Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

# Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 1) Is Q Q R2 connected? I claim that Q Q R2 is not connected because a separation exists.

sts. Proof I want to show that there exist subsets A, B that are disjoint, nonempty, and open such that A B = Q Q. By denition of the subspace topology, a set is open in Q Q if it is the intersection of Q Q with an open set of E = R2 . Let A1 = (, ) (, ) and B1 = (, ) (, ). Clearly, each component of A1 and B1 is open in R, and so the cross product will also result in an open set in R2 . In addition, A1 and B1 are clearly disjoint and nonempty. Then let A = (Q Q) A1 and B = (Q Q) B1 . By denition of the subspace topology, A and B are open subsets of Q Q that are disjoint and empty because A1 and B1 were nonempty and there exists some pair of rational numbers in (, ) (, ) and (, ) (, ), which are disjoint in R2 , so must be disjoint in Q Q. Thus, we have found a separation Q Q = A B of open, disjoint, nonempty subsets, proving that Q Q R2 is not connected.

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 2) Is the unit circle C = {(x, y ) : x2 + y 2 = 1} in R2 connected? I claim that the unit circle is connected by creating a mapping from another function that is connected. Proof Let f be the function from p = [0, 2 ] in R to the unit circle, C = {(x, y ) : x2 + y 2 = 1} , in R2 by the function f (p) = (cos(p), sin(p)). We have already proved in class that any interval in R is connected, so [0, 2 ] is connected. In addition, each component of f is continuous, so f is continuous as well. To prove this, let's show that f (p) = cos(p) and f (p) = sin(p) are themselves continuous. 1) To prove that f (p) = cos(p) is continuous at all p [0, 2 ], it must be shown that for all > 0, there exists some > 0 such that |f (p) f (p0 )| < when p [0, 2 ] and |p p0 | < . Let p0 [0, 2 ] and = 2 . Now we can dig deep into our mathematical knowledge from trigonometry to remember the identity stating that
cos(x) cos(y ) = 2 sin x+y 2 sin xy 2

## Now we can rewrite our target inequality using this, obtaining

|cos(p) cos(p0 )| = 2 sin p + p0 2 sin p p0 2

## Then because we know sin(x) 1, we can substitute sin

2 sin p p0 2

p+p0 2

1 to obtain

p0 We know we are trying to show that 2 sin p < when |p p0 | < . That condition also holds 2 pp0 true when 2 < . Now we can use the trigonometric fact that |sin(x)| |x| to write

2 sin

p p0 2

p p0 < 2 = 2( ) = 2 2

Thus, we have proved that f (p) = cos(p) is continuous at all p [0, 2 ]. 2) Now let's show that f (p) = sin(p) is continuous at all p [0, 2 ]. This will be very similar to that of cos(p). 2

To prove that f (p) = sin(p) is continuous at all p [0, 2 ], it must be shown that for all > 0, there exists some > 0 such that |f (p) f (p0 )| < when p [0, 2 ] and |p p0 | < . Let p0 [0, 2 ] and = 2 . Now we can dig deep into our mathematical knowledge from trigonometry to remember the identity stating that
sin(x) sin(y ) = 2 cos x+y 2 sin xy 2

## Now we can rewrite our target inequality using this, obtaining

|sin(p) sin(p0 )| = 2 cos p + p0 2 sin
p+p0 2

p p0 2

## Then because we know cos(x) 1, we can substitute cos

2 sin p p0 2

1 to obtain

p0 We know we are trying to show that 2 sin p < when |p p0 | < . That condition also holds 2 pp0 true when 2 < . Now we can use the trigonometric fact that |sin(x)| |x| to write

2 sin

p p0 2

p p0 < 2 = 2( ) = 2 2

Thus, we have proved that f (p) = sin(p) is continuous at all p [0, 2 ]. Now back to our original proof. Then from Theorem 4.5.1, we know that if f : [0, 2 ] {(x, y ) : x2 + y 2 = 1} is a continuous function and [0, 2 ] is connected, then its image is connected. Thus, the unit circle C = {(x, y ) : x2 + y 2 = 1} is connected.

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 3) Let (E, d) be a metric space. Suppose f, g : E R. Suppose limpp0 f (p) = q0 and limpp0 g (p) = r0 . Please prove that limpp0 (f g )(p) = q0 r0 directly from the denition of the limit. Proof

when 0 < |p p0 | < 1 and p E . from limpp0 g (p) = r0 that for all when 0 < |p p0 | < 2 and p E .

## Know from limpp f (p) = q0 that for all

0

> 0, there exists a 1 > 0 such that |f (p) q0 | < > 0, there exists a 2 > 0 such that |g (p) r0 | <

Know

WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |(f g )(p) q0 r0 | < when 0 < |p p0 | < . I claim that for 2 + (|qo | + |r0 |) where = = we are able to choose a = min{1 , 2 } such that our WTS statement is fullled. Let's do some algebra to see how to get the expression First, let's add in 0 using f (p)r0 and f (p)r0 to get
2

+ (|qo | + |r0 |) .

## |(f g )(p) q0 r0 | = |f (p)g (p) q0 r0 | = |f (p) (g (p) r0 ) + r0 (f (p) q0 )|

From here, we can use Triangle Inequality and the property of absolute values that |x y | |x| |y | to obtain
|f (p)| |g (p) r0 | + |r0 | |f (p) q0 |

## and |g (p) r0 | <

, so we have that

## Then, we can add in 0 again with |q0 | and | q0 | to get

(|f (p) q0 + q0 | + |r0 |)

## We then use Triangle Inequality again

(|f (p) q0 | + |q0 | + |r0 |)

## Lastly, we can substitute in |f (p) q0 | <

again to obtain
2

( + |q0 | + |r0 |) =

+ (|qo | + |r0 |)

We would like this last inequality, 2 + (|qo | + |r0 |) , to hold true. Consider what happens if = 0. Then the left side of the inequality goes to 0. Similarly, if e = , then the left side of the inequality goes to as well. So there must exist some maximum such that 0 < < and the left side of the inequality crosses . We may then set our known = = to be less than this maximum which ensures us that the inequality holds true. So then for this > 0, there exists = min{1 , 2 } such that |(f g )(p) q0 r0 | < when 0 < |p p0 | < .

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 4) Prove the Squeeze Theorem. Let f, h, g : E R. Suppose that for all p Br (p0 )\{p0 } E , we know that f (p) g (p) h(p). Suppose that we know limpp0 f (p) = limpp0 h(p) = q0 . Prove that limpp0 g (p) = q0 . Proof

when 0 < |p p0 | < 1 and p E . from limpp0 h(p) = r0 that for all > 0, there exists a 2 > 0 such that |h(p) q0 | < when 0 < |p p0 | < 2 and p E . that f (p) g (p) h(p) for |p p0 | < r. WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |g (p) q0 | < when 0 < |p p0 | < and p E .

0

## > 0, there exists a 1 > 0 such that |f (p) q0 | <

Know Know

We can rewrite our given |f (p) q0 | < and |h(p) q0 | < as q0 < f (p) < q0 + and q0 < h(p) < q0 + , respectively. If we choose p E and = min{1 , 2 , r}, then we know that q0 < f (p) g (p) h(p) < q0 + must hold true when 0 < |p p0 | < . So then we have that q0 < g (p) < q0 + , which can be written as |g (p) q0 | < . Thus, we have shown that for all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |g (p) q0 | < when p E and 0 < |p p0 | < , where = min{1 , 2 , r}. Therefore, limpp0 g (p) = q0 .

## Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 5) Find a function f : R R which is continuous only at 0.

x if x Q I claim that the function f (x) = is continuous only at 0. 0 if x /Q

Proof Let's show that f is continuous at 0. To show that f is continuous at x, we must show that for all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that f (B (x)) B ((f (x)). If x = 0, then f (x) = 0. Then B (0) = ( , ). If we let = e, then clearly f (B (0)) B (0) because every rational within = distance of 0 will just map to itself and every irrational will map to 0. Now let's show that f cannot be continuous anywhere else in R. Case 1 Let a = 0 Q. Then f (a) = a. WTS: There exists an > 0 such that every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B ((f (a)), or f (B (a)) B (a). | Let = |a 2 . Then by how we have dened , B (a) does not contain 0. However, we know that B (a) is an open ball in R, and thus an open set. Then, as we have shown in class previously and LUB5, we know that any open set will contain both rational and irrational numbers. Thus, when B (a) is mapped, the irrationals in that open ball will get mapped to 0, which we determined was not in B (a). | B (a). Therefore, it is clear that for = |a 2 , every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) Case 2 Let a = 0 / Q. Then f (a) = 0. WTS: There exists an > 0 such that every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B ((f (a)), or f (B (a)) B (0). | Let = |a 2 . Then by how we have dened , B (0) does not contain a. However, we know that B (a) is an open ball in R, and thus an open set. Then, as we have shown in class previously and LUB5, we know that any open set will contain both rational and irrational numbers. Thus, when B (a) is mapped, the rationals in that open ball will get mapped to a, which we determined was not in B (0). | Therefore, it is clear that for = |a 2 , every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B (0). We have now shown that f is continuous at 0 but at no other values of x R. 7

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 6) Find a function f : R R which is nowhere continuous, but |f | is everywhere continuous.
1 if x Q is nowhere continuous, but |f (x)| = 1 for all I claim that the function f (x) = 1 if x /Q x R is everywhere continuous.

Proof Let's show that f is nowhere continuous. Case 1 Let a Q. Then f (a) = 1. WTS: There exists an > 0 such that every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B ((f (a)), or f (B (a)) B (1). Let = 1 2 . Then by how we have dened , B (1) does not contain 1. However, we know that B (a) is an open ball in R, and thus an open set. Then, as we have shown in class previously and LUB5, we know that any open set will contain both rational and irrational numbers. Thus, when B (a) is mapped, the irrationals in that open ball will get mapped to 1, which we determined was not in B (1). Therefore, it is clear that for = 1 B (1). 2 , every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) Case 2 Let a / Q. Then f (a) = 1. WTS: There exists an > 0 such that every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B ((f (a)), or f (B (a)) B (1). Let = 1 2 . Then by how we have dened , B (1) does not contain 1. However, we know that B (a) is an open ball in R, and thus an open set. Then, as we have shown in class previously and LUB5, we know that any open set will contain both rational and irrational numbers. Thus, when B (a) is mapped, the rationals in that open ball will get mapped to 1, which we determined was not in B (1). Therefore, it is clear that for = 1 2 , every > 0 for x R and |x a| < implies f (B (a)) B (1). We have now shown that f is nowhere continuous. However, we know that |f (x)| = 1 for all x R. It is clear that this is continuous. Let > 0 and = . Then for all x R such that |x a| < , we have that f (B (a)) B (1) because every element in the open ball B (a) will be mapped to 1. Thus, our denition for continuity holds for all such a R, meaning |f | is everywhere continuous. 8

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 7) Use the denition of continuity to prove that every function f : Z R is continuous. Proof Let p0 Z and f (p0 ) = q0 R WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |f (p) q0 | < when p Z and |p p0 | < , or f (B (p0 )) B (q0 ). Let = 1 B (p0 ) = p0 . This means that the only element in B (p0 ) that 2 . Then we notice that Z will get mapped is p0 . Thus, we have that p = p0 . Therefore, we see that |f (p) f (p0 )| = |f (p0 ) f (p0 )| = 0 < for all > 0.

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 8) Consider the usual metric d(x, y ) = |x y | on R. We could choose to think of d as a real-valued function on R R = R2 . Prove thatd : R2 R is a continuous function (equipped with Euclidean metric). Proof Let p0 = (x0 , y0 ) R2 and d(p0 ) = |x0 y0 | R. WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |d(p) d(p0 )| < when p = (x, y ) R2 and d(p, p0 ) < . When d(p, p0 ) < , we know by the denition of the Euclidean metric that (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < . Then we have that (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 < 2 , which implies that |x x0 | < and |y y0 | < . Let = 2 . Then by denition of d, we have
|d(p) d(p0 )| = ||x y | |x0 y0 ||

## Then using the Reverse Triangle Inequality, we obtain

|x y x0 + y0 | = |(x x0 ) + (y0 y )|

## Then we can apply the Triangle Inequality to get

|x x0 | + |y y0 |

Then we use the fact that |x x0 | < and |y y0 | < to get our nal result
< + = 2 = 2( ) = 2

10

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 9) A function f : E E is an open map if the image of every open set in E is an open set in E . Find a function f : R R that is a continuous function, but not an open map. I claim that the function f : R R dened by f (x) = 0 is a continuous function but not an open map. Proof First, let's show that f is continuous. Let p0 R and f (p0 ) = q0 R. WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |f (p) q0 | < when |p p0 | < and p R. Let = . Then since f (x) = 0 for all x R, we have that
|f (p) q0 | = |0 0| = 0 <

for all > 0. Thus, f is continuous. However, it is clear to see that f is not an open map. For any open set U R, the denition of the function tells us that the entire set will just be mapped to {0} R. We know that {0} is closed because the complement is R\{0}. In this complement, we can take any point a and nd an open ball centered at a contained entirely in R\{0} by taking a radius of < |a|. We know that {0} is not open because any open ball centered a 0 will contain some points outside of the set {0}.

11

Eric Oh Math 63 Problem Set 7 10) Find a counterexample to the following statement: If f : R R is continuous and S is connected, then f 1 (S ) is connected. I claim that the function f (x) = x2 where S = {1} is a counterexample to the statement. Proof Clearly, S is connected. It consists of only one element and thus there can be no possible separation whose union is {1}. Let's show that f is continuous. Let x0 R and f (x0 ) = x2 0 R. WTS: For all > 0, there exists a > 0 such that |f (x) f (x0 )| < when |x x0 | < and x R. Let = |x+x0 | . So then using the denition of f , we have
|f (x) f (x0 )| = |x2 x2 0 | = |(x x0 )(x + x0 )|

|x x0 | |y y0 |

## Lastly, we substitute in what we know, that |x x0 | < to get

< | x + x0 | = |x + x0 | |x + x0 | =

Thus, f is continuous at all points in R. Now let's show that f 1 (S ) is not connected. It is clear that f 1 (S ) = {1, 1} = C . Let's nd a separation of this set of two elements such that C = A B , where A and B are open, nonempty, and disjoint subsets of C . By the denition of the subspace topology, a subset is open in C if it is the intersection of C with an open set in R. Let A = C (, 0) and B = C (0, ). We know from class that both (, 0) and (0, ) are open sets of R so this shows that A and B are open subsets of C . In addition, A = 1 and B = 1, proving that there exists a separation of C with open, disjoint, and nonempty subsets whose union is C . Thus, f 1 (S ) is not connected.

12