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Whats new in Concrete

By Frank A Kozeliski, P.E. Kozeliski Consulting LLC Gallup, New Mexico November 12, 2010 Track Five

Pervious Concrete
When it rains. . . . . . It drains ! Minimal fines Concrete Mix
Coarse Agg. Cement and Water

Low Impact Development Pervious Concrete Directly Infiltrates Water Through The Pavement

Conventional Pavement Asphalt (Background) Pervious Concrete (Foreground) - Raining

Base/Sub-Base Considerations
Pervious Concrete
Typical Detention Layer = 6 Thickness increases for storage and to get water out of pervious for freeze thaw No detention layer required where you have well draining native soil

Subgrade compaction 95% Standard Proctor 90-92% Modified Proctor

40 % void
Or a Detention Layer

Compaction Methods of pervious

Pervious placement with a roller screed

Las Cruces, New Mexico

Initial Ingredients for a Pervious Concrete Mix Design

Cement ------------------------ --500 lbs cu yd to # 8 Aggregate ------- 2600 lbs / cuyd No hot water cold water only 18-21 gal/cuyd

Batching Mixing Transporting Aggregate moisture content prior to batching Zero Near 0 Slump

(Very low W/C Ratio - .27 - .34)

Very sensitive jobsite water additions Typical Admix (incl. Superplazticizer)

Plus HSA (Hydration Stabilizing extreme retarders) most apps. Plus VMA (Viscosity Modifying) common AEA Cold climates

Pervious at work

Full-Depth Reclamation with Cement

Examples of Pavement Distress

Alligator cracking Rutting Excessive patching Base failures Potholes Soil stains on surface

Advantages of the FDR Process

Use of in-place materials Little or no material hauled off and dumped Maintains or improves existing grade Conserves virgin material Saves cost by using in-place investment Saves energy by reducing mining and hauls Very sustainable process

Sustainable Element of FDR Process

12 4,500 300



1 mile of 24-foot wide, 2-lane road, with a 6-inch base

FDR Construction Process

Pulverize, Shape, Add Cement, Mix In Place, Compact, and Surface
Bituminous Surfacing

New Surfacing

Granular Base

Pulverized Pulverized Stabilized Stabilized





Existing road

Pulverization to desired depth

Removal of Addition of Final surface excess material cement, mixing, application (if necessary) reshaping, and and shaping compaction

Cement Spreading
Cement is spread on top of the pulverized material in a measured amount in either a dry or slurry form

Blending of Materials and Moisture Addition

Cement is blended into pulverized, reclaimed material and, with the addition of water, is brought to optimum moisture

Traffic and Surfacing

Completed FDR base can be opened immediately to low-speed local traffic and to construction equipment Subsequent pavement layers can be placed at any time


Ultrathin Whitetopping Pavement Rehabilitation Options

But concrete can be placed over the existing asphalt as WHITETOPPING

Avoids asphalt reconstruction problems Can be placed on pavements in poor or bad condition

Little or no pre-overlay repair needed

Minimal rain delays Maintain traffic on existing surface

By Definition... - Thicknesses at least 4to 6 - Does not depend on bond to underlying surface - Joint spacing is less critical

- Existing asphalt pavement is base

UTW Design Procedure

New Engineering Bulletin for 1998 Conventional Whitetopping Design Construction Performance Ultra-thin Whitetopping Design Construction Performance

Crystal, New Mexico, NHA street

Finished Street

Crystal, New Mexico, NHA

White toping in Durango, Co.

Honduras, Central America

ACI 330R-08
Guide for the Design Concrete Parking Lots and Construction of

Corey Cemex

ACI has developed recommended design procedure specifically for parking lots Given: Determines:

Soil Strength
Concrete Strength Traffic Demand

Jointing Reinforcing (opt.)

Subbase (opt.)

Recognizes construction integrity of rigid pavement materials. Recommends reduction or elimination of granular base:

ACI 330 recognizes parking lots are different than a street/roadway. Load is in the Interior Primary purpose is to store & move vehicles Lot may be a water collector May need to accommodate lighting, islands, landscaping

Major parking facilities


Surface smoothness Longitudinal joint Transverse joint

Thickness Design

Surface Texture

Concrete materials

Dowel bars
Tiebars Subgrade

Subbase or base



Concrete Pavements are rigid
Loads are distributed over a large area through slab action. Minor deflections. Low subgrade contact pressures. Subgrade uniformity is more important than strength. 7000 lbs load.

Asphalt pavements are flexible

Loads are more concentrated. Deflections are higher Subgrade, base and subbase strength are very important. usually require more layers and greater thickness for optimally transmitting load to the subgrade

7000 lbs load.

pressure ~3 - 7 psi
pressure ~ 15 - 20 psi

Concretes Rigidity spreads the load over a large area and keeps pressures on the subgrade low


Entrance/ Exit Lanes

6 to 8
4 to 6

Parking Area


ACI 330 Concrete Thin Asphalt
Thick Asphalt

Light Traffic
ADTT 3 trucks/day, 11,500 ESALs




Asphalt 10 Gran. Base


Asphalt 6 Gran. Base

Medium Traffic
ADTT 100 trucks/day, 405,000 ESALs




Asphalt 10 Gran. Base


Asphalt 6 Gran. Base

Heavy Traffic
ADTT 500 trucks/day, 3,500,00 ESALs


Concrete 6 Gran. Base



Asphalt 10 Gran. Base

Asphalt 6 Gran. Base

Roller Compacted Concrete

It has the basic ingredients as conventional concrete Fresh RCC is stiffer than zero-slump conventional Concrete. Its stiff enough to remain stable under vibratory rollers. Placed with asphalt-type paver equipped Constructed without forms, dowels or reinforcement Joints are spaced farther apart than conventional pavements.

Log Sort Yards

Vancouver Island, BC, 1978

Military Facilities

Ft. Carson, CO, 2008

Ft. Lewis, WA,1986

Ft. Drum, NY, 1990

Intermodal Facilities

Central Station, Detroit, MI

Burlington Northern, Denver, CO

Parking Areas
Honda facility, AL (2003) (207 acres; 1.2 mil sy)

134 acre parking facility at Saturn plant, TN (1988-89)

Streets & Intersections

Intersection replacement Calgary, AB

Residential street Columbus, OH

Highway Shoulders

I-285 highway shoulders Atlanta, GA

Concrete Paving with Light weight aggregate make pavements last longer
This is called Internal Curing of concrete Light weight agg. Provides moisture inside the concrete due to low Water Cementitious ratio Cement 451 lb/yd Fly Ash 113 lb/ yd Coarse 1540 lb/yd Light wt 300 lb/yd Fine agg 1099 lb/yd Water 242 # 29 gal Fc = 4500 psi

ICF -- Insulated Concrete Forms


ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

Government push mandates to Maximize energy Design Professionals need to access Energy efficient material ICF structures require 44% less energy to heat and 32% less energy to cool Resulting in reduced up front capital cost Designing with ICFs proven way to deliver substantial saving in operating cost and owner ship

ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

Building energy-efficient is Necessary no longer a choice Green buildings are emerging across America within federal agencies Provide higher structural performance and greater confort Help withstand earthquakes, hurricanes and tornados

ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

Ideal wall system for high-risk geographies Mass wall reduces noise, multi-hour fire resistance Stable indoor temperatures Well suited to hotels, multi-unit walls theaters hotels, schools and churches. Resistance to mold mildew and pests

ICF Insulated Concrete Forms


Pervious Drive way at a ICF house in Gallup, New Mexico

Concrete Mix Designs Use Combined Aggregates.

Proportion in accordance with ACI 211.1

Previous field experience Laboratory trial batches

Batch, mix, & deliver by ASTM C94 or C685


A mixture of particle sizes is more efficient at filling void space than all particles of any one size

Larger maximum sizes also help graded aggregates fill volume more effectively


Limiting Paste Content is Key to reducing Shrinkage

What shrinks? Aggregates? - No Paste? - Yes Cementitous, water Lower paste = lower shrinkage Factors affecting paste content Maximum aggregate size Combined aggregate grading Fineness of sand and impurities Fineness of cementitious materials


Standard Paving Mix (lbs/CY)
Cement Ty-F Fly-ash Sand 500 67 1100

Potential Optimized Paving Mix (lbs/CY)

430 67 1115

Est. Contractor Concrete CY Price ($ / CY)



Coarse Agg (AASHTO #57)

Coarse Agg 2 (1/4 max) Water, Lbs W/C Ratio



254 (28 gals) .448

220 (26 gals) .443

Standard Mix

Optimized Mix


State Mix Cement, Lbs Water, Lbs Air, % W/C Ratio Cyl, 28-day PSI Beam, 28-day PSI
Cement cost = $100 / ton

Optimized Mix 425 230 1.5 0.54 6,300 895

Cement Cost ($ / CY)

$27.25 $21.25

545 229 5.0 0.42 6,900 897

Standard Mix

Optimized Mix

Self Consolidating Concrete

Concrete that flows. Measure the spread of the concrete Inches Reduces the man hours for placement Reduces the rubbing of the wall. Minimum to no honeycomb Can place the concrete quciker No water added, keeps the Water Cementitious ratio low

Chemical Admixtures
HIGH RANGE WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURES (Super Plasticizers) Reduces the water content by 12% to 30% while maintaining slump. Produces flowing concrete without the addition of water.

Chemical Admixtures
HIGH RANGE WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURES Example: 36 gal / yd x 8.33 lb/gal=300 lb/yd 36 gal x 12% = 4.3 gal x 8.33 = 36 lbs 36 gal x 30% = 10.8 gal x 8.33 = 90 lbs This is ASTM Type F (Normal Set) and Type G (Retarding Set).

High range water reducing admixtures added at the site

High range water reducing admixtures added at the site

Generally there is a 3- to 4-inch slump concrete at the job site. Add 3 gallons of Super Plasticizer to the mix and you will get 7- to 8-in slump concrete without any water added. One hour later the concrete reverts to the original 3- to 4- inch slump.

High range water reducing admixtures added at the site

High range increases the slump 4 with 3 gallons in a 10 cuyd load. Normally it would have taken 40 gallons of water to increase the slump the same amount or 4 gallons per cubic yard.
36 gal x 12% = 4.3 gal x 8.33 = 36 lbs

Flowable - yet Stable mixture

High Range Water Reducer no Water added

What is Concrete Maturity?

Maturity is a proven, non-destructive, strength estimation technique that uses time & temperature measurements to determine (in real-time) the strength gain of in-place concrete.

5,000 4,500

Compressive Strength (psi)

4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

Maturity (C-Hours)

Originally developed in the late 1940s & early 50s Accidents in the 1970s led to further maturity research Interest increased in the 1980s as companies looked for ways to accelerate construction Wide spread adoption in the U.S. over the last 10 years

How does Maturity work?

What does this tell us?

Strength vs. Time 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 500
Time, Hours 90 F 73 45
Strength, PSI

Strength vs. Maturity

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 90 F 2000 1000 0 73 45

Strength, PSI








Maturity, C*H

Step 1: Generating a Relationship Curve

5,000 4,500

Compressive Strength (psi)

4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0 5,000 10,000

Day 7 Day 4 Day 2

Day 14

Day 1




Maturity (C-Hours)

Step 3A: Convert Maturity to Strength using Relationship Curve

5,000 4,500

Compressive Strength (psi)

3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0








Maturity (C-Hours)

Temperature profile

Measure Slab Moisture intelliRock Humidity Logger

Moisture is critical during the curing process Detrimental effects of moisture loss Lowered concrete strength Shrinkage cracking & curling Long-term reductions in durability

Moisture has long-term damaging effects

Detrimental effects of moisture retention

Damage to floor covering and adhesives Promotes mold growth

Structural damage

intelliRock Humidity Logger

Ideal for floor moisture applications
(ASTM F 710, ASTM F 2170)

intelliRock RH Sensor

Compliments/Replaces Calcium Chloride testing

Typical threshold of 75% RH for Flooring Excellent forensic tool for moisture issues
40% Slab Depth

Hole Liner Sealed w/Slilcone Up Walls

Open Bottom For Sampling

Compatible with the intelliRock Maturity & Temperature logging system

Drill Point (Sample Volume)

Equipment for Maturity and Moisture

Komponent System K
Shrinkage reducing Cement Add 80 lb bag to a yard of concrete Place as regular concrete Need to wet cure for 7 days Cost about $ 30.00 per cubic yard No Joints placement 100 x 200

Komponent System K

Holiday Inn

Rapid Set Concrete

University and Central -- Albuquerque, NM You can open up the concrete in 24 hrs. Asphalt was removed on Friday evening, Concrete placed and opened on Monday. Added cost about $ 150 / cuyd due to the overtime and the cement added cost.

ASTM 1157 Cement

This is a performance based cement and has about 10% inter ground limestone to meet EPA carbon requirements. You should see it in submittals this next year. Do not be afraid as long as you get strength.

Performance Based Mix Designs

In years to come you will get performance base mix designs. You order 4000 psi with air and it is the ready mix producers to get the strength. The engineer will accept the mix and may not know what was in the mix. (be ready) no more prescription mixes will be in ASTM

Curing Concrete the first 24 hrs on site.

ASTM No Loss of Moisture Keep cylinders between 60 & 80 Degrees For 6000 psi concrete cure between 68 & 78 deg.

Test Cylinders 4x8

The new 318.08 Building Code recognizes the 4 x 8 inch cylinder molds. A strength test is the average of 3 4 x 8. Before the code, recognized 2 6 x12 4 x 8 can be used for trial mixes and acceptance testing.

Test Cylinders 4x8

Fill the test cylinder full rod it 25 times with a 3/8 rod with a rounded end. Tap the sides 10 to 15 times to close the voids. Fill the other half full. Rod the cylinder 25 times just penetrating the first layer 1. Tap the sides again. Level the cylinder top.

Test Cylinders 4x8

Cap the mold and place in water, covering the cylinders with water. Keep between 60 to 80F. 24 hrs later take to the laboratory

32 cylinders in a box cost about $ 2500

40 cylinders in a thermal II curing box. Cost $ 3500

Decorative Concrete
Value added for the Residential Concrete Contractor or for the Home owner

Learn how to do it and do it right if you are going to do Decorative Concrete

Decorative Concrete

ACI 332-08
Code Requirements for Residential Concrete and Commentary The Concrete Requirements for Residential Concrete have changed.

ACI 332-08
Has established 3 Weathering Probabilities 1. Negligible (such as Hawaii) 2. Moderate 3. Severe (such as Alaska )

Lines defining areas are approximate only.




Weathering Map for entrained air for Concrete

Severe Weather (Type 3)

Drive ways, curbs, walkways, ramps, patios, porches, steps, and stairs exposed to weather and garage floor slabs.
Fc = 4500 psi Maximum Slump - 5 Slump flow 24 to 28 With High Range WRA

Long Haul Concrete over 2 Hours

What is the plan (cont.)

Load the trucks the convental way

Mix after loading for 5 minutes to check the load. Slump is to be 5 Inches +/ Zero out the counter and turn the drum at 1 revolution per mile.

What is the plan cont.

Why one revolution per mile ????

You are reducing the friction between the cement and aggregate particles The friction builds up heat and heats up the concrete The stiffer the mix the more friction and heat.

What is the plan (cont.)

The flow-a-ability can be done with DELVO or an overdose of Type B & Type D retarders & water reducing retarder

Go the 120 to 160 miles and get 120 to 160 revolutions. Caution in cool weather you can increase slump if the air is cooler than the concrete. The concrete gets cooler in transit.

What is the plan (cont.)

Arrive at the job site and mix for 5 minutes to get the material mixed and then check the slump. If it is a little stiff, use Super Plasticizer to increase the slump to 4 +/ This is a method for 50 to 100 cuyd placement per day or one round of mixers. Not for low slump curb and gutter machines

Control Low Strength fill Flowable Fill Properties

Slump 5 to 8 Plastic Unit Wt 130 pcf C.B.R. 34 to 42 Strength 35 psi to 150 psi

Koz-Crete Flowable Fill Mix Design

Cement 94 lb/cuyd Fines (3/8 max) 3000 lb/cuyd Water (50 gals) 416 lb/cuyd

Color (depends) TOTAL 3510 lb/cuyd

Cement Burns

Warning !!!!!
Contact with wet (unhardened) concrete, mortar, cement, or cement mixtures can cause SKIN IRRITATION, SEVERE CHEMICAL BURNS (THIRD-DEGREE), or SERIOUS EYE DAMAGE. Frequent exposure may be associated with irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis. Wear waterproof gloves, a long-sleeved shirt, full-length trousers, and proper eye protection when working with these materials.

Source: PCA

Warning !!!!!
If you have to stand in wet concrete, use waterproof boots that are high enough to keep concrete from flowing into them. Wash wet concrete, mortar, cement, or cement mixtures from your skin immediately. Flush eyes with clean water immediately after contact.

Indirect contact through clothing can be as serious as direct contact, so promptly rinse out wet concrete, mortar, cement, or cement mixtures from clothing. Seek immediate medical attention if you have persistent or severe discomfort.
Source: PCA

Thank You!
This concludes the What's new in Concrete

Any Questions?
Frank A. Kozeliski, P.E. Cause-a-Liskey Consulting Engineer Gallup, New Mexico 505-870-0316