++(2R, and ..@. /tewart. .oncepts, definition, ob#ectives and strategies of health promotion. nternational perspective in (ealth promotion and health education0 $ttawa .harter, Fa%arta declaration /2AR$ charter on health development and the role of international and national organizations0 nternational ,nion for (ealth +romotion and 2ducation & ,(+2', success stories and strategies of 5ictoria (ealth 3oundation. Aims, purposes, principles and scope of health education in relation to health promotion. dentification of persons responsible for health education0 health education specialist, health care providers, and school teachers. Role of (ealth 2ducation /pecialist. 5arious approaches in health education0 mpersonal propagandist approach +edagogy vs. andragogy approach &+aula 3ereire'. -ehavioral change approach &+R2.212 model'.

/ocial mar%eting approach .hild-to-.hild approach 1istinguishing between education and propaganda. Relation of life s%ill approach in biomedical sciences and behavioral sciences in health education. Role of health educationAhealth promotion in primary health careAand health development in the concept of health promotion in 64 st century. Role of health education in public health programs0 Role of health education in various public health programmes such as malaria control, tuberculosis control, control, 2+ Reproductive (ealth &R(', ntegrated management of childhood illness & ). ' programs. Role of health education in disaster and epidemic management.

U it-*0 F% 7ame tal Factor& o1 Healt( E7%catio


Appraise of the meaning, definition, principles, and concept of learning and its application in (ealth 2ducation. <earning .omprehension, critical analysis, competency in s%ill, creativity and confidence. 5arious approaches of learning such as non-formal education and adult learning distant learning. /teps in learning as information, motivation, readiness to act, ta%ing action )eaning, definition and determination of perception and its significance in (ealth 2ducation. )eaning and definition, motivation, motivates and drives, and the theories of motivation by Abraham )aslow, Rosenstoc%, Kurt <ewin, -unchman and Kelly. .oncept, meaning and definition of human behavior. <evels of human behavior cognitive, affective and psychomotor and their relationship with the educational process. .oncept and principle of behavioral changes and the changes process in health education. 2.). Rogers Adoption process and its application in the selection of health education methods and media. <ewin!s three-phases0 unfreezing, moving and refreezing theory and its application to (ealth 2ducation. )eaning, elements and types of communication, its communication and principles for effective communication. Theories and principles of interpersonal and mass communication.

U it)0 - Healt( E7%catio Met(o7& a 7 Me7ia


Appraisal of various methods of health education such asH ndividual methods0 .ounseling, interview. *roups methods0 1emonstration, group discussion, buzzes session, field trip, wor%shop, symposium, mini-lecture, brainstorming, interview forum, role-play. )ass methods0 2xhibition, advertisement, film show, public addressing systemspeeches, mil%ing, radio broadcasting, and television telecast. +rinciples, theories and criteria for the selection and use of appropriate method of health education.

5arious types of health education media, its advantage and disadvantages including the process of its preparation. The various type of health education media0 poster, flash cards, flip chart, hand puppets, hand bill, pamphlets, slides, film strip, film, video, models, hoardings, banners, stic%ers, fol% media0 songs, stories, radio, television. +reparation and use of selected health education media in classroom and field setting0 poster, flashcard, flip chart, hand puppets, models, handbills, pamphlet, slide, song, video film.

/election and use of (ealth 2ducation methods0 ndividual counseling *roup discussion 1emonstration Role play )ini lecture +reparation and use of health education media 3lash card 3lip chart +oster 3lannel graph +reparation of lesson plan, and classroom teaching. 1evelopment tools &chec%list, questionnaire etc.' survey of school health environment.

U it-30 !c(ool Healt(

ntroduction, importance, ob#ectives, scope and area of school health. (ealth instruction ntroduction .ontents of health instruction in high school curriculum (ealthful /chool <iving ntroduction /chool plant. /chool building, 5entilation, lighting, heating and furniture. /afe and adequate water supply. @aste management &garbage, sewage'. Toilet. /chool health services. (ealth 2xamination0 5ision, hearing, cleanliness inspection. solation of sic% child in school. .orrection wor% of school /chool and community #oint health services. ntroduction Foint health activities including school participation in camps. @ays of developing good relationship between school and community. /chool health committee. nter sectoral communication-ordination in school health programme.


)inistry of (ealth, 2ducation, (ousing and +hysical +lanning, +opulation and 2nvironment &/chool /anitation +rogramme' and Agriculture &school nutrition'.

Recommended Books, Manual and Journals

4. Anderson, ..<., /chool (ealth or +ractice. 6. American Academy of +aediatric, /chool (ealth +olitics, report of the committee on /chool (ealth. 7. Amar, 1/ J<earning by +erceptionJ @orld (ealth 3orum, 5o.47, "o.8 4GG6. 8. 1ale, 2. JAudio 5isual )ethods in TeachingJ The 1ryden +ress nc. (onsdale, llinois, ,./.A, 4G>G. 9. 3odor. F.T.2T.A<., (ealth nstruction theory and application. >. *unaratne, 5T( 0J(ealth for all by the year 6:::. The role of (ealth 2ducationJ nternational Fournal of (ealth 2ducation, "o. , Fan-)arch, 4G=:. C. *ulley, (2 J1iscussion .onference and *roup +rocessJ (olt, Rinehart and @inston, nc. ,./.A. 4GG>. =. (anson F.F. 1esign for (ealth. G. +radhan, (- JA Textboo% of (ealth 2ducationJ 2ducational Resources for (ealth. 4:. +ar%, F2 and +ar% K JTextboo% of /ocial and +reventive )edicineJ 49th education. 4GG8. 44. +radhananga B+ J5idyalaya /wasthya RA /wasthya Karya KartaharuJ 46. Ramachandran, < and 1harmalinyam, T., JTextboo% of (ealth 2ducationJ "ew 1elhi, 5i%as +ublishing (ouse, +vt. <td. 4G=7. 47. /hrestha 1- and +radhananga B+ J/amudaya /wastha /hi%shya%p Roopre%haJ Kathmandu, 4GG9. 48. /harma, /ita, -ehavioral /cience, (<)., 4GGC. 49. /erchan <.-., -idhyalaya /wasthya /hi%shya Karya%ram.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course is designed to impart %nowledge and s%ill on family health, which includes safe motherhood initiatives &/) ' and reproductive health to the public health students. The course also imparts the basic %nowledge and understanding on demography, which will provide a better perspective in, managing public health care system in %eeping with the %nowledge of family and reproductive health and their components.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 ,nderstand the importance and the implication of family and reproductive health. .onceptualize the problems and solution of maternal and child health. Know the different method of family planning and provide counseling to the clients for the adoption of appropriate family planning scheme. ,nderstand the structure, characteristics, and components of population and population growth. ,nderstand the consequences and the implication of population growth on health and resource base. .onceptualize the interrelationship between population growth and sustainable development.

Co%r&e Co te t
UNIT-/ Co ce+t o1 Famil2 Healt(
1efinition of family, family health, family environment, family support, scope of family health. 3unctions of the family in maintaining health, role of the family in achieving healthy behaviors-functions of family in health care utilization sic%ness role-interactions among &family health needsAneeds assessment family members' family members in health disease, counseling and rehabilitation. +opulation change and family health, population growth, migration, urbanization aging, health and social policies, implications of changes in age structure. @omen, conflicting demands as providers, careers, and income earners. )en as fathers, family and community members - economic providers, 3ather!s responsibility in childcare. @omen right health promotion and rehabilitation. )otivating father for family health, personal hygiene, sexual hygiene, birth spacing. 3ather!s supportive role during and after wife!s pregnancy. )a#or indication of family health, family health and reproductive health. +riorities of family health problems, holistic models of family health.


-io-physico, social-interactive community development. +revailing family health practices, self-medicationAalternative medication, health-see%ing behavior, decision-ma%ing process on family health.

U it-*0 Mater al Healt(

.oncept and /cope of Reproductive (ealth0 /afe motherhood and neonatal care $verview of maternal health status. )a#or conditions causing maternal morbidity and mortality. 3amily +lanning )anagement of complication 3ertility Adolescent health. /T1A( 5AA 1/, .ancer /ocio-economic, educational and cultural factors affecting maternal morbidity and mortality and utilization of maternal care. .omponents of maternal health care inducing A"., +"., ntranasal care, prevention of teenage marriage and pregnancy and safe motherhood, maternity waiting homes, safe birthing practices. (uman sexuality, body politics, role and training of TA-s in "epal. 2mpowerment and self-help of women. 2ducating women in health related materials. +lanning, organizing, managing and evaluating health services.


U it-)0 C(il7 Healt(


.hild (ealth priorities analysis of child health data - trends in health. +rioritizing the child health needs. )aximizing community resources. )a#or causes of infants and child morbidity and mortality in "epal. /ocio-economic, educational and cultural factors affecting child rearing practices and child health care activities in "epal. .omponents of child health care- *$- - 37 (3A targets for year beyond 6:::. A.1. -aby friendly hospitals, breast feeding, complementary feeding. +rinciples of screening and child health surveillance .are for common disorder including community management of diarrhoea and parasitic diseases. Recommendations from @orld /ummit for .hildren .airo. (abitat . .hild abuse, prostitution, girl traffic%ing, child protection and child rights and child laws. .linical features of child abuse and neglect. ," convention on the Rights of .hild. Abandoned children and labour, street children and girl traffic%ing. 2ffect of conflicting situation, urbanization and refuge situation on children.

+lanning, organizing managing and evaluation of child health service including 2+ , .11, AR , childhood nutrition problems, vaccines preventable childhood diseases. Adolescent health special need for growth and development of spiritual, physical emotional and social life. Adolescent problems in "epal, including teenage pregnancy, /T1s, ( 5AA 1/, drug abuse, alcoholism, smo%ing, accidents, violence, crime etc with emphasis on prevention and rehabilitation. .are of handicapped and disabled and those weight chronic conditions. )a#or causes of accident and handicapped conditions, in "epal, prevention, rehabilitation, .-R vs. institutionalization. <egal issues regarding handicapped persons. .oncept of ) . and other new terminologies.

U it-30 Fami 9 Pla

i 9


+opulation problems and need for family planning in "epal. +opulation politics of "epal and its strategies 1efinition and concept of 3+. 1ifferent methods of 3+ including indications contraindication and side effects. .ounseling of eligible couples. "atural family planning. 3actors affecting use and non-use of contraceptive methods. +lanning, organizing, managing and evaluation 3+ activities including health education with special emphasis on the "epalese situation.

U it-40 I tro7%ctio to Demo9ra+(2


mportance and implication of population study, concept and definition of some useful terms, sources of demographic data. +opulation growth, trend and consequences at global and national levels. .urrent population situation of "epal and its trend and implication of "epal!s resources base and quality of life &the quality of life index, the human suffering index'. +opulation policy and program in "epal

U it-5-Po+%latio !tr%ct%re> C(aracteri&tic& a 7 Com+o e t&


mportance of sex and age structure, marital status, literacy rate, sex ratio, religion, ethnicity, dependency ratio and growth of population. a) Com+o e t& o1 +o+%latio 9roAt( Fertilit2 i' )easure of fertility - .oncepts and its importance, .rude and specific rates, total fertility rate, standardized rates, child women ratio. ii' )easures of reproduction - 1efinition and its importanceH gross and net reproduction rateH replacement level of fertility.

Mortalit2 - )easure of mortality - 1efinition and importance of crude and specific rates, standardized rates, infant and maternal mortality rates - Other mortality rates - "eonatal and post neonatal mortality, foetal, prenatal mortality rates )igration - .oncepts, sources of data, some term, types of migration - 2stimation of life time and intercensal migration from place of birth statistics

.) Ur.a iBatio Mea&%re - +ercentages of population in urban areas. - Ratio of urban and rural population. - /ize of locality of residence of the median inhabitant. - Tempo of urbanization. - $thers concepts. c) Mor.i7it2 - 1etermination of rates and ratios - ncidence rate, period prevalence rate prevalence rate.

U it-60 Po+%latio T(eorie& a 7 Po+%latio Pro:ectio &


)athematical methods and models of population pro#ection. "eo-)althusians and .ornucopias doctrines and demographic transition theory. +opulation momentum, baby boom syndrome, decaying of population, young and old population, ageing of population and contraceptive prevalence rate.

U it-,0 Po+%latio E<+lo&io > Ecolo92 a 7 De'elo+me t

(uman environmental interaction and its impact on resource base +opulation growth and economic development. nterrelation between population, resources, environment and development. mpacts of human population growth on ecosystem and human health. .oncept of sustainable development and population growth. Muality of human life &human development index and indicators'


Recommended Books, Manual and Journals

4. -ehende, AA and Karni%ar T. J+rinciples of population studiesJ (imalaya +ublishing (ouse, -ombay, 3ourth edition &4G==' 6. -ogue. 1. J+rinciples of 1emographyJ, Fohn @iley and /on "ew @or%s, 4G>G. 7. .2@ " publications0 a state of the rights of children in "epal. 8. .omprehensive family planning &.$3+' course "( .A"epal. 9. .ox. R.. J1emographyJ, .ambridge ,niversity +ress. 4G=>. >. 3reidman )) J3amily - Theory and +racticeJ 7 rd edition. C. *artoulla R+, .hild /exual Abuse0 A hidden horror, mental health department, $). 4GG9. =. *artoulla R.+0 An ntroduction to )edical /ociology and Anthropology, R2. 1A", 4GG=, Kathmandu.

G. J mproving access to quality care in family planningJ. 3amily and reproductive health @($, *eneva, 4GG>. 4:. F2 +ar% and K. +ar%, A textboo% of preventive and social medicine. 44. F(+ 2*$A"epal, reference manual certificate nursing programme, community health nursing , family planning unit. 46. Katwal, A public health manual 47. )isra -1. Art introduction to the study of populationJ /outh Asian +ublishers +vt. <td. "ew 1elhi, 6nd edition 4GG4. 48. "ational adolescent health and development strategy 6:::, 3(1A1(/A)$(. 49. "ational reproductive health strategy 6:::, 3(1A1(/A)$(. 4GG>. 4>. J"ational maternity care guidelines for "epalJ ()*A," .23. 4C. +atha%. K- D Ram 3. JTechniques of 1emographic AnalysisJ (imalaya +ublishing (ouse. 4=. /ryoc%. (/H /iegel FsH and Associate. JThe methods and materials of demographyJ ,/ -ureau of the census, @ashington. 1.. 4G=G. 4G. /rivastava. $/. 1emography and +opulation /tudies 5i%as +ublishing (ouse +vt. <td, 6 nd 2dition 4GG8. 6:. /inha 5., Iacharia 2. J2lements of 1emographyJ Allied +ublishers +rivate <imited. 6 nd edition. 4GG8 64. ," .23A"epal, children and women of "epal- A situation analysis 4GG>. 66. @allace (@, *iri K J(ealth care of women and children in developing countriesJ 4GG:.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 0

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course has been designed to impart the basic concepts, procedure and the s%ills needed for collecting and analyzing required information for community health diagnosis. The course also aims to impart the basic concept and s%ills in designing and diagnosing community health and prepare a holistic community health management plan.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1efine community diagnosis in related to community healthAmedicine. 1escribe community diagnosis process and procedures. 1escribe various components of community diagnosis and design a community diagnosis and prepare a s%etch map of the community. .ollect, analyze and interpret information required of a community diagnosis. 1escribe the health status of a community-by-community diagnosis procedure. .arry out a community diagnosis in actual setting A community. +resent findings of community diagnosis D carry out micro health pro#ect. +repare a report of community diagnosis exercise and develop community health.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/ I tro7%ctio to Comm% it2 Heat( Dia9 o&i&


1efinition of community health, ways of preventing and treating disease and the function of clinical and community medicine and the role of community diagnosis. 1efinition, concept, importance and use of community diagnosis. The process of community diagnosis. .ommunity diagnosis and health surveillance in +rimary (ealth .are.

U it-*0 O'er'ieA o1 #ario%& Com+o e t& o1 Comm% it2 Dia9 o&i&;


3acilities D resources in the communityH assessment of internal, external resourcesH *eographical inheritanceH political divisionsH popular, fol% and professional health care service situationH Accessibility! spotting &)apping' of health care structures, environment health conditions and access roads. +olitical, religious, environmental, social developmental D recreational facilities of health significanceH formal and informal leaders in the community. Attitude, %nowledge and practices related to health and diseases including beliefs, values, norms etc, +R2.212 diagnostic framewor%.

.onstraints reviewing0 man, money &time', materials0 pattern D use of health services, expressed and felt health need, poverty, ignorance etc. Training of health and diseases0 morbidity, morality, ma#or health problem, nutrition status, health and disease stating of school population. 1esigning the study to ma%e the community diagnosis. /etting of ob#ectives. .hoosing variables required meeting ob#ectives. *eneration of methodology, including sampling method, survey instruments, logistic, data analysis, presentation and communication of health information. )ethods of collecting information ; nterview schedule, interview technique and schedule development, %ey interviews, interview, focus group, +RA, +RA in depth interview. $bservation concept and chec%list. Muantitative measurements. /econdary data analysis. nterpretation of information .ontent analysis and describe the results obtained. Review of epidemiological studies; Review of theories, formula and indicators applied. Techniques of presentation +resentation of preliminary finding in community level and seminar at " (//(.. Recommendation Recommend health intervention program or the basis of community diagnosis. Techniques for wor%ing with community members. 1etermination of propriety micro health actions or health basis of community fact needs and student community diagnosis. 3ormat for report of community diagnosis ; +reparation of written community diagnosis report0 steps, components and format. 2thnical aspects 2thnical aspects of community diagnosis &3ollow "(R. model' +lanning, implementation and assessment of micro health pro#ect.

U it-)0 Re&i7e tial Fiel7 Pro9ram;

$rientation of community diagnosis. Actual field.


U it-30 Pre&e tatio

+resentation at community +resentation in the " (/A/(.. Report writing evaluation


U it-40 Re+ort @riti 9 G E'al%atio


Recommended Books
4. (ale. .H /hrestha - and -hattacharya A J.ommunity 1iagnosis )anualJ (<)., $) 4GG>. 6. )c.ur%er F J2pdemiology in .ommunity (ealthH American )edical and Research 3oundationJ Rural (ealth series, Kong ) JTropical )edicineJ. 7. +rof. 3F -ennett &2d'0 J.ommunity 1iagnosis and (ealth Action - a manual for tropical and rural areasJ 4GCG. 8. /ydney <. Kar% )1, JThe +ractice of .ommunity $riented +rimary (ealth .areJ, Appleton.entury .rafts, A +ublishing 1ivisions of +rentice-(all nc 4G=C. 9. 5anghan F+ and )orrow R( &21'H manual of 2pdemiology for 1istrict (ealth )anagementJ. @orld (ealth $rganization, *eneva 4G=G.






Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course has been designed to equip the student with the basic research tools and methods in public health sciences. The course aims to impart the basic %nowledge on the concepts, methods, techniques and the process of developing suitable research proposal. The attendants of the course will be able to design and conduct public health research activities in the field to generate relevant information, which can be used for the improvement of the public health program in the country.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 2xplain the meaning, purpose and importance of research in public health sciences. 1efine and conceptualise basic terminologies used in research. 1escribe the various types of research methods applicable in public health sciences. 1escribe the fundamental steps involved in the research process. dentify public health problems of "epal on which research study can be carried out. Apply qualitative and qualitative techniques of health research. 1esign and develop research proposals in public health sciences. +roduce a research report on selected issues in public health.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/ I tro7%ctio to Re&earc(
)eaning, definition and purpose of research mportance of research in public health. -asic terms used in research concepts

* * *

U it-*0 T2+e& o1 Re&earc( a 7 Re&earc( Met(o7&

-asic and applied research * Types of research0 descriptive, action, operational research, evaluative survey, and qualitative and quantitative type of research. 3 Analytical research methods &causal, experimental, content analysis etc.' *

U it-)0 !te+& o1 t(e Re&earc( Proce&&

/election of the problem /ources of problems 2xamples of problems Review of the literature <ocating relevant literature 1ocumentation of literature "ote-ta%ing &note-card preparation'


+reparation of bibliography. .omputer search 3ormulation of research ob#ectives and hypothesis

)eaning and types of research ob#ectives. +urpose of research hypothesis 1efinition of research hypothesis Types of hypothesis 5ariables &independent and dependent, etc.' $perational definition. Research methodology


Research design )eaning of research design "eed for research design 3eatures of good research design Types of research design $ne-short case study Randomized control group0 presentation-test, post-test Randomized experimental four-group design. "on-random control group presentation-test $ne group time series .ontrol group time series. /ampling design and procedures &review only'. census versus sample /election of sampling design +opulation under study /ampling frame /ampling unit 1etermination of sample size. /ampling techniques. nstrumentation /cale and its management. .hec%list Muestionnaire &designing, drafting, feature of a good questionnaire, etc' 3ocus group discussion *roup interview. +articipatory research appraisal good questionnaire, etc. +re-testing Reliability and validity. +ilot study. 1ata .ollection +rimary methods of data collection0 observation, and ob#ective test. //-

nterview, mailed questionnaire, direct

/econdary methods of data collection0 1ata from #ournals, bulletins, etc. -

office records of institutions,

1ata +rocessing 5 .odingAediting +reparation of master tables A master field boo% Tabulation Analysis of data and findings0 /- +resentation of data - /election of appropriate statistical techniques. o 1escriptive and analytical statistical method e.g. means, standard deviation, probability, normal distribution, parametric and non-parametric inference, and correlation and regression analysis. .onclusion, summary and recommendations /

+reparation of research proposal &list of public health issues' /5 (ealth behavior 2ffectiveness of health promotion, disease prevention programmes. $rganizational problems in health services. 1evelopment of health intervention model. .ommunity health status. 1evelopment of health education programme activities. 2ffectiveness of health education programme activities Knowledge, attitude and practice surveys of health service delivery and health service utilization. +erformance of health wor%ers. .onducting research on a selected public health issue.

U it-30 Pre+aratio o1 Re+ort

*uidelines for students for the preparation of report.

5 /-

U it-40 Proce&& o1 @riti 9 a Re&earc( Re+ort

+reliminaries Title of report Approval sheet Ac%nowledgements Table of contents and figures -ody of report0 ntroduction, review of literature, methodology &materials and methods'', result and discussion, findings and conclusions and recommendations, reference cited.

Recommended Books
4. 3isher, A <aring, F and /to%le, F. J(andboo% for 3amily +lanning $perations Research 1esignJ +opulation .ouncil, 4GG4. 6. Kothari .K JResearch )ethodologyJ, @illey 2astern <imited &fourth reprint 4G=G.' 7. Kleinbam 1*, Kupper <<, )orgenstem J2pidemiologic Research - +rinciples an quantitative )ethodsJ, 5an "ostrand Reinhold, "ew Bor%, 4G=6.

8. )oser . and Kalthon * J/urvey )ethods in social investigationalJ 2<-/, 4GCG. 9. +radhan, (- JA Textboo% of (ealthJ, 2ducational Resouces for (ealth &second ed' Kathmandu. 4GG>. >. /tpehen , and )ichael @-, J(andboo% in research and evaluationJ 2dits publishers, /an diego, .alifornia &seventh print 4GC>.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course provides a broad perspective on human environment interaction, human impact on the degradation of resources base and its consequences on human health. This course specifically aims to describe how environmental pollutants and toxic substances originating from different sources affect human health in general and the occupational health and safety in particular.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1evelop general understanding of human impacts on the degradation of resource base consequently affecting human health. nterrelate the casual lin%ages between environmental pollutants and human health. Acquire the necessary %nowledge on the fundamentals of occupational health, diseases and safety measures. 1evelop general understanding of the environmental toxicology, its impact on human health and its management.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/0 E 'iro me tal Biolo92 a 7 Ecolo92
-asic concepts in environmental biology 2cology and its relationship to human civilization. -iotic community, production and decomposition in "ature. .oncept of ecosystem and homeostasis -asic ecological concepts and principles.


U it-*0 Bio7i'er&it2 a 7 It& Pre&er'atio

-asic concepts and importance of biodiversity -iodiversity and biotechnology. .hallenges to the preservation of biodiversity. /trategy of protecting biodiversity.


U it-)0 E 'iro me tal Poll%tio a 7 HaBar7o%& Poll%ta t&

.auses and sources of environmental pollution 2ffects of environmental pollution *lobal warming and green house effect $zone depletion .limate change 2volution of pesticide and drug resistance. Toxic hazards


U it-30 Occ%+atio al Healt( a 7 !a1et2

+rinciple of occupational health and safety (istorical development of occupational health. @or%man!s compensation nternational agencies $ccupational health practice applied to specific exposure +hysical .hemical -iological $ccupational diseases Agriculture ndustrial /mall scale <arge scale - $rganizational aspect of occupational health services. - .ontrol, prevention and promotion of occupational health.


U it-40 Er9o omic&

1efinition @or% place environment

U it-50 E 'iro me tal To<icolo92

-asic concept of environmental toxicology 2volution of resistance in pathogen &the fate of pathogen' Ris% assessment 3actors that influence toxicity &how much, how often and where' Route of exposure 2nvironmental toxicity management


Recommended Books
4. Allen, T.3.( and T.@. (oe%stra, 4GG6. Towards a unified ecology, .olumbia ,niversity. 6. -aldwin, Fohn. 4G=9 2nvironmental planning and management, @estview +ress, -oulder and <ondon. 7. .apra, 3ri#of. 4G=6 The turning point0 /cience, society and the rising culture, +ublished by 3ontana +aperbac%s.

8. .orson, @.(. 4GG:. The global ecology handboo%, beacon press, -oston, ,/A. 9. 1haliwal, /nagha and Ralhan. 4GG>. 3undamentals of environmental science, Kalyani publishers, "ew 1elhi, ndia. >. )iller, *. Typler. 4G==. 2nvironmental /cience, @adsworth publishing company, -elmont, .alifornia. C. $dum, 4GC4 3undamentals of ecology, /aunders .ollege +ublishing. =. @ilson, 2.$. 4G==. -iodiversity, "ational Academy +ress, @ashington. 1...


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course offers an opportunity for conceptual understanding of human resource development &(R1' and its specific application in human Resource for (ealth &(R(' development. The course attendants will attend lecture sessions as well as participate in seminar classes to discuss the modern concepts, principles and strategies of (R( in the context of national health manpower development of "epal. The course also provides opportunity to develop specific s%ills in the process of designing training courses and implementation and evaluation.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1escribe the modern concepts of planning, production and utilization of (uman Resource of (ealth. .ritically analyse the (R( concept as applied in the context of "epal. Apply the concept of educational planning in the process of design, implementation and evaluation of curriculum plan, organize, monitor and evaluate a training program.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/ F% 7ame tal& o1 H%ma Re&o%rce De'elo+me t (HRD)


ntroduction to human resource development &(R1' 5 .oncept of (R1. (R1 in the context of organizational development. o nterrelationship among the planning, production and utilization &management' cycle in (R1. +re-requisites for (R1. - $n the basis of statistical need - <eadership readiness. - 2nabling legislation - Administrative capacity - +olitical dimension

H%ma Re&o%rce 1or Healt( (HRH) Pla i 9 .onceptualizing planning in the context of health Analysis of health care needs in the country - 1emographic tends - 2pidemiological trends - /ocio-economic trends - 1evelopment of scientific and technical capability.


2stimating the requirements for appropriate mix of various categories and levels of (R(. )ethods - )ar%et oriented method. - /ervice Target A +anel expert. - 2conomic demand method - +roduce personnel in number exceeding the current supply - "ormative method - Mualitative A Muantitative - /tatistical method. The role of "ational (R( policy - *oalsApriority - 2conomic capacity - .hange of government - )ulti-sectoral "ational (ealth .ouncils

Role of various agencies in (R( planning "ational +lanning .ommission )inistry of (ealth A )inistry of 2ducation ,niversities A (ealth /cience nstitutions

.ritical analysis of the existing (R( planning process in the context of national health services system of "epal. (R( planning models from other countries. HRH Pro7%ctio /3 .oncept of (R( production - 1emand supply - "eed based - Requirement and manpower pro#ection - Role of public and private sectors

of manpower situation &public and private sectors' )ismatch among various categories and levels of (R(. *ap between demand and supply analysis. 1istribution analysis +reventive - .urative-+romotiveArehabilitative human resources for health.

nterrelationship between health services system and education system .o-ordination between )inistry of health and )inistry of 2ducation. "ature of training institutions of produce. (igh level (R(

)id level (R( *rass root level (R( "ational policy guidelines on entry criteria, curriculum and examination. analysis of the existing policy, private public mix in the production of (R( for "epal.


HRH UtiliBatio /* The concept of health +ersonnel management A ,tilization. - Recruitment +roducer - 2mployment satisfaction o Fob description o +articipating organizational development. o +romotion A Fon /ecurity o RewardA +unishment - /taff development Role of (ealth .are /ervice /ystem in (R( ,tilization. nfrastructure and capacity of the national health services system -primary, secondary, tertiary levels. - Role of private sectors

Role of professional bodies and councils in the quality assurance in health and practice.

analysis of the regional mal and mis-distribution of (R( in the context of "epal. / - &(uman Resource 1evelopment and role, critical appraisal and application. nfrastructure /ystem' concept


U it-*0 E7%catio al Pla

i 9 a 7 C%rric%l%m De'elo+me t

/ / / 4

ntroduction to curriculum development. .oncept of educational planning. 1eterminant of curricular trends. +rinciples of curriculum design

Types of curriculum modelsAapproaches .ontent oriented -ehavioristic +rocess oriented .ompetency based The !/+ .2/! model of curriculum design ,

3actors influencing curriculum design level of evaluation and corrective action 1etermining health need of society. @or%ing hypothesis 1efine educational ob#ective.

1evelop teaching programme. $bserve and record about behavior of trainees. Affective +sychomotor .ognitive 2valuation and analysis .orrective action based on manipulative variables0 Teaching 2xamination technique -udget 2nvironment - student (ealth /ituation $b#ective revise (ypothesis revise

/tep for curriculum change. , $b#ective of education 1iagnosis in developed curriculum - Achievement - /tudent as learner - .urriculum problem /election of curriculum experience. - Rational selection - +roblem establishing criteria - /ignificant - 1epth and breadth - Adaptability - Appropriate need and interest of trainees. $rganization of curriculum content and learning 2valuation of the out comes of curriculum

U it-)0 H%ma Re&o%rce Trai i 9 (HRT)

.oncept of health manpower training and education


Training need identification by trainer Tas% analysis as means to identify training needs +urpose of training and development if health manpower. Training plan including learning ob#ective and evaluation methods. *

Types of training -asic and refresher training n-service training 3ormal academic and non formal, non academic training +lanning for health manpower training.

1etermine the participant.

Fob Analysis Training need assessment 2stablishing training purpose dentify the institute for proposed training 1eveloping a training programme pac%age Aproposal0 4 module preparation /etting ob#ective 1evelopment general plan for training @riting session ob#ective 1etermine the training approach methods and technique +reparing agenda 1etermining resources 2stimate the budget ,

/electing an instructional method according to need of the trainees.

<ecture-types for lecture 1emonstration 1iscussion A wor%shop 1ebates and seminar .ase studies *ame ndependent study +ro#ect and programme instruction /lide A Audio A 5ideo tape presentation +ersonalized system of instruction

mplementation of training programme 3 Things to be done0 -efore the programme Fust before the programme 1uring the programme After programme 2valuation of training programme

.oncept of training programme evaluation <evel of training evaluation Reaction <evel <earning <evel -ehaviour <evel $utcomes <evel ,se of evaluation out comes for manpower planning and training )easurement and evaluation in teaching 3 Muality of measurement tools Muestionnaire and rating scale /etting of easy examination, questionnaire /etting of ).M.

Training of trainers &T$T' ) .oncept, need organization of master trainers. .oncept, need organization of trainer!s training.

(ealth manpower production in "epal )$( sector 5 "ational policy related health manpower development0 *oal0 $b#ectives0 /trategic0 3unction0 )a#or achievement A consents +roduction of various categories of manpower from )$(, A"), A(@, .)A .ertificate "ursing. Training of *rass root level health wor%ers and volunteers. ntroduction to "ational (ealth Training .enter )$( *oal0 $b#ectives0 /trategic0 3unction0 AchievementA.onsents. )inistry related to (ealth )anpower +roduction )$(, "$(++ and )$3 (uman Resource of (ealth development in "epal - Academic institutions sector 3 (R( development from Tribhuvan ,niversity nstitute of )edicine and other (ealth /cience nstitution 3aculty of 2ducation, +rivate nstitutions *oal 5arious +rogramme Achievement A consent

Recommended Books, Manual and Journals

4. Abbat 3. )c, )ahon R. JTeaching (eath .are @or%ers0 A +ractical *uide J <ondon0 6. -yars, <l Rue <@ Rue J(uman Resource )anagementJ -oston0 Richard 1. rwin, )*, 4GG4. 7. 1oll, R. J.urriculum mprovement0 1ecision )a%ing and +rocessJ Allyn and -acon, nc. 4GC=. 8. (ornby, + et al, J*uidelines for (ealth )anpower +lanningJ *eneva0 @($, 4G=:. 9. (all, T< and A )ei#a &2ds.' J(ealth )anpower +lanningJ *eneva0 @($ 4G=: >. (amblim, A. J2valuation and .ontrol of TrainingJ <ondon0 )c*raw (ill, 4GC8. C. <ynton and +aree%, JTraining and 1evelopmentJ. =. )ager, R3 -each ) J1eveloping 5ocational nstructionJ .alifornia0 3esaon +ublishers. G. )ager, J+reparing nstructional $b#ectivesJ .alifornia0 3eason +ublisher. 4:. +radhananga, B+ J(ealth and (ealth .are in "epalJ &in "epali' -ha%tapur. 44. Ra#bhandari, /+. J1evelopment Administration and TrainingJ Kathmandu0 2ducational 2nterprise, 4GG7. )acmillian 2ducation <imited, 4G==. 46. 5arious Training )anuals +roduct by "ational (ealth Training .entre, )inistry of (ealth ()*, Kathmandu, "epal. 47. @earther, @- 1awis K J +ersonnel )anagement and (uman ResourcesJ "ew Bor%0 ). *raw (ill, 4G=9. 48. @($ 1evelopment of 2ducational +rogrammes for (ealth +ersonnels, *eneva. 4GCC.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course provides an opportunity to the students to get acquainted with the history of health services development in "epal. The course also helps the students to better conceptualise the national health policy and how the policy has bac% enacted at the central, district and grass root levels. t is expected that the students will develop a critical awareness of the problems and issues facing the health service management at various levels and will equip them with appropriate measures to address the problems.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1escribe the history of the development of health services in "epal. 1evelop a profound understanding of the "ational (ealth +olicy. .ritically analyze the problems and issues of the health services management at the central, district and the grassroots levels. 1evelop, ensure and provide quality health services in "epal.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/0 Hi&tor2 o1 Healt( !er'ice& i Ne+al
.oncept of health services. -rief history of development of health care services in "epal. Traditional health care patterns. Ayurvedic, (omeopathic and Allopathic medicine in "epal. "aturopathy curative vs preventive and promotional health services. Traces of expansion of curative health centers and preventive and vertical health service programmes. -rief introduction to long-term health plans of "epal. ntegrated health services0 advent, program, strengths and wea%nesses.


U it-*0 Natio al Healt( Polic2 a 7 Ma a9eme t

(ealth policy0 aims and ob#ectives of current 3ive Bear +lan in health services. $verview of -asic )inimum (ealth needs scheme. .ritical overview of the health planning process in "epal. nstitutionalized, non-institutionalized (ealth services.


Rationale /trength @ea%ness. <ogistic management procurement, stores, identity and management of disposal, drug supply management. 2valuation of ntegrated <ogistics .oncept <ogistics /trategy - ntegration, implementation and management. (ealth .ommodity )anagement - 1emand forecasting - +rocurement - Receiving goods and warehouse management nventory .ontrol Transportation management. - <ogistic information system - 1esign, data processing use of information for logistics decision-ma%ing Types of health planning +roblem solving planning +rogram planning .o-ordination of efforts and activities planning +lanning for the allocation for resources .reation of a plan 1esign of standard operating procedure +ro#ect +lanning 1ecentralization Role of 1($A+($ @hat 51., 11. )unicipality can do in the context of decentralization of health sector functionsN $rganizing meetings A wor%shop A seminar *roup dynamics

U it-)0 Ce tral Healt( !er'ice& Ma a9eme t

/urvey or organizational structure at various levels of health services0 .entral, Regional, 1istrict, (ealth +ost and *rassroots. -rief survey of various health programs in terms of ob#ectives activities. )alaria control 3+A).(. Tuberculosis control <eprosy control 2xpanded programme for immunization *oitre control. nformation education and communication.


.ontrol of diarrhoela disease and AR . "utrition vit. A 2nvironmental (ealth (ealth Training Kala-azar A 1/. "eed for, and establishment of co-ordination among health and health related programme for effective delivery of health services alternative modality for establishing effective coordination. $verview of health manpower development programs in "epal. 1escriptions and critical analysis of roles responsibilities of health and health related "*$s of "epal, including (ealth /ervices ordination .ommittee. Role of private sectors in health services and management.

U it-30 I ter atio al Healt( G I ter atio al P%.lic Healt( Pro.lem&


1efinition of international health. )a#or collaborative efforts in international health. +rioritization and funding policies of international health development agencies, particularly of @($, ," .23, ,"1$+, @orld -an%, ,/A 1. Roles and contributions of @($, ," .23, ,"3+A, ,/A 1 and other health-related international organizations in health promotion and disease promotion and disease prevention programs in "epal.

U it-40 Peri+(eral Healt( !er'ice& Ma a9eme t


Analytical study of 1istrict +ublic (ealth /ervices 3unctions $rganizational structure (uman Resource for (ealth. Fob descriptions -udget +rogrammes .ontrol and management of health posts and /ub-health +osts. Responsibility towards regional health directorate. /upervision system. $rganizational of training fro .(5s and health post personnel. "eed for, assessment of, and curriculum development for /ervices development. )onitoring and evaluation of 1istrict (ealth /ervices. 2stablishment and monitoring of drug scheme and essential drug management. /uggestions for effective functioning of 1+( $ffice. Healt( a 7 Healt( !er'ice Ma a9eme t I 1ormatio !2&tem (HMI!) +rimary purpose of () /0 6 way flow of information0 Reporting from health post, district, region to central level and feedbac% again (ow to maintain and use health information made available at the district

+resentation of information in various forms, and 1evelopment and maintenance of Jreview roomJ. ,se of information for planning and replanning of health services programmes. Types and techniques of periodic report writing. () / as a monitoring tool, as an evaluative tool for management. 5alue of a census type of 3amily - -ased () / /trengths and wea%nesses of current data collection systems in )$(, 2+ ,).(A3+ clinics, health posts. Muestions to as% in evaluation of ( )/0 @hy collect informationN 3or whom is the information neededN 3or whim is the information collectedN @ho provides the informationN @ho collects the informationN @hat information needs to be collectedN (ow often should the information health collectedN (ow much does it cost to collect the informationN @ho is benefiting from the information collectionN nformation collection and its appropriate uses Training 1eployment /upervision +erformance )otivation 2nrichment A *rowth 2ffective employee Theory and practice of performance appraisal and evaluation of district and health wor%ers, including 5(@s and .(<s "eed for performance evaluation Techniques of performance evaluation ,se of performance evaluation information for staff development. /upervision of health personnel carrying out activities involving community participation. 3inding out activities of supervised health personnel related community participation. &.+'. .arrying out direct supervision of activities of supervised health personnel related to .+. *etting feedbac% from the community &through the health .ommittee' on provision of health services in the community &indirect supervision' +roviding and suggestions to health wor%ers, and planning ways of improving activities related to .+. Referral systems for patients with in the district "eed for 6-way referral with feedbac%. "eed for coordination between district hospital and 1istrict +ublic (ealth $ffice and health posts.

U it0-5 Gra&&root Healt( !er'ice& Ma a9eme t

Analytical study of health post, sub-health post.


3unctions $rganization structure )anpower. Fob descriptions +rogrammes Responsibility towards 1+($A(ealth post. /upervision system.

+hilosophy, ob#ectives, target, strength and wea%nesses of different programme. 3.(@ ).(@ T-A 1rug scheme. $b#ectives, target strength and wea%ness of +(. outreach programme. nter-sectoral coordination between different levels. .entral <evel. - )inistry of 2ducation - )inistry of Agriculture - )inistry of @omen and /ocial @elfare - )inistry of +opulation and 2nvironment - )inistry of (ousing and +hysical +lan. - )inistry of <ocal 1evelopment +eripheral <evel - 2ducational nstitutions - Agricultural institutions - <ocal Authorities o .1$. o 1istrict 1evelopment .oncern - 1ifferent organizationAclubsA industries - "*$sA "*$s - (ospitals o (igher level o 1istrict level *rass root level - /chools - Agricultural $ffices A Authorities - 51.!s - 1ifferent organization A clubs A industries

U it-60 E%alit2 A&&%ra ce i Healt( !er'ice&

1efinition and concept of quality assurance in health services. /tandard guidelines for different types of health services A health institutions. (indering factors to assure the quality in health services. Role of ()*AprofessionalsA and individuals to maintain quality in health services. The professional and individual role in order to maintain the standard health services.


Recommended Books
4. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1ixit (!Muest of (ealth!, 2ducational 2nterprise, 4GGG. 3amily +lanning )anger!s (and -oo%. (ealth +olicy of "epal 4GG4, )$(, ()*A" Foshi ), Adhi%ari R !)anual of drug and therapeutics! (<).. 4GG> +radhananga B+ !(ealth and (ealth /ervices in "epal!.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
An educational aspect of public health program is indispensable responsibility of health professional specifically of preventive health care managers. The graduates need to have a clear concept of planning, implementation and overall management of the education programme. Therefore, this course has been designed with a view to develop necessary s%ills on the essential components of health education with special emphasis to health education programme in occupational and institutional setting.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 1escribe the need for a planned health education of this course, programme. Analyses various models of planning of health education programme. 1escribe various components of planning, implementation and evaluation of health education programme. +repare a sample plan of a health education programme on priority areas such as oral health, nutrition and implement it in a real field situation. 1escribe management process of health education in various occupational and institutional settings. Appraise the magnitude of oral health problem in the country. +lan and implement school program on oral health. 1escribe health educational planning, implementation and management system in "epal.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/0 Healt( E7%catio i Ne+al
(ealth education is "ational health policy and five years plan. (ealth education programme of )o(, "*$s, "*$s.

.areer opportunities in health education. $verview of health education responsibilities of various level of health professional and wor%ers. Role, functions and activities of national health information, education and communication centre &"( 2..'.

U it-*0 Pla

i 9 o1 Healt( E7%catio Pro9ram


.oncept of and need for planned education programme. .lassical and +R2.212 framewor% of diagnosis for health education planning. +roactive and reactive planning in health education. .haracteristics of planning. /tep in planning in health education programme. nitiation of planning model. "eed assessment dentification of the health problem to be dealt with by educational process. - -ehavioral and educational diagnosis related to the health problem. /etting priorities for an education intervention. /etting goals and ob#ectives of health education program. *eneral and specific ob#ectives. @riting behavioral ob#ectives in terms of %nowledge, attitude and practice. +rogramme goal. dentification of target principle population or target group. 1evelopment of contents of messages of health education. /election of appropriate methods and media of health education. dentification of resources to be utilized in the health education process. 1evelopment of a detailed plan of operation for health education. 1evelopment of a detailed plan for evaluation of health education programme, including estimation of feedbac% mechanisms and review of entire planning process.

U it-)0 'er'ieA o1 Healt( E7%catio Pro9ram& De'elo+me t i !electe7 Healt( Pro.lem& /,

.ommunicable diseases malaria, tuberculosis, etc. )alnutrition, goitre control. ntegrates management of childhood illness & ). '. Reproductive health. /chool health program 2nvironmental health problems

1rugs abuse and A 1/, alcoholism Agro health problems. ,niversal immunization. $ccupational health hazards. &$ccupational setting' +atient education. &(ospital and (+ setting' Accident prevention. (ealth education during disasters and epidemics.

U it-30 Im+leme tatio o1 Healt( E7%catio Pro9ram;


mplementation and its strategies $rganizational and individual commitment to the action plan. )obilizing human resources. - Recruitment, training and development of human resources for &(R(2' health education including overview of (R(2 development in "epal. - .onducting health education session following. "on-formal education &"32' adult learning principles including. - .oncretization &+aulo 3reire' approach - 3ormation of committees-sharing responsibility. - .ommitting financial resources. - )obilizing health educational materials. /upervision and monitoring in health education programme. .oncept of health education supervision and monitoring Tools of educational supervision /upervisory system of health education activities in "epal. /ystem of recording and reporting of health education programme activities including health education management information system &(2) /' )anagement of health education in occupational institutional setting and community setting. /chool health education0 concept, scope and management process. .ommunity health education0 concept, scope and management process. +atient health education0 concept, scope and management process. @or% site health education0 concept, scope and management process.

U it-40 E'al%atio Healt( E7%catio Pro9ram

.oncept and purposes of evaluation of health education program. Types of evaluation0 mpact, +rocess and $utcome evaluation. )odels of evaluation0


attainment models /ystem model. 2valuation plan dentification of programme goals and setting evaluation ob#ectives with suitable indicators. 2valuation criteria0 appropriateness, adequacy, effectiveness, and efficiency as applied to survey areas0 &see O b9 below' .hoosing evaluation methodsAtechniques. .onstructing measurement tools &questionnaire, chec%list, etc.' .ollecting processing and analyzing information. nterpreting information and presenting findings. .onclusion and recommendation.


$verview of Areas for 2valuation in (ealth 2ducation. 3actors affecting the health education process such as0 target population characteristic, community organization, communication models, etc. +rocess of planning health education programme. 1evelopment, use and effective of health education materials models. .ommunity process and its effectiveness. 2ffectiveness or impact of health education efforts in any given situation0 i.e. impact on health status, such as reduction in morbidity or mortality. +erformance of health education specialists and wor%ers. .ost benefit, cost effectiveness of health education programme. .hange in health %nowledge, attitude and behavior of people. $rganization aspects of health education activities.

U it-50 Oral Healt(


$ral health education0 concept, magnitude of the problem types of oral health problem, its determinants and management process. 1istinguish between normal and decayed teeth. dentify plaque and calculus 1escribes between normal and diseases gums. 1escribes caries and periodontal diseases. To explain less harmful food stuff and eating habits 2xplain the way of preventing dental caries and periodontal diseases. +lan, implement school programme on oral health and hygiene.

Recommended Books
4. *reen <@ et al. J(ealth 2ducation +lanning. A diagnostics approachJ .alifornia )ayfield +ub. .ommunication. 4G=:. 6. (awson RA J2ssentials of 1ental /urgery and +athology.

7. )agan R30 +reparing instruction ob#ectives &<atest edition' .alifornia 3earen +ublisher. 8. +ardhan (- JA textboo% of health educationJ 2ducational Resources for health, Kathmandu, 4GG9. 9. /hrestha 1-, +radhananga B+ J/amudaya /wasthaya /hi%sya%o Roopre%haJ Kathmandu nstitute of )edicine, 4G=>. >. ,/ 1epartment of education and welfare J2ducation the public about health0 A planning guideJ @ashington 1epartment of (ealth 2ducation @elfare, 4GCC. C. @orld (ealth $rganization J(ealtheducation comprehensive guidelines on planning, implementation D evaluation of health educationJ"ew 1elhi,@($ 4G>G. =. <awson RA J2ssential of 1ental surgery D pathologyJ


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
This course has been designed to impart the basic and practical %nowledge on family and reproductive and mental health. The course also aims to impart advanced level %nowledge on parenthood, women!s health violence, gender issues and ageing problems.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 2xplain the duties and norms of responsible parenthood. 1escribe women!s health status and importance of reproductive health. dentity and trace out the sources and the impacts of violence on family health. Relate gender issues and their impacts on family and reproductive health. 2xplain the issues and problems encountered in ageing and its management.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/0 Re&+o &i.le Pare t(oo7
)eaning and concept of responsible parenthood. Requirements and practices in the preparation for parenthood. 2ducating parents for responsible parenthood mpact of large family size on individual, family and society. .oncept and prospects of a small family.


U it-*0 @ome > Ge 7er a 7 Healt(


.oncept of women and health, difference between the health of men and women global overview of health status of the women, specific health problems of womenAgirl child. /ocio-culture and economic factors affecting the health of women. *ender relations and environmental changes @omen!s empowerment and agenda for empowerment. <egislation 3emale education <abour saving technology 2conomic upliftment etc. -@omen as patient in health care system. -@omen as provider of care in health service delivery system. -/ex trade and women!s health ris%s including /T s, ( 5AA 1/. - mpact of disaster and war on women!s health. -/ocially displaced persons including refugee population and destitute women - their life circumstance-programs and policies for meeting the basic health needs and problem faced. (uman!s rights - ," declaration on rights on women &@omen!s Rights - )aternity Rights' 2limination of all forms of discrimination against women, -ei#ing!s declaration, .airo resolutions on women!s health. 2ffects of structural ad#ustment programmes on @omen!s health and development.

U it-)0 #iole ce a 7 Famil2 Healt(

.oncept of violence /cope and evolution of violence against women. 3actors contributing of violence - illiteracy, low status, poverty, socio-cultural factors. Types of violence 2ffect of violence on health in different types of institutions. 1omestic violence Types of abuse within household. 5iolence in school 5iolence in wor% place 5iolence in open 5iolence in correction centers including prison. 5iolence in health care settings. 2ffects of violence on health by age group ? children, youth and adult. The cycle of violence throughout one!s life cycle. Abuse assessment screening.


/teps toward eliminating violence against women +ublic health responsibilities for preventing violence. 2ducation for violence prevention Role of men and household members in preventing violence in home. Role of family members on /T1s, ( 5AA 1/ cases along with other chronic problems, drug abuse and sexual abuse.

U it-30 Gero tolo92

2pidemiology of gender, ageing and development problem. /ocio-economic and legislative structure D their impact on care of elderly person. (elping elderly to cope with hearing and visual impairment, disability in mobility. )a#or problems of elderly including accidents, rehabilitation. Role of the state in social security community based rehabilitations vs. institutionalization.


U it-30 Me tal Healt(

.oncept of )ental (ealth .oncept of normalcy, normal mind, characteristics of abnormalities. +revailing misconceptions about occurrence and treatment of metal illness.


1escription of measurable indicators of positive well being, good psychological ad#ustment. +ersonality development &including behavioral, psychodynamic, cognitive, moral and other schools of personality development'. -rain and behaviorH mind body relationship. *eneral psychopathology +roviding information to the health community about type, causes, clinical features, treatment and prevention of the following groups of mental disorders. $rganic - $rganic, including symptomatic mental disorders. - )ental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use &with special emphasis on prevention of substance abuse. - /chizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders. 3unctional - )ood disorders. - "eurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders. - -ehavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors. - 1isorders of adult personality and behavior.

1isorders of psychological development. -ehavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. - .ommunity )ental (ealth +rogramme )ental health education for the individual and the community. +roviding information about the concept of integration of mental health with general health services. Techniques of case finding, information about treatment facilities. 2pidemiology of mental illness. Applications of principles of prevention of mental illness0 +rimary prevention /econdary prevention Tertiary prevention. Assistance in rehabilitation of mentally oil and retarded0 +sychosocial rehabilitation /ocial rehabilitation $ccupational rehabilitation nstitutionalization and deinstitutionalization )ental health of children and women. /chool mental health. +lanning mental health services for the community. -ehavior implications of mental illness. Role of traditional healers and other community leaders in the improvement.

Recommended Books
4. A wor%boo% on how to plan and carry out research in ).( including 3+ 1ivision of >. 3amily health @($, *eneva 4G=8 or latest edition. 6. -esise, <(. +otanguy F J5iolence Against @omen The (idden (ealth -urdernJ. 7. *lder et al, J$xford Textboo% of +sychiatryJ. 8. *ibbons, J ntegrated .linical /cience +sychiatry. 9. <awson RA J2ssentials of 1ental /urgery and +athologyJ. >. )artin +. J.are of the )entally ill. The 2ssentials of "ursingJ )acmillan +ress, <ondon. C. "epal ). @right . J)anual of )ental (ealthJ (<)., Kathmandu, 4GG8. =. /trategies to +romote *irl!s 2ducation. 2ducation /ection +rogram 1ivisions. ," .23 4GG9. G. /wift .R, J)ental (ealthJ A)R23, "airobi. 4:. @allace () D *ir% K, J(ealth .are of @omen and .hildren in 1eveloping .ountriesJ 4GG:.


Full Mark: 100 Credit Hours: 120 Pass Mark: 50

Co%r&e De&cri+tio
The purpose of this course is to provide the students an opportunity to develop s%ills, which will ma%e them competent public health professional with the ability to identity health problems and needs in the community. The course also aims to develop the basic s%ills in the students to assess resources potentiality and constraints, priorities the health problems and set strategies for solving them develop, or assists in developing suitable options and action plans for addressing the priority health problems in the district and carry out supervision, monitoring and evaluation for developing actions plans for feasible and effective solutions to problems identified and detected through monitoring and evaluation.

Lear i 9 O.:ecti'e&
,pon the successful completion of the course, students will be able to0 2xplore health problems in the districts, including determinants of the problems to prepare a district health profile. Assess existing or potential resources for addressing health problems, as well as constraints, which may hinder successful application of solutions. +rioritize health needs of the district and generate appropriate and feasible strategies for health, bearing in mind overall goals of (ealth and -asic )inimum "eeds, available resources and feasibility of various solutions. .o-ordinate health and non-health sector activities in order to accomplish health service goal. $bserve organizational management s%ills including enterprising and leadership abilities in the following areas of0 nter and intra-secotal co-ordination. 1irection, training and motivation of subordinate or health personnel. /upervision and monitoring if different health personnel and wor%-activities towards achieving ob#ectives. 1evelopment of a sense of tem sprit and ta%ing collective responsibility and participation in fulfilling goals and ob#ectives of the 1istrict (ealth $ffice +ublic health awareness raising. $bservation and understanding of appropriate recording and reporting systemassist establishing a wor%able to-way referral sys from the grass- roots level through health posts of district hospital and bac% down.

5iew himselfAherself as a qualified public health professional able to act as an adviser and counselor in public health management, public health services, and health services research.

Co%r&e Co te t
U it-/0 Orie tatio to Pro9ram Acti'itie&
Rationale for field program activities. $rientation to the district chosen for fieldwor% and logistics. $rientation to the field activities. *roup activities in district health organizations &1+($,"*$, "*$, hospital and other health organizations' to


U it-*0 Pre+aratio o1 Ma a9eme t Pro1ile o1 Di&trict Healt( Pro.lem *3

)a#or health problems of the district. (ealth planning and programmesApro#ects. (ealth services organization structure. /taffing patterns .oordination with other related organizations. /upervision and monitoring system. -udgeting (ealth management instruction system. <ogistics system Recording and reporting system.

U it-)0 Critical A++rai&al o1 Healt( Ma a9eme t Pro1ile


.ritically analyze the status, strength and wea%nesses of each of the management components mentioned above. @atch closely and deeply observe oral manger!s wor% activities in the organizations towards goal achievement. +repare suggestions for alternative strategy or restrengthening the management component of overcoming the wea%ness for better management. $rganize a seminar to present a health management profile of organization in districtA" (/

U it-30 Comm% it2 Ba&e7 Micro-Healt( Pro:ect


Apply the %nowledge and s%ills learned in various disciplines of health sciences &epidemiology, bio-statistics, health education, nutrition, school health, health D

environment, family planning, ).(, etc' to develop community based individual microhealth pro#ect. 1evelop a community based micro health pro#ect with ob#ectives formulated on the prioritized basis of problem and health needs. mplement the micro health pro#ect developed as above. 2valuate micro health pro#ect developed as above. 2valuation micro health pro#ect and give suggestion and recommendations.

U it-40 Pre+aratio a 7 !%.mi&&io o1 Fiel7 !t%72 Re+ort&


+repare baseline demographic and health profile of the district acquired from secondary data on the basis of which write additional specific papers on the following. A comprehensive plan to improve the effectiveness of specific aspect of the district health system. Role of the 1istrict +ublic (ealth $fficer in family health care delivery. Report on epidemiological study of diseases &area-wiseAconditional'

Co%r&e E'al%atio !c(eme

.omprehensive 3ield +ractice &7rd Bear' 2valuation by <ocal 3iled /upervisor 2valuation by .ampusA nstitute /upervisor 1istrict /eminar +resentation of 3iled @or% at .ampusA nstitute 2valuation of @ritten Report &1istrict +rofile' ndividual Report on )icro-(ealth +ro#ect $ral 1efense of @ritten Report and 3iled @or% -:9 +ercent -6: +ercent -4: +ercent -49 +ercent -6: +ercent -6: +ercent -4: +ercent