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SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

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IIIIIIIIIIUIIIUIIHllllllllllHllMIIIUIIIMWUIlKIUIlUUIUUIIUIIIMlHUlUtMIUlHIMUtllHHIJIif;

SULPHUEIC HANDBOOK

ACID

"

'"

"

"

BY

THOMAS
WITH THB MINBBAL OF THB POINT MBW

J. SULLIVAN
SINC JBBBBT

COlfPANT,
SINO

BUBBIDIART

COMPANY

First

Edition

McGRAW-HILL
239 WEST 39TH

BOOK
STREET.

COMPANY,
NEW YORK

Inc.

LONDON:
6 "

HILL
8

PUBLISHING
ST., E.

CO., Ltd.
C.

BOUVERIE

1918

'

"

Copyright,
McGraw-Hill

1918,
Book

by

the

Company,

Inc.

THK

MAPI.S3

PRKSS

PA

PREFACE

sulphuric acid intermediate being an


processes,

As

is

one raw

of the

most

important
essential of
in

of chemicals,
most
facturing manu-

product,
the
is

think

appearance

this

handbook

dealing solely with


m

sulphuric acid
some

well

justified. In
acid
is used

fact,
it

almost

every

industry
that
measure

sulphuric
its degree
but
many

and acid

bas been
any

asserted
is
a

the
of

consumption
of

of

sulphuric

by

nation
is

industrial

progress.

This

certainly not

strictly correct,
is used of of its in
so

sulphuric
industries
statement.

acid that
A

forms
there few

the starting

point of, and


element
some

is considerable

truth

in

this
uses

examples showing
(a)
For

important
the

follows: of nitric in

decomposing
and of soda

salts with sodium


soap,

production
thus

acid,
the

hydrochloric acid
manufacture

sulphate,
most

indirectly

ash,

glass,bleaching powder,
kinds of

etc.

(6)

For

the
tar

purification of
oils.

oil,including petroleum
to

and

(c) For
Dr

pickling (^.e., cleaning)

iron

goods previous

tinning

galvanizing.
(d) {e)
As
a

"vhich the
For

drying agent in the production of organic dyes, textile industry depends to a large extent.
soluble
manures;

on

rendering (superphosphate) for


a.mounts,
Buctuations
and

mineral

and

animal

phosphate
large by
affected

thus food

agriculture
stuffs
are

absorbs

consequently

in the
the and

supply

of this of

important

chemical. from
used Chile in the

(/) For
nitric acid
of

manufacture

nitric acid
are

saltpetre:
nitration

sulphuric acid together


such
as

organic substances
of

glycerine
great

and

cellulose
in

forming
facture manu-

and nitro-glycerine

nitro-cellulose
now

mainly

used

the
a

explosives

in

demand.

So,

copious

327320

vi

PREFACE

acid is an absolute necessity for the explosive! supply of sulphuric in this supply would mean a shortagel industry and any shortage of explosives. I Without examples of this nature, enough has beeni multiplying industrial conditions,! said to indicate the complexityof modern the interaction of one thej industry on the other, and finally often obscure, but highly important, part played by sulphuriq ultimate and absolutely essential raw acid as an material oi these industries.

Owing
on

to

the

enormous

amount

of literature containing dat


more

acid,it has sulphuric


to
are

become

and
of

more

difficultfor th

busy worker
which
of

gather from
use

this
and

mass use

the fac literature,

interest practical
because

to him.

Much

valuabl

material is of Uttle

it is scattered

ture through the literaundertaken

and is therefore inaccessible. The

publication of
to
overcome

this

handbook

was

as

an

at least in part. The scop" difficulty, has been limited almost entirelyto numerical data, inasmucl such data cannot as generallybe carried in mind, but must ba The readily accessible for use. special investigator would for the infor^ to go to the original source probably always prefer of this kind would mation he wishes,so, to republishall matter be unnecessary and impracticable.The attempt has been is of fairly made to select and tabulate only that which general reference boojj interest and utiUty and produce a convenient

attempt

this

of numerical In

data. tables

collectingthe
in terms

only

those

American
is

practicehave
has
been

been

selected.

generallyadapted tc When gravit specific


America
a

given

of the Baum6 adhered


a

degrees,the so-called
to.

Standard

Where

different Baum
been recalculate

scale has been


to conform

used in

the figures have table,

to the American

Standard.

Almost

all of the table

of Bineau, Kolb, Otto, Winkler, Messel, Knietsch, Pickerin Lunge, Isler, Naef, etc., have been omitted as they have Ion since become obsolete
as

far

as

value for being of practical

us

PREFACE

vii

general
the

American factors from molecular further


for

practioe.
the
the

All
of

molecular

weights
results of have

as

irell as
"een

calculation International

analytical

calculated The
out

Atomic other

Weights figures
than is have

1917 been

1918).
arried
or

weights
the

and decimal

beyond

point

necessary

most

calculations.
care

Great
nd

and

pains
of it is

have

been All that


errors

taken.

to

secure

accuracy

completeness times,
minimum. and

data.

figures
the
errors

have
have

been

calculated been reduced

everal
0

hoped

the

However,
would
come

have

undoubtedly
notations of

crept
any
a

in,
of

nd

the

author
may

grea.tly
to

appreciate
reader's
or

hese
0

which

the

attention,
editions

with
the in book.

view

their A

correction
amount

in

later
time

reprints
and

of

large
of

of

labor
as

was

involved
was

the
to scope

prepara-

ion
ata rst

these
many

tables,

inasmuch scattered rather


for future
express

it

necessary

collect
of the

from

widely
is

sources.

The
Umited than

issue,
but be

therefore,
if

more

originally
the

lanned,
cope

the

demand
in
to

the

pubUcation

justifies it,

will

extended

issues.
his

The "lends

author who and

wishes
assisted

appreciation reading

to

the the

many
manu-

in and

checking

problems,
much

3ript
dvice.

proof,

giving

valuable

criticism

and

Thomas
De

J.

Sullivan.

Pub,
1,

III.

March

1918.

CONTENTS
Pagb

Preface

NTERNATIONAIi

ATOMIC

WeIOHTS

xii

Ipecific Gravitt Definition


More of Methods
to

1 1

Common

of

Determining

1 2

Corrections Conversion Itdrometebs

be

Applied

of Basis

3 6 5 5 5

Types
Classes

Manipulation
American
Standard BAtjM:^ Hydrometer
to to

Specific Gravities Degrees


Twaddle
Baum^ Hydrometer

Corresponding Corresponding Corresponding


Acid Sulphuric Employed Sulphuric
by the

Degrees

Baum6

11 16

Si)ecificGravities

20
to

Specific Gravities
f ombnclature
of for of

Degrees

Twaddle

21
22

Sulphuric
in

Formulas

Use

Acid

Calculations
in

24
the and

)e8criftion
Specific

Methods
of

Preparing

Tables ric HydrochloAssociation

of

Gravity

Acid, Nitric

Acid,

Acid, Adopted
op the

Manufacturing

Chemists'

United Acid

States Table Acid Table

27 49
51 64

Nitric

Hydrochloric Sulphuric
iuLPHURic ^PHURic
Acid Acid Acid

Acid

Table Per Cent. Per Cent

94-100 0**B".-100

HjS04 HsSOi

60
61 68

te"HURic ^JMiNG
Per Per

50*'-62*' B" Acid

Sulphuric Cent. Free Total Per

71
as as

SO.
SO.
Cent.

Units
Units 100 Per Cent. Acid ix

74 76

Cent.

Equivalent
Specific Gravity

HsSOi
"

as

Units Per Cent.

79

Test

"

Sulphuric

76.07-82.6

S0"

81

CONTENTS
Pag

SuiiPHTTRic Acid
AGES

"

Per

Cent

SOs

Correbpondinq

to

Even

Percent-

HjSO*
Acid
"

i
Per Cent

Sulphuric

H2SO4
Specific

Corresponding

to

EIven

centages Per81

SOj
Acid

Calculations, Stocks, etc


and OF

Use

of

Gravity

Tables, Estimating
to form

81
of

Dilution Any Table Table Table Formation

Concentration Strength

Sulphuric

Acid

Solutions

Desired for

8{

Mixing 59"* Baum6 for Mixing 60^ Baum6 for Mixing 66^ Baum6
of

9
and

Mixtures

of

Sulphuric

Nitric

Acids

of

Definite

Composition BoiuNG Melting Tension Strength Preparation

(So-called Mixed
"

Acid)

Points
Points
of for

Sulphuric
"

Acid Acid
"

Sulphuric Vapor

Aqxteous

Sulphuric

Acid Moisture
....

Equilibrium
of the

with

Atmospheric

Mono-hydrate Acid Acid Obtainable Obtainable


to

Pounds
Pounds Pounds The Test

Sulphuric Sulphuric Sulphur

from
from

100 Poxtnds 100 Pounds

Sulphur
. .

SOj
Burner

....

Required
Estimation
in

Make
of

100 Pounds Dioxide

Sulphuric
in

Acid
.

Quantitative
for

Sulphur

Gas

Total
the

Acids

Burner

Gas SO2
Converted
is to
"

Calculating

Percentage
and

SOg
as

When
in

the the

SOt

in

the

Burner Process

Exit

Gases

Known

Used

Contact
Table Theoretical Metallic Theoretical

Composition Sulphides

of

Dry

Gas

from

the

Roasting
,

of

Composition

of

Dry

Gas

from

the

Combustion

of

phur Sul-

Acid Sulphuric Qualitative Tests ^Lead Iron and Arsenic Selenium Acids Nitrogen Acid Sulphuric op Quantitative Analysis Zinc in Sulphuric of Lead, Iron and Quantitative Determination
" " "

"

Acid

The

Analysis

OF op

Mixed Storage Table


"

Acid

AND

NiTRATBD-SuLPHURic
and

Acid
....

Calibration
Mathematical

Tanks

Tank

Cars
and

Circumference
and

Area

of

Circles,

Squares, Cubes, Square


Decimals
OF
A

Cube

Roots

Foot

for

Each

K4

^^CH

CONTENTS
Paqb

xi

Decimals
Selting

of

an

Inch

fob

Each

H4
AND

^77 177

Rules

^Nn-FBEBZINO Table ^LANQEB Names


AND

LlQUIDS
FlANGED
of

FOR

PRESSURE

SUCTION

GaGES

178 179

FiTTINGS
and Low Valves

180 182 Pressure

Fittings Standard Templates for Drilling and Fittings


General Sizes General General General Sizes General General Dimensions

Flanged
"

183

of

Standard

Flanged

Fittings Straight
184 186
...

Dimensions
Dimensions Dimensions

of Standard

Reducing Tees and Crosses

of Standard
of ^tra

Reducing Laterals Heavy Flanged Fittings Straight


"

187

188

Heavy Reducing Heavy Reducing Laterals Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and Fittings Templates for Drilling of Cast-iron Weight Flanged Fittings
.

Dimensions
Dimensions

of Extra

Tees and

Crosses

.190 191 192


.

of Extra

193

Dast-Iron Nominal Standard Brought

Pipe

194 of Cast-iron
"

Weight
Iron
and

Pipe Without

Flanges

194
195

Cast-iron Pipe
Steel

Standard

Dimensions

Pipe

197 197
'

Standard
Extra

Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe Strong Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe Double Extra Strong Wrought Iron and Steel Pipe Standard Outside Diameter (O. D.) Steel Pipe
. . .

199
200 201 202

Brewed

Fittings

Standard
Extra ^ERICAN
NUT

Screwed

Fittings
Fittings
FOR

202 203
AND

Heavy
BrIGGB

Screwed STANDARD

TaPER

STRAIGHT

PiPE

AND

LoCK204 206 207

Threads Lead
9''
AND

:-eadPipe
^heet

^ANDARD Fibre Rope Metric

9" SeRIES
and

BrICK
"

ShAPES
and

208
to

Knots

Hitches
and

How

Make

Them
....

210

[J.S. CusTOMART Measures


of

Weights

Measures

213 214

Bquivalentb
Measures

Metric

and

Customary

(U. S.) Weights

and

216
of

i!3oMPARisoN

Thermometric

Scales

219 219

Fahrenheit

degrees as

units

xii

CONTENTS

Paqi

Centigrade
Water

Degrees

as

Units

220

221

Density
Density Temperature
BT of

and

Volume

Solutions

op

Sulphuric
to

Acid Cent Sulphuric Acid mined Deter-

222

Corrections
THE

Per

of

Hydrometer Sulphuric Fuming Acid Sulphuric Acid

224

Specific Specific

Gravity

of

225
233

Gravity

of

Index

235

INTERNATIONAL
International
Atomic

ATOMIC
Atomic

WEIGHTS

xiu

Weights, 1917*
Symbol
Atomic

Symbol

weight

weight

Juminum.

kntunony..
LTgon oisenic teuium

iismuth
....

loron

Iromine.. Sadmium. iffisium

ialcium.
. . .

!arbon Jerium Jhlorlne Ihromium


. .

iobalt

blumbium.
.

Jopper ^ysproaium
.

Al Sb A As Ba Bi B Br Cd Cs Ca C Ce CI Cr Co Cb Cu

27.1 120.2 39.88 74.96

Neodyinium
Neon Nickel Niton

Nd Ne Ni
anation) em-

144.3
20.2

68.68 222.4 14.01 190.9 16.00 106.7 31.04 196.2 39.10 140.9 226.0 102.9 86.45 101.7
160.4

(radium

137.37
208.0 11.0 79.92 112.40 132.81 40.07 12.005 140.25 35.46 62.0 68.97 93.1 63.67 162.6 167.7 162.0 19.0 157.3 69.9 72.5
9.1

Nitrogen
Osmium

Oxygen
Palladium

Nt N Os O Pd
P

Phosphorus
Platinum Potassium

Praseodymium
Radium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium

Samarium
Scandium Selenium. Silicon Silver Sodium
;

Pt K Pr Ra Rh Rb Ru Sa
,

Dy
Er Eu F Gd Ga Ge Gl Au He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr

Sc
.

Irbium

luropium
.

Se Si

ludrine radoliniutn rallium


.

Ag
Na Sr S Ta
Te

Strontium

lermanium
.

Sulphur
Tantalum Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium

rlucinum
. .

44.1 79.2 28.3 107 88 23.00 87.63 32.06 181.5


.

bid

ielium [olmium.
. . .

[ydrogen
idium
)dine

197.2 4.00 163 5 1 008 114.8 126.92


193.1

idium
t)ii

jypton inthanum.
2ad

La
.

Pb

ithium
itecium.
. . .

Li Lu
. .

[agnesium

Mg
Mn
.

Manganese
. .

tercury
[olybdenum

Hg
Mo

65.84 82.92 139.0 207 20 6.94 175.0 24.32 64.93 200.6 96.0
.

Tungsten
Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium

Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V

127.5 169.2 204.0 232.4

168.5 118.7 48.1


184.0

238.2
51.0

Xe

130.2
173.6

(NeoytYb Yt Zn Zr 88.7
66.37

terbium)
Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

90.6

* On its members due to the war, the of the difficultiesof correspondence between account full report for 1918. Atomic no on terDational Committee Weights has decided to make of new determinations have been ^ou^^ha good number published during the past year, That table,uiereimmediate "ne of them to demand change in the table for 1917. seem any 1918.~F. W. Clabk, Chairman. ^ may stand as officialduring the year

SULPHURIC

ACID
SPECIFIC GRAVITY

HANDBOOK

Definition

of
a

the

Term

''Specific Gravity
as

of

Liquid"
a

The The

density of
of the
some

liquidis defined density of


is water
the

the

weight of

unit volume.

gravity, or specific
of substance

the synonymous

term, relative density,


to the

the ratio

liquidin question, referred


is taken
as

msity

which
at

unity.

The

standard
or

ibstance

employed

its maximum

density (4"C.

).2^.).
ilore Common Methods
"

of

Determining
we

the

Specific Gravity of Liquids


of unknown

1.

Pycnometer. having
volumes.

Here
a

have the the

vessels

volume,
to

at either

mark

on

neck,

or

having glass stopper


are

ith

capillary hole.
of constant
is

Thus

pycnometers
For

made

hold

}nstant
I

Constant

temperature

is obtained
use

by

the aid

bath

temperature.

in

determination
filled

le

pycnometer
full of water

weighed empty,
consideration.
the the

with filled, The of the

water, and

ith the
;er

liquid under

weight
empty

of the pycnom-

minus

weight

pycnometer

is

jual to the weight of


ired to

water

it will hold. the

This

weight,
will

com-

the
the

weight

of the

liquid that
the

pycnometer

hold,
In
ten

ives
2.
le

us

specific gravity of
the

liquid.
"

Mohr,
balances

Westphal, Sartorius, Specific -gravity Balances.

right-hand half
the

of the
the

beam of

is divided

into
at

|ual parts from


id of the

fulcrum

to

point
this end
acts at

suspension
of the beam

the

beam.
a

Suspended

from

is the

lummet
rhen the f the

while

weight at the other end in water plummet is immersed


is destroyed by the

as

counterbalance,

4"C., the equilibrium


of the
water.

balance

buoyancy
of water is

To

the equilibrium, a weight equal iljust

to this force

and

in grams is of

jual

to

the

weight

of the

volume

to the volume ijual

of the plummet)
1

displaced (which hung from the point

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

suspension.This weight is
called a rider.

known

as

the unit

weight and

L"

Other riders weighingrespectively 0.1,0.01,O.OOl of the weightof this rider constitute the set of weightsused witli these balances. read directly
3.

With

their aid the

densityof

can liquid

be

off from the balance beam.


"

Hydrometers. These instruments consist of a spindle with a cylindrical neck containinga scale. Thej shaped float,
are

end, thus bringingthe center ol when an gravity very far down, and insuring uprightposition that a body will sink floating.They depend upon the principle in a liquid imtil enough liquid that the has been displaced, so the weightof the body. weightof the displaced liquid equals The weight and volume that the instrumen are so adjusted, weighted at
their lower sinks to the lower mark tested by it, and to the
on

to be its neck in the heaviest liquid

mark its neck in the lightest on highest to be tested by it. As the density of a liquid liquid changes witi the temperature, the liquid should always be at the temperatun at which the hydrometer was calibrated or proper correctioi

made.
Corrections
to be

Applied in Specific Gravity Determinations

obtain the true specific their densitid gravityof substances, be compared with the density cl at 4^C., and in vacuo must ^
To
water at

in 4"C.,

vacuo.

determined al For technical use, specific is frequently gravity convenient temperature, and referred to water, of eithef any that
same

temperature,

or

to water

at

4^C., the weight in aii

beingtaken as a basis. In purelyscientific water is taken as standard a| calculations, 4^C.,while in commercial laboratories the standard is often i^ the neighborhood of 15.56"C., specific gravitiei consequently As the tempers determined by these standards do not agree. ture of water increases from 4"C., it expands. The weightbeinl Ii constant, with increase of volume, the densityis lowered.
the
case

of water

this increase of volume been

with rise of

temperatui

is not

uniform,but has
relative

determined
water

ing the

densityof

with great care. Kno^ various at temperatures,th|

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

"3. -a a

""*

"a
"

1
00
"*"

00

"o

E^l^

HYDROMETERS HYDROMETERS

There

are

two

types of hydrometers, namely, hydrometers

hydrometers which are combined with thermometers, illed thermo-hydrometers. There are four classes of hydrometers: 1. Density hydrometers, indicatingdensity of a specified units. \mdj at a specified temperatm'e, in specified 2. Specific-gravity the specific hydrometers, indicating gravity relative density of a specified at a specified liquid, temperature, of water at a specified terms temperature as unity. 3. Per cent, hydrometers, indicating, at a specified temperaroper, and
"

ire, the

percentage of

substance

in

mixture

or

solution.

Arbitrary scale hydrometers, concentration or strength of defined scale at a specifiedliquid referred to an arbitrarily lecified temperature (Baum6 hydrometer, Twaddle hydrometer, c).
4. Manipulation
of

Hydrometers^
as

Hydrometers
ual conditions

are

seldom

used

for the greatest accuracy,


are

the

under

which

they

used

preclude such special

and exact observation to obtain are as stnipulation necessary ^h precision. It is, nevertheless,important that they be of inthe use Durately graduated to avoid as far as possible, ximental and to obtain this result it is necessary to corrections, these iploy certain precautions and methods in standardizing
itruments.

manipulationdescribed below are, in general, 3 ones employed at this Bureau in testinghydrometers and "uld be followed by the maker to a degree depending user or the accuracy required. Observing. The hydrometer should be clean,dry, and at the before immersing to make a reading. nperature of the liquid The ned liquid in which the observation is made should be conin a clear,smooth glassvessel of suitable size and shape.
The

methods

of

"

U. S. Bureau

of

Feb. 23, Standards,Circular No. 16, 4th edition,

1916.

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

By

means

of the stirrer which

reaches

to

the bottom

of

1|

should be thoroughly mixed. the liquid vessel, in the liquid U The hydrometer is slowly immersed slightly yond the point where it floats naturallyand then allowed I float freely. i imtil the liquid The scale reading should not be made ai| i hydrometer are free from air bubbles and at rest. .the hydrometer scale the eye is placed slightly In reading it is raised slo low the plane of the surface of the test liquid; line, becomes a straight until the surface, as an ellipse, seen point where this line cuts the hydrometer scale should be t the reading of the hydrometer. as avoi of parallax In readingthe thermometer are errors scale, the end of the mercury col by so placingthe eye that near the portionson either side of the stem and that seen through line of sight to lie in a straightline. The capillary appear
then
Note

normal
:

to the stem.

to According

below)

not

the Bureau of Standards, then, the point A the point B is the one to be noted as the reading.

(see

SL

^^g
==-

Temperature. that a hydrometer may order or stren rectlyindicate the density it is essen of a specified liquid, thro that the liquidbe uniform
Influence
out

of

and

at the standard

temperat

zEEiE:
=

To

in the insure uniformity

liq

is required shortly beW "EEE. stirring 4 This ^ making the observation. ring should be complete and mayi d well accomplished at the end by a perforateddis^ or spiral rod long enough to reach the bottom of the vessel. Motion ' this stirrer from to disperselayersof ^ top to bottom serves of different density. liquid The liquid should be at nearlythe temperature of the surroifl chann as otberwi3e its temperature will be ing atmosphere,

60

HYDROMETERS

the observation, causingnot only luring


)ut also doubt lerature at
as

differences in
When

density
tem-

to

the actual

temperature.

the

hydrometer is observed differs from the tandard temperature of the instrument,the readingis not truly he densityaccording to the basis of the instrument or the quahty fthe liquidaccording to per cent, or arbitrary but a figure scale, rhich differs from the normal reading by an amount depending
the
h the

which

difference in temperature and


and

on

the relative thermal

ex-

ftasions of the instrument If the

the particular liquid.


of corrections

latter propertiesare
Such

be jmperature may arious temperatures. lid only for luch from


: the

known, tables prepared for use with


tables should
results when

for
at

hydrometers

be used

with caution
differs

approximate
standard

the temperature
or

the

temperature
Tension.

from

the temperature

surrounding air.
of Surface
"

Influence
"ometer

Surface-tension

effects

on

hyforce

observations
on

are

consequence

of the downward
or

lerted
)es

the the

stem

by

the

curved

surface

meniscus, which
and

about

stem, and

affects the depth of immersion

Dsequent scale reading.


in two liquids hydrometer will indicate differently and since density but different surface tension, fvingthe same it is necessary rface tension is a specific to property of liquids, pcify the liquid for which a hydrometer is intended. be comAJthough hydrometers of equivalentdimensions may in surface tension from red, without error, in a liquiddiffering 3 specified comparisons of dissimilar instruments in such liquid, Because
a

iquid must
[n many
B ne

be corrected

for the effect of the surface tension,

liquidsspontaneous
formation
of surface the apparatus, the

to

the

changes in surface tension films of impurities, which


the air. either

occur

may

from

or liquid,

Errors from

by the use of liquids b subject to such changes,which, however, requirecorrection the results by calculation, of the surface or by the purification overflowing immediately before making the observation.
this
cause are

avoided

8
This latter method
eters

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

is employed at this Bureau

for

testing hydrom

solutions and alcohol solutions, and i sulphuric-acid accomplished by causingthe liquidto overflow from the part a the apparatus in which the hydrometer is immersed by a smal which serves also to stir the liquid. rapidlyrotatingpropeller The of hydrometer observations Cleanliness. de accuracy the cleanliness of the instruments pends,in" aiM many cases, upon in which the observations of the liquids made. are In order that readingsshall be uniform and reproducible, th surface of the hydrometers, and especially of the stem, must b into a clean,so that the liquidwill rise uniformly and merge film on the stem. imperceptible
"

in

The
somewhat
as

readiness
upon

with

which

this condition
of the

is fulfilled depend

the character

certain liquids, liquid, sue

mineral

oils and

strong alcoholic mixture, adhere to the

stei

solutions of sugar, salt while with weak aqueous readily, of the stem is require scrupulous cleaning acids,and alcohol,
very

in order

to

secure

the normal

condition.
are

Before
soap

being tested,hydrometers

thoroughly washed
a

and

and dried by wiping with water, rinsed,


in aqueous dipped into solutions which do not

clean

lin^

cloth.
If to be used the stems
are a

adhere

readil

strong alcohol and immediately veip


cloth.
BAUMB than HYDROMETER

dry

with

linen soft, clean,


STANDARD

AMERICAN

(LiquidsHeavier
The and

Water)
the United have

Manufacturing Chemists' Association of


United States
on

Stat

the

Bureau

of Standards

adopted

Baum6

scale based

relation 'to specific the following gravit


145
=

Degrees

Baum^

145

"

Specific gravityat
or

^tjoF-

bpecinc gravity at ^t^F.


60"
'

145

"

degreesBauin6

BAUM6
The ^o, 59 1916:

HYDROMETERS

scale is taken from Circular following historyof the Baum^ of Standards,April 5, issued by the United States Bureau

specific degrees representedby gravity and Baum6 ^he formulas given was adopted by this Bureau in 1904, when it firsttook up '.hequestion of testinghydrometers. At that time every important manu'acturer of Baum6 hydrometers in the United States was using this relation
"The
is

relation between

the basis of these ''The

or instruments,

at least such

was

their claim.

scales has been admirably origin and early history of the Baum6 treated by Prof. C. F. Chandler in a paper read before the National Academy in 1881. at Philadelphia As this paper 3f Sciences not be readily may

available to
liere a ''The

some

who

are

interested

prepared first proposed and used by Antoine Baum^, dififerent ft French chemist, in 1768, and from this beginning have come scales that have directions Baum6 been prepared since that time. The for reproducing his scale were first published in L'Avant in by Baum6 p^iven and and the conditions assumed not are 1768, though simple,are not specific, that differences soon easily reproducible. It is not strange, therefore, peared apBaum6 scale
was

part of the material

in the matter, it may by Prof. Chandler.

be well to include

between this Baum6

the did

Baum6

scales

as

set up

by dififerent observers.

That of

divergence
scales

actually occur
have been than
water.

is well shown Prof.

by

the

large

number

that

used.

Chandler

found

23

dififerent

scales for "Baum^'s scale for

liquidsheavier

directions for

settingup his scale

state

that for the

hydrometer

liquidsheavier than water he used a solution of sodium chloride table salt) containing 15 parts of salt by weight in 85 parts of (common water by weight. He described the salt as being 'very pure' and 'verydry' carried out in a cellar in which and states that the. experiments were the 10" Reaumur, equivalent to 12.5*'C. or 54.5**F. temperature was tion "The point to which the hydrometer sank in the 15 per cent, salt solumarked and the point to which it sank in distilled water at the was 15**, between 0". these two marked The same points temperature was space divisions divided into and the of 15 same was length equal parts or degrees, extended were beyond the 15** point. "Other of Baum6 makers hydrometers soon began to deviate from the procedure outlined by Baum^, the deviations being,no doubt, partly accidental and partly intentional, and in course of time, as already pointedout, many
dififerent Baum6 "This Baum^
scales of
were

in

use.

condition
scale.

afifairs led

to

great confusion

in

the

use

of the

10
"

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK evident

From
some

consideration of the variations that occurred it was


means-

soon

exactly than (70uld be done by the simple rules given by Baum^ be should, if possible, fixed found. relation that This means a was readilyprovided by assuming
that

of

definingand reproducing the

scale

more

should exist between

the Baum6 in terms

scale and of
some

the

scale specific-gravity When

at

some

definite temperature, and

definite unit.

this relation the all

is expressed in mathematical Baumjd Baum6 scale is fixed scales in


use

terms

in the

form
assumed

of

an

equation, then

beyond
are

all questions of doubt.


on

At the present time

based
them

such

an

ences and the differrelation, relation


perature tem-

existingbetween
or

arise from

dififerencesin the assumed


are

^modulus'

on

which

the various scales


are

based, and

the standard

at which

the instruments is

intended to be correct.
then

the degrees Baum6 adopted, corresponding to any given specific gravity,or the specific gravity corresponding to any be calculated; or if the specificgravity and given degree Baum6 may at any point of the scale are known, then the corresponding degree Baum6 modulus be determined and the complete Baum6 scale calculated from can this singlepoint. Let

''If a definite modulus

"

specific gravity.
degrees Baum^.
modulus.
:

d
m

"

Then

for liquidsheavier

than

water

m 8
m
"

w 8

da
m
=

8-1

"At work
more

the time the Bureau

of Standards

was

contemplatingtaking up
made

the

of standardizinghydrometers (1904),diligent inquiry was

of the

manufacturers of hydrometers as to the Baum^ important American scales used by them. Without exception they repliedthat they were using the modulus heavier than water. This scale, 145 for liquids the ''American therefore adopted by the Bureau and has of Standards was Standard,'' been in
use ever

since.
no

"There
user

of Baum^

it

was were

objection or protest from any manufacturer or the time the scale was hydrometers at adopted by the Bureau, assumed that they were trade to the American entirely satisfactory
in universal use.''

having been

and

12

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Specific Gravities

at

60^
60**

/15.56^

Degrees

56" \15.56' / Baum" {Continued)


"

C. I Corresponding

to

BAUME

HYDROMETERS

13
\

Specific

Gravities

60;
at

/15.56"
,

60* Degrees Baum^


"

CORRB8PONDINO

TO

(Continued)

baum6
60* Specific
Gravitibs Degrees
at

hydrometers

15

CORRESPONDINQ 60***
Baum"

TO

\15.56**
"

(Conduded)

16

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38:
CO

"0

i-"l^

"C

CO

GOCO Q0CO09 COCOOCOCO

"^ t". o

09 09

rHCOX

OC0
09 09

09 CO CO

CO

Orf

PQ
OQ

09

09C0^"O CO'^J"0

iccor^t".oo
^Jl

OpOQQ^

-^

'(Jl ^^^ ^^r ^J^ ^J^

^r

^r

^^^ ^^p

" H OS O H

"""

*H09

COt^XOQ
^ tJ* ^ ^
lO

rHOICO'^O

'(Jl ^^p ^^p ^5^ ^^p

Sr"oooo lO ud to o

1-H

09

oco

20

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

TWADDLE

HYDROMETER

(Generally
Methods of

used

in

England)
to

Converting

Specific

Gravity

Degrees

Twaddle

1.

Let

degrees

Twaddle.

specific gravity.
10002/
-

1000

^==

5 2.

Or

200

{y

1).

3.

This decimal and

method

may
two

be

used

for
to

any

value

below

2.000. off the

Move first

the

point

figures
the

the

right, by
2.

striking

figure

multiplying

remainder

Methods

of

Converting

Degrees

Twaddle

to

Specific

Gravity

1.

Let

specific gravity.
degrees
by
+
1000

Twaddle.
1000

^"^^^

2^
in

The
to

degrees
the

Twaddle's

hydrometer
the basis

bear of is the

direct

ship relation-

specific gravity,
since every

system
to
a

being
difference

plain
in

and

unmistakable,
of

degree

equal

specific gravity

0.005.

TWADDLE

HYDROMETER

21

22

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

NOMENCLATURE

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

Sulphuricacid shows and strength gravity up


easier to determine
weaker than

definite relation between

to 93.19 per cent.

H2SO4.

the specific As it is much

the specific gravity than


are

the strength, acids

nearlyalways spoken of and sold as being of so many hydrometer being degreesBaum^, the Baum6 the instrument generally used for determiningthe specific gravity. The principal of such acids are : strengths
93.19 per cent,

Association of the Manufacturing Chemists' United States agreed on a set of values for Baum6 degrees and their H2SO4 equivalents. In 1904 the Association adopted the table of Ferguson and Talbot. The H2SO4 equivalentsshow a change from the table of 1882 and those values have been slight In Germany used in this country ever since. and especially, different set of values for a quite generallyon the continent, Baum6 degreesis used in which all have highervalues in specific gravityand H2SO4 than those used here. For instance 66**B6. here corresponds to 93.19 per cent. H2SO4 and in Germany to
In 1882 the
98 per cent.
as

The 66** acid is also known


of weaker 0.

oil of vitriol of

(O.V.) and strengths


so

acids 60"B6.

are

sometimes

v.,

acid

spoken containing 77.67

as

many

per

cent.

per

cent.

H2SO4

being

called 83.35 per cent. O. V. 77.67


X log
=

83.35

93.19

NOMENCLATURE

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

23

This,however,
or

is not

very

common.

uses a

of sulphuric acid it is certain

reporting total production stated as frequently being


In
or some

to equivalent

quantity of
total amount

acid of 60** or 60^ of H2SO4 the

other
same as

standard
that

strength, the
in

being

the

contained
are

the

stated

Productions
When
to
an

also often becomes


terms per cent. many

quantity of reported as tons

stated

strength. H2SO4,
would

of SOj.
per

acid

stronger than

93.19

cent.

speak of it in
100

of

be fallacious as
as gravity

94.5
per
as

specific gravity or degrees Baum" the same cent, acid has practically
Acids
per

specific
per per cent. cent,

between

93.19

and

100

are

spoken of

so

cent,

sulphuric acid; 100

acid

being commonly
cent.

100 per

H2SO4
in

SO3 dissolves
oleum.

mono-hydrate. This contains (81.63 per cent. S0"). the mono-hydrate giving fuming acid or
called the

ing fuming acid because the SOs escapes, formwhite fumes, when exposed to the air. Oleum is the German has been used extensively in this country, since the which name and the German first of making it were German methods practical in It is also known nomenclature was frequently adopted here. Oil of Vitriol. Germany as Nordhausen of stating the strength of fuming acid: There are three ways It is called
1. The per per cent, cent,

of free (dissolved)SOs.

2. The 3. The
per cent,
were

of total SOs.
per cent.

equivalent
of 100
to per

100

per

cent.

H2SO4.

That

is the

cent.

H2SO4

it would

make

if suflBcient water

added

combine
an

with all the free SOs.

For instance
contain of 80
water per
were
a

acid

containing
per cent.

20

per

cent,

free SOs

would
content

total of 85.30
cent,

SO3,

and
per

actual
cent.

H2SO4
It

and

would
to

make

104.49 with

H2SO4

if sufficient

added

combine

all the free SO3.


per cent,
a
or

might,
cent.

be called therefore,

20 per

cent.,85.30
term

104.49

per

Mixed acid

is the

technical

for

mixture

of strong sul-

phnric acid and

nitric acid.

24

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

FORMULAS

FOR

USE

IN

SULPHURIC

-ACID

CALCULATIONS
per cent. cent.

all strengths under 81.63 (By non-fuming acid is meant all strengths over 81.63 per (By fuming acid is meant

SOs)

SOs)

The

followingfactors
SOs

were

calculated from
80.06

molecular

weights:

SO3
To Calculate Per Cent. SOa Per
or
"

80.06

Non-fuming Add
H2SO4
H2SO4
"

"

cent. cent.

X
-^

0.8163 1.2250
"

Per To Calculaie Per

Cent

H2SO4

Non-fuming Acid
-^

Per cent. SO3


or

0.8163 1.2250

Per cent. SO3


To

Calculate Per

Cent. Free H2O


100
-

"

Non-fuming
H2SO4
"

Add

"

per

cent.

To Calculale Per

Cent. Combined
Per
cent.

H2O
"

Non-fuming
cent.

Add-

H2SO4 SOs

per

SOs

or or

Per cent. H2SO4


Per
cent.

0.1837 0.2250

SULPHURIC-ACID

CALCULATIONS

25

To Calculate

Per Per

Cent. Combined
cent.
"

H2O

"

Fuming Acid

"

H2SO4X
cent,

0.1837 total SO3

or or

100

per

Per cent, combined

SO3

0.2260

To Calculate

Per

Cent. H2SO4

"

Fuming
cent,
"

Add

"

98.076

(100

per

total SOs)

18.018
or or or

100" Per

per cent,

cent,

free SOs

combined

H2O

5.4438

Per cent,

combined

H2O

(4.4438 X

per

cent,

combined

H2O)

To Calculate

Equivalent100
Per
cent,

Per

Cent, H2SO4
-^

"

Fuming Acid

"

total SOs

0.8163 1.2250

or

Per cent, total SO3

To Calculaie

Per

Cent. Combined

SOs

"

Fuming Acid

"

80.06

(100

per

cent,

free SO3)

98.076
or
or

Per Per

cent. cent,

H2SO4

0.8163

combined
"

H2O
per

4.4438
cent,

or

Per cent, total SO3

free SOs

To Calculate

Per

Cent. Free

SOs

"

Fuming
98.076)
-

Add

"

(Per cent, (Per (Per


Per 100
cent, cent,

total SO3

8006

18.016
or
or or or

total SOs X
total SO3 total SO3
-

Per cent,

"

444.38 5.4438) 81.63) 5.4438 (percent, combined


-

H2O

4.4438)

cent, total SOs


"

"

per

cent,

combined

SOs

or

Per

cent,

H2SO4

26

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

To

Calculate

Per

Cent. Total SO3


X

"

Fuming 18.016) +

Add

"

(Per cent, free SOs

8006

98.076
or

(Per

cent.

free.SO3
-

or
or or

0.8163

(100 Equivalent per

per

0.1837) + 81.63 cent, free SO3) + per


X 100 per per cent, cent.

cent, free X

SOs

cent.

H2SO4

0.8163

Per cent, free SO3

combined

SOs

To

Calculate

Weight

per

Cubic

Foot

Add

"

Specific gravity at
water at 60"F.

^F.

(iTTftoC. j X weight
per

per

cubic

foot

(62.37lb.) Weight SO3


Cubic Foot foot X
per cent.

To

Calculate

(Weight
To

of acid per the

cubic

SO3)

-5-

100) of One

Calculate

Equivalent Per Cent, StrengthAdd af Compared to

and

Weight

Another
cent.

The
an

equivalent per cent, in 66"B^. (93.19 per acid of 60"B^. (77.67 per cent. H2SO4) is:

H2SO4) of

^^
and of
as

100

83.35

per

cent.

66"B6.

corresponds to 66"B6. equivalent to 1 cu.

60"B^.

1.7059

gravity,the pounds specific

ft. of 60''B^. is:

J^
Note. used
"

1.7059

62.37

88.68

lb. 66^B6.

While

ascertainingequivalents of non-fuming
can

acid, strengths
or

for the calculations

either be taken

as

per

cent.

SOs

of per

cent.

H2SO4.

calculating fuming-acid equivalents,strengths should be used in terms of total per cent. SO3 unless expressed in the equivalent per cent, of 100 per
cent.

If

H2SO4.

28
The and

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

acids and

ammonia

used

were

the pm'est obtainable e.p.,


when purified products are such a
more

were

examined carefully

for

and impurities

The impuritiesin commercial necessary. variable quantity and, as their purity is


as

becoming
many

nounced pro-

made

on

manufacturing processes improve, largescale being nearly c.p., it was


have
more

substances that the

deemed
were

tables would
c.p.

value practical

if they

based upon
possess,

compounds.

As to any

scientificmerit

they may

it

is needless to say that such a positive basis to which always be referred is an essential. All of the

they

can

termina and specific-gravity determinations,deanalytical of the


coefficient of

expansion (or allowance for culatio well as all calof boilingpoints, determination as temperature), and clerical work, were performed by two experienced men working independently.
SPECIFIC-GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS
were was

All

determinations specific-gravity
with
water at 60"F.

taken
done

at

compared 60**F., no

The

work

in winter and
pressure

account

was

taken

of differences of

atmospheric

oi

and 65**F. temperature, which averaged about 760 mm. The apparatus used in this work was a 50-c.c. Geissler picnonH eter having a capillary side-arm tube fitted with a glass cap, in the top of which to small hole which allowed the liquid was a the thermometer expand without loosening or cap, at the sam^ time preventing loss while weighing. The thermometer, which was was ground to fit the neck of the bottle, graduatedto J'^"F. and

readable

to

Ks^F.,
a

and

was

checked frequently the water


and checked
content

a against

standard

thermometer. determination of the bottfe time


to

Before making
was

first accurately determined


the

from

time

during a series of determinations.


the bottle together with

To obtain the water


and

content,
weri

thermometer

glass cap

of thfl cleaned, dried and weighed. (The accuracy carefully balance and weights were checked against a systematically

COEFFICIENT

OF

EXPANSION

29

standard set of

weights.)
at

The

bottle

was

then filledwith thermometer

freshly-

serted. tightly inAs the temperature slowly rose, the water expanded the thermometer side arm. When through the capillary tered regislary, 60T., the last drop was removed from the top of the capilthe tube capped and the whole weighed. This weight, less the tare obtained above, was taken as the water content of the bottle at 60**P. Check determinations agreed within 0.002 gram, 0.00005 specific or lessthan gravity. Distilled water freed from carbon dioxide by boiling, and cooling in a closed vessel, gave the the ordinary distilled water which water content same as was used throughout the work. This water free from chloride was and residue upon evaporation. In determining the specific the weight of the gravity of liquids, obtained above. contained by the bottle at 60**F. was liquid as This weight, divided by the water content, equals the specific
ft

distilledwater

and 55"-57**F.,

the

gravity. It was thought that


might vary in temperature as
the bottle. with water To

the temperature of the


the whole thermometer
case

in liquid
not

the bottle the


same

diflferent parts and

have in the

registered by
ascertain

the

center
was

of

the facts in the

beaker and
a

filled

below

the temperature of the room, of the beaker showed

eter thermom-

placed in
as

the center

the

same

ture temperaformly risinguni-

placed near throughout the liquid.


those
COEFFICIENT

the temperature the sides,

OF

EXPANSION
was

The

correction

for temperature when off and


was

found

by allowing
had

the

tquidto slowly expand, and the tube was wiped 8"~10**F.,


againweighed.
and

the temperature

risen

capped, and
taken
at
a

the apparatus

Another

weight

stillhigher temperature,

from
the

for 1*T. and

calculated. To
nometer

gravity specific of degrees correspondingto 1**B^. were number the expansion of the picdetermine how much
determinations specific-gravity
at different

these results the difference in

affected the

*""

"
w "" ^ ^ V ^

"-

"

"",

"

""

-a.^

COEFFICIENT

OF

EXPANSION

31

About

200

grams
a

of sodium

bicarbonate

were

washed

in

free from chloride. porcelain plate until entirely then dried at lOO^^C, protected from It was acid gases, finely About 20 grams ground, and kept in a sealed bottle until used. of bicarbonate thus prepared was heated in a platinum dish at red heat, until the weight was a moderate constant, and then 5 grams was quicklyand accuratelyweighed for analysis. Our ate, attention was directed to the method of heating sodium carbonvarious results were obtained dependfor,in standardizing, ing of ignition, the temperature the highest temperature on about 0.09 per cent, greater or giving the greatest alkalinity, It remained than the lowest. to be proved whether the high or in heating to the higher low result was correct, and whether flame) water was given off, temperature (red heat over a Bunsen due to a decomposition of the loss in weight was whether or
sodium In carbonate

funnel having

into sodium

oxide

and

carbon

dioxide.

found to the Uterature several references were referring carbonate. the ignitionof sodium vol. I, p. MendeleeflF, upon sodium 525, in quoting the work of Pickering,says: ''When carbonate is fused In reference
p.

about
"

1 per

cent,

of carbon

dioxide

is disengaged.'*

Lunge's
to
an

is made

Untersuchungs Methoden," vol. I, p. 83, article in Zeitschr. /.Angew. Chem., 1897,


he says
not

522, by Lunge, in which


of acids must

that

soda

intended

for the

standardization

be heated

higher than

300^C.

aiid if the heating is carried on at this temperature for (572**F.)" of time, one be sure that neither bicarbonate a suflKcient length may oxide has been is left behind, and yet no sodium water nor formed as may happen if the heating is carried to a low red heat. Sodium Carbonate ("). A portion of the washed and dried bicarbonate was carefullyheated in a platinum crucible with occasional stirring at 572"F. to constant weight,and immediately analyzed. Ammomum Sulphate. Ten grams of the standard acid (tobe hereinafter described)were quickly and accurately weighed in a small glassweighingtube,avoidingabsorptionof moisture from
" "

32

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

the sample into a largeplatinuni atmosphere. After rinsing that had made with ammonia ammoniacal dish, it was slightly distilled to free it from silica. During evaporatiop been freshly the steam on bath, the dish was kept covered by a largefunnel and protected from acid fumeis. Ammonia added from time was found that the salt became acid on evaporation. to time, as it was After evaporation the dish was dried in an air bath to constant i weight at 230^F. In reviewing the Cent H2SO4). Sulphuric Acid (100 Pw of Pickering {Jour. Chem. work Soc, 1890) it occurred to us thai it would be possibleto make 100 per cent. sulphuri"^ some pure of this would serve as a suitable check acid,and that the anal3rsis other methods. oi our on Pickering has shown that the curve the melting point of sulphuric acid near 100 per cent, reaches fl maximum at 100 per cent. Therefore,by startingwith an acid thari less than 100 per cent, and another more slightly slightly in recrystalUzing wheri 100 per cent., a point should be reached the successive crops of crystals obtained from both acids should This was show the same actuallythd per cent, sulphuric acid.
the
"

case.

Starting with 2 liters of chemicallypure sulphuric acid, purd redistilled sulphuricanhydride was added on analysis,the until, The bottle was shaken during crysstrength was 99.8 per cent. tallization small crystals, and when the bottle to obtain so as half full of crystals the mother was liquorwas drained off through of the bottle and having the mouth a porcelainplate fitted over tube passing through its center to the bottom of the bottle a glass through which air dried with strong sulphuricacid was admitted, when the bottle was inverted. By draining the crystals for above the melting point, several hours at a temperature slightly the mother These entirelyremoved. liquor was crystals were then melted and recrystallized, and drained as described above. The were melted, recrystallizedand crystals thus contained drained,the final crystalsbeing melted and kept in a sealed

COEFFICIENT

OF

EXPANSION

33

K)ttle until

analyzed. Two litersof acid were prepared, analyzcent, sulphuricacid. From this the standard was ag 100.1 per of acid analyzas in the case manner prepared in exactlythe same acid. Qg 99.8 "per cent, sulphiuic used as a check on Sulphtiric Anhydride. ^Another method standard the titration of sulphuricacid formed by the was "ur 4ldition of water to 100 per cent, sulphuricanhydride. To do his required especial to obtain a sample of sulphuric care first, to mix it with jihydride free from water, and, after obtainingit, loss of anhydride. The without rater as plan adopted was
" "

olio

w^s

Fuming
Ustilled
at
over

40 sulphuric acid containing


a

per

cent,

free SOj

was

low
the

temperature into

ightly
Lioxide
kbout

tube delivery

K"tassium

were permanganate present. The first 25 c.c. were

long-necked flask fitting of the retort. of A few crystals to oxidize any added sulphur of the distillatewere c.c. rejected.
a

200

distilledover.
first few

Then

this 200

c.c.

was

redis-

the illed, rejecting kbout 100


c.c. was

cubic

centimeters

and

in

an

to the ordinarydistilling flask,

collecting tube delivery


had been

rf which Irawn
x"
a

sealed the open

end bent

of

which test-tube,

out

in the center, and

at the constricted

part, almost

right angle,thus forming a receiver. As soon as the distillainto the flask was sealed,thus aon completed the neck was naking the whole apparatus air-tight.By warming the flask about 20 grams of sulphuric 140**F. and coolingthe receiver, DO into the latter, then distilled over which was ixihydride were lealed at the constricted part having a slight vacuum. In lookingthrough the listof organic acids SulphanilicAcid. decided upon acid was for one that would be suitable, sulphanilic of its being a monobasic acid with a high molecular ["D. account without water and drying without decompovireight, crystallizing sition. The three times, so-called c.p. acid was recrystallized finely ground, and dried in an air bath at 230"F. to constant weight.
"

34

SULPHURIC
ANALYSIS

ACID
OF

HANDBOOK
STANDARDS

prepared compounds carefully used. This acid 2 litersof c.p. sulphuricacid were as standards and was tested for impurities, found to be practically was free, kept sealed when not in use, its percentage composition being
determined
Soditim
as

For the comparison of the above

follows:
"

sodium (a). Five grams of freshly ignited quickly weighed out, and an carbonate,prepared as above, were of standard acid, of the amount in excess amount required slightly for neutralization was weighed in a small weighing tube and After washed carbonate. into a flask containing the sodium for 15 min. to expel carbon dioxide, of sulphuric the excess boiling acid was titrated with N/2 sodium hydroxide,using phenolphthalein as indicator. A short stem funnel was placed in the neck of the flask to prevent loss while boiling. Duplicate analyses of the standard acid by this method 97.33-97.35 gave per cent, of sulphuricacid. Soditim Carbonate (b). Five grams sodium carbonate, prepared used as above by heatingat 572**F. to constant weight,were in determining the strength of our standard acid. Observing conditions described above, we obtained 97.41exactlythe same 97.42 per cent, sulphuricacid. Ammonium stant sulphate dried to conSulphate. The ammonium described above, was cooled in a desiccator as weight at 230"F., and quickly weighed.
Carbonate
" "

The

salt

was

then

dissolved

in water

and

the small amount

of

by methyl orange, was titrated with N/3 sodium hydroxide. Adding an equivalentweight of ammonia to the weight above, gave 97.41 per cent, as the strength of the sulphuricacid. The d,mount of acid titrated was less than 0.10 per cent, (withmethyl orange a sharp end point is obtained). A dupUcate analysis gave 97.41 per cent, of sulphuricacid. of Sulphuric Acid (lOO Per Cent. H2SO4)." About 6 grams from 99.8 per cent, sulphuricacid,as described acid,crystallized above, were introduced into the bottom of a small weighed tube |
free acid

present, as

indicated

36

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

solution standardized
our

on
was

this basis to determine found


to be 97.41 per

the
cent,

standard

acid;it
of

strength of of sulphuric
re*

acid.

Recapitulation
ferred

composition

of standard

sulphuric acid

to all the standards

employed:

Per

cent.

Average

Sodium

carbonate

"

97.33

(A) Ignited at low red heat

to constant

weight

97.34 97.35 97.41 97.415 97.42 97.41 97.41 97.41

(B) Heated
Ammonium
100 per under 100 per
over

at 572*^.

to constant

weight

sulphate method
cent,

sulphuric acid prepared from


cent

acid

slightly slightly

97.39 97.40 97.41

100 per
cent,

sulphuric acid prepared from


cent

acid

100 per

"97.40
97.40

97.40 97
.

Sulphuric anhydride Sulphanilicacid

415

97.43 97.41 97.41

The

close agreement

between

the above

standards, with

one

writer the and his assistants pected, exexception, is only what The themselves were provided the standards pure. analyticalmethods employed and to be described yieldresults in in accordance with the above experienced hands that are entirely figures. The of sodium abnormal result in the case carbonate ignited
at
a

low

red heat 20 grams

was

investigatedas
carbonate used per
10 grams

follows:
were

About

of sodium

heated

to constant

weight

at

and 572'^F.,

for

analysisof

the standard

acid showed

it to contain 97.416

cent,

acid. sulphuric

Ten

ANALYSIS

OF. STANDARDS

37

grams

were

placed in

platinum boat in
red heat
in
a

combustion
combustion

tube,where
furnace.
A

it was

heated

to moderate

slow stream

of dry air,free from


the carbon
was

throughthe tube, and


the sodium

aspirated dioxide,disengaged by heating


carbon

dioxide, was

carbonate,

absorbed

in

satiu-ated solution

of

ing bulb containhydroxide, contained in a bottle. A Mohr barium with .the bottle and proved hydroxide was connected After aspidioxide therein. the complete absorption of carbon rating connected for several hours, the bulb was directlyto the showed that no more tube and the aspirationcontinued, which carbon dioxide was evolved, no precipitate being formed. of barium neutralized with strong The excess hydroxide was titrated with N/300 hydrochloric acid, HCl,and finallycarefully carbonate was usingphenolphthalein as indicator;the barium then titrated with N/300 hydrochloricacid,using methyl orange barium
as

indicator. A blank
titration
was

made

difference between
the alkalinity due
gram

the two
to

using the methyl orange


carbonate. determined

same

reagents, and
In

the

titrations

represented
0.0060 of about
accurate

barium
were

this way

carbon

J5

c.c.

by a titration of hydrochloric acid, thus making a simple and


dioxide
The carbonate
was

determination.^
in the combustion
Dsed to

of soda

that

had

been

heated

tube

analyze the
than gram carbonate

standard
was

removed, accurately weighed, and 10 grams About acid. were used,


97.358
per

tod the result


Bent, lower

obtained

cent., which

is 0.058

per

the result obtained of carbon would dioxide leave


as

above.

0.0060

formed
gram

wdium

0.0084

by decomposition of Na20, which, when


make
a

weighed and
khe per
cent,

calculated
of per

Na2C03,

would
per

in diflference
agrees

sulphuric acid
cent,

of 0.056

cent., which

within 0.002

with

the result found.

This method

was

subsequently published in the Analyst May, 1904, vol.


j

29, pp. 152-153, Thos.

Macara.

38 After
9.9916 0.0084

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

heating to
grama gram

redness:
are are

NasCX)s NasOOs

equivalent to
to equivalent

9.2369 0.0134

grains gram

HsS04 HsS04 SsS04

9.2503 Before 10 0000


.

grams

heating to redness:
grams

NasCX)s

are

equivalent to
Na^O
formed

9
.

2447

grams gram

II2SO4

due Increased alkalinity

to

0.0056

HSSO4
cent,
o

Equivalent

to

0.056

per

H,SO

If the

COs
cent,

found

had

been

the

result of decomposition

oJ

sodium
0.078

bicarbonate, the
per

increased
per

alkaUnity would
cent,
as

have

beei

instead of 0.058

found.

By

heat:
=

2NaHC0,
168.116

NajCOa
106.1

CO,
44 are :

H,0.
18.016

'

0 0060
.

gram

COt found

equivalent to 0 0228
.

gram

NaHCOs,
HsS04
!

After
.

heating

to redness
are

10 0 grams Before 9 9772


.

Na^COs

equivalentto
:

9 2447
.

grams

heating to redness
NajCO,
to
are

' 9
.

grams

equivalent
0.0228
gram

2236

grams

NaHCO,

are

I
0
.

equivalent to

0133

gram

9 2369

grams

9.2369

grams

HSSO4
H2SO4
of

Increased
or

due alkalinity from

to formation

0. 0078 0.078

gram per

of NaiCOa

NaHCOj

equivalent to

cent,

HaS04
i

It

is thus

indicated

by

this

experiment

that

the

carbori

dioxide

formed

is the

result of

decomposition of Na^COa

intj

Na,0+CO,.

ANALYSIS

OF

STANDARDS

39

prepared by dryingto constant carbonate, until it had completely heated at 572**F., fused,and was weight increased alkalinity showed an equivalent to 0.30 per analysis

sample of

sodium

cent, of carbon

dioxide disengaged.
and

If the calcium carbonate


at low red heat

were

fied magnesium carbonates present in the puriinto oxides when ignited converted entirely
per cent, increased

only 0.018

would alkalinity

be

accounted
I

for.

considered These results,


other
very

togetherwith
and
sodium in

the close agreement


carbonate

between the
are 572"F.,

standards

convincing arguments
carbonate
"

ignited at favor of preparing


from the

sodium ifitandard Standard

in this the

manner.

Acid.

^Averaging
enumerated

results obtained

ate above, exceptingsodium carbonits percentage composition was found to be to redness, ignited 97.41 per cent, sulphuricacid. the used for standardizing This acid or its equivalent was determinations caustic soda that was employed for all analytical

different standards

embraced in these tables.


The
burette

used
c.c.

was

100-c.c. chamber and

burette
to

graduated

from 95-100

in

J^o }4
c.c

c.c,

readable
95

burette was

standardized
every

between
c.c,

and
1

100
c.c.

The J^oo c"c. cury by weighing merthe


mercury
was

delivered

and

for

weighed every
to be accurate

J^o
to

c.c;

the readingsand
The burette that

graduations were
was

found

}ioo

with strong sulphuricacid,so

cleaned frequently for each it drained perfectly

determination.
;

Hydroxide Solution. This solution was prepared from by baryta, and was made cp. caustic soda, purified of standard acid required95-98 c.c. of such strength that 6 grams Caustic soda purified by alcohol is not suitable for this piupose, but produces an oily as it does not drain properly in the burette, To standardize this solution, using methyl orange appearance. of the standard acid were quickly 6 grams about ^ indicator,
Standard
Sodium
"

and

accuratelyweighed out, diluted

with

about

400

c.c

cold dis-

40 tilled water
added.
c.c.

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

and

c.c.

of

Ko
a

P^r cent, solution of


was

methyl orange
the 100cess ex-

The

caustic soda solution


burette

then of
a

run

in from

chamber

until

few

tenths 3-min. of
a

cubic centimeter

had
read.

added, and after Standard sulphuric acid


was

been

the soda solution

added

from

draining the burette was to strength about equivalent burette until a trace changed
orange.

the color of the solution from


is

yellow to

The vice

end
versa,

point

from alkaline sharper in titrating


taken
"

to acid than

H2SO4

H2SO4
^
i!N aw

2d

titration
=

c.c.

p^-pj
Xx

grams

of

i?

sulphuric

"

acid

-j

equivalent to
A

c.c.

sodium
was

hydroxide

solution.

thermometer
at

kept in the standard


the
a

solution,and
was

the
corded, re-

temperature
and the The

which

solution

was

standardized

in

making

subsequent
correction
was

titration at any

other the

perature tem-

necessary

was

applied
determined
100
c.c.

to

reading.
the

correction
as

for temperature

with

picwas

nometer,
found
to

described
c.c.

above,
=

and

for

of solution when the

be 0.015
was

to 1**F.,

be subtracted

perature tem-

above

and the temperature of standardizing,

added

when

below.

Duplicate titrations agreed within 0.03 c.c. Methyl orange in used was titrating nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and
ammonia. To

i
with about phenolphthalein,
6
grams

standardize
acid
were

of thd

accurately weighed out and poured into a casserole containing about 25 c.c. of cold water, all acid bein^ rinsed from Ond small weighing beaker into the casserole. a cubic centimeter of phenolphthalein solution (1 gram p)er liter) was added, and the sodium hydroxide solution run in from thfl
standard 100-c.c. chamber burette
was

until within

about

0.5

c.c. remove

of the

encj
th^

point. The solution


and dioxide,

then boiled for 5 min. to

carboij
faint pin
to tb

the titration finished by cuttingthe drops from until


was
a

tip of
color.

the burette

fraction of

drop produced

This tint

noted, and carefully

all analyses run

NITRIC-ACID

TABLE

41

same

end
for

made

point. By boilingfor exactly 5 min., provisionwas uniform draining of the burette. Duplicate titrations
c.c.

agreed within 0.02


While

placed at 0.03 c.c. when methyl orange was used, and 0.02 c.c. for phenolphthalein, obtained by two men yet, as will be shown, the actual duplicates closer. working independently averaged much The Dividing Burette. dividing burette referred to under standardizingwith sulphuricanhydride is designed for accurately It consists of a burette the top of which is a solution. dividing drawn and bent downward; the stop-cock of the to a capillary burette is a three-way cock, the third passage being connected reading
were
"

the limits of burette

to

vertical

tube

at

the

top

of

which

is

funnel

for

the burette. and One 2-liter flasks with small necks filling were graduated by running from the burette a sufficient number This point was of times to fillthe flask to a point in the neck. always filled carefully checked,and in subsequent use, it was
to this mark."

The

amount

of water

deUvered within
In
to

by the
0.004

burette
or an

and the weights checked

gram, out
error

weight of
5 grams gram.

one a

burette

full.
up

of

made liquid

measuring volume, the

weighed, J^5,ooooi the equivalentof


was

would

be 0.0002

The

tables

are

described

in the order
years.

in which

they

were

pared pre-

during a period of nearly 3

NITRIC-ACm

TABLE

The

c.p.

nitric acid employed

was

free from

nitrous and

chloric hydrowas

the residue upon evaporation at 212"F. This acid was used too small to aflfectthe determinations.

acids,and
to

for

all samples up
was

concentrated

43"B6., and for the stronger samples this acid with pure glacial by distilling phosphoricacid
the latter to prevent the formation

and potassium permanganate,

42

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

of

nitrous

acid.

95.80

per

cent,

nitric

acid

was

the

strongest

sample obtainable, for above


amounts

this

point the acid contained


made
was

large

of nitrous

acid.
were as

The

specific-gravitydeterminations
and
at

described
6
to

above,
8-gram

the
was

same

time

the in
a

picnometer
small

filled^ a
tube

sample

weighed
which
was
a

weighing
while
water

ground-glass stopper, diluting. The sample


stopper of the tube
then with

prevented loss
diluted with

having a weighing and


the in
a

by removing
The titration

glassfork while immersed


400
orange
c.c. as

casserole
was ditions con-

containing approximately
made, using methyl
described Allowance
for in

of water.

indicator,observing the

standardizing.
"

Temperature.
to

After

determining
at

the

specific
perature tem-

gravity
at
was

of the
was

different

strengths employed 70"F.,


data and the the
to

60"F., the
for

raised

wise picnometer weighed; likeallowance be

80"F.

from

this
was

temperature
for
were
a

calculated, and
of

found the

uniform

given
made

strength
from
The table

acid.

At

43"B6.

determinations

50" to 90"*?.

following determinations
was

were

made,

and

from

these

the and
respond cor-

calculated

by interpolation,the composition

specificgravity
to

corresponding percentage
with From each 0.25"B6.
the

being calculated

the Baum^

corresponding specific gravity

was

lated calcu-

by the formula:

Degrees

Baum^

145

"

Specificgravity
nitric acid is

The

of instability

96 per
were

cent,

so

great that agreeing


those

determinations

difficult to

obtain,
table

and
at

selected

corresponded

with

the differential of the

this point.

44

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

HYDROCHLORIC-ACm

TABLE

The
free

purest

c.p.

acid obtainable hydrochloric

was

tested foi

evaporation atl sulphuric acid and residue upon chlorine, which would aflfect 212"F. There were only traces of impurities, of manipulation. less than the errors the determinations 22"B^. this acid was concentrated For the samples above by it into a portion cooled in ice water. 42.61 per cent.i distilling acid was the strongest sample upon which a specifichydrochloric this Above gravity determination could be obtained at 60"P. point bubbles of gas were formed in the picnometer when warmed
to 60^F.

The

gravity and specific


as was

allowance
uniform

for The

temperature
allowance

were

determined

in the found

case

of nitric acid. be

for temperature

to
were

for each

strengthof acid;

22**B^. deteminations

made

from

50" to 0O"F.

of making the above determinations the thermometer while the bottle was in withdrawn immersed the picnometer was in a large casserole, thus avoiding loss about 700 c.c. of water bottle was the while diluting. The washed out and carefully dilute acid made against the up to 2 litersin a flask standardized 100 c.c, dividingburette and portionsof this solution wete taken with the burette for titration with sodium hydroxide. Methyl the same used as indicator, ardizing conditions used in standwas orange about 98 c.c. of sodium being closely followed, hydroxide A sample of hydrosolution being used for each determination. chloric acid was with silver nitrate and analyzed by precipitating

After

the

silver chloride

calculated

to

acid hydrochloric

checked

the

results obtained

by titration.

HYDROCHLORIC-ACID

TABLE

45

followingdeterminations were made, and from these the table was calculated the specific by interpolation, gravity and oorresponding percentage composition being calculated for each 1^. from 1^-5^, 0.25^B6., from 5^-16'' and for the rest of the
tablefor each
0.1 ""B^.

The

following will show the comparative sensitiveness of the and determinations, specificgravity determination analytical of a delicate Baum^ hydrometer and thermometer ated gradureading of specific to l^F. in terms gravity:
The

46

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SULPHURIC-ACID

TABLE

The

c.p.

sulphuricacid used

was

1.84

specific gravity,Tirai

free from
trace

than

and gave i hydrochloricand nitric acids and ammonia of residue upon lea evaporation. The impurities were enough to affect either the specific gravity or analjrtica

determinations. made determinations were specific-gravity above, except that in bringing the temperature to the neck in a beaker picnometer was immersed degrees below 60"F., so that the temperature rose inside and outside when capped. the same
The
as

describee

to

60"F.,
a

th" f e^

of water

slowly,bein|
50^

The
and

allowance
was

for

temperature
at 12.

for every

10**P. between

90^F.

determined

the
It

66, 63, 57, 51, 44, 36, 29, 21,


uniform for
a

following degrees Baum^ found to be practicallj was

given strength of acid,and the results are based or of 40"F., the table giving the corrections at even a range degrees Baum^, being calculated from these results by interpolation^ from taken the picnometer for analysis, and aE Samples were of acid was amount weighed out each time which would require
between
95
a

and

100

c.c.

of soda

solution. solution

With
was

the

weakest

samples
same were

more

dilute standard
as

conditions

used

in

used, but the with phenolphthalein standardizing


soda
were

observed in all cases. closely The boiling-point determinations necked flask, using about 100 c.c. thermometer A
accurate to

made

in

200

c.c.

longfied certiacid.
flask
a

of acid in each
was

case.

1"F.

suspended
the bottom

in the

small piece of porcelainwas


flask and the

placed in
was

of the

to facilitate boiling. The

flame

temperature

heated with gradually recorded when boiling was

free first

perceptible. The made, and from these followingdeterminations were table was calculated by interpolation, the specific gravityand

the the

corresponding percentage composition being calculated for each

degree Baum6

from

0"-64" and for each

from 64^-"6''B^, }i'*B6.

SULPHURIC-ACID

TABLE

47

From the Bailing


"

the

was correspondingspecific gravity

calcur-"
.

145

lated the formula: by "^


The

Baum^ Degrees ^

145

specific gravity

calculated by dividingthe decimal was degree Twaddle partof the specific gravityby 0.005.

48

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

The

followirig

will

show

the

comparative

sensitiveness

of

the

analytical
and the

determinations,
of
a

the
Baum^

specific-gravity hydrometer

determinations,
and

reading
to

delicate
in
terms

thermometer

graduated

l^F.,

of

specific gravity:

The of the

following
tables
:

chemists,

my

assistants,*

aided

in

the

preparation

W. J.

P. G.

Kern, Melendy,

B.

S.
B.

N. S. M. A.

A. J. A. F. P.
I.

Laury, LOTKA, BiGELow, Way,


B.

B. B.

S. Sc. B.
'

Hardee
H. W. B. W.

Chambliss,
Bishop,
B. S. B. T.

S.,

Ph.

D.

C. A.

S.

S. Ph. S. D.

Sanders,

S. Lynton

H.

Merriam,
C,
due
who
F. C

Briggs,
possess to

F.

Such

merit
but
more

as

these

tables

is

largely

to

these

men, gentle-

especially participated
the writer

Mr.
most

Bishop
of the

had

immediate
and

charge
who

of,

and with

in

determinations,
of this
paper.

shared

the

preparation

NITRIC Nitric By W.

ACID Acid

49

C. Ferguson

50

SULPHURIC Nitric

ACID Acid

HANDBOOK

"

{Conduded)

made with at 60**F.,compared determinations were Specificgravity^ Prom the specificgravities, the corresponding degrees Baum6 were 145 following formula: Baume 145 r= Degrees rr"
-^ ," ^ -.ab^ "=

water

at 60^F. calculated by

tl

specificgravity

Baum6 be hydrometers for use with this table must which formula should always be printed on the scale. Atomic O weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901. At Allowance 100-20* B6." Ho^B^. 20*"-30*" B6." V^8*B6. 30'"-40* B6." V^o*B6. 40'"-48.5"B6." H7"B6.
for
or or or or
"

graduated by the above


-

formul

16. VF. 1*F. 1*F. 1*"F.

Temperatitrb .00029 specific gravity .00044 specific gravity 00060 specific gravity .00084 specific gravity
.

W. C. Ferguson Authority This table has been approved and adopted as a Standard by the Manufacturing Chemisi W. Association of the United States. H. L. Morgan, Jab. Bower, Hbnrt

A. G. few York, May

Howard, ROSBNGARTEN,

Arthur

Wtman. Executive

14, 1903.

Committee,

52

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

determinations Specific-gravity
at 60"F.

were

made

at

60"F.,compared with
were

water

From the ated by the

the correspondingdegrees Baum4 specific gravities, formula: following

calcu-

Degrees Baum4
Atomic
Allowance

145

specificgravity
O
=

r^

^:"

weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901.


or or or

16.

10-15"B6." Ko"B^. 15-22"B6." Mo"B^. 22-25**B6." M8"B6-

Temperature for .0002 sp. gr. for 1"F. .0003 sp. gr. for TF. .00035 sp. gr. for l^'F.
"

W. C. Ferguson and adopted as a Standard by the ManufacThis table has been approved turing Chemists' Association of the United States. W. H. Bower, Jas. L. Morgan, Henry Arthur Wyman. Howard, a. g. eosengarten, Executive Committee. "V York, May 14, 1903. Authority

TABLE

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

By

W.

C.

Ferguson

and

H.

P.

Talbot

54

SULPHURIC

ACID Sulphurk;

HANDBOOK
Acid
and

By

W.

C. Fbrouson

H.

P. Talbot

Specific Gravity determinations


at 60*'F.

were

made

at

compared with 60**F.,


were

water

From

the

SpecificGravities,the corresponding degrees Baum6 followingformula: Degrees Baum6


=

cal"

culated

by

145 the 146


"

r"

.^

Baumi^ hydrometers for use with above formula, which formula should
=

this table must be graduated by the be always printed on the scale. 1.8364 Oil Vitriol of 66"B6. (O. V.). specific gravity 1 cu. ft. water at 60''F. weighs 62.37 lb. av. Atomic O 16. weights from F. W. Clarke's table of 1901. 100 per cent. H2SO4 Percent. Percent Percent. O. V. 60" HaSO* 119.98 100.00 83.35 100.00 66.72 80.06
=

SULPHURIC SuLPHXTRic
By W. C. Ferguson
and

ACID
Acid H. P. Talbot

55

Acids stronger

than

66**B6. should

have

their percentage

compositions

detennined by chemical
Authorities This table has

analysis.
"

W.

C.

Ferguson; adopted
as

H.
a

P. Talbot.

been

approved and

standard

facturing by the Manu-

Chemists'

Association of the United

States. W. H.

Henry J AS.

Bower, Howard, Wyman, Rosengarten,


Committee,
363.

L. Morgan,

Arthur A. G.

New York, June


^

23, 1904.

Executive

Calculated

from

Jour, Lon, Chem. Pickering's results,

vol. 67, p. Soc.,

56

SILPHCRIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sn^pHTRic

Acid

"

(Continued)

SULPHURIC

ACID

57

SuLPHUBic

Acid

"

{Continued)

^culatedfrom Pickering's Jour. results,

Urn,

Chem,

Soc.,vol. 57, p. 363.

58

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric

Acid
"

(Concluded)

60

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SULPHURIC

ACID

94r-100

per

cent.

H2S04^

H.

B." Bishop

preparedfrom c.p. 95 per cent sidphuricacid,which was strengthenedto 100 per cent, by th addition of fuming acid made fuming sulphuric ac" by distilling (70 per cent, free SO3) into a portion of 95 per cent. c.p. acid The final acid was residue upon tested for impurities; evapora niter and sidphur dioxide (0.001per cent.) 'whicl tion,chlorine,
The acid used in this table
was
was

less than
The

the sensitiveness of the determination.

analyticaland
for
same

determinations,and specific-gravity
were

thi

allowance
with the

temperature
accuracy
as

made

in the

same

manner,

an^

table adopte" sulphuric-acid the specific by the Manufacturing Chemists' Association, gravit] 1.8354 and 93.19 per cent. H2SO4 being taken as standard. The actual determinations within a few hundredth^ made were the even of a per cent, of the pointsgiven in the table, percentage being calculated by interpolation.

in the

W.

W.

Scott:

"Standard

Methods

of Chemical

Analysis," 1917.

SULPHURIC

ACID

61
used

Authob'b
in the

Note.

"

Mr.

the methods Ferguson in his articledescribing

preparation
names

of the tables several

adopted by
who

the

Association

chemists

assisted

Bishop. "Such
but
more

these tables possess to Mr. Bishpp who especially


as

merit

Manufacturing them Mr. him, among is largelydue to these gentlemen,


immediate

Chemists'

had

charge of and
writer

and who in most of the determinations, participated the preparation of this paper."

shared with the

SULPHURIC

ACID

0**B6.-100 per cent. H2SO4

From

0"-66*^B6.
the

PTalbotwith
Per
cent.

Ferguson : supplemental incorporated following


one

the

table

is from

the

of

and

SO3 SO3 per cubic foot

Pounds Pounds
I

H2SO4

per

cubic foot

Per
Per

cent, cent,

free water combined


water

Freezing (melting) pointscalculated in degreesCentigrade from Ithe given degrees Fahrenheit. boilingpoints calculated in degrees Centigrade I Approximate from the given degrees Fahrenheit. Allowance for temperature calculated per degree Centigrade from the given, per degreeFahrenheit.
From Mr.
94-100
per cent.

H2SO4 is from the table of H. B. Bishop.

Bishop gives only the specific gravity and allowance for All other calculations are temperature per degree Fahrenheit. supplied. pointswere calculated after Knietsch,Ber., Freezing (melting)
1901.

It should

be noted

that

the highest percentages show

lower
at

than specific gravities


97.5 per
cent.

those just below, the maximum

being

H2SO4.

62

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric 0**B6.-100
per

Acid
cent.

HjSO*

SULPHURIC

ACID

63

Sulphuric

Acid
cent.

0*B^.-100

per

HjSO*

64

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric

Acid

0"B6.-100

per

cent.

H2SO

4"

(Con^int^ed)

SULPHURIC SuLPHXTBic 0**B^.-100


per cent.

ACID

65

Acid
4"

H,SO

(Con/int*cd)
Freesing

Desreee
Baam4

Per

cent.

H"S04

Per cent, free

Per cent, combin d

(melting) points

H,0

HsOe

Per cent. O. V.

Lb. O. in 1 cu.

V. ft. "F.

40 41

51.90 50.53 49.13 47.74 46.34 44.93 43.52


42.10

8.83

51.61
53.08 54.58

44.45 46.16 47.92 49.72 51.56 53.44 55.36 57.33 59.34 61.40 63.52 65.72 67.96 70.28 72.66

42 43
44

9.09 9.34 9.60 9.86 10.11 10.37 10.63 10.89


11.16

56.07 57.58 59.09 60.60 62.13


63.65

45 46 47
48 49

40.68 39.25 37.82


36.34

50 51
52

11.42 11.69
11.96

65.18 66.72 68.31 69.89 71.50 73.11 74.74 76.37 78.07 79.79 81.54 83.35 85.23 87.24 89.43
91.92 92.64

53
54

55
56

34.87 33.37 31.87 30.35


28.83

12.24 12.51 12.79 13.07


13.36

75.10
77.60 80.23 82.95 85.75 88.68 91.76 95.06 98.63 102.63 103.75 104.93 106.19 107.54 108 97 110.60
.

Below
-40

57 58 59 60
61

27.25 25.64 24.01 22.33 20.57 18.70 16.66 14.34 13.67 12.96
12.19

13.66 13.96 14.27 14.59 14.93


15.31

7.0 27.3 39.1 46.1 46.4 43.6


41.1

+ 12.6

-21.7 -10.8
-2.6

62 63
64

+3.9
7.8 8.0
6.4 5.1 3.3

64M

15.74 15.86 15.99 16.13 16.28 16.45 16.64 16.86 17.12 17.26 17.45 17.63 17.82 17.91 18.00 18.18 18.37

64H 645i
65

65K 65^
66 94.00 95.00

11.35 10.45 9.40 8.20


6.81

6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.00 0.00

93.40 94.23 95.13 96.10 97.22 98.51 100.00 100.87 101.94 103.01 104.09 104.63 105 16 106.23 107.31
.

37.9 33.1
24.6 13.4

112.42

114.47 115.64 117.03 118.39 119.69


120.32

-1.0 -29.0
-20.6

0.6 -4.1 -10.3 -18.3 -33.9


-29.2 -21.8

-7.2

96.00 97.00 97.50


98.00 99.00 100.00

+9.9
25.3 31.3 37.4
43.3

-12.3 -3.7 -0.4

120.92 122.07 123 08


.

+3.0
6.3 10.0

50.0

66

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric O^B^.lOO
per cent.

Acid

HjSO*"

(Conrfwded)

68

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK
Acid*

SuLPHXTBic

50**-62*'B^.

The

values

for the

even

the values for

tenths of t^he

taken from the preceding table and degrees were degree calculated b^ intexpolatioqi.

SULPHURIC

ACID

69

SuiiPHURic 50''-Q2''B6."

Acid

(Continued)

70

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK
Acid

Sulphuric

50**-62*'B6." (Condiided)

FUMING

SULPHURIC

ACID

71

FUMING T.

SULPHURIC J. Sullivan

ACID

Clear commercial
and coefficient

acid of

analytical, specific gravity expansion (allowance for temperature)


was

used

in all

determinations.
determinations Specific-gravity with
water at
were

made

15.56"C.,a Sartorius balance Three sepagravity being used for all determinations. rate all each at determinations. samples given point agreed on The specific gravity 1.8391 of 100 per cent. H2SO4 (H. B. Bishop)
was

pared 15.56"C.,comhydrostaticspecific-

at

taken

as

standard.
was

obtaining quick for plant control and is very satisfactory analysis as fuming acid within 0.1 per cent. 8O3 of the titration analysis. may be checked deviations be due to impuritiesalways present in Slight may
as a

This

table

constructed

means

of

commercial acid.
Fixed
Per
cent.

Points
Specificgravity

SOs

81.63

1.8391
1.848 1.853

81.9
82.1

82.7
83.3

1.866 1.877 1.887 1.900


1.911

83.8 84.5
85.1

85.6 86.2 86.5 87.5 88.1 Allowance At 82 per cent. 83 per cent. 84 per cent. 85 per cent.
86 per cent.
for

1.922 1.934
1.942 1.958

Temperature
0
.

SOs

00100

per per per per per per per

SOs SOs SOs SOs


SO,

0.00105 0.00110 0.00110

=0.00115
=

87 per cent. 88 per cent.

0.00120 0.00125

SOs

degree C. degree C. degree C. degree C. degree C. degree C. degree C.

Acid 18"C. and

of this strength

only remains
at 26*'C.

in solution

momentarily

when

cool^

to

Crystallizationstarts and
remains
constant

the acid solidifieswith

rise o\ tempera

ture

FUMING

SULPHURIC

ACID

73

Fuming

Sulphubic

Acid
"

Specificgravity

at various

temperatures

degrees C.

74

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Fuming
Per cent,

Sulphuric free

Acid
as

SOs

units

76

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Fuming
Per
cent,

Sulphuric total

Acid
as

SOs

units

FUMING

SULPHURIC

ACID
Acid
"

77

Fuming
Per
cent,

Sulphuric
as

total S0"

units

(Continued)

78

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

FuMiNQ

Sulphuric

Acid

FUMING

SULPHURIC
Sulphuric

ACID

79

Fuming

Acid

Equivalent

per

cent.

100 per cent.

H2SO4

an

units

80

SULPHURIC
Fuming

ACID Sulphuric

HANDBOOK
Acid
as

Ekiuivalent per

cent.

100 per cent. H2SO4

units

"

(CovUinued^

SPECIF Fuming

I CJGRAVITY

TEST Acid
as

81

Sulphuric

Equivalent

per

cent.

100 per cent.

H2SO4

units

"

(Condvded)

SPECIFIC-GRAVITY 76.07-82.5

TEST per

SULPHURIC
cent.

ACID

SO3

T. J. Sullivan

acid of the irregular gravity of sulphuric specific between 76.07 and 81.9 per cent. SO3 specific gravity cannot be On
account

used for is to

of this table determining the strength. The principle dilute such acids to a strength where specific gravity may The table is extended for be
to 82.5 per cent.

be used.

SO3

which

is

very convenient

plant use.
determined
per cent.

again readings. Over


over

may

81.9 per cent. SO3 or Strengths, by using direct specific-gravity

82.6

SO3 the dilution test cannot

be

82

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

used with accuracy


with
water may
causes

as

the sudden
to

evolution of heat upon

mixing
fore, there-

the solution

splash about

and

some,

be lost.

The

table is calculated for The

acid at 16.56**C. Let

mixing equal volumes formula is used : following


water at 15.56"C. 15 56"

of water

and

A
B C D E

densityof

(0.99904)

gravityof specific
weight of SO3
in B

acid

'w^qC

percentage SOa in mixture

specific gravityof
100

mixture

corresponding

to

Then
C
=

A The

^-B
for

degree Centigrade is 0.00081 gravity of the diluted specific gravity. If the specific at any of the followinggiven temperatures, solution is observed 15.56"C. above deduct, the corresponding specificadd, below the caption Then consult the table under gravity correction. "Specificgravity of the diluted solution'* for the value of the corrected specific gravity.
temperature
allowance each
"

84 Two of water Obtain


vary

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

hundred
at

cubic centimeters
are
a

of acid at 15.56"C. and


amount to mix. water.

200

c.c.

16.56**C.

convenient

the temperature of both

the acid and

If they

from

15.56"C.
*

use

the amounts
as

given below for

the various

temperatures, calculated
200

follows:

gravity at 15.56"C.) (specific

Example,
The

"

sample of
is found

acid is drawn
to be 30"C.

from

storage tank and

the temperature

temperature
for those and

of the water

to be used

is 24".
the amounts
c.c.

After consultingthe preceding tables to ascertain


to
are use

temperatures,
the mixture

201.6

c.c.

acid and

200.4

water

mixed The

then

cooled.

specific gravity of

the mixture

is found

to be

1.5388

and

the temperature at the time of its determination 20**. The correspondingspecific gravity correction at 20" is 0.0036.
1.5388

0.0036

1.5424

80.1 per

cent.

SO3 corresponds to 1.5424

specific gravity.

SPECIFIC-GRAVITY

TEST

85

SuLPHUBTC
Per cent.

Acid
even

SOj corresponding to

percentages HtS04

86

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric Per cent.

Acid
to even

H2SO4

corresponding

percentages

S0"

ACID

CALCULATIONS,

USE

OF

SPECIFIC-GRAVITY

TABLES,

MATING ESTI-

STOCKS, Correction for temperature


an

ETC.

must

be

made

when

determining
use

the specific gravity. As

the example illustrating be put: suppose

to which

tables may the specific-gravity

it is

required to

ACID

CALCULATIONS

87

calculate the number

of

pounds

of 50"B6.

sulphuric acid
find 2100
cu.

in

data storagetank, the following

being given:
we

the volume Calculating

in the tank

ft. at

temperature of 38"C.
A
'

sample

taken

from

the tank 56.88"B6.


in order

and

specific gravity determined


Correction
must

in the made

laboratoryshows
for temperature for which
33

at 33"C.

be
perature tem-

to reduce
are

it to

the 15.56"C.,

the tables
15.56

constructed:

17.44 difiference
"

From
it is seen

the table under

the caption " Allowance


for 60"B6.

for temperature"
for each

that the allowance


and

is 0.047"B6. for 50"B6.

gree de-

Centigrade
As the acid in

that the correction

is 0.050"B6.

these points, question is about midway between the allowance for each degree Centigrade is very nearly0.048"B6. The correction for temperatm*e
17.44
X

is
0.84"B6.

0.048

"
and
as

the standard

is lower than 33",the temperature, 15.56"C.,

temperature
amount must

at which

the Baum^

of the

sample

was

taken, this

be added. of the acid at 15.56"C.

The

Baum6

then, is,

56.88

0.84

57.72"B^.

The
in the

Baum6

of the acid at

38"C., the temperature

of the acid

tank, is calculated,
38 22.44
-

15.56

22.44

difiference

0.048

1.08"B6. the temperature


is

and

as

the density of the acid is lowered

as

raised
57.72
-

1.08

56.64"B6.

at 38"C.

88 The
to this

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

easiest way

to

obtain
is

degree Bauin6

gravity corresponding specific the given data: by interpolating


the
^

57"B6. 56"B6.

1.6477 1.6292 0.0185

specific gravity specific gravity


difference

56.64 0.0185
*

56.00 0.064 0.0118

0.064*'B6. difference
0.0118 1.6410

1.6292

gravitycorrespondspecific ing

to 56.64"B6

Then

as

2100
X

cu.

ft. are
X

in the 1.641
=

tank, the pounds

are

2100

62.37

214,933 lb. 57.72"B6.

If it is required to calculate this acid

pounds

of 50"B^.

corresponding to
the table.
=

basis, the 57.72"B6. is easily found by


on a

50"B6.

from interpolating

58"B6. bVBL

119.59

per per

cent. cent. cent.

50"B6.

117.00

50"B6. 50"B6.
difference

2.59 per 67.72 2.59 117


-

57.00 0.72 1.86

0.72"B6.
1.86 118.86

difference

per

cent.

60"B6.

acid acid

responding cor-

to 57.72"B6.

214,933

1.1886

255,469 lb. of 50"B6.


on a

If it is requiredto calculate

the "pounds SO3'' basis,

centage per-

SO3

in 57.72"B^.

acid

is calculated

from

the

table

by

interpolation.
58"B6.
57"B6.
=

60.70 59.39

per per

cent. cent.

SO3

SOa

1.31 difference 0.72


59.39 X

1.31

6.94
=

0.94

60.33 per cent. SO3


=

to 57.72"B". corresponding

214,933 X 0.6033

lb. SO3. 129,669

DILUTION

AND

CONCENTRATION
OF SULPHURIC STRENGTH ACID TO FORM

89

DILUTION

AND

CONCENTRATION
OF ANY

SOLUTIONS

DESIRED

Prepare a StrongSolution
Let
X Y A B C D
^ ^
=

1. To

Definite Amount with


a

of Dilute
"

by Mixing Solution,
in the mixture in the mixture

Weak

Solution.

quantityof weak solution to be used quantityof strong solution to be used strengthof strong solution strengthof desired solution strengthof weak solution desired quantity D(A B)
-

_ "

A-C Y
=

D
1.
"

X How
many per cent.
-

Example
many

pounds
cent.

pounds of 80.0 70,000lb. of 76.07 per


X Y
=
=
-

of 60.7 per cent. SO3 and how SO3 must be mixed to obtain

SO3?
-

70,000(80.0 76.07)7(80.0 60.7) 14,254 70,000


is to be used for the formula diluting,

14,254 lb. 55,746 lb.

X+Y
If water

70,000 lb.
may

be

some

what simplified. X=-D-Y A


2. To

Prepare
Weaker

Definite Solution
"

Amount with
a

of

Mixing a
Let X
=

Stronger Solution,by Stronger Solution. This


a
"

formula is the

reverse

of formula

(1).
in the mixture in the mixture

quantityof strong solution to be used Y quantity of weak solution to be used A strengthof strong solution of desired solution B strength C strengthof weak'^lution desired quantity ^s^j^ D 'V _D{B-C) ^
=

"

'^

-,

"

A-C

Y ^D-X

90

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

pounds of Example 2. How many pounds of SO.O per cent. SOs many 70,000 lb. of 76.07 per cent. SO3?
"

60.7 per cent.


must

SO3 and
to

how

be

mixed

obtain

X Y X

70,000(76.07
70,000
-

60.7)/(80.0
-

60.7)

55,746 lb.
14,254 lb.

55,746

70,000 lb.

3. Dilution

of

Definite

Amount

of
a

Stronger Solution, thus


Dilute Solution.
"

Producing
Let

Greater

Amount

of

more

X A B

C
D D

X
X

solution that must quantityof diluting strength of solution to be diluted strength of desired solution solution strength of diluting quantity of solution to be diluted total quantityof corrected solution B) D{A
-

be added

-C

Example
be added
per

3.
to

"

How

many

pounds of
per

60.7

per

cent.
a

SOs

must

70,000 lb. of 80.0


SO3?

cent.

SOsto

make

whole

of

76.07

cent.

X^70,000(80.0-76.07)/(76.07-60.7) D + X 70,000 + 17,899


=

17,899 lb. 60.7 87,899 lb. 76.07

per

cent.

per cent.

X example by ratios, where Calculating the same of dilutingsolution that must be added. amount Examples 1 and 2 show 14,254 lb. of 60.7 per cent. SOs be mixed of 76.07 with
per

the

must

55,746 lb. of 80.0


SO3.

per

cent.

SOs

to make

whole

cent.

92

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

ing the desired strengthis placed on the intersection of the two of this rectangle. diagonals, the figureson the diagonals,the smaller from Now subtract and write the result at the other end of the respective the larger, diagonal. These figures then indicate what quantitiesof the solution whose strengthis given on the other end of the respective
horizontal
must line,

be taken

to obtain

solution of the desired


^^15

strength.
SOFT

Example
per cent.

5.

"

To

make
a

65

per

cent.

SO3 acid by mixing


we

an

80

SO3 and

60 per that and

cent.
we

SO3 acid
have
to

prepare 5

the

above

figure which
of the 80
per

indicates
cent,

take

parts by weight
cent, cent.

acid

15

parts by weight of 60 per


the 65 per

acid to obtain Or
per

20 parts
an

(5 +
80

15) of
cent. 1

acid.
of
a

^0
cent.

parts of
SO3
it is desired
500 500 X X

per

SOs and

i^^o parts
a as

60

if mixed, give will,


to mix

part of
Proceed

65

per

cent.

SO3.

Suppose

500
125

lb.

follows:

^0 i^^o

lb. 80 per cent. SO3 lb. 60 per cent. SO3

=^75
500

Suppose
be added
cent.

it is requiredto know lb. 80


per cent.

how

much

60 per cent. SO3


a

must per

to 500

SO3 to make

whole

of 65

SO3.
as

Proceed

follows
^^^
-

500
500

1500 1500

y20
Or

lb. 60 per cent. SO3

^H

Suppose
be added
cent.

it is requiredto know

how

much

80 per cent.
a

SOs

must per

to 500

lb. 60 per

cent.

SO3

to make

whole

of 65

SO3.

DILUTION

AND

CONCENTRATION

93

Proceed

as

follows:
500
-

500
X 500

Or Notes.
"

i^^o Ms
1. When
or

167 lb. 80 per cent. SO3 167 of acid non-.funiing


are

mixtures

calculated,
When
non-

either the SO3

H2SO4 percentages may


acid with
are

be used.
or

fuming and fuming strength to be mixed fuming


For
content

to be mixed

fuming

acid of

fuming acid of one another strength, SOs,


percentage of the

percentages should be used


acid be
an

unless the H2SO4

in expressed

instance

its equivalent to 100 per cent. H2SO4. acid of 85.30 per cent. SO3 has an actual H2SO4 its 100 per cent, when the

of 80 per cent, and


per cent.
"

would equivalent

be

104.49

weights of solutions the If the specific considered. are related, are closely gravities this assumption is be used for volumes. When formulas may and knowing the the weights may be calculated, not permissible, calculated from weights of the components, the volumes requisite
2. These

formulas

are

accurate

the

formula

"

Mass
^,

Volume On

Weight
be asthis formula,it must sumed to use solutions, change of volume that the volumes are additive, i.e., no place upon mixing. Example 1 shows 14,254 illustrate the use of this formula:

mixing

such

takes To

lb. of 60.7 per


per cent.

cent.

SO3 must

be mixed

with

55,746 lb. of 80.0

SO3 to obtain 70,000 lb. of 76.07 per cent. SO3.


per
=

76.07

cent.

SO3 weighs 114.47 lb. per cubic foot at 15.56"C.


cu.

1^19^
114.47

611.5

ft.

volume

of 70,000 lb. 76.07 per cent.

60.7 per cent.

SO3 weighs 103.95 lb. per cubic foot at 15.56"C.


cu.

l^^ 103.95

137.1

ft. 611.5

volume
-

of
=

60.7 14,254lb.,

per cent.

137.1

474.4

ft.of 80.0 per cent, mixed with 137. 1 cu. ft.of 61 1.5 cu. ft.or 70,000lb. of 76.07 per cent. 60.7 per cent, will make

Therefore,474.4

cu.

94 In

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

used

usingthis method it must also be in mixing are 15.56"C., unless the


as

assumed

that both acids

coefficients of

be calculated for differences in temperature. unnecessary


very accurate

expansion This,however, is
without

results may

be obtained

this calculation.
Table for

Mixing SS^'Be.^ Sulphuric Acid


acid to
use

Giving percentage (by volume) of various strengths weak various strengthsstrong acid
59"B^.
=

with

62.03 per cent. SO,

75.99 per cent. H,S04

It is advisable
on

to

ship or

store

59** instead

of 60"

during the

winter

months

account

of its much

lower

freezing point.

DILUTION

AND

CONCENTRATION

95

Table

for

Mixing
of

60^3^.
various

Sulphuric strengths
acid
per

Acid
xoeak acid

Giving percentage

(by volume)
various

to

iLse

with

strengths strong
cent.

60**B6.

63.40

per

SO,

77.67

cent.

HjSO*

96

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Table

for

Mixing 66"^^. Sulphuric Acid


add
to
vm

Giving percentage
66*'B^.

(by volume) of various strengths strong acid various strengths weak


=

with

76.07 per

cent.

SO3

93.19

per

cent.

HjSO*

\
FORMATION
OF

MIXTURES DEFINITE

OF

SULPHURIC COMPOSITION

AND

NITRIC

ACIDS

OF

^So-called ''Mixed

Acids")

'*

Mixed

acid"

is

commercial

term, generallymeaning

ture mix-

sulphuricacids. Such mixtures are extensively On used in manufacturing processes. of the relative account nitric acid,compared with that of the high cost of concentrated dilute acid,the concentrated acid is diluted with a weak solutioc of the acid,instead of with water, using a minimum quantity of concentrated maximum and a quantity of dilute nitric acid. Water, as such, is seldom used. to Example 1. Calculate the quantities of acids necessary
"

of nitric and

FORMATIONS

OF

MIXTURES

97 mixed

lake
r

mixture

("mix'O of 60,000 lb. of

acid to consist
Per
cent.
.

H2SO4
HNOs H2O

(add as (add as per cent.)

98 per cent. H2SO4) 61.4 per cent, and as

46 95.5

00

49.00 5.00 100.00

60,000 60,000 60,000

X X X

0.46 0.49 0.05

27,600 lb. H2SO4 called


29,400 lb. HNO,

for

called for called for

3,000 lb. H2O 60,000

27,600/0.98
60,000
-

28,163 lb. 98

per cent.

H2SO4

to take

28,163
100

31,837 lb. stillto add


are

29,400 lb. of
J

per cent, nitric acid

called for;the weight


acid sulphuric

f material still to be

added, after the


92.35
an

98 per cent,

added, is 31,837. This makes 29,400/31,837X


To make
100
=

per

cent.

HNOs

to be added

31,837 lb. of
and

acid of this concentration

from

95.5

\er

cent,

61.4 per cent, nitric acid,using formula


-

(2).
per

31,837 (92.35
ent.

61.4)/(95.50 61.4)
-

28,896
HNOs

lb. 94.5

HNO3
-

to

,take.
=

31,837

28,896
the

2,941 lb. 61.4

per

cent.

to take

So, to make

mix, use
=
=

H2SO4 HNO3 HNO3

28,163 lb. 98.0 28,896 lb. 95.5


2,941 lb. 61.4 60,000 lb.

per per per

cent. cent. cent.

Strengthening

Mixed

Acid

by

Means

of

Fuming

Sulphuric

Acid

Example
d" of the
7

2.

"

Let it be

requiredto make

61,320 lb. of

mixed

composition:

98

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK
Per cent.

(add as HtS04 (add as 98.56 per cent. H2SO4 and cent, fuming sulphuricacid,a minimum is to be taken)
HNO, H,0

94.5 per cent. HNOs)

56.00
as

20 per

of which
41
.

(X)

3.00 100.00

The

tank

in which

the acid is to be mixed of


a

2,604 lb. of the remains


HNO, HjSO* H,0

previousmix

already contains of the composition:


Per
cent.

62.00
42
.

50

5.50
"

Solution.

61,320 X 0.56 61,320 X 0.41

called for 34,339 lb. HNOs 25,141 lb. H2SO4 called for

61,320
2,604 2,604
Thus
we

0.03

1,840 lb. H2O

called for
in tank

2,604 X 0.52
X X

1,354 lb. HNOs


143 lb. H2O

0;425 0.055

1,107 lb. H2SO4 in tank


in tank

have

Required: 25,141 lb. H2SO4


In tank: To be added:

1,107

34,339 lb. HNOs 1,354


lb. HNOs

1,840 lb. H2O


143

24,034 lb. H2SO4 32,985

1,697 lb. H2O

If the attempt were made to calculate the weights of acid to be seen add by the previousmethod, it would that the method
would
not

work

as

too

much

water

would

be

added

with 94.5

the
i"er

acid and, hence, a sulphuric


cent.

nitric acid stronger than used


to

HNOs

would

have

to be

acid will have fuming sulphuric

to be

complete the mix; hence, employed.


cent.

Thus:

24,034/0.9856 24,034 24,385


-

24,385 lb. 98.56


351 lb. H2O

per

H2SO4

added

with

the 98.56 per cent.

H2SO4

1,697

351

1,346 lb. H2O

remaining

100

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Then,
per cent,

to make

23,811 lb. of 100.94


98.56
per cent.
-

per

cent.

H2SO4

from

2O.00I
i

fuming and
-

H2SO4
=

require:
9,573
lb.
20

23,811 (82.40 80.45)7(85.30 80.45) cent, fuming sulphuric acid, 23,811 So, to
make
-

per

9,573
the

14,238 lb. 98.56 per


to the acid

cent.

H2SO4

mix, add
=

already in the tank:


per per cent. cent. cent.

HNOs

34,905 lb. 94.50 14,238 lb. 98.56

H2SO4 H2SO4
The another added
amount

9,573 lb. 20.00 per

of 20 per cent, fuming to use may be calculated by method. it is found will be Where that 223 lb. of H2O

in excess,

calculate how
up

many

pounds of

20 per

cent,

will

be necessary 4.4438 lb. 20 per 20 per


cent. X

to take

this water. lb. free SOs and this is contained


.

223

991

in

4,955
per

cent. cent,

to fuming sulphuricacid is equivalent cent.

104.49

100 per

H2SO4.

The addition

addition
of
"

of these

4,955 lb.

20 per cent,

corresponds
cent.

to

an

4,955

X
-

104.49/100 5,177
=

5,177 lb. of

100 per
per cent.

H2SO4
that
are

24,034
yet
Now
cent; cent.

18,857 lb. of 100


much 20

H2SO4

to be added.

calculate how

per

cent,

H2SO4
H2SO4.

will be required to prepare


It is

fuming and 98.56 this 18,857 lb. 100

per
per

frequentlydesired to prepare a -'mix*' from hand mixed acid already on a by adding to it the requisite of sulphuric and nitric acid to bring it up to the desired amounts concentration. Thus it may be requiredto fortify a "spent" mixed acid, be that after adding the calculated amounts or it may of ingredients of mixed acid that the mixed acid to make a batch then It must resultingdoes not analyze up to specifications. EoMimple 3.
"

te

by adjusted

further ^dditipu of the deficient conistituent.

FORMATION

OF

MIXTURES

101

Thus,
desired:

suppose

mixed

acid of the

following composition is
Per
cent.

H,S04 HNO, H,0

60.00 22.50 17.50 100.00

and

there is
H,S04 HNO,
H,0

on

hand

supply of mixed

acid of the

composition:
Per
cent.

60. 12 20.23 19.65 100.00

A How acid

97.5 per cent. H2SO4


many
on

and

90.5 per cent. HNOs

are

on

hand.

pounds of each
must

of these two

acids and

of the mixed

hand

be taken to make

each 1000 lb. of the

required

mixture Let
X

without
=

adding

any

water?

y
z

weight of weight of weight of


=

mixed

acid to take
to take to take

97.5 per cent. H2SO4 90.5 per cent. HNOj

Then

a?(0.6012) weight H2SO4


acid
on

(100

per

cent.)in the mixed

hand.

added, actually weight H2SO4 (100 per cent.) when adding the 97.5 per cent. acid. a:(0.2023) weight HNOs (100 per cent.)in the mixed
=
=

2/(0.975)

acid

on

hand.

2;(0.905)
=

y(0.026) ;?(0.095) x(0.1965)


1000

added, weight HNOs (100 per cent.) actually when adding the 90.5 per cent. acid. weight H2O contained in the H2SO4 (97.5per cent.). (90.5per weight H2O contained in the HNOs
cent.).

weight H2O

in the mixed
must

acid

on

hand.

lb. of the desired mixture

evidentlycontain:

600 lb. H2SO4 225 lb. HNOs

175 lb. H2O

102

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Therefore

we

have

the followingequations:
=

(1) x(0.B012)+ 2/(0.975) (2) x(0.2023) + "(0.905) + "(0.905) (3) x(0.1965) + 2/(0.025)
=

600 225

lb.

H2SO4

lb. HNO3

175 lb. H2O


-

y
z

(600 (225

x0.6012)/0.975 aK).2023)/0.905
= =

615.38 248.62

x(0.61662) x(0.22354)
obtain:
175

Substitutingthese
0.1965X 0.15984X
X
=

two
-

equations in equation (3),we


+
23.62
-

15.38

0.01542x

0.02124x

136. 850.85

lb. of the mixed

acid

on

hand

to take.

Substitutingin equation (1):


y
=

(600

511.53)70.975

90.74

lb. of 97.5 per cent. H2SO4

to take.

Substitutingin equation (2):


z
=

(225

172.13)/0.905

58.41

lb. of 90.5 per cent.

HNO3

to take.

Therefore
Mixed 97 .5 90.50

for each
acid
per per cent. cent.

1000

lb. of the desired

mixture

use

850.86

H2SO4

90. 74 58.41 1000.00

HNOj

The

ratios of these

values acid

may
or

be

used

definite amount

of mixed

to correct

either to prepare a definite amount

al
of

"spent" acid. Knowing the ratios per 1,000 lb. the quantities for any weight of acid are readilycalculated. requisite to be the temperature to "Melting point" is understood of the thermometer, dipping into the solidifywhich the mercury ing Uquid, rises and at which it remains constant. of fuming acid,such It should be noticed that largequantities exists in t^^sportation as vessels, frequentlydo not behave in accord with the given data, because during the carriage and

MELTING

POINTS

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

103

of a separationoften takes place in the acid, crystals different concentration being formed, which, of course, possess a different melting point. correspondingly The figures the melting points of given in parentheses signify made freshly fuming acid,which has not polymerized.

storage

Boiling

Points, Sulphuric (Lunge, Ber. 11, 370)

Acid

100 per cent,

begins to boil
POINTS

at

290'' and OF

rises to 338*"

(Marignac).

MELTING

SULPHURIC

ACID

(Ber., 1901, p. 4100) gives the following melting pointsof sulphuricacid,non-fuming and fuming from 1 to 100
per cent. Note.

Knietsch

SOa.
Melting and freezing pointsof sulphuric acid
are

"

not

the

same.

The mono-hydrate of about 0**C. and


to

88.1 per cent, solidifies with freeze, 18** would

(100 per cent. H2SO4) for instance has a freezingpoint From a melting point of 10"C. own determinations, my total SO* for instance, at 18*^0., coolinggradually, begins upon
a

rise of temperature the

and

remains

constant

at 26^0.

reallybe the

freezingpoint and

26** the

gives his melting points as


remains An constant. below

temperature

where

melting point. the solidifying liquid

Knietsch

until it reaches its point will not solidify freezing point unless it be agitatedor a fragment of a crystalintroduced.

acid cooled

its melting

104

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sulphuric

Acid, Melting

Points

TENSION

OF

AQUEOUS

VAPOR

105

Sulphuric

Acid in

"

Tension

of

Aqueous

Vapor* pressure

Readings

millimeters

of mercurial

^Sorel: Ith edition. Note.


"

Lunge's

''Sulphuric

Acid

and

Alkali/'

vol.

I, part

I,

p.

312,

-The

corresponding
were

per

cent.

SOs
from

and the

approximate given
per cent.

degree
H2SO4

Baum^

(American

Standard)

calculated

106

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sttlphuric

Acid

Tension
"

op

Aqueous
of mercurial

Vapob
"

(Continuei)

Readings

in

millimeters

pressure

108

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

was

0.2223

gram

HsO
62"P.

per

standard
October
average

cubic
was

foot.

The

average
age aver-

humidity

for

September and
The

68 per

cent.; the
57"F.

temperature
years
was

humidity for the past


temperature
*

33

72 per

cent.; the

average

Preparation of the
One
a

Monohydrate

(100 Per
be made

Cent.

HsSOJ

hundred acid.
98.3

per

cent.

H2SO4 H2SO4.

cannot

by concentrating

weaker

The

strongest acid obtainable

by

concentration

is about

per

cent.

It may
or

be prepared by strengthening

weaker

acid

with

SOi

fuming sulphuric acid.


Acid
between about 98
per cent,

and

100
per

per

cent,

crystallize
tained be ob-

at

little below from

0"C.

One

hundred

cent,

acid may
to

this strength acid

by cooling it

below

0" and

form at about that separating the crystalswhich times. melting them and recrystallizing a few

temperature,

Pounds

Sulphuric

Acid

Obtainable

from

100

Pounds

Sulphur

Recovery
"Grade
100 Per
cent.

95 Per
cent.

90 Per
cent.

85 Per
cent.

80

Per
cent.

75 Per
cent.

70 Per cent.

50*' Baum^

491
.

97 467.37 86 374.17
.

442.77 354.47 295.43 280.94 275.32


269.25

418. 17 393.58 334. 78 315.09 279. 02 262.61 265. 33 249.72 260. 02 244.73 254 29 239.34

368 295 246 234 229 224 219 214 210 187

98 344.38
40 20

eC* Bauin^ 66** Baum6 98 per


cent.

393

275.7(1

328.26

311.85 296.54
290.61

229.78

H2SO4....
H2SO4....
free SO
"
.

312.15
305
.

11 218.51

100 per cent.


10 per cent,

91
.

43 214.1^ 38 209.42
56

299
.
. . . .

17 284.21 75 278.11
.

20 per cent, free 30 per cent, free cent,

SOg SO3

292 286
.

263.48

248. 84 234.20 243. 58 229.26 55 224.52


26

204.^

57 272
.

24 257.91
252
.

93 200.60 49 196.46 29 174.80

40 per

free SOj

280.65
. . .

266.62 237.23

59 238,
212,

lOOpercent.SOa

249.72

224.75

199.78

SULPHUR

DIOXIDE

IN

BURNER

GAS

109

Pounds

Sulphur

Required

to

Make

100

Pounds

Sulphuric

Acid

Recovery
Grade
'

100

95

90

85

Per
cent.

Per
cent.

Per
cent.

Per
cent.

80 Per
cent.

75 Per
cent
.

70 cent.

50" Baum6 60" Baum4 66" Baum6 98 per

20.33 25.39 30
. . .
.

21.40 26.73 32.06 33.73


34.41 35
.

22.59

23.92

25.41 31.74 38.08


40.05

27.11

29.04

28.21 33.84 35.60 36.32 37.13 37.94 38.77 39.59 44.49

29.87 35.84 37.69 38.46 39.32


40.18

33.85 40.61 42.72 43.59 44.56


45.53

36.27 43.51 45.77 46.70 47.74 48.79 49.84


50.90

46

H2SO4. lOOpercent. H2SO4.... 10 per cent, free SOs


cent.
" " . .

32.04 32.69 33.42

40.86 41.78 42.69 43.61


44.54 50.05

18

"

'

20 per cent, free SOs 30 per cent, free SO3


40 per cent,

.34.15 34.89

35.95

36.73 37.51 42.15

41.05 41.92 47.11

46.52 47.51
53
.

'

free SOs

35.63
" "

100 per cent. SOs


r

40.04

39

57.20

THE

QUANTITATIVE

ESTIMATION IN BURNER Reich's

OF GAS
Test

SULPHUR

DIOXIDE

usuallydetermined by Reich's process which consists of aspirating the gas through a measured quantityof iodine conThis is

110

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

tained in solution.

wide-neck
This

bottle and

colored blue with


a

by adding

starch

largerbottle fitted as aspiratorby a siphon. Water is siphoned from this into a an 500-c.c. graduated cylinderdrawing the gas through the reaction
bottle is connected bottle. As
soon as

the SO2 contained

in the gas enters

the iodine after

into hydriodicacid and solution the free iodine is cgny^rted


a

which at last happens very will be decolorized, liquid The reaction suddenly and can be very accurately observed. t^es placeas follows: time the
21 + In
^

SO2 + 2H2O

2HI

H2SO4
reaction

be stopped when operation may taiflt as it generallydisappears on shaking a the solution is.but of water in the cyUnder is read off. little longer. The volume It is equal to that of the gas aspirated whenTncreased by that

this process SO2 no bottle is constantly shaken.

the if. escapes""unabsorbed The

of

t|^SO2

absorbed.

have been made, the decolorized liquid testings short time, again turns blue, because then its percentage al^^jt of wrhas become so large that it decomposes on standing and liberates iodine. This

w|en several

liquidmust
and
gas

then

be poured away

and

replaced with fresh water For estimating burner


bottle is 10 300
c.c. c.c.

starch. the usual


iodine

of deci-normal
a

charge in the reaction solution along with about


Ten

water

and

littlestarch solution.

cubic centimeter for estimating


c.c.

hundredth-normal the
exit gas.^

iodine

solution is usually used is very One


a

If the

gas

rich in

S02" 20-25

should

be used. Calculation
2.9266
grams

of Results.
at 0"C.

"

liter of

sulphur dioxide weighs


of 760
grams
mm.

and

barometric
contains

pressure

Deci-normal liter. Each


I which
^

iodine cubic

solution

12.69

iodine

per

centimeter

of solution
gram

contains 0.01269

gram

is an

to equivalent

0.003203

SO2

==

1.094

c.c.

under

standard Let

conditions.
X
=F

per cent.

SO?

in gas

SULPHUR

DIOXIDE

IN

BURNER

OAS

111

=f

c.c.

"

I used

b Then
Since
necessary

c.c.

gas

used

^^'^^
X
=

calculations
to convert

are

under

standard obtained

conditions

it will be

the volumes

in the tests to these

conditions, using the formula


760

(1 + 0.003670
volume barometric of gas.
pressure at pressure

F"
P"
t
w

measured observed

temperature
aqueous vapor

temperature of

test

For

all

practical purposes,

however, this calculation

may

be

neglected.
tion Preparation of Iodine Solution. To prepare N/10 iodine soluDissolve weigh out 12.69 grams of pure resublimed iodine. about 25 grams potassium iodide with water using just enough Place the weighed iodine in this solution to put it in solution. and stir until completelydissolved. Fill with water to 1 liter. To N/100 iodine solution either weigh 1.269 grams prepare iodine,dissolve and dilute to 1 liter or take 100 c.c. of the N/10
"

solution
Iodine

and

dilute to 1 liter. be kept in


a

from
are

place and protected direct simlight. Well-stoppered dark-colored glassbottles


cool

solution should

suitable

containers.
of

Preparation
grams arrow-root

Starch starch
a

Solution. and mix

"

To

prepare, water to

take
a

about

with

thin paste. continue


to

Place

this into about


a

liter of boiling water After

and

boil about which

half hour.
preserves

it and

form cooling add a few drops chloroprevents souring. Keep in well-

stoppered bottles.

112

SULPHURIC Reich's Per cent. SO2

ACID

HANDBOOK SOa
of water

Test

for

to volume corresponding

TEST

FOR

TOTAL

ACIDS

IN

BURNER

GAS

113

TEST

FOR

TOTAL

ACIDS

IN

BURNER

GAS

Since Reich's test takes


in burner
gas

no

account

of the SOs

alwajrs present
to

it is

quite practicableand

accurate

estimate

the total acids (SO2 +

SOa) either along with the Reich's test is performed in the same or exclusively.This apparatus, but the absorbing bottle is preferablyprovided with a gas entrance tube,closed at the bottom and perforated pin holes, by numerous A deci-normal solution of through which the gas bubbles. sodium hydroxide is employed of which 10 c.c. are diluted to about 300 c.c. and tinged red with phenolphthalein. The gas is tinuous aspiratedthrough it slowly,exactly as in Reich's test,with conshaking. Especiallytoward the end, the shaking must be continued for a while (say a half a minute) each time aspirating the until of few cubic centimeters a liquid, gas through the color is completely discharged. The calculation is made exactlyas with the iodine test,counting
all the acids
If the
are ore as

SO2.
much
dioxide

contains

organic matter

as

when

coal gases

burnt, the carbon Methyl


orange

actingon
used

the

phenolphthaleinwill

render this method

inaccurate.
cannot

be

as

it acts

toward differently
be used

degree of accuracy acid. sulphurous acid and sulphuric


any is determined at the
same

with

It can,

however,

if the SO2

time and

then proper

calculations made.

CALCULATING
WHEN THE

THE SO2
AS

PERCENTAGE
IN

OF BURNER

SO,
AND

CONVERTED
EXIT GASES

TO
IS

SO,

THE IN

KNOWN"

USED

THE

CONTACT

PROCESS

1. If a

of SO2 equalsthe quantity(not per cent.)


gas and

in

one

volume

of entrance
to

-X"equals the fraction of this that is converted of SO2


one

SOa, then

aX

equals the quantity


of SO2 combine
with

converted

to

SOa.
to

As two
8

volumes

volume

of oxygen

114

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

form two

sorption of SOj the contraction due to the formation and ab-

of SO3 is equal to

"7^"

and

the final volume

is 1

k-

If h

hh

equals the fraction that the SO2 is of "\ equals the quantity of unconverted

the exit gas

SOj in the

exit gas and X Or

reducingto

form its simplest


2a-

26
-

2a

Sab

And

lOOZ
X a

equalsthe
=

per cent, of

SO2 converted

to

SOj.

2. Or let

per cent, conversion

b
X

SO2 in roaster gasper cent. SO2 in exit gas


per cent.

1002 (2a
=

26)
3a6

200a

116

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SOt

CONVERTED

TO

SOt

117

Per

Cent.

SOs

Convebted

to

SOt

"

(CantiniAed)

118

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SOi

CONVERTED

TO

SOi

119

Pbb

Gbnt.

SOi

Converted

to

SOj

"

(Continued)

120

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

so,

CONVERTED

TO

SO.

121

122

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

124

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

21

20

19

18

17

IS

16

14

71

13

9 Cent

10

11

12

13

14

16

16

17

18

19

80

21

Per

Sulpbor

Dioxide

QUALITATIVE

TESTSSULPHURIC

ACID

125

QUALITATIVE

TESTS"

SULPHURIC

ACID

Nitrogen Acids
t

^A few grams enylamine diphenylamine is dissolved Put aboiit strong sulphuricacid, free from nitrogenoxides. Test.
"

or c.c.

c;c.

of the acid to be tested

in

test-tube and

add

about

diphenylamine solution so that the layersoverlay gradually. In case of dilute acids proceed in the oppositemanThe trace of nitrogenacids is proved by the apaer. slightest pearance of the of a brilliant blue color at the point of contact the diphenylamine test of selenium liquids. In the presence fails as the same color is produced. A satiu-ated solution of ferrous sulphate Ferrous-sulphate Test.
L
"

of

the

is added

to
so

the acid to be tested

in

test-tube.

Incline

layersoverlay gradually. Hold the tube upright and tap gently. In presence of nitric acid a brown ring Ferrous sulphate Forms solutions. at the junction of the two
the test-tube the should
be

present in excess,

otherwise

the
a

brown

color

stroyed is de-

by the free nitric acid. If only present a pink color is produced.


Selenium

trace

of nitric acid is

in sulphuric acid can Selenium Ferrous-sulphate Test. recognized by adding a strong solution of ferrous sulphate.
"

be A

brownish-red
turns

color will make


a

its appearance

which

after

while

into
brown

the

red precipitate(not vanishing upon color produced by nitrogen acids.


"

heating) like

chloric hydroOverlay about 4 c.c. weak Sodium-sulphite Test. A dissolved. acid containinga granuleof sodium sulphite
red
zone on

warming

shows

the presence
Lead

of selenium.

Dilute alcohol.

the

acid

to

about

five times

its volume

with

dilute

If any

lead is present it will be

as precipitated

the white

sulphate,PbSOi-

126

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Iron

Boil the
to

nitrogen,with a drop of nitric acid tion oxidize the iron. Dilute a little, allow to cool and add a soluthe presence of potassium thiocyanate. A red color proves

acid,if free

from

of iron.
Arsenic

Marsh

Test.

"

In

the

presence

of nascent
are

arsenic and arseniuretted

arsenious

compounds

hydrogen, both reduced, and arsine (or


and dilute

hydrogen) AsHg is evolved. Hydrogen is slowly generated from zinc

sulphiuic

acid,both materials being free from arsenic. The issuinggas is passed through a pieceof tube which has been drawn out so as to produce one or two constricted places in its length. As soon as the air is expelled from the apparatus, the issuing hydrogen is
inflamed.
A and

small
a

quantity of

the acid to be tested is then

introduced
the
flame.

piece of cold

white

porcelaindepressed
a

upon

If any

arsenic is present,

rich

brown-black

metallic

looking

deposited. The depositbeing volatile and the flame if the flame is allowed to very hot,the stain will again disappear than a moment the same two impinge for more or on spot. If the drawn-out tube is heated near of the constrictions, one the arseniuretted hydrogen will be decomposed and an arsenic^ mirror will be deposited in the tube.
The acid is diluted and hydrogen Hydrogen-sulphide Test sulphidegas passed through. If any arsenic is present it will be precipitated as yellow arsenious sulphide,A2S8.
"

stain will be

THE

QUANTITATIVE

ANALYSIS

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

quantitative analysisof sulphuricacid, volmnetrically, is made a weighed quantity. The titration is perby titrating formed of a standard normal tion by means sodium-hydroxidesoluwhich is controlled by a standard normal sulphuric-acid solution and results are either expressed as per cent. SOa or per

The

QUANTITATIVE
sent.

ANALYSIS

127

H2SO4.
cent,
as

In the

following methods
The methods if desired.
may

all calculations will be

for per
express

of SOa.
cent.

easilybe extended

to

per

H2SO4

Standard

Nonnal

Add

solution strength of the standard normal sulphuric-acid is fixed by chemicallypiu^ sodium carbonate which is the ultimate standard for acidimetric and alkalimetric volumetric

The

analysis.
Preparation of Sodium Sodium
Carbonate

bicarbonate in

made

by

the ammonia-soda The

process

may

be

impuritiesthat may be magnesium, ammonia, arsenic,lime, sodium present are silica, sulphate and sodium chloride. With the exception of silicaand lime the impurities be readily removed by washing the may sodium bicarbonate several times with cold water and decanting ble soluthe supernatant solution of each washing from the diflScultly The washing is continued until the material is bicarbonate. free from chloride is the principal sodium chlorine, as impurity, carbona and its removal leaves an exceedingly pure product. The biis then dried between large filter papers in a hot-air oven protected from acid gases, at lOO^C. and kept in a sealed
obtained

exceedingly pure

form.

bottle until used. Sodium carbonate


a

is made

by ignitingin
weight
not

platinum
oven.

this pure sodium crucible at 290-300"C.


If
a

from

bicarbonate
to constant
oven

in

an

electric
a

constant-temperature

is

of a sand be improvisedby use simple oven may shell covered at the upper bath and a sheet-iron or clay cylinder end. A thermometer the passing through this shield registers available

temperature and
be stirred

at the

same

time

serves
on

as

stirrer

as

it should

occasionally.The sand
same

the outside of the crucible inside


so

should reach the


is
even

level

as

the bicarbonate
an

the

tents con-

surroimded entirely

by

atmosphere of comparatively

temperature.

128

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Sodium
not

carbonate
over a

intended 300"C.

for standardization if

of acids should
on

be

heated

and

heating is
be
sure no

carried

at this

temperature for

sufficient length of time (1 to 5 hours) constant


and
one

weight will
or

be

obtained

may

that

carbonat neither bi-

water

is left behind been


red formed

and
as

yet
the

sodium

oxide

or

carbon

dioxide
on

has low

may

happen if heating is
carbonate
hot is still

carried

to

heat.

While

place about 2 grams each in several small tared glass-stoppered ing weighing bottles. Keep in a desiccator up to the time of weighand titrating, allowing plenty of time to cool.

puritydissolve about 5 grams in water which ought If after acidifying colorless solution. to yield a perfectly clear, is caused by barium this solution with nitric acid,no opalescence be taken as sufficiently chloride or silver nitrate, the salt may
To
test for pure.

For

exceedinglyaccurate
made
any

work

the material

is

analyzed and

allowance
caused
purposes

for such be
pure

by

The error impurities that still remain. is so small, that for all practical impurities

it may

neglected.
sodium carbonate but

Chemically
manufacturer 300"C.

prepared by
should
be

reUable
290-

is

sufficiently pure
as a

ignited at

for 1 hour

precaution.
Standard Acid

Standardizing the Wash into


a

each weighed amount


350-c.c. beaker is used
as an

of sodium

carbonate
to

and

add

enough
and

water

(as titrated) dissolve. Methyl


a

orange

indicator

the cold

solution of sodium

carbonate
two

is colored

just perceptiblyyellow by adding


If too
too

drop

or

of the indicator.

much

is used

the color will be too

intense

pink on neutralization will be lesi sharp. A change to pink takes placeonly when all the carbonate has been neutralized and the solution slightlyacidified. An of acid (0.5to 1 c.c.) is added this is necessary to drive excess as The solution is then heated to boiling out all the carbon dioxide.
and the transition
to aid in

the CO2. expelling

Upon

heatingthe

color

fades,but

QUANTITATIVE
as soon as

ANALYSIS

129

the in the
very

carbon

dioxide
water

has been and


the

the

beaker

running

Transfer

solution

from

the

beaker

cool by placing expelled, pink color will return. into the titrating vessel

of acid is titrated with carefully.The excess sodium standard hydroxide, the caustic being added drop by drop, then cuttingthe drops from the tip of the burette until a of a drop produces a yellow straw color. A comparison fraction be solution having the color of the end point sought for may of methyl orange, a few drops prepared by using a sUght amount alkaU and diluting the to about the same amount of standard as

washing

solution

to be titrated.

If all the due


to

CO2

is not expelled an
on

intermediate
color This

color is observed

its action
orange to

the

the indicator,
vice
versa.

through
orange,

yellow and

passing from pink transition through

noticeable when weaker standard however, is much more used. are solutions, fifth normal, etc., Phenolphthalein as an indicator is colorless in an acid solution
If phenolphthalein in an alkaline solution. is pinkish-red used, specialprecautionsmust be taken as to the exclusion of the standard solutions The solution must be well boiled, C02should be used and some be C02-free; C02-free water should claim that the CO2 contained in the air,which chemists even with the Uquid upon into contact cooling,may cause comes and
a

trouble

in accurate

work.

Preparation and A
per

Calculation of the

Standard

Acid

normal
liter

solution of sulphuricacid contains 40.03

grams

SO3

(0.04003

gram

per

cubic

determine
i^olution
Let

the per cent. SO3 in the is to be prepared from.


X
=

centimeter). To prepare, chemicallypure acid that the

grams per

c.p. acid to be used

per liter

y
_^

cent.

SO3 in c.p. acid

100 X

40.03

Then
9

130

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Titrate

against a
standard for

aliquot portion weighed quantity of


an

of the sodium

newly prepared
carbonate
or

solution

if accurate

alkali solution is at hand

it may

acid. examining the provisional be made. now strength may Thus far standard
to

be employed similarly Adjustment to normal

solutions have been

considered
to simplified

as a

justed being ad-

normality. Calculations are but by using normal solutions,

great
to

tent ex-

to

adjust solutions

be

just normal is a matter of considerable difficulty.It is a general not practiceto calculate the strength of the standard solutions, than approximate, theattempting to have the normality more exact and used in all however, always being known strength,
calculations.
i

Following is given
per

the method

for

the calculating

grams

SO3
grams

cubic centimeter

in the standard
may

acid solution.

The

SOa per cubic centimeter


reduced
to per cent,

be used For

normality.
SO3
per

in calculations or directly solution a normal instance,

contains

0.04003

gram to

cubic
gram

centimeter.
per

Suppose
be:

solution is found Then

contain

0.0395

cubic centimeter.

the per cent, normality of this solution would

Molecular Molecular
~

SO3 weight weight Na2C03


gram per

80.06 106.005

J
Na2C03
acid

0.7662
gram grams

106

no ^
X a
=

SO3 neutralized by 1 gram


cubic centimeter neutraUzed standard
"

Let

SO3

in standard

Na2C03

cubic

centimeters acid

acid neutralized

(cubic

centimeters

cubic centimeters

alkali in

backy

titration.)
a x^

0.7552

i
the relative strengthsof the standard
so

It is necessary to know acid and alkali solutions

that the value of the alkali solution

132

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Standard
50

sodium
grams

hydroxideis prepared by dissolving mately approxiNaOH


per

liter.

The

adjusted to proper strength. This by the solution standard against standardizing sulphuric-acid using methyl orange as indicator. Run a .quantity of the standard alkali into the titrating vessel, add a drop or two of the indicator which will give a yellow straw color. Now tion neutralizatitrate with the standard acid,toward rette drop by drop then cuttingthe drops from the tipof the buuntil a fraction of a drop producesa pink color. the temperature of the standard acid and if it varies Observe from the time of its standardization use the given coefficient of expansionand calculate to the temperature observed at the time
of the alkali standardization. Let
X
=

solution may then solution is controlled

be

gram

SO3 equivalentper cubic centimeter


SO3 per cubic centimeter
standard

standard

alkali
a
=

gram

acid

h
c

cubic centimeters standard cubic centimeters standard


aX
c

acid used alkali used

the temperature of the standard alkali at the time of its standardization for future use. The coefficientof expansion
Observe

is 0.00026
meter per

c.c.

or

0.000011

gram

SO3 equivalentper cubic centi- \

degree Centigrade for average laboratory teniF"eratures (25"C.). EoMnnple: Gram acid at 23" SO3 per cubic centimeter standard
=

0.039498

Temperature acid
27"
-

at time
=

of alkali standardization

==

27"

*",
(
,

23"

4" 0.000052 0.039446 gram

4X0.000013
0.039498 meter
-

0.000052

SO3 per cubic centi-

st^d^rd

acid at 27"C,

QUANTITATIVE

ANALYSIS

133 30 29.7 26"


per
w cubic

Cubic Cubic
0.039446
207

centimeters centimeters
30
^^.oqaa
~

standard standard

acid used alkali used

Temperature
X

standard

alkali
gram
Qn
"

0.039844

SOa

i * eqmvalent

centimeter Sodium
a

standard

alkali at 26"C. alcohol is not


drain suitable for paring prein properly the

by hydroxide purified
standard solution
as

it does not

burette, producing an
When

oilyappearance.

employing methyl orange as an indicator an ordinary sodium hydroxide solution may be employed without any special intended to be used with phenolphthalein precautions. When it from carbonate should be as free as possible this would interfere as with the indicator. Also the solution should be protected against the absorption of CO2 from the air. CO2 free water
should be used.
A

solution

free entirely

from

carbonate
use.

ind preserve

when

in constant
barium

By

is difficultto prepare adding 1 to 2 grams of liter of the standard is advisable


as

barium hydroxide or
jolution the carbonate
Kid

chloride per

only an

amount

to

It precipitated. the carbonate precipitate


an

will be

to

)f barium

would Or

produce
a

opalescence with
would

the presence sulphuric acid the barium

"rhen titrated.

better method

be to add

the carbonate,then add to precipitate excess lydroxidein slight the excess acid to precipitate barium. enough sulphuric

Protecting the Strength of the Standard The standard solution containers should into the bottle

Solutions

be well

stoppered and
acid fumes.

he air drawn This can


be

from CO2 purified

and

accomplished by drawing the air through a sodiumsolution or sodium calcium oxide then through calcium lydroxide the ihloride. Some chemists claim that if vapor is lost from
is the common as by dry air, reagents and this replaced the solution gradually changes in strength. They )ractice,

tandard

rec-

134

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

drawing through a sodium-hydroxide solution only, the air from COs and acid fumes and at the same thus purifying the air with moisture. time saturating
Burettes

ommend

Fifty cubic-centimeter burettes, graduated in tenths, with mark a passing entirelyaround the tube are very convenient. The eye can be held so that the marks appear to be a straight line drawn across in the tube, thus lessening chances of error reading. One hundred cubic-centimeter burettes graduated in tenths would be too long for convenient manipulation. In extremely accurate where it is desired to have a work,
titration of 75 to
The
c.c.

100

c.c,

the chamber

burette

is convenient.

chamber and

located in the upper portionof the tube holds 75 the lower portion drawn bore tube, out into a uniform
c.c,

holding25
Burettes

is

graduated.
be of be

should
means

connected
an

to

the

reservoir of standard

solutions by Burettes

arm

at the base. to

should

allowed
be

drain

min.

before
a

taking
meter. centi-

readings. Readings should


Meniscus
readers
are

in hundredths

of

cubic

of great value.

Observing Thermometers
may

Temperature

I the

be

suspended from

stoppers of the

reservoirs.
The burette may

and

the thermometer thermometer

The

with a large glass tube water-jacketed suspended along side of the burette. be inserted in the uprightsiphon tube may be

from

the reservoir at the base of the burette.

Titrating Vessels White


are

best

porcelaindishes (500-c.c.capacity) or 4-in. casseroli vessels on account of the clei adapted for titrating

QUANTITATIVE

ANALYSIS

135

white

background, enabling the analyst to


Preparing Indicator
Solution

see

the

end

point

clearly.

Methyl

orange

may

be

prepared by dissolving1
1 prepared by dissolving

gram

of the

reagent per liter of

water.

Phenolphthaleinmay

be

gram

of the

reagent per liter of neutral 95 per cent, alcohol.

Methods

of

Weighing

Acid

Non-fuming."
bottles
ibout about 1.5 to 2

Tared, glass-stoppered, conical-shapeweighing convenient. 15-c.c. capacity are Weigh very for each titration. Wash into the titrating grams

dilute to 150-200 and titrate. iressel, c.c. Fuming." Fuming acid must be confined
mtil

during weighing
If the

and is

diluted

with

water

without

loss of SO3.

acid

heat moderately until it becomes or wrholly partly crystallized, iquid and mix thoroughly before sampling. Acid which is not
'ar

removed

from
in this

real SO3

in

composition would
acid should
a

nuch
n a

SO3

operation.
mixed weaker

Such

be

stoppered bottle and maJyzed quantity of a


o

in this with

known

give off too weighed out and exactly


30"

acid at

temperature from
the

40"C.

In this way
can

an

acid that will remain

emperatiu'es
icid added A 1.

be formed.

Of

course

liquidat ordinary of diluting amount

will have

to be taken

into calculations.

few

methods

for weighing follow:


"

Lunge-Rey Pipette. This top-cock at each end, the tube


tube apillary
8

consists from
one

of

small bulb

with

is covered

with

ground

on

weighed with the pipette. The whole he stop-cock next to the capillary is closed and the air in the )ulb exhausted by applying suction at the other (upper) tube, he stopj-cockis closed thus sealingthe vacuum. The capillary ube is then dipped into the acid to be sampled, the lower stop-

being capillary. The lightglasscup which apparatus is weighed,

136

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

cock then opened and


and the the 200 the whole

the acid will be drawn

into the bulb.

The
cup

lower stop-cock is closed and

covered the capillary

with

the

by placing again weighed. The under water, opening both stop-cocksand allowing capillary acid to run out, then washing thoroughly. Dilute to 150 to pipetteis emptied
c.c.

and

titrate. Method.
"

2. Glass-tube

Some

chemists

use

glasstubes

bent

weighing fuming acid. The acid is drawn into the tube by applying suction and emptied by submerging under water and allowing to run out by gravity,regulating the outflow by placing a finger the end of the tube or by reguover lating
in dififerent shapes for

the flow of water


3. Glass-bulb of about 2-c.c.
two

sometimes
"

used

to force the

acid out.

Method.

In the bulb The in.

method

thin have

tube
used

from
as a

capacity are used. about 3^ one sides,


and

bulbs

glass bulbs a capillar}'^


and

long
3 in.

which

is sealed

long. These bulbs be easily made After weighing glassblower. by an amateur may low alcohol flame, then the bulb, heat moderately over a place the long tube into the acid to be sampled and allow to cool. The contraction of the air upon cooling will draw the acid into Draw Seal the end with the flame, the bulb. 1.5 to 2 grams. wipe the acid off carefullyand weigh. Insert the bulb along with about 50 c.c. water in a well-stoppered largeenough bottle, to allow the bulb to be placed loosely. Give the bottle a vigor^
handle
ous

the other

about

shake

so

as

to break

the bulb. acid with

sudden

vibration
and clouds

occurs

from

the contact

of the

the water

of SO3

rise which

the SOi by a little shaking. When fumes are completely absorbed, open the bottle and crush the tubes with a glassrod. Wash into the titrating capillary vessel, will be absorbed

dilute to 150-200

c.c.

and bulb

titrate. method:
as

Advantages of
1. Convenience

the in

handling

compared

to the

awkwardness

of the other
2. To

methods.

facilitate in

be

rinsed

drying the tubes or pipette, requiresthat they alcohol,followed by ether, then heating, dry ail

QUANTITATIVE

ANALYSIS

137 of time and

through. being aspirated


work 3.
water may

This

a great deal requires

which In in

by the bulb method. diluting, strong fuming acid cannot be


an

is eUminated

run

into directly

open

vessel without

great chances of loss.


occur

SO3 fumes

escape

unabsorbed.

and the
not

splashingcaused
comes

Also loss may by the sudden

through the bumping


bulb method does

evolution of heat when The

acid have

into contact

with water.

objections. 4. If solid acid is being analyzed,using only has to be kept liquidlong enough to
while
state

these

the draw

bulb into

method the

it bulb

with the other methods


to

it also must
or

be

kept

in the

liquid

empty from the tube

pipette.
of Acid
so

Titration

As than

indicator
the

methyl

orange

is used and

much

is only taken

pink color produced is quite visible, say a drop. A yellow straw-colored end point is sought for and to be certain of neutralization it is best to titrate back, cutting a fraction of a off the tip of the burette until a faint trace of pink is drop
observed.
If until is used phenolphthalein
a as an

indicator

titrate with

alkali

is observed. pinkish-red

Nitrous but
any

acid

destroysthe coloringmatter
acid seldom contains

of

methyl

orange,
cause

commercial trouble.

sufficient amount

to

should
excess

If any is encountered, the indicator difficulty be added or renewed shortlytoward neutralization or an

of alkaU

added, then methyl


with standard
cent.

orange,

and the solution then

titrated back
Let
X a
=

acid.

per gram

SO3
cubic centimeter in standard

SO3 equivalent per


alkali centimeters standard
"

cubic

alkali neutralized

centimeters
c
=

alkaU used

cubic centimeters

(cubic acid used)

acid (weight of grams h a X X 100

sample)

138

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

If the temperature of the standard of its standardization

alkali differs from

the

time

adjust the temperature correction

before

making calculations. Example:


Grams
Cubic

acid

(weightof sample)
standard

1 9845
.

centimeters

alkaU used alkali

=40.00
=

Temperatiu'e of standard Gram SO3 equivalent


standard

22"C.

per

cubic

meter centi=

alkaU at 26"C.

0.039844

26"
4 0
.

22"C.
0.000011 0 000044
.

4.0"
0.000044 0 039888
.

039844

+
X
^ Q^,

0.039888

40

100
=

^^ 80
.

^^ 39 per

cent.

^^ SO3

Thus

far all operationshave


no

been

carried

on

under

that

SO2 is present in the sulphuricacid.


must

the tion assumpIf SO2 is present,

operations and calculations


the indicator used.
^

be

extended

according

to

Sulphur dioxide dissolves in When phenolphthalein is used


H2SO3
With +
2NaOH
=

water
as an

forming sulphurous acid.


indicator +
the reaction

is

NaaSOs

2H2O
when
one-

methyl
much

orange,

the point of neutralityis reached


has been formed
as

the acid salt NaHSOa

thus when

requiringonly

half
used

as

alkali for neutralization

phenolphthaleinis
H2O

H2SO3
Determine
the

NaOH

NaHSOa

amount

of SO2

a separate present by titrating

sample with N/10 iodine using starch as an indicator. point is reached when a blue color is observed.
Let
X
a
=

The

end

per

cent.

SO2

cubic centimeters
grams

acid in

N/10 sample

1 used ; 1

cc.

0 0032
.

gram

SO2

140

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

settles as
asbestos

white
in
a

mat

of sulphate. Filter directly an on precipitate wash several times with tared Gooch crucible,

dilute

alcohol, dry

and

weigh
PbS04

as

lead

sulphate.
gram

1 gram

0.68324

Pb.

Iron

of the acid, add a few drops of hydrogen Weigh 100 grams alkaline by adding ammonia peroxide to oxidize the iron. Make solve which will precipitate the iron,heat to boilingand filter. Disthe precipitate from the filterwith dilute sulphuricacid, wash with hot water, add about 10 c.c. concentrated sulphuric the latter acid and through pure zinc shavings. Wash pass thoroughly and then titrate with potassium permanganate. solution prepared by dissolving This is best employed as an empirical
564 1
c.c.
=

mg.

KMn04
gram

per

liter. 0.001
per cent.

0.001

Fe

or

Fe

on

100-gram

sample.
Zinc

Weigh
ammonia the the add
c.c.

through H2S gas, allow the supernatant liquor. Dissolve ZnS to settle. Decant with hydrochloric acid,neutralize with ammonia, precipitate
a

100 grams acid,dilute to about Pass and filter off the iron.

400

c.c, neutralize

with

small

amount

of ammonium

chloride and
to about 250 c.c,

an

excess

of

10

hydrochloricacid.
on a

Dilute

heat to boiling

and

titrate while hot with

using uranium potassium ferrocyanide

nitrate

spot plate as indicator.

THE

ANALYSIS

OF

MIXED

ACID ACID

AND

NITRATED

SULPHURIC

Mixed

acid is the technical


acid of and nitric acid. and

name

for

mixture

phuric of strong sulthe may mination deterbe

The

analysis includes
oxides which

H2SO4, HNO3

lower

cal-

ANALYSIS

OF

MIXED

ACID

141

mlated

as

)f fuming [n the Dined

or N2O3, N2O6, HNO2 even sulphuricacid being present

as

N2O4 and

in the

case

the determination

of SO3.

presence water

of the latter

HNO3

is supposed to lose itscorn-

according to
2HNO3
+

the reaction:

SO3

H2SO4

N2O6
that it is oxidized

If any SO2 should be present it is assumed the formation to SO 3 with of H2SO4 and the

anhydridesSO3

and

N2O3 according
N2O5
Some

to the reaction:

H2O

2SO2

N2O3

SO3 +

H2SO4

chemists

preferto
+

express

the reaction:

2HNO3
The

SO2
out

H2SO4

N2O4

analysis is carried

(a) Determination

in the (6) Determination of fuming acid. case of lower oxides of nitrogen. (c) Determination (a) Total Acidity. The sample is accurately weighed by one for fuming sulphuric acid and of the procedures recommended If methyl orange described. diluted with water is employed as the end of the titration either add it only toward as indicator, then the indicator it as destroyed or add an excess of alkali, or renew
"

by three titrations: of total acidity. of sulphuric acid,includingfree SO3

and

titrate back. Acid.


"

Calculate
^A second

as

per

cent.

SO3.

(6) Sulphuric
as

sample

is

in the bath

case

of total acids.

The

solution

weighed and diluted is evaporated on a

steam

to

expel the

volatile

The

evaporation is hastened the sample. About pure air over again evaporated. The acid is
titrated with
the

acids,lower oxides and nitric. by blowing a current of hot, dry,


5
c.c.

water

are

added with

and

this
and

then

diluted

water cent.

standard

alkali.

Calculate

as

per

SO3

which gives the actual per cent. A third sample is weighed and Oxides. (c)Lower
"

diluted

as

in the

cQrae

of toted acids.

The

solution is titrated immediately

142

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

with

N/10 KMn04, drop by drop finally


oxidation.

the
as

reagent being added rapidlyat first and The the end point is approached. rei
so

tion at the end

is apt to be slow The that does not

that time

must

be allowed when
a

foi

complete
Organic

titration is

completed

pii

color is obtained
matter

fade in 3 min. hence will interfei by KMn04 is present the titration should
nitrate

is also oxidized

if present. made

organic matter with N/IO iodine solution.


reacts

If

KMn04 2KMn04
+

with

nitrous

acid
=

or

as

follows + + + +

5HNO2

3H2SO4

K2SO4

5HN08 3H2O

2MnS04

4KMn04

5N2O8

6H2SO4

2K2SO4

4MnS04

5N2O6
Therefore
1-c.c.

6H2O

N/10 KMn04

0.0019 0.0046 0.00235

gram

NgOs HNO2
oxalate.

gramN204
gram

The

KMn04
:

solution

is standardized

against sodium

Reaction

5Na2C204

2KMn04 K2SO4

+ +
add

8H2SO4
2MnS04

+
"

5Na2S04

IOCO2

SHjO.

Example.
"

Mixed

analysis
=

free SOz
34
.

absent.
to be 67.76 per per
:

The The

total

acidityin

terms

of SOg is found
55

per

cent.

total SO3 after evaporation

cent. cent.

The
To

N2O8

0.096

calculate the composition of the mixed


67.76
-

acid

34.55

33.21

per

cent.

HNO3

HNO2

as

SO,.

The

amount

of

acidityas
^

nitric acid is:

2HNO3
^

2(63^018)

33 21

52.27

per

cent.

HNO,

+
as

HNO2

HNO3.

ANALYSIS

OF

MIXED

ACID

143

rhe

equivalent of N2O3
2HN0,

in HNO3
^^"

is:

2(63.018),

","

rhe

amount

of nitric acid 52.27 0.16

present is:
=

52.11

per

cent.

HNOs.

rhe

amount

of

acid present sulphuric 98.076

is:

H2SO4
~a7^
"

X
oU.Oo
o/^/^/"

34.55

^^ 42.33

._

per

^ cent.

^ H2SO4.

"

feUs

From

these

the analysisof figures

the mixed 42.33 52.11

acid is:

H2SO4
HNOs

N2O3

=0.10
=

By

difference

H2O

5
.

46

100
.

00 per

cent.

Example.
Nitric

"

Mixed

acid

analysis
"

free SO3 present.


SO3 is assumed
to

acid in the

presence

of free

be

the

anhydride N2O6. total acidityin The


The
84
"

terms

of SOa is found

to be 84 per

cent.

total SO3 after evaporation 82 per cent. 2 per cent. SOs difference. 82
=

The

equivalent N2O6 is:

"SS^
=

X QQQQ

2.698

per

cent.

N2O6.

Water

100

(82 + 2.698)
X

15
.

302

per

cent.

Combined
Free

SOs SO3 H2SO4

15.302 82-68 68 +

4.4438

=68.00
=

14.00

15.30

=83.30

144

.^VLPHVRIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

From

these

the analysisof figures

the mixed

acid is:

H1SO4
Free

=83.30
=

SO, XjO*

14.00 2.70 100.00


per cent.

Da

Pont

Nitrometer

Method

of the nitrometer for the determination method principle of nitrogen acids in sulphuricacid and mixed acid is the reaction of between sulphuric acid and nitrc^n acids in the presence This converts all nitrogen acids into NO: mercury.

The

2HNO,
There
are

3H,S04
the

3Hg.

4H,0

3HgS04

2NO

several be

t3rpes of nitrometers,the Du
accurate

Pont

having

proved
United

to

most
now

States

it is

convenient,in fact, in the practically accepted as the standard


and United States government
uses

nitrometer

apparatus.
in all nitrometer
cent,

The

it

clusively ex-

work. be

readings in
such

per

may

By use of this apparatus, direct to corobtained, without recourse rection


conditions and tions calcula-

of the volume
as are

of gas

to standard

required with ordinary nitrometers. j The apparatus consists of a generatingbulb D of 300 c.c. capac-' with heavy walled rubber ing. tubity with its reservoir E connected in illustration, D carries two glassstop-cocks as is shown c is a two stop-cock communicating with either the cup or way the right angle capillary C is the chamber exit tube. reading of nitrogen and graduburette,calibrated to read in percentages ated
from
10 to 14 per

cent., divided
c.c.

into one-hundredths. be

tween Beai

171.8

and

240.4

of gas

must

generated to obtain
very

reading.
in which

is the
to

form

imgraduated the reading burette


with

compensating burette
C -4. is the

lar simi-

is connected

by the glassconnection
standard
pressure

levelingbulb B and C with heavy walled rubber tubing or lowering this bulb the By raising y.
may

of the system be used

be obtained. C where
a

F is

uring meas-

burette

that may

in

place of

wider

range

ANALYSIS

OF

MIXED

ACID

145

'

measurement

is desired.
well
as

It

can

be used for the measurement


It is most
at 20"C. and

'

small

as

"aduated
ressure
I

to hold

of gas. large amounts 300.1 milligramsof NO is divided

commonly
760
mm.

and

this volume unit

into 100 units


3.001

tenths)

each

to being equivalent

(subdivided milligramsof NO.

"^

Vhen compensated, the gas from


1

ten times

the molecular

weight

(or five times milligrams of any nitrate of the formula RNOs the burette, )ie molecular weight of R(N03)2) should exactlyfill this for example, the per cent, nitric all calculations; simplifies
in jcid
a

mixed

acid would

be

Burette

readingX
acid taken

63.02
_

Grams
10

100

TTNO

*^

146

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Standardizing the Apparatus. The apparatus having been the instrument arranged and the various parts filled with mercury,
"

is standardized
20
to

as

follows:

into the gene-, sulphuric acid are drawn time about rating bulb through the cup, and at the same d are closed and the bulb well 210 c.c. of air; cocks c and shaken; this thoroughly desiccates the air which is then run into the compensating burette until the mercury is about over the reading burette, on a level with the 12.30 on per cent, mark after which the the two being held in the same relative position, compensating burette is Sealed oflF by closingstop-cock a. A further quantity of air is desiccated in the same and run manner into the reading burette so as to fill mark; up to about the same the cock h is then closed and a small glassU-tube filled with sulphuric acid (notwater) is attached to the exit tube of the reading columns balanced and the enclosed when the mercury are burette; air cooled down, the cock h is carefully phuric opened and when the sulacid balances in the U-tube, and the mercury columns in then the air in each one both burettes are at the same is level, 30
c.c.

of

under

the

same

conditions from

of temperature and

and

pressure.

ing readand

is now

made

the burette

the barometric formula:

pressure

noted temperature carefully

using the
FJ^o(273

4-0

'

Pi
air would cock 6 is

273

The and A
same

volume

this enclosed The


as

occupy

at 760

mm.

pressure

20"C. is found.
so

again closed

and

the reservoir

manipulated
level and A
at

in

well.
rette

stripof
the

in both burettes to the bring the mercury the reading burette to the calculated value asi pasted on the compensating bu" paper -is now
to mercury

level of the

and

the standardization

is

complete.
The better and
most

rapid

method

of

standardizingis
air
as

to

fill

the compensating chamber

with

desiccated

stated

in the

previousmethod

and

then

to introduce

into the

chamgenerating

148

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

mercury

column

is

on

level with

the paper

with

the column

in the

readingburette;the
63.018
=

as mark, as well reading is then tvarken:

HNOs
N Burette

4.4981

14.01

reading_
acid taken

^^^^^^

Weight
Note.
"

^^

^^^^^

^^^^

generating bulb should be flushed out with 95 i"er determination. cent, sulphuric acid after every A test should always be made to see whether the glass stopcocks are tight. They will hardly remain so without greasing with vaseline, but this ought to be done very slightly, occasionally to avoid so as getting into the bore, for if it comes any grease in contact froth will be formed. with acid,troublesome
The

Ferrous

-sulphate Method

in sulphuric arcid quantitatively and mixed acid by titration with ferrous sulphate in the presence of strong sulphuricacid. The strong sulphuricacid is used the as medium in which the titration is performed. This method checks Nitric acid may
be estimated the nitrometer be obtained. The method
very

well and

very

accurate

results

may

followingequation represents
+

the reaction

taking place
+
to

4FeS04
For

2HNO3

2H2SO4
the

2Fe2(S04)3 + N2O3 analyst is referred Analysis."


TANKS

3H2O
Scott's

detailed

procedure

"Standard

Methods

of Chemical

CALIBRATION

OF

STORAGE

AND

TANK

CARS

One
accurate

of the

problems
of of

often

confronted
tanks

in acid and tank

practiceis
cars.

the

calibration

storage

When

these

are

merely
when

simple,but

upright cylindrical shape, the solution is verythe cylinder has bumped ends and lies on its

CALIBRATION

OF

STORAGE

TANKS

149 variables

more side,it becomes complicated as be considered,that is, the cylinderand

there the

are

two

to at

spherical segments

the ends.

Methods
are

the assumption that the tank is a true cy der Unonly to cases when the tank has appUcable with accuracy
on

based

flat heads.

In the

majority of

cases

the mechanical the heads


to

of

advantages to the tanks be bumped.


the

ever, howpractice, be gained have required that To such tanks it is impossible


met

with

in

apply

aforementioned
of considerable

method
error.

of calculation without

the

introduction

of tank design is to have the radius of the tank practice head equal to the diameter of the tank. of the almost On account of construction, universal the proposition acceptance of this practice will be confined condition. In subsequent to the above calculations, therefore, advantage of the above condition will be taken, which results in making the diameter of the base of the spherical segment equal to the radius of the sphere. Procedure. the tank as consistingof two Treat component
"

General

parts:

cylindrical portion of the the tank exclusive of the bumped ends. tank, i.e., of the material held by the bumped ends. 2. The content Treating the two component volumes separately,designate
content

1. The

of the material in the

them

as:

Vol. A

volume volume Vol. A

of of

Vol. B Total volume Vol. A


the
area

cylinder. singlebumped
2 Vol. B.

end.

is

equal to
be

the

product

of the

length of
of
a

the

cylinderand
a

of the segment

of the circle. volume

Vol. B may

expressed as the
tank for each

portionof

ical spher-

segment.
To these

calibrate

vertical inch of height,determine


inch of

component

volumes

for every

height and

add

them

together.

150

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Detenninatioii

of Vol.
as

A
a

Calculate
the diameter

the

height of

the

segment
.

decimal

fraction of

of the tank

Kj

Consult

the followingtable and

find the Vol. A


=

coefficient. corresponding
X (Squareof diameter)X (Length of tank) (Coefficient)

If the tank the empty

is filled to and

over

calculate one-half, this from the total

the volume

of

space

deduct

capacityof

the

cylinder.
Then Vol. A
=

(Total capacity of cylinder) (Volume of empty


"

space)

CALIBRATION

OF

STORAGE

TANKS

151

152

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

CALIBRATION

OF

STORAGE

TANKS

153

154

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Determinatioii

of Vol. B

Calculate the height of the


as

segment portionof the spherical


of the tank

decimal fraction of the diameter the

Hj

Consult find the

"

followingtable and

polate coefficient or intercorresponding efficient to find the approximate co-

if necessary. Vol. B
=

X (Cube (Coefficient)

of

diameter)
If the tank is filled to
over one-

half, calculate the volume of the empty space and deduct this from the total capacityof the bumped
end.

Then

Vol. B

(Total capacityof bumped end) (Volume of empty space).


"

Detennmatioii

of Total

Capacity

Calculate
methods. Or Vol. A Vol. B
=

one-half the volume


Double

of the tank

this result which

gives the

by the previous total capacity.


tank:

Where

h
r

X (Length of (Squareof diameter)X (0.7854) 0.5236 X A(3a2 + K"). radius of base of segment heightof segment radius of sphere
can

The

height of the segment


A R
r

better

be

calculated than

measured. If
=

heightof segment radius of sphere


radius of base of segment R
-

y/R^
^

r2

1
" "

Totalcapacity

V'olr-A-+Vvoi.-B.
feet X 7.48
=

Cubic

gallons

156

SULPHURIC
ArEA Cube

ACID

HANDBOOK

ClBCUMFERENCE

AND

OF

ClBCLBS,SQUARES, CUBES, SqUARE


"

AND

Roots

(Continued)

MATHEMATICAL
Circumference

TABLE

157

and

Area Cube

of

Circles, Squares, Cubes, Square


"

and

Roots

(Continued)

158
Circumference

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

and

Area Cube

of

Circles, Squares, Cubes, Square


"

and

Roots

(Coniinued).

MATHEMATICAL
Circumference Area Cube

TABLE

159

and

of

Roots

Circles, Squares, Cubes, Square (Continued)


"

and

160
CiRCUMFlSRENCE

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

AND

AbEA Cube

OF

CiRCLES, SQUARES, CUBES, SqUARE


"

AND

Roots

{Continued)

MATHEMATICAL
ClBCUMFERBNCE

TABLE

161

AND

ArEA Cube

OF

CiRCLES,SQUARES^ CuBES, SQUARE


(CorUtnwed)

AND

Roots-'"

11

164
Circumference

SULPHURIC
Area

ACID

HANDBOOK

and

of

Circusb, Squares, Cubes, Squarb


"

and

Cube

Roots

(Continued)

MATHEMATICAL ClBGnMFlSRENCE

TABLE

165

AND

AbEA Cube

OF

CiRCLES, SQUARES, ClTBES,SQUARE


"

AND

Roots

(Continued)

166

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

CiRCUMFBRENCB

AND

AREA

OF

Cube

GiRCLES, SQUARES, GUBBS, SQUARE Roots {Continued)


"

AND

MATHEMATICAL Circumference

TABLE

167

and

Area
Cube

of

Circles, Squares, Cubes, Square


"

and

Roots

{Continued)

168
GlRCUMFBRENCE

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

AND

ArEA

OF

CiRCLES, SQUARES, GUBES, SQUARE


"

AND

Cube

Roots

{Continued)
ns

"-n n

'4

n'

v;r

V^

40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4

125.66 125.98 126.29 126.61 126.92

1,256.64
1,262.93 1,269.24

1,275.56
1,281.90

1,600.00 1,608.01 1,616.04 1,624.09 1,632.16 1,640.25 1,648.36 1,656.49 1,664.64 1,672.81
1,681.00

64,000.000 64,481.201 64,964.808 65,450.827 65,939.264 66,430.126


66,923.416

6.3245 6.3325 6.3404 6.3482 6.3561

3.4200 3.4228 3.4256 3.4285 3.4313

40.5

127.23 127.55 127.86


128.18

1,288.25
1,294.62 1,301.00 1,307.41

6.3639 6.3718 6.3796 6.3875 6.3953

3.4341 3.4370 3.4398 3.4426 3.4454

40.6,
40.7 40.8 40.9

128.49

1,313.82
1,320.25

67,419.143 67,917.312 68,417.929 68,921.000


69,426. 531

41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4

128.81
129.12

6.4031
6.4109

3.4482
3.4510

1,326.70
1,333.17 1,339.65

1,689.21
1,697.44

129.43 129.75 130.06

1,346.14 1,352.65
1,359.18

1,705.69 1,713.96 1,722.25 1,730.56 1,738.89 1,747.24 1,755.61 1,764.00 1,772.41 1,780.84 1,789.29

69,934.528 70,444.997 70,957.944 71,473.375 71,991.296 72,511.719 73,034 632 73,560.059


.

6.4187 6.4265 6.4343

3.4538 3.4566 3.4594 3.4622 3.4650 3.4677 3.4705 3.4733 3.4760

41.5 41.6 41.7 41.8 41.9

130.38 130
.

6.4421 6.4498 6.4575 6.4653 6.4730

69

131.00 131.32 131.63

1,365.72 1,372.28 1,378.85 1,385.44


1,392.05

42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3

131.95
132.26 132.58 132.89

1,398.67
1,405.31

42.4

133.20

1,411.96 1,418.63 1,425.31 1,432.01 1,438.72


1,445.45

1,797.76
1,806.25 1,814.76
1,823
29
.

74,088.000 74,618.461 75,151.448 75,686.967 76,225.024 76,765.625 77,308.776 77,854.483


78,402.752

6.4807 6.4884 6.4961 6.5038 6.5115

3.4788
3.4815 3.4843

3.4870 3.4898 3.4925 3.4952 3.4980 3.5007

42.5 42.6 42.7


42.8 42.9

133.52 133.83
134.15 134.46

6.5192 6.5268 6.5345 6.5422 6.5498

1,831.84 1,840.45

134.77

78,953.589

MATHEMATICAL CiRCITMFERENCE

TABLE

169

AND

ArEA Cube

OP

CiRCLES, SQUARES, CuBES, SqUARE Roots {CorUinued)


"

AND

170
Circumference

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

and

Area Cube

of

Circles/Squares, Cubes,
"

Square

and

Roots

(C"yrUinued) W

xn n

'T

46.0 46.1 46.2

144.61 144.83 145.14 145.46 145.77

661.90 669.14 676.39 683.65 690.93

2,116.00
2,125.21

97,336.000 97,972.181
98,611.128

6
.

7823

3 3 3

6.7897 6.7971 6.8044 6.8117

2,134.44
2,143.69

46.3 46.4

2,152.96 2,162.25 2,171.56


2,180.89

99,252.847 99,897.344 100,544.625 101,194.696 101,847.563 102,503.232 103,161.709 103,823.000

3.5908 3.5934

46.5 46.6 46.7 46.8 46.9

146.08 146.40 146.71 147.03 147.34

698.23 705.54 712.87 720.21 727.57

6.8191 6.8264 6.8337 6.8410 6.8484

3.5960 3.5986
3.6011

2,190.24
2,199.61

3.6037 3.6063

47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4

147.65 147
.

734.94 742.34 749.74 757.16 764.60

97

148.28 148.60 148.91

2,209.00 2,218.41 2,227.84 2,237.29 2,246.76 2,256.25 2,265.76 2,275.29 2,284.84 2,294.41 2,304.00
2,313.61 2,323 24
.

6.8556 6.8629 6.8702 6.8775 6.8847

3.6088
3.6114 3.6139 3.6165 3.6190

104,487.111
105,154.048 105,823.817 106,496.424 107,171.875 107,850 176 108,531.333
.

47.5 47.6 47.7 47.8 47.9

149.23 149.54 149


.

772.05 779.52 787


.

6.8920 6.8993 6.9065 6.9137 6.9209

3.6216 3.6241 3.6267 3.6292

85

01

150.17 150.48

794.51 802.03

109,215.352

109,902.239 110,592.000
111,284.641

3.6317

48.0 48.1 48.2


48.3

150.80
151.11

809.56 817.11 824.67


832
.

6.9282 6.9354 6.9426 6.9498

3.6342 3.6368 3.6393 3.6418 3.6443

151.42 151.74 152.05

25

2,332.89

48.4

839.84

2,342

56
.

111,980.168 112,678.587 113,379.904 114,084.125 114,791.256


115,501.303 116,214.272 116,930.169

6.9570

48.5 48.6 48.7


48.8 48.9

152.37 152.68 153.00


153.31

847.45 855.08 862.72


870
.

2,352.25
2,361.96 2,371.69 2,381 2,391
44
.

6.9642 6.9714 6.9785 6.9857 6.9928

3.6468 3.6493 3.6518 3.6543


3.6568

38

153.62

878.05

21
.

172
ClBCUlfTEBBKCB

SULPHURIC AbBA Cube

ACID

HANDBOOK

AND

OF

ClBCLBB, SqUABBB, GUBEfi,SqUABB


"

AND

Roots

{Conduded)

DECIMALS

OF

FOOT

173

Decimals

of

Foot

fob

Each

J^4 In.

174

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Decimals

op

Foot

for

Each

J^4 In.

"

{Continued)

DECIMALS

OF

FOOT

175

DECiBiALs

OF

FooT

FOR

Each

J^4 In.

"

(Continued)

176

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Decimals

of

Foot

for

Each

y^^

In.

"

{Concluded)

DECIMALS
Decimals

OF

AN

INCH

111

of

an

Inch

for

Each

^41^

BELTING

RULES

To
12

Find

Speed
inches

of Belt

"

Multiply

the circumference
per

of either
minute

in pulley

by the number

of its revolutions

178 Divide minute.

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

by
Find

12 and

the result is the speed of the belt in feet per

Length of Belt. shaft centers by 2 and add


To
circumferences of the two

"

Multiply the

distance

between
sum

the of the

to the result one-half

the

pulleys.
Any Required
"

To
Number

Find

Diameter

of Pidley Necessary to Make

the the
to

Multiply the diameter of the pulley, and divide by speed of which is known, by its revolutions, the other pulleyis required niunber of revolutions at which
Find

of Revolutions.

run.

Driving PuUey.-r-Multiply diameter of driven pulley by its revolutions and divide the product by the revolution of the drivingpulley. of Driving Pulley. Multiply diameter of To Find Revolution driven pulley by its revolution and divide the product by the diameter of the driving pulley. Add To Find the Approximate Length of Belting in a Roll. together the diameter of the roll and the hole in the center, in of coils in the roll, and then inches. Multiply by the number The result will be the approximate niunber multiply by 0.131. of feet of beltingin the roll.
To

Diameter

of

"

"

ANTI-FREEZING

LIQUIDS

FOR

PRESSURE

AND

SUCTION

GAGES

33*^36. sulphuricacid is
in

very

to good anti-freezing liquid gages.


"

use

permanent

pressure

and suction
a

This

acid has

specific

gravityof

97"F. If a gage is to freezingpoint of follows: with two be made as separate glass tubes, construct at rightangles so they meet Bend the tubes on the bottom join trician's with ordinary electhen wrap with rubber tubing and wire fast 1.295 and
" "

friction

tape.
and
the

In

resists weather
rubber. of course, To

this way a acid will have

connection
but

is made
on

that the

little action

obtain

necessary

For

gages

where

readings from the acid readingsit is, to multiply by 1.295. high suction and pressures are to be read,
water

180

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

FLANGES

AND

FLANGED

FITTINGS

Much standards

confusion

has resulted in the past, due


and

to

the various

boltingadopted by manufactiu'ers and engineering societies. In 1912, the American Societyof Mechanical Engineers and the Master Steam and Hot "The 1912 Water Fitters' Association adopted what is known as U. S. Standard," and in the same facturers year, at a meeting of manuManuf actiu^er's Standard" City, the was promulgated. The disadvantages of having two standards of the and committees in existence were immediately recognized, A. S. M. E. and the manufactiu'ers united in a compromise known the "American as Standard," to be effective after Jan. 1, 1914. The followingnotes apply Standard. Notes on the American and flangedfittings: to the American Standard for flanges in New York
"
"

for flange dimensions

dimensions heavy reducing elbows carry the same center-to-face as regularelbows of largest straightsize. Standard and extra heavy tees,crosses and laterals, reducing on run only, dimensions face-to-face as largest straightsize. carry same for lower wofking pressures than 125 lb. conform to this Flanged fittings

(a) Standard

and

extra

standard Where made

in all dimensions

except thickness
dimensions and

of shell.

are long-radiusfittings

reference is had specified, known


as

only
and

to elbows

in two

center-to-face

elbows

long-radius

elbows, the latter being used only when so specified. Standard are weight fittings guaranteed for 126 lb. working pressure and f or lb. 260 extra heavy fittings Extra heavy fittings and flanges have a raised surface He iii*hig^ inside of bolt holes for gaskets. Standard and flangesare plainweight fittings faced. Bolt holes are % in. largerin diameter than bolts, and straddle the
center

line.
size of all fittings scheduled indicates the inside diameter

The The

or straight in of table dimensions. given pressures, For Ij^-inSquare-head bolts with hexagonal nuts are recommended. and largerbolts, studs with a nut on each end are satisfactory. Hexagonal nuts for pipe sizes up to 46 in. on the 125-lb. standard, and up to 16 in. on wrenches of the 260-lb. standard be conveniently pulled up with open can minimum For largerpipe sizes (up to 100 in. on 125-lb., design of heads.

face-to-face dimension
is the
same as

of

either reducers,

of ports. for all eccentric,

that

and

to 48 in.

on

260-lb. standard)

use

box

wrenches.

FLANGES

AND

FLANGED

FITTINGS

181

Twin to-face Side

elbows,
and outlet

whether

straight
as

or

reducing, straight-size

carry

same

dimensions
tees.

center-

face-to-face elbows

regular
side

ells whether and

and

and

outlet

tees,

straight
as

or

reducing
tees

sizes, having (b)


and

carry
same

same

dimensions

center-to-face

face-to-face

regular

reductions.

Bull-head

tees,

or

tees

increasing
as
a

on

outlet, fitting
of

have the

same

center-to-face
of the Sizes the outlet.
use

face-to-face

dimensions and laterals

straight
and of

size

Tees,
same

crosses

16

in.

smaller,
the

reducing larger
made in table.

on

outlet 18

the and

dimensions

as

straight
outlet
or

sizes

port.
two

in.

larger,
on

reducing
of outlet

on

the branch of

branch,
in

are

lengths,

depending

sizes

or

as

given

dimension

(c) The
reductions

dimensions
of the

reducing
or

flanged

fittings

are

always

regulated

by

the

outlet

branch. the
to not

(d)
Y's

For
are

fittings special

reducing
and
are

on

run

only,

always

use

the

long-body

pattern.

made

suit made

conditions.

(c)
Steel
steam.

Double-sweep

tees

are

reducing
are

on

the

run.

flanges,

fittings

and

valves

recommended

for

superheated

182

SULPHURIC
AuERicAN Names

ACID

HANDBOOK

Standard

of Fittings

ri
Elbow

^
Elbow Side Outlet Elbow Twin

e
Elbow

Bedncinc

Lonff Radius

Elbow

46 Elbow

Tee

Siuffle Sweep

Tee

'

P
Double

Sweep

Tee

Side

Outlet

Tee

Reducing

Tee

Reducer

/"
ReduciuflT Tee Sinsle Sweep

"
Reducing
Side Outlet Tee Groes

H^
Reducing
Cross

Lateral

Reducing

JLatend

FLANGES

AND

FLANGED

FITTINGS

183

Templates

for

Drillinq Valves

Standard
and

and

Low-pressure
^

Flanged

Fittings Standard

American

These

templates
quarter

are

in

multiples of four, so
straddle diameter

that fittings may


line. Bolt of bolts.

be

made
are

to face

in any

and

bolt holes the

the center

holes

drilled }4 in. larger than

nominal

184

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

-^^--H^

-"^^-"^i

1
n\

j^

^"'^^ n"^"*I

\^

FLANGED

FITTINGS

185

cA

lO

lO

^O

CO

CO

^D

(0

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Nsj^

"

"

"

"e

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'2 ""a

(D

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(D CD

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CD

" CO

CO

(D

\^

N^V^N^NjH

(D\p^^H

MMM

I
5

8*5 3 08 as
"^

:^
CO O t^ t"O0 Oi

!-"

C^

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"0

1^

00

Oi

C^

-^

cD

00

N""\N \"\fi"^ \0" S"""\fl"l Nj^NjII od\w\ F"\i^ i-"\iiii\ i^i-N "-"s. i-"i-HCSC^C^COCOCOCOCOOO^'^'^"OiO"COCDt^OOOOOJOJOiO

Nflsi

\^
^^

\"l

^^

i4^.

-S 2 OS
-*j

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i-i\i-K

i^ -^ Tt" Tt"

Aq

kOc0t""000iO'-iC^C^C0'^C0l^O5p'^l^00OC^"Ol^p^C0O5
N C^ C^ CS CO CO CO CO

"

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rHi-li-"i-Hi-""-iCVIC^C^C^C^CO

186

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

General

Dimensions

of

Standard
body

Reducing

Tees

and

Crosses

(Short-

Pattern)
Standard
I

American

^nfeisTfLS

! y*B*- "B^i

"B-"- *^

Sixe,
inchee

Sise

of outlets smaller^

and

Center-to-face
A

run,

Center-to-face B

outlet,

1 tol6

All reducing
same

from fittings

1 to

16 in. inclusive
as

have

the

center-to-face

dimensions

fittings straight-size

Long-body patterns are above table, therefore have


dimensions of of the
**

used
same

when

outlets
as

are

larger than

given in the

dimensions

reducing flanged fittings" are


outlet.

straight-size fittings.The always regulated by the


I

reduction

only, the long-body pattern will always be Fittings reducing on the run used, except double-sweep tees, on which the reduced end is always longeii than the regular fittings. ! samd will be than the the outlets Bull heads tees run or having larger length center-to-face of all openings as a tee with all openings of the size o\
the outlet. For of the dimensions

example, a 12 by 12 by 18-in. tee will be governed by th^ of alj in. center-to-face 18-in. long-body tee, namely, 16 J^'
dimension
as

openings and 33 in. face-to-face. center-to-face Reducing elbows carry same siae. largest straight

regular elbows of

188

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

IS

li

"

-II
"8

"I

""cH*"^
jS
"

^
.'.

III

FLANGED

FITTINGS

189

SSI'S

:i^.S"i

"0

"0

"0

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CD

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t*

00

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Kg,

CO

t^

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41
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190
General

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Dimensions

op

Extra

Heavy

Reducing

Tbbs

and

Crossej

(Short-body
American

Pattern)
Standard

U-B*!
Ir

:B"^' Us^hSH

-t-t
A

Pi

pi

MM

largerthan given in the The above dimensions table,therefore have same as straight-size fittings. tion dimensions of "reducing flangedfittings" are always regulated by the reduc^

Long -body patterns

are

used

when

outlets

are

of the

outlet.

Fittings reducing on the run only, the long-body pattern will always be used, except double-sweep tees, on which the reduced end is always longer than the regular fitting. Bull heads tees or having outlets larger than the run will be the same length center-to-face of all openings as a tee with all openings of the sizeol the outlet. For example, a 12 by 12 by 18-in. tee will be governed by the dimensions of the 18-in. long-body tee, namely, 18 in. center-to-face of al]
openings
and 36

in. face-to-face.
same

Reducing elbows carry largest straightsize.

center-to-f

"uje

dimension

as

regularelbows of

FLANGED

FITTINGS

191

lENERAii

Dimensions

of

Extra

Heavy

Reducing

Laterals

(Short-body

Pattern)
American Standard

Long-body

patterns

are

used
same

when

branches
as

are

larger

than

given

in

the

hove
The

table,

therefore,
of the

have

dimensions

straight-size
are

fittings. regulated
the

dimensions of will

"reducing

flanged

fittings"
on

always
run

by

the

eduction
pattern

branch;
be used.

fittings

reducing

the

only,

long-body

always

192

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

These in any

templates
quarter

are

in

multiples of four, so that fittings may


holes straddle diameter the
center

be made

to
aie

face

and

bolt

line.

Bolt holes

drilled

J^ in. larger than

nominal

of bolts.

FLANGED
Weights Cast-iron

FITTINGS

193
Fittings

of

Flanged

(American

Standard

Dimensions).

13

194

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Nominal

Weight

or

CAar-iBON
PER

Pipe Foot*

Without

Flanges,

Pounds

Values

in table

are

and theoretical,

based

on

cast

iron weighing

450

lb. per

' cubic foot.

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SI

WROUGHT'IRON

AND

STEEL

PIPE

197

"

"

198

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

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WROUGHT'IRON

AND

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199

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SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

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id

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N.

00

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CO

00

c^'b-

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00

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(N ^

"^lOCOl^OOOrHC^TtlCOOOO ,_li^i-l"-irHC^C^(NWC^(NCO

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Standard

Screwed

Fittinob and

(Approxim"te We^hts

Dimensions)

SULPHURIC

ACID

HA.NDBOOK

111 1
ill
+

'III

11

i!

"

"

III
"

ISs

-all;

ii

if

"SI

"1

PIPE

THREADS

205

t^QOO0'^'Tt"^FHT-HT-HQOO0O0O0QOO0O0QOO0O0O0QOQOO0O0O0O0O0QOO0O0

H.S.

01

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1-H

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^k0(:000OC0CD$C000iOOk0Ok0C0CDC0(:0t"t^b"OOOOOOOO

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00000000
f^iH\"\i-Nw\
^

iH\i-N
^ ,_(

"^

F-K

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CO

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CO

t". 00

05

th

c"i Tti 10

""

t^

00

206

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Lbad

Pipe

LEAD

PIPE

207

Sheet

Lead

208

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

BRICK

SHAPES

210

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

FIBER

ROPE

KNOTS
a

AND

HITCHES"

AND
no

HOW

TO

MAEIE

THEM'
move

The in the

of principle
same

knot

is that

2 to

parts which
should slip,

would

direction if the rope

were

lie alongside

of and the
^

touching
knot

each

other.

This

shown is clearly principle

\j\

square
From

(I).
and "Metallurgists Chemists' Handbook."

Liddell's

212

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

(G) is one of the most useful knots; it will not be tied It should slip,and after being strained is easilyuntied. with handles Commence who faciUty by everyone by rope. making a bight in the rope, then put the end through the bight and under the standing part, as shown in the engraving, then the end again through the bight, and haul tight. pass
The bowline
The
square
or

reef

knot

(I),must
a

not

be

mistaken

for
K and

the

"granny"
are

knot

that

under slips

strain.

Knots

(H,

M)
is

easily untied
when
as

after
rope

being
is

under

strain.
an

The and

knot is held

(M)

useful

the

passes

through

eye

by the

knot,
The

it will not wall


as

slip,and
looks

knot

easilyuntied after being complicated but is easilymade


1, and
pass

strained.

by

ceeding pro-

follows:

Form end the when end of

bight with strand


the strand of

the strand of 2, and


Haul

2 around

the

it,and
the

3 around

the end

then

through
taut,
The

bight
of

1,

as

shown
is
1

in
as now

engraving Z.
shown laid
over

the

ends AA. the

appearance

in
over

the the

engraving
center

the

strand
over

is

of

knot,

strand

2 laid

1, and
of
as

3
as

2, when
in the

the

end

of 3 is BB.

passed
Haul

through the bight


all the
The
rope

1,

shown

engraving
to

strands

taut,

shown

in the

engraving CC.
used

"stevedore''
from

knot

(M), (N) is
a

hold
rope

the

end

of

passing through
draws
up

hole. it
can

When
be

the

is strained when the

the

knot

tight,but
kind that

easily untied
a

strain is removed.
If
stress
a

knot is
sure

or

hitch of any
to
occur

is tied in

rope,

its failure under

at

place.
share
short
on

Each

fiber in the

straight

part of the
the
rope
on

rope

takes
or

proper

of the load, but

in all knots
an
load overone

is cramped those

has
are

bend,
the
rope,

which

throws
bend

fibers that

the outside
rope

of the is torn weaker

and

fiber after shorter the

another bend

breaks in the

until

apart.
is the

The knot.

standing

the

WEIGHTS

AND

MEASURES

213

U. S. CUSTOMARY

WEIGHTS

AND

MEASURES

Length
12 inches
3 feet
=

Ifoot
1

yard

5M
320 1760 5280

yards
rods

1 rod

yards
feet

1 mile

Nautical 6080.2 feet


"

Units
1 nautical 1 fathom 1 cable

mile

6 feet 120

fathoms mile

"

length

1 nautical per

hour

1 knot

Surveyors Measure
7.92 inches 100 links 66 feet 4 rods 80 chains
"

"

1 link

"

1 chain

1 mile

Area 144 square 9 square

inches
feet

1 square 1 square 1 square 1


acre

foot

yard
rod

20yi

square

yards
rods chains

"

160 square
10 square

640

acres

1 square

mile

Volume 1728

cubic inches
feet

1 cubic foot 1 cubic

27 cubic
.

"

yard

1 cord of wood

128

cubic feet

Liquid Measure
4 2

gills pints

pint gallon
foot

1 quart 1

4 quarts

7.4805 gallons

1 cubic

214

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Apothecaries Liquid Measure


60 minims
"

1 1 1

fidrams
16
ounces

"

"

liquiddram liquidounce pint

Dry
2

Measure
B

pints pecks

1 1

quart

8 quarts
4

*-

peck

*-

1 bushel

Avoirdupois Weight
16 drams 16 100
2000
ounces

"437.5 "7000

grains grains

1 1

ounce

"

pound
ton

pounds pounds
pounds

1 cental 1 short 1

"

2240

long ton

Troy Weight
24

grains

"

1 1 1

pennyweight (dwt.)
ounce

20 12

pennyweights
ounces

"

"

pound

Apothecaries Weights
20 3

grains scruples
ounces

"

scruple
ounce

"

1 dram 1 1

8 drams 12

"

"

pound

METRIC

MEASURES

Length
Unit Value in meters

Micron Millimeter.
.

A*
mm.

0.000001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0

Centimeter.
.

cm.

Decimeter..
Meter

dm.
m.

(unit)
,

Dekameter. Hectometer. Kilometer.


. .

dkm. hm. km.


.

1,000.0
10,000.0 1,000,000.0

Myriameter Megameier.

Mm.

WEIGHTS

AND Area

MEASURES

215

Unit

Value

in square

meters

Sq.millimeter Sq.centimeter Sq.decimeter Sq.meter (centiare) dekameter (are) Sq.


Hectare

0.000001 0.0001 O.OX 1.0 100.0

10,000.0

Sq.kilometer

1,000,000.0

216

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Weight
Unit Value in
grams

Microgram Milligram Centigram

0.000001
.

0.001
. .

0.01
. .

Decigram
Gram

0.1
. . .

(unit)
.
.

1.0

Dekagram Hectogram

10.0 100.0
.
.

Kilogram.. Myriagram Quintal


Ton

1,000.0

10,000.0

100,000.0
1,000,000.0

EQUIVALENTS

OF

METRIC AND

AND

CUSTOMARY

(U. S.) WEIGHTS

MEASURES'

Length
Metric
1 millimeter 1 centimeter 1 meter 1 meter 1 meter 1 kilometer

U. S. Standard 0.03937 0.3937 39.37


3
.

inch inch

inches
feet

28083

1 09361
.

yards
mile Metric

0.62137

U. S. Standard
1 inch 1 inch

25.4001
2
.

millimeters centimeters
meter meter

5400
3048

Ifoot
1

0
.

yard

0.9144
1 60935
.

1 mile Area

kilometers

Metric
1 square 1 square 1 square 1 square 1 square 1 hectare
^

U. S. Standard
0
.

millimeter centimeter
meter meter

00155

square

inch inch feet

0
.

1550 square
square square square
acres

10. 7640 1
.

1960

yards
mile

kilometer

0.3861 2.471

Table of

XJ. S. equivalents,

Bureau

of Standards.

WEIGHTS

AND

MEASURES,

217

Area U.
1 square

"

{Continued)
Metric 645
6
.

S. Standard inch inch foot


.

16 square 452 square square

millimeters centimeters
meter
meter

1 square 1 square 1 square 1 square 1


acre

0 ^0929 0.8361

yard
mile

square

2. 5900' square

kilometers

0.4047

hectare

Volume Metric
1 cubic millimeter 1 cubic centimeter 1 cubic meter 1 cubic meter
=
.

U. S. Standard 0 000061 0.0610


35.314 1 3079
.

cubic inch inch

cubic

cubic feet cubic

yards

U.

S. Standard
=

Metric

1 cubic inch 1 cubic inch 1 cubic foot 1 cubic

16,387.2 cubic millimeters


16
.

==

3872 02832

cubic centimeters cubic cubic


meter meter

0
.

yard

0 7646
.

Capacity
Metric
1 milliliter(c.c.) 1 milliliter 1 milliliter

U. S. Standard

lliter
1 liter

lUter lliter
1 dekaliter 1 hectoliter 1

liquidounce dram 0.2705 apothecaries' 0.8115 scruple apothecaries' 1 05668 liquidquarts 0.9081 dry quart 0.26417 Uquid gallon 0.11351 peck 1 1351 pecks
0.03381
. .

2.83774 26.4176

bushels

hectoliter

liquidgallons

216

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Weight
Unit
Value in grams

Microgram Milligram Centigram

0.000001
.

0.001
. .

0.01
. .

Decigram
Gram

0.1
.

(unit)

1.0 10.0

Dekagram.. Hectogram Kilogram..


.

100.0

Myriagram Quintal
Ton

1,000.0 10,000.0 100,000.0 1,000,000.0

EQUIVALENTS

OF

METRIC AND

AND

CUSTOMARY

(U. S.) WEIGHTS

MEASURES'

Length

Table of

XJ. S. equivalents,

Bureau

of Standards.

218

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Capacity
U. S. Standard

"

(Continued)
Metric

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

liquid

ounce

20.574
dram 3
.

mimUters
milliUters

(c.c.)

apothecaries' apothecaries' liquid dry


quart

6967

scruple

1
.

2322

milliliters
Uter

0.94636 1.1012
3
.

quart

liters
liters

liquid peck peck


bushel bushel

gallon

78543 80982
.

liters
dekaliter liters

0.88098
35
.

239

0.35239

hectoliter

Mass Metric U. S.

Standard

THERMOMETRIC Comparison

SCALES
Thermometric Scales

219

of

Fahrenheit ""C.
=

degrees as units ^CF.


-

32)

220

SULPHURIC Comparison
of

ACID

HANDBOOK
Scalbs units

Thbbmometric

Centigrade degreesas "*F. %**C. + 32


-

WATER
Waters

221

to Thiesen, 'According

Scheel

and

Diesselhorst

Wisa.

Ahh.

der

3, 68-69, 1900. hyHkalisch'Technischen ReichaanstaU., [

Jf

222
Densitt

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

of

Solutions

of

Sulphuric

Acid^

(H1SO4)
as

at

20**C.*

from Dr. J. Domke's table.' (Calculated of hydrometers indicating per

Adopted
cent,

the basis for standardization


at

of

sulphuricacid

20"C.)

SULPHURIC

ACID

223

Density

of

Solutions

of

Sijl,phuric

Acid^

(HSSO4)
as

at

20**C.2

"

{Concluded)

(Calculatedfrom
of

Dr. J. Domke's

table.*

Adopted
cent,

zation the basis for standardiat

hydrometers indicatingper

of

sulphuric acid

20"C.)

For

under

extensive and general use the more the caption, ''Sulphuricacid O^'B^.
"

elaborate
100 per

**

Standard

Tables"

"

cent.

H2SO4," should

always be referred
*

to.

United

States

Bureau

of Standards, Circular No.

19, 5th edition,March

30, 1916, p. 28. The density values in this table are numerically the same gravityat this temperature referred to water at 4*'C. as unity. ' Wi88. Ahh. der Kaiserlichen Normal-Eichunga-Kommission,
1900.

as

specific 131,

5, p.

216

SULPHURIC

ACID

HASDBOOK

Weisht
Unit

Microgram

Milligram.
.

Centigram..

Decigram...
Gram

(unit) Dekagram.. Hectogram Kilogram.


. .

Myriagram.
Quintal
Ton

EQUIVALBNTS

OF

METRIC AND

Ain"

CUSTOMARY

(U. S.) WEIGHTS

MEASURES'

Length

Area Metric
1 square

U. S. Standard 0.00155 0. 1550


10
.

millimeter centimeter
meter meter

square square square

inch inch feet

1 square
1 square 1 square

7640

1
. .

1960 square
square
acres

yards
mile

1 square kilometer 1 hectare


*

0 3861 2.471 S. Bureau

Table of

U. equivalents,

of Standards.

218

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Capacity
U. S. Standard

"

(Continued)
Metric

1 1 1 1

liquid

ounce

29.574 dram 3.6967


1
.

milliUters milliUters

(c.c.)

apothecaries' apothecaries' liquid dry


quart

scruple

2322

milliliters Uter liters


liters liters dekaliter liters

0.94636 1.1012
3
.

1
1 1 1 1 1

quart

liquid peck peck


bushel

gallon

78543 80982
.

0.88098 35
.

239 35239
.

bushel

hectoliter

Mass Metric U. S. Standard

1 1 1 1 1

gram gram gram

15
.

4324

grains

0.03527 0.03215
2
.

avoirdupois
troy
ounce

ounce

kilogram kilogram

20462

avoirdupois
troy

pounds

2.67923

pounds

U.

S.

Standard

Metric

1 1 1 1 1

grain avoirdupois
troy
ounce

0.0648
ounce

gram grams grams

28.3495
31.

10348

avoirdupois
troy

pound

0.45359 0.37324

kilogram kilogram

pound

THERMOMETRIC Comparison

SCALES
Thsrmometric Scales

219

of

Fahrenheit ""C.
=

degrees as units %(*"F.


-

32)

220

SULPHURIC Comparison
of

ACID

HANDBOOK
Scalbs units

Thbbmombtbic

as Centigrade degrees 32 ^F. + %^C.


-

WATER
Waters

221

According

to

Thiesen,

Scheel

and

Diesselhorst

Wise.

Abh.

der

3, 68-69, 1900. ReichsanstaU., hysikcdisch-Techniachen

222
Densitt

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK
Acid^

op

Solutions

of

Sulphuric
.

(HiS04)

at

20"C.*

table ' from Dr. J. Domke's (Calculated of hydrometers indicating per

cent, of

zation Adopted as the basis for standardiacid at 20"G.) sulphuric

SULPHURIC

ACID

223

Density

of

Solutions

of

Sijl,phuric Acid^

(H2SO4)
as

at

20**C.2

"

(Concluded)

table.' (Calculatedfrom Dr. J. Domke's of hydrometers indicating per

Adopted
cent,

zation the basis for standardiat

of

sulphuric acid

20*'C.)

For

under

extensive and general use the more the caption, "Sulphuric acid 0"B6.
"

elaborate
"

**

Standard

Tables"

100

per

cent.

H2SO4," should

always be referred
*

to.

United

States

Bureau

of Standards, Circular No.

19, 5th edition,March


as

30, 1916, p. 28. The density values in this table gravity at this temperature referred
'

Wiss,

Abh,

der

Kaiserlichen

numerically the same at 4*'C. as unity. Normcd'Eichungs-Kommission,


are

specific
131,

to water

5, p.

1900.

224
Temperature

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK Cent,

Corrections
BY same

Per to Hydrometer

of

Sulphuric
at

Acm^

mined Deter16
""

(Standard

20"C.)'

(Calculatedfrom the
slass
as

data

as

the

table, preceding assuming Jena

the material used. The table should be used with caution,and only for approximate results when the temperature differs much from the standard from the of the or surrounding air.) temperature temperature
Temperature
in

degrees Centigrade

under

extensive and elaborate ''Standard Tables" general use the more 100 per cent. H2SO4," should the caption,"Sulphuric acid 0"B^. always be referred to. ^ United of Standards, Circular No. States Bureau 19. 6th edition, March 30, 1916, p. 29.
^

For

"

"

226
Table

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

I.
"

Specific

Gravity

of

Sulphuric

Acid

and Lunge, Isler,

Naef

SPECIFIC
Specific

GRAVITY

OF

SULPHURIC
Sulphuric

ACID

227

Table

I.

"

Gravitt

op

Acid

"

(Continued)
1 liter

'

Specificgravity Degrees
Baum6
in
vacuo

100

Degrees
Twaddell

parts by weight contain, grams

contains

in

kilograms

SOa

HtS04

SOt

HtSOA

1.165 1.170 1.175 1.180 1.185 1.190 1.195 1.200 1.205 1.210 1.215 1.220 1.225 1.230 1.235 1.240 1.245 1.250 1.255 1.260 1.265 1.270 1.275 1.280 1.285 1.290 1.295 1.300 1.305 1.310 1.315 1.320 1.325 1.330

0.266 0.275 0.283 0.292 0.301 0.310 0.319" 0.328 0.337 0.346 0.355 0.364 0.373 0.382 0.391 0.400 0.409 0.418
0.426

0.435 0.444 0.454 0.462 0.472 0.481 0.490 0.500 0.510 0.519 0.529 0.538 0.548 0.557 0.567

228

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SPECIFIC

GRAVITY

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

229

Table

I.
"

Specific

Gravitt

of

Sulphuric
100

Acid

"

(Comiinued)
1 liter contains

Spedfio gravity
at in

parts by weight

in

Degrees

Degrees
Twaddell

contain,

grams

kilograms

-40
vacuo

Baum^

SOi

HsSOi

SOs

HiSO"

1.500 1.505 1.510 r.515 1.520 1.525 1.530 1.535 1.540 1.545 1.550 1.555 1.560 1.565 1.570 1.575 1.580 1.585 1.590 1.595 1.600 1.605 1.610 1.615 1.620 1.625 1.630 1.635 1.640 1.645 1.650 1.655 1.660 1.665

0.896 0.906 0.916 0.926 0.936 0.946 0.957 0.967 0.977 0.987 0.996 1.006 1.015 1.025 1.035 1.044 1.064 1.064 1.075 1.085 1.096 1.107 1.118 1.128 1.139 1.150 1.160 1.170
1.181

1.192 1.202 1.212


1.222

1.233

230

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

SPECIFIC

GRAVITY

OF

SULPHURIC

ACID

231

Table

I.

"

Specific

Gravity

op

Sulphuric

Acid

"

{Concluded)

232

SULPHURIC

ACID

HANDBOOK

Allowance

for

Temperaturb

(Lunge)
Per

degree Centigrade
=

Up
1.170 1.450 1.580
1
.

to to to to

1
.

170

0. 0006 0.0007 0.0008 0.0009

gravity specific
gravity specific

1.450 1.580 1.750

specific gravity
gravity specific gravity specific
Sulphuric Acid
at

750

to 1
.

840

0
.

0010
of

Table

II.

"

Specific

Gravity

WF.

(Lunge)

INDEX
hydrometer, 8 Belting rules,177 acid,55, 67, Boilingpoints,sulphuric
Baum6 103 Brick

Acid

calculations, 86, 89, 96 of weighing, 135 standard, 127 Acids in burner gas, test for, 113 for temperature, hydroAllowance chloric acid,52
methods nitric acid, 50

shapes, 208 Briggs pipe threads, 204 Burettes,41, 134


C

sulphuric acid, 57, 60, 67, 71,


224, 232
Ammonium

sulphate,31 Analysisof mixed acid, 140 of nitrated sulphuricacid, 140 and circumference area Circles, of sulphur dioxide,109 155 of sulphuric acid, qualitative, Circumferences 155 of circles,
125 Cleanliness of
139

Calculations, acid,24, 86 of tanks, 148 Calibration Cast-iron pipe, 194 219, 220 Centigrade scale,

of,

hydrometers, 8 quantitative,126, Coefficient of expansion, 29 of total acids in burner gas, 113 hydrochloricacid,52 Anhydride, sulphuric,33 nitric acid,50 178 liquids, Anti-freezing sulphuric acid, 57, 60, 67, 71. phuric sulApproximate boiling points,' 224, 232 67 acid, 55, Comparison of metric and U. S. Aqueous vapor, tension of,sulphuric Weights, 216 acid, 105 thermometric of scales, 219, Arbitrary scale hydrometers, 5 220 Area of circles, 155 Composition of dry gas, 123, 124
Atomic

weights,1
B

Concentration
108

of

sulphuric acid, 89

Baum^

degrees, specific gravity equivalents,11 corresponding to specific ity, grav16

density basis,3 of SO2 to SOs, 113 specific gravity,2 Corrections, Cube roots of numbers, 155
Cubes
of

Conversion

of

numbers,

155

235

236
D

INDEX

Formulas

for

acid sulphuric

tions, calcula-

Decimals
of
an

of

a foot, 173 inch, 177

24, 89 Freezing points,sulphuric acid,


63
to

55.

Degrees

Baum6

corresponding

Fuming
for

sulphuricacid,23,
strengthening mixed
of

71

specific gravity, 16 equivalentspecific gravity of,11 Twaddle corresponding to specific


21 gravity,

acid, 97

methods

weighing, 135 specific gravity of,72, 73, 233 tables, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 233
G

Density,

conversion

of

basis,3

definition of, 1

hydrometers, 5 of sulphuric acid, 222


of water, 221 ard Description of preparation of standacid tables, 27 Dilution of sulphuric acid,89 Diphenylamine test, 125 Du Pont 144 nitrometer,

Gages, pressure and suction, 178 Gas, composition of, 123, 124 Glass bulb method, 136 tube method, 136

Hitches, rope, 210 Hydrochloric acid, allowance


temperature, 52

for

Elements, names specific gravity of, 51 symbols of, 1 table,51 Equivalents of Baum6 degrees and preparationof,44 specific gravity, 11, 16 Hydrogen sulphide test, 126 of Metric and U. S. weights, 216 Hydrometers, 2, 5 of Twaddle degrees and specific Baum6, 8 gravity, 21 manipulation of, 5 acid 86 Estimating stock, Twaddle, 20 of, 1

Fahrenheit
Ferrous Fibre

219, scale,

220

Indicator

solution, preparation of,


135 of

sulphate method, 125, 148 rope knots and hitches,210

Influence

temperature,
6

meters, hydro-

180 Fittings, flanged,

screwed, 202 180 Flanged fittings, 180 Flanges,


Formation of mixed

of surface
7

tension,hydrometers,

International

acid. 96

Iodine

atomic weights, 1 solution, preparation of. 111

INDEX

237
N Names Nitric of 182 flangedfittings, for temperature,

Iron, analysis of, in sulphuric acid,


126, 140

acid, allowance
50

Knots,

rope,

210

Lead, analysis of, in sulphuric acid,


125, 139

specific gravity of,49 table,49 preparation of, 41 phuric Nitrogen acids, analysis of, in sul140 acid, 125, Nitrometer, Du Pont, 144 Nomenclature of sulphuric acid, 22
Nordhausen
23 oil of vitriol,

pipe, 206 sheet, 207 Lock-nut threads, 204 Lunge-Rey pipette, 135
M

Observing hydrometer readings, 5 Oil of Vitriol, 22 Nordhausen, 23 Oleum, 23


5

Manipulation of hydrometers,
Marsh

test, 126

Mathematical

table,155 Measures, Weights and, 213 Melting points, sulphuric acid, 55,
63, 103

sulphides,gas composition roasting,123 preparation Methyl orange solution, of, 108


Metallic from Metric Mixed
measures, 214

acid, 23 analysisof, 140 formation of, 96 Sulphuric Mixing table, 59" B6 acid, 94 60*^ B4 Sulphuric acid, 95 66** B6 Sulphuric acid,96 gravity balance, 1 Mohr, specific* Mono-hydrate, 23, 32 preparationof, 108 add. Muriatic acid,see Hydrochloric

hydrometers, 5 SOs corresponding to per cent. H2SO4, 85 H2SO4 corresponding to per cent. SOs, 86 Phenolphthalein solution, preparation of, 135 194 Pipe, cast-iron, lead, 206 197 steel, threads, 204 wrought-iron, 197 Preparation of standard acid tables, descriptionof, 27
Per cent,
Per cent.
'

Pressure

gages, 1

178

Pycnometer,

Q Qualitativetests,sulphuricacid,125
Quantitative

analysis, sulphuric acid, 126, 139

238
R

INDEX

Standard

acid

tables, preparation

of, 27
for dilution Rectangle method concentration,91 Rope Knots and Hitches, 210 177 Rules, belting, and

acid, 127 hydroxide, 39, 131 solutions, protecting strength of, 133 observing temperature of,134 of standard Standardization acid,
sodium 128 of standard 131 Starch sodium

normal

Sartorius

gravity balance, 1 specific Scales,thermometric, 219 Screwed 202 fittings, Selenium, test for,in sulphuricacid,
125 208 Shapes, brick, Sheet lead, 207

hydroxide,

solution,preparation of. 111 Steel pipe, 197 Stock, estimation of, 86 Storage tanks, caUbrationr of, 148
Suction
gages,

178

SO2 converted
Sodium

to

SOs,

113

carbonate, 30, 31, 34, 127 hydroxide solution, standard,


39, 131

sulphite test, 125


Specificgravity,balances, 1 2 corrections, to corresponding degrees 11 Baum^, to degrees Twaddle, 21 definition of, 1 determinations in preparation of standard acid tables,28 equivalent degrees Baum^, 16 hydrometers, 5 determining, 1 hydrochloric acid, 51 of nitric acid, 49 of sulphuric acid, 54, 60, 62, 68, 72, 73, 222, 225 tables,use of, 86 test, sulphuric acid, 76.07-82.5 per cent. SOs, 81 Square roots of numbers, 155
of of numbers^ 155 Sc^uares methods of

Sulphanilicacid, 33 Sulphides,metallic,gas composition from roasting,123 100 Sulphur, acid obtainable from lb.,108 dioxide,estimation of in burner
gas,

109 of in

estimation

sulphuric
tion combus-

acid, 138 from composition gas of, 124 100 required to make
109

lb.
^

acid,
100

trioxide, obtainable lb.,109


33 preparation;of
,

from

for temperature, Sulphuric acid, allowance 57, 60, 67, 71,

224, 232

boilingpoints,55, 67, 107 coefficients of expansion, 57, 60,


concentration

67, 71, 224, 232 of,89, 108 density of, 222


dilution

of,89