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The University of Hong Kong Department of Civil Engineering

Theory and Design of Structures I Reinforced Concrete Design

Scope

Rectangular singly and doubly reinforced beams

Elastic design

Limit state design concepts; material strength and loading

Flexural strength and shear strength of beams; one-way slabs

References

1. BS8110: 1985, Structural use of concrete – Part 3: Design charts for singly reinforced beams, doubly reinforced beams and rectangular columns, British Standard Institution, London, 1985.

2. BS8110: 1997, Structural use of concrete – Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction, British Standard Institution, London, 1997.

3. Code of practice for structural use of concrete 2004, second edition, Buildings Department, Hong Kong, 2008.

4. Design of structural elements: concrete, steelwork, masonry and timber design to British standards and Eurocodes, 2nd ed., C. Arya, Spon Press, London, 2003.

5. Reinforced concrete design, 5th ed., W.H. Mosley, J.H. Bungey and R. Hulse, Macmillan Press, Basingstoke, 1999.

6. Reinforced concrete designer’s handbook, 10th ed., C.E. Reynolds and J.C. Steedman, E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988.

7. Reinforced concrete design to BS8110: simply explained, A.H. Allen, E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1988.

8. Structural design in concrete to BS8110, L.H. Martin, P.C.L. Croxton and J.A. Purkiss, Edward Arnold, London, 1989.

Introduction A plain concrete beam cannot support much loading because of the low tensile strength. The introduction of steel tension reinforcement can effectively strengthen a concrete beam. In a reinforced concrete (RC) beam, the concrete carries compression while the steel reinforcement mainly carries tension.

while the steel reinforcement mainly carries tension. b f c d Z = b d 2
b f c d Z = b d 2 / 6 f c ′
b
f c
d
Z = b d 2 / 6
f c ′
mainly carries tension. b f c d Z = b d 2 / 6 f c
mainly carries tension. b f c d Z = b d 2 / 6 f c

Figure 1(a) Plain concrete beam under loading.

/ 6 f c ′ Figure 1(a) Plain concrete beam under loading. Section (cracked) C a

Section

(cracked)

C a T
C
a
T

M = Ca = Ta

Figure 1(b) Reinforced concrete beam under loading.

1

Y.P. strain strain stress stress
Y.P.
strain
strain
stress
stress

Concrete

Steel Figure 2. Stress-strain curves for concrete and steel.

Properties of steel The stress is proportional to the strain up to the yield point. At the yield point, steel becomes plastic and the stress remains practically constant while the strain increases. Finally owing to work hardening, there is another increase in stress but not in proportion to strain.

Properties of concrete It has no clearly defined yield point. Nor is stress ever proportional to strain exactly. However, that portion of the stress-strain curve below 1/3 of the ultimate strength is very nearly a straight line and is assumed to be so. Beyond 1/3 of the ultimate strength, the concrete is in the elasto-plastic state, and the stress is no longer proportional to strain.

Methods of design The following methods of design are available:

1. Based on elastic theory (elastic theory method in CP114 and previous Hong Kong codes)

2. Based on ultimate load (load factor method in CP114 and previous Hong Kong codes)

3. Based on limit states design philosophy (BS8110, CP110 and present Hong Kong concrete code)

Elastic method When the elastic method is adopted, the structural members are reinforced so that at working load, the maximum stress in the concrete is a certain fraction of the cube strength and the maximum stress in the steel is a certain fraction of the yield stress. The ratio of the yield stress (or cube strength) to the permissible stress in steel (or concrete respectively) is called the stress factor of safety. When a structure is designed on an elastic basis with a stress factor of 2, it does not mean that the structure will carry twice the working load before it fails. The reason is that at stresses slightly greater than the permissible values, the concrete structure no longer behaves in a linear manner. Therefore, the stress factor of safety is no real guide to the true safety margin of the structure.

Ultimate load design method When the ultimate load design method is adopted, the structure is designed so that the working load is some fraction of the ultimate load. The load that the structure can carry is calculated. The ratio of the ultimate load to the working load is called the load factor of safety, and hence ultimate load design method is often called load factor design method. In the previous Hong Kong concrete code and CP114, the load factor is 1.8.

2

Elastic Design of an RC Section

h

b

Elastic Design of an RC Section h b A s d Notations: b b = breadth

A s

A s
d
d
Notations: b b = breadth h = total depth d = effective depth x =
Notations:
b
b = breadth
h
= total depth
d
= effective depth
x = neutral axis depth
x
A
=
area of tension reinforcement
s
N.A.
p
=
permissible compressive stress in
cb
concrete due to bending
α e A s
p
=
permissible tensile stress in steel
st
α
=
E
E
=
modular ratio
e
s
c

Figure 3. Assumptions in elastic design.

Taking moment about N.A. (uniform stress creates a resultant through N.A.)

1 bx 2 = α A (d − x) s 2 e 1 bx 2
1
bx
2 = α
A
(d −
x)
s
2 e
1
bx
2 +
α
A x −
α
A d = 0
s
e
s
2 e
α
A
+
(
2
α
A
)
+
(4)
(
b
2 α
)(
A d
)
e
s
e
s
e
s
x =

b

 

= −

2 α A  α A  2α A d e s e s e
2
α
A
α
A
A d
e
s
e
s
e
s
+
+
b
b
b

I

1

bx

3

A

(

d

 

) 2

=

 

+α

x

 

3

e

s

 

At top fibre,

 

Z c =

f

cb

=

I

x

M

Mx

=

Z

c

I

p

cb

At steel level,

Z

I

s

f

st

=

(

d

M

)

x

=

α

e

(

M d

x

)

α

e

Z

s

I

=

p

st

Design resistance moment is the smaller of

M

c

M s

Case 1:

Case 2:

Case 3:

=

p

= p

f st

f

st

f

st

cb

Z

c

=

I p

cb

x

st

Z

s

= p

< p

= p

I p

st

= α

e

(d

x)

st

st

st

,

,

,

f cb

f

cb

f

cb

< p

= p

= p

cb

cb

cb

Under-reinforced

Over-reinforced

Balanced

3

σ =

My

I

Example: Elastic design of reinforced concrete slab

A 225mm thick reinforced concrete slab spans an effective distance of 7.5m between two brick walls. The slab is designed to support an imposed load comprising a uniformly distributed load and a transverse line load at mid-span. The main reinforcement is T20/150

and the secondary reinforcement is T12/300. The cover provided to the main reinforcement is 15mm. The screeding and ceiling finish together weigh 0.5kN/m 2 and the density of reinforced concrete is assumed to be 24kN/m 3 . (Question 5, May 2000 Examination)

(a)

Using the elastic method, calculate the maximum safe bending moment per unit width that can be carried by the slab if permissible tensile stress in steel = 250N/mm 2 ; permissible bending stress in concrete = 13.3N/mm 2 ; and modular ratio = 15.

(b)

If the uniformly distributed imposed load is 5kN/m 2 , determine the maximum safe transverse line load that can be carried at mid-span.

(c)

Calculate the maximum stresses in concrete and steel if the slab is subjected to a uniformly distributed imposed load of 5kN/m 2 and a transverse line load of 6kN/m at mid-span. Draw a sketch showing how the stresses are distributed along the depth of the mid-span section.

Solution:

(a) Maximum safe bending moment per unit width

Consider 1m width of slab. The dimensions are span = 7.5m, b = 1000mm, h = 225mm and cover = 15mm.

The reinforcement is Main reinft.:

T20/150

Secondary reinft.:

T12/300

Effective depth

Sectional area of reinft.

d = 225 15 20 / 2 = 200mm

A

s

=

π

4

(

20

)

2

1000

150

=

2

2094mm /m

Allowable stresses

Modular ratio

Let the neutral axis depth be x. Taking moment about the neutral axis,

p

α

st

e

=

=

250N/mm

15

(

1

2

)(1000)x = (15)(2094)(200 x)

2

2

p

cb

= 13.3N/mm

500

2

x

+

31410

x

6282000

=

0

x = 85.0mm The second moment of area is

15

I

=

( )(

1

3

1000

)(

85.0

)

3

+

(

6

= 620.1×10 mm

4

)(

2094

)(

200 85.0

)

2

4

2

The section moduli are

Z c

Z

s

=

=

I

=

620.1

×

10

6

=

7.295

×

6

 

x

 

85.0

 
 

I

=

620.1

×

10

6

 

(

d

x

)

α

e

(

200

)(

85.0 15

)

=

10 mm

3

0.3595

×

6

10 mm

3

The maximum safe moment is the smaller of

M

M

c

s

=

=

(7.295

(0.3595

×

10

6

×

10

)(13.3)

=

97.02

×

6

10 Nmm

=

97.02kNm

6

)(250)

=

89.88

×

6

10 Nmm

=

89.88kNm

Hence the maximum safe moment is 89.88kNm and the section is under-reinforced.

(b)

Maximum safe transverse line load at mid-span

Self-weight = (24)(1.0)(0.225) = 5.4kN/m Screeding and ceiling finish = 0.5kN/m Total DL = 5.4 + 0.5 = 5.9kN/m

(c)

UDLL = 5kN/m

2 Let KELL = PkN/m

Moment caused by DL and LL

=

( )(5.9

1

8

+

5)(7.5)

2

+

( ) P (7.5)

1

4

= (76.64 + 1.875P)kNm/m 76.64 + 1.875P = 89.88 Maximum P = 7.06kN/m

If UDLL = 5kN/m

2 and KELL = P = 6kN/m

Bending moment The stresses are

M = 76.64 + (1.875)(6) = 87.89kNm/m

f

cb

f st

=

=

M

87.89

×

10

6

=

Z

M

c

7.295

87.89

×

×

10

6

10

6

=

Z

s

0.3595

×

10

6

= 12.05N/mm

= 244.5N/mm

2

2

5

12.05N/mm 2

85 200 244.5N/mm 2
85
200
244.5N/mm 2

Figure 4. Stress distribution (not to scale).

Limit State Design of RC Structures

The general philosophy of limit state design applies. The particular requirements are

highlighted below. Unless otherwise stated, the design code is Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004 Second Edition (the Hong Kong Concrete Code).

Partial safety factors for load γ f The partial safety factors for load γ f for ultimate limit state (ULS) are shown in Table 1. A partial safety factor of γ f = 1.0 is usually applied to all load combinations at the serviceability limit state (SLS). Define the following symbols for the common types of loading. G k = characteristic dead load Q k = characteristic imposed load W k = characteristic wind load

Table 1. Load combinations and values of γ f for ultimate limit state (Table 2.1 in Hong Kong Concrete Code)

ultimate limit state (Table 2.1 in Hong Kong Concrete Code) The design loads should be combined

The design loads should be combined such that they give the most severe condition to the structure or cross section being considered. Whether the larger or smaller value should be used depends on which gives the more critical condition. For Load Combination 1 (i.e. dead + imposed), the design load effects at ULS should normally be calculated based on (1.4 G k + 1.6 Q k ). For Load Combination 2 (i.e. dead + wind), the corresponding design load effects should be calculated based on 1.4 (G k + W k ). For Load Combination 3 (i.e. dead + imposed + wind), the corresponding design load effects should be calculated based on 1.2 (G k + Q k + W k ). However in the rough check of stability of a building of breadth B and height H against overturning, the criterion should be 1.0 G k × ½ B > 1.4 W k × ½ H At SLS, the design load effects for Load Combinations 1, 2 and 3 are (G k + Q k ), (G k + W k ) and (G k + Q k + W k ) respectively.

Partial safety factors for strength of material γ m The partial safety factors for strength of materials γ m for ULS are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Values of γ m for ultimate limit state (Table 2.2 in Hong Kong Concrete Code)

ULS are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Values of γ m for ultimate limit state

6

Stress development in RC section

Because of the non-linear stress-strain relationship of concrete, the stress distribution in an

RC section varies with the applied bending moment.

d

h b
h
b
an RC section varies with the applied bending moment. d h b At working load Beyond
an RC section varies with the applied bending moment. d h b At working load Beyond
an RC section varies with the applied bending moment. d h b At working load Beyond

At working load

Beyond

At failure (stress

(stress condition for elastic design)

working load

condition for ultimate load design)

Figure 5. Stress development in a reinforced concrete section.

Flexural Strength of RC Sections

The following notations are used:

b = breadth

h

=

total depth

d

=

effective depth of tension reinforcement

d ′ = depth to compression reinforcement

x =

neutral axis depth

A

=

area of tension reinforcement

s

′ =

A

s

area of compression reinforcement

f

cu

f

st

f

sc

f

y

ε

ε

ε

cc

st

sc

= characteristic strength of concrete

= stress in tension reinforcement

= stress in compression reinforcement

= characteristic strength of reinforcement

= maximum compressive strain in concrete

= tensile strain in tension reinforcement

= compressive strain in compression reinforcement

7

The following assumptions are made for the ultimate strength design of reinforced concrete sections:

1. The strain distribution across the section is linear.

2. The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.

3. The compressive strain of concrete is the criterion for failure of the RC beam section. The ULS of the section is reached when the concrete strain at the extreme compression

MPa

fibre ε cc reaches a specified ultimate value of ε cu where = 0.0035

and

ε

cu

for

f

cu

60

= 0.0035 0.00006 ×

f − 60 cu
f
− 60
cu

ε cu

for

f

cu

> 60

MPa.

4. From the short-term design stress-strain curve for normal-weight concrete as shown in Figure 6, the maximum concrete compressive stress at failure is taken to be (0.67f cu )/γ m , which is equal to 0.45f cu noting that γ m = 1.5 for concrete in flexure.

5. At failure of the RC beam section, the distribution of concrete compressive stress may be defined by the idealized stress-strain curve in Figure 6 (i.e. parabolic plus rectangular) or the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 7.

0. 67 f γ cu m Parabolic ε = 0.0035 cu curve for f ≤
0. 67 f
γ
cu
m
Parabolic
ε
=
0.0035
cu
curve
for
f
≤ 60
MPa
cu
ε
=
0.0035 − 0.00006
f
− 60
cu
c u
for
f
> 60
MPa
c u
f
kN/mm 2
cu
E
=
3.46
+ 3.21
c
γ
m
Ε
for 20MPa ≤
f
c
100MPa
cu
1.34 f
γ
E
Strain
ε cu
c u
m
c
Stress

Figure 6. Short-term design stress-strain curve for normal-weight concrete (Fig. 3.8 of Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004 Second Edition)

x

0.67 f cu / γ m ε cu s = 0.9x for ≤ 45 MPa
0.67
f cu / γ m
ε cu
s = 0.9x
for
45 MPa
f cu
s = 0.8x
for 45 <
70 MPa
f cu
s = 0.72x
for 70 <
100 MPa
f cu
ε
= 0.0035
cu
for
≤ 60
MPa
f cu
ε
= 0.0035 − 0.00006
f
− 60
cu
cu
for
> 60
MPa
f cu
Neutral Axis
Strain
Stress
s

Figure 7. Simplified stress block for concrete at ultimate

limit state (Fig. 6.1 of Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004 Second Edition)

6. The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from the stress-strain curve as shown in

Figure 8. The maximum steel stress is taken to be f y /γ m , which is equal to 0.87f y noting that γ m = 1.15 for reinforcement. Assuming a Young’s modulus of E s = 200000 N/mm 2 ,

the yield strain of the design stress-strain curve is therefore 0.87

f

y

Tension f y / γ m 200 kN/mm 2 Strain Compression f y / γ
Tension
f y / γ m
200 kN/mm 2
Strain
Compression
f y / γ m
Stress
/ γ m 200 kN/mm 2 Strain Compression f y / γ m Stress 200000 .

200000

.

Figure 8. Short-term design stress-strain curve for reinforcement (Fig. 3.9 of Hong Kong Concrete Code)

7. Where a section is designed to resist flexure only, the lever arm should not be greater than 0.95d, where d = effective depth (Clause 6.1.2.4(a) of Hong Kong Concrete Code).

8

Figure 9 shows the cross-section of an RC member subjected to bending and the resultant strain diagram together with three different types of stress distribution in concrete.

b ε cc ' A s d ' d ε sc A s ε st
b
ε
cc
'
A
s
d '
d
ε sc
A
s
ε st
Section
Strains
x s Neutral axis (a) (b) (c) Triangular Rectangular Equivalent parabolic rectangular
x
s
Neutral
axis
(a) (b)
(c)
Triangular
Rectangular
Equivalent
parabolic
rectangular

Stress Blocks

Figure 9. Section with strain diagrams and stress blocks.

Classification of RC sections

An RC section may be: (1) Under-reinforced; (2) Critical / balanced; or (3) Over-

reinforced.

(1) Under-reinforced section

If the tension reinforcement is smaller than a certain amount known as the balanced steel

content, the section is regarded as an under-reinforced section. Upon loading, the tension reinforcement will reach the yield strength before the concrete reaches its compression capacity. The steel strain must not be less than that corresponding to the yield stress when the section fails. After yielding has commenced, the stress in the steel remains constant while the strain increases. It is assumed that at failure, the steel stress is the design yield stress. The large plastic elongation of the tension reinforcement causes the concrete in the tension zone to crack. The serious cracking and excessive deflection serve as warning signals before the imminent failure of the member. This kind of tension failure is ductile and it allows

redistribution of forces to other parts of the structure if it is statically indeterminate.

ε cc < ε cu F cc F st
ε cc < ε cu
F cc
F st

ε st > yield strain Figure 10. Under-reinforced section.

ε cc = ε cu F cc F st
ε cc = ε cu
F cc
F st

ε st = yield strain

Figure 11. Balanced section.

(2) Balanced section

At the failure of a

balanced section, the concrete reaches the maximum strain ε cu at the same time when the steel reaches the yield strain.

A balanced or critical section has exactly the balanced steel content.

9

(3) Over-reinforced section If the tension reinforcement is more than a certain amount known as the balanced steel content, the section is regarded as an over-reinforced section. Upon loading, the concrete may reach its compression capacity before the tension reinforcement reaches its tensile

strength. In an over-reinforced section, the concrete reaches the maximum strain ε cu while the steel strain is still below the yield strain. Members with over-reinforced sections will fail suddenly in a brittle manner if the concrete is not properly confined. There may be little visible warning prior to failure. The characteristics of failure are the crushing of concrete in the compression zone, small deflection, and absence of cracking in the tension zone. The failure is called compression failure. To prevent a brittle failure without warning, some design codes (such as BS8110) specify that the design neutral axis depth x cannot exceed half of the effective depth d, no matter how much reinforcement is provided. The Hong Kong Concrete Code introduces the following restrictions:

x ≤ 0.5d for f ≤ 45 N/mm 2 ; cu x ≤ 0.4d for
x
≤ 0.5d
for
f
≤ 45
N/mm 2 ;
cu
x
≤ 0.4d
for 45 <
≤ 70
N/mm 2 ; or
f cu
x
0.33d for 70 <
≤ 100
N/mm 2 and no moment redistribution.
f cu
ε cc = ε cu
F cc
F st

ε st < yield strain Figure 12. Over-reinforced section.

Ultimate moment of resistance of a singly reinforced rectangular section

ε b cu x Neutral d axis A s ε st Strain Section distribution
ε
b
cu
x
Neutral
d
axis
A s
ε st
Strain
Section
distribution
0.67f cu /γ m ≅ 0.45 f cu F cc F st s = 0.9x
0.67f cu /γ m ≅ 0.45 f cu
F
cc
F
st
s = 0.9x
z
s/2

Stress

distribution

Figure 13. Singly reinforced section with rectangular stress distribution (f cu 45).

For the design of most RC structures, it is usual to design for the ULS first, followed by checks to ensure that the structure is adequate for the SLS without excessive deflection or cracking. In most cases, the simplified rectangular stress block is used for design at the ULS. The following demonstrates how simple reinforced concrete sections can be analyzed. For simplicity, it is assumed that the concrete grade does not exceed 45 and therefore one has

ε cu

= 0.0035

and x 0.5d .

10

(1) Under-reinforced section

ε cc = ε cu x d ε st > 0.87 f y / E
ε cc = ε cu
x
d
ε st > 0.87 f y / E s

Figure 14.

under-reinforced section at failure.

Strain distribution of an

The bending of a singly reinforced section will induce a resultant tensile force F st in the

steel reinforcement and a resultant compressive force in the concrete F cc that acts through the

Assume a neutral axis depth x

measured from the top extreme compression fibre, the depth of equivalent stress block is 0.9x. The resultant compressive force in concrete F cc is given by

centroid of the effective area of concrete in compression.

F

cc

=

0.67

f

cu

b

γ

m

(

0.9

x

)

=

0.67

f

cu

1.5

(

0.9

bx)

=

0.402

f

cu

bx

Assuming that the steel reinforcement has yielded, the resultant tensile force F st in the steel reinforcement is

F st

= f

st

A

s

=   f

y

A

f

y

= 

γ

m

s

1.15

A

s

=

0.87

f A

y

s

Equating the compression F cc to tension F st , we have 0.402 f bx = 0.87 f A

cu

y

s

x = 2.164

f A

y

s

f

cu

b

(1)

It is necessary to check if the steel reinforcement has actually yielded.

To ensure that the steel reinforcement has actually yielded, check if

ε st

> 0.87 f

y

has actually yielded, check if ε st > 0.87 f y E s which may be

E

s

which may be worked out as

x ε cu d < ε + 0.87 f E cu y s
x
ε cu
d < ε
+ 0.87
f
E
cu
y
s

It shows that the maximum value of the neutral axis depth ratio x/d is dependent on f y , subject to additional requirement of the Hong Kong Concrete Code (Clause 6.1.2.4(b)) limiting the ratio x/d to a maximum of 0.33 to 0.5 depending upon the concrete cube strength f cu .

The lever arm z can be worked out as

(2)

Applying Eq. (2) and assuming a concrete cube strength f cu not exceeding 40N/mm 2 (thus x / d 0.5 ) gives

z = d 0.45x d 0.45d / 2 = 0.775d , i.e. z 0.775d The Hong Kong Concrete Code (Clause 6.1.2.4(a)) also specifies that, where a section is designed to resist only flexure, the lever arm z should not be assumed to be greater than 0.95 times the effective depth d. Therefore the ratio z/d lies within the following limits.

z

the ratio z / d lies within the following limits. z = d − (0.9 x

= d (0.9x) 2 = d 0.45x

0.775 z

ratio z / d lies within the following limits. z = d − (0.9 x )

d 0.95

11

The ultimate moment M of the section can be worked out in terms of the concrete stress

as

M

M

=

=

F

cc

z

0.402

f

cu

bxz

= 0.402 f

cu

b

= 0.9

f

cu

b(d

d

z

0.45

z)z

z

(3)

The ultimate moment M of the section can also be worked out in terms of the steel stress

as

M

F z

=

= 0.87

st

f

y

A z

s

On substituting the lever arm z from Eq. (2) and the neutral axis depth x from Eq. (1), the above equation appears as

M

= 0.87

f A

y

s

(d

0.45

x)

f A

y

s

f A

y

s

d

=

=

0.87

0.87

0.45

d

0.974

×

2.164

f A

y

s

b

bd

f

cu

2

M

Dividing Eq. (4) throughout by

f A

y

s

f

cu

b

gives

M

  A

s

  

 

1

f

y

A

s

bd

2

M

bd

ρ 1

f

cu

bd

= 0.87

=

0.87

y

f

y

f

0.974

f

y

bd

2

f

cu

0.974ρ

(4)

(5)

where the tension reinforcement ratio is defined as

between M and ρ for the construction of part of the design charts.

ρ =

A

s

for the construction of part of the design charts. ρ = A s bd . Eq.

bd

. Eq. (5) gives the relationship

The limiting moment of resistance for a singly reinforced concrete section can be worked out by setting x/d = 0.5 or z/d = 0.775 and invoking Eq. (3)

(6)

Considering both steel yielding and concrete crushing, the ultimate moment M based on steel yielding is given by

M

=

0.156 f

cu

bd

2

M

= 0.87

f A

y

s

 

 

d

0.974

f

y

A

s

f cu

b

 

 

while the moment M based on concrete crushing is given by

M

=

0.156 f

cu

bd

2

The actual ultimate moment is the smaller of the above two values.

exceeds

0.156 f

cu

bd

2 , compression reinforcement is required.

If the applied moment

In the design of an RC section, it is necessary to establish whether it can be designed as a

singly-reinforced section by checking the K value that is defined as

does not exceed 0.156, it can be designed as a singly reinforced section. It is normally

If K

K

as does not exceed 0.156, it can be designed as a singly reinforced section. It is

= M

f

cu

bd

2

.

12

designed as an under-reinforced section. If K exceeds 0.156, compression reinforcement is necessary. Alternatively, the section may be enlarged or the material strengths may be increased.

(2) Balanced section

At the failure of a balanced section, the concrete reaches the maximum strain ( ε
At
the
failure
of
a balanced section, the concrete reaches the maximum strain
( ε
=
0.0035 for
≤ 45
N/mm 2 ) at the same time when the steel reaches the design yield
cu
f cu
strain of 0.87 f
E . From the strain distribution shown in Figure 15, one can write
y
s

x 0.0035

= d − x 0.87 f E y s
=
d
− x
0.87 f
E
y
s

where E s is the Young’s modulus of steel, which is around 200,000 MPa. The neutral axis depth ratio x/d can therefore be worked out as

x

d

=

0.0035

0.87

f

y

x/d can therefore be worked out as x d = 0.0035 0.87 f y E s

E

s

+

0.0035

Equating the compression F cc to tension F st , we have 0.402 f bx = 0.87 f A

cu

y

s

The tension reinforcement ratio for a balanced section defined as out as

ρ b

=

A

s

for a balanced section defined as out as ρ b = A s bd can be

bd

can be worked

ρ

b

=

A

s

=

0.402

f

cu

x

= 0.462

f

cu

x

=

0.462

f

cu

bd

0.87

f

y

d

f

y

d

 

f

y

0.0035            0.87 f E
0.0035
  
    
0.87
f
E
+
0.0035
y
s

(7a)

The ultimate moment M of the section can be calculated from Eq. (5) by setting ρ to be ρ b .

Alternatively, in connection with the use of the simplified stress block, a simpler definition of a balanced section is one having a neutral axis depth ratio x/d of 0.5 while the

steel reaches the design yield strain of 0.87 f

can be calculated as

f

y

x

= 0.462

f

cu

A

s

0.402

x

=

=

cu

E s . The balanced tension reinforcement ratio = 0.231   f cu 

E

s

. The balanced tension reinforcement ratio

=

0.231

f

cu

 

ρ

b

bd

0.87

f

y

d

f

y

d

f

y

(7b)

An RC section with tension reinforcement ratio ρ below ρ b is under-reinforced, while that with tension reinforcement ratio ρ above ρ b is over-reinforced.

x d
x
d
ratio ρ above ρ b is over-reinforced. x d ε c c = 0.0035 ε s

ε cc = 0.0035

ε st = design yield strain in steel = 0.87 f y / E s

Figure 15.

a balanced section at failure.

Strain distribution of

13

ε cc = 0.0035 x d ε st < 0.87 f y / E s
ε cc = 0.0035
x
d
ε st < 0.87 f y / E s

Figure 16.

over-reinforced section at failure.

Strain distribution of an

(3) Over-reinforced section

An over-reinforced section fails by crushing of concrete while the tension reinforcement

. The steel stress may be determined by considering the strain

remains elastic, i.e.

f

s

< 0.87 f

y

distribution diagram in Figure 16.

x 0.0035

=

d

x

ε

s

ε

s

=

0.0035

d

x

x

f

st

=

E

s

ε

s

=

0.0035

E

s

d

x

x

Equating the compression F cc to tension F st , we have

0.402

f bx

cu

=

0.0035

E A

s

s

d

x

x

(8)

After solving for the neutral axis depth x from Eq. (8), the lever arm z can be worked out from Eq. (2). The ultimate moment M of the section can then be calculated from Eq. (3).

0.402

f

cu

bx

2

+

0.0035

E A

s

s

(

x d

)

=

0

Ultimate moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced rectangular section

of resistance of a doubly reinforced rectangular section 2 Compression reinforcement is required when K =

2

Compression reinforcement is required when K = M f bd > 0.156 . Depending on the

cu

reinforcement areas, their positions and strength, the tension and compression steel of a doubly reinforced section may or may not reach the design yield stress when the ultimate moment of the section is reached. However for convenience in design, it is normally assumed at first that all the reinforcement has yielded. This is subsequently modified in case some or all of the reinforcement does not reach the design yield stress. For simplicity, the area of concrete in compression has not been deducted to allow for the concrete displaced by the compression reinforcement. It is also assumed that the concrete grade does not exceed 45 and

therefore one has ε = 0.0035 and x ≤ 0.5d . cu ε cu =
therefore one has ε
= 0.0035
and x ≤ 0.5d .
cu
ε cu = 0.0035
b
d'
A' s
ε
sc
d
Neutral axis
A
s
ε
st
x = d/2

Section

Strain

distribution

0.67f cu /γ m =0.45 f cu

F sc F cc z F st s = 0.9x
F
sc
F
cc
z
F
st
s = 0.9x

Stress

distribution

Figure 17. Doubly reinforced section with rectangular stress distribution (f cu 45).

14

Assuming first that all reinforcement has yielded, the compressive force carried by concrete F cc , the resultant compressive force F sc in the compression reinforcement and the resultant tensile force F st in the tension reinforcement are given as

F

cc

F sc

F st

=

0.67 f

cu

b

γ

m

(

0.9

x

)

=

0.67 f

cu

1.5

(

0.9

bx)

=

0.402

= f

sc

A

s

= f

st

A

s

=

 

f

y

 

 

1.15

f

y

A ′ = 

A

′ =

f A

y

s

f A

y

s

= 

 

γ

m

f

y

 

A

s

= 

 

s

1.15

f

y

γ

m

s

A

s

0.87

= 0.87

f

cu

bx

For equilibrium of the section in Figure 17,

F

st

= F

cc

+ F

sc

so that with the reinforcement at yield

0.87 f A = 0.402 f

y

s

cu

bx + 0.87 f A

y

s

x =

0.87

f

y

(

A

s

A

s

)

0.402 f b

cu

(9)

Once the neutral axis depth x is obtained, the strain distribution of the section can be defined.

The stresses

the design yield stress provided that the respective strains ε conditions:

of the tension and compression reinforcement respectively should be

satisfy the following

f

st

and f

sc

and ε

sc

st

f

st

f sc

= 0.87 f

y

= 0.87 f

y

if

if

ε

st

ε

sc

=

=

0.0035   d

0.0035

x

x   ≥

0.87 f

y

x

d ′   ≥

E

s

0.87 f

y

x

E

s

(10)

(11)

If the above conditions are satisfied, the assumption that all the reinforcement has reached the design yield stress is correct. The ultimate moment M of the section can be obtained by taking moment about the centroid of the tension reinforcement as

M

M

= −

=

F

cc

(d

0.45x)

+

(d

0.45x)

F

sc

0.402 f bx(d

cu

+

d )

0.87 f A (d

s

y

d )

(12)

When the above checks reveal that not all the reinforcement has yielded, the value of neutral axis depth x calculated from Eq. (9) is incorrect. The actual reinforcement stresses and neutral axis depth x have to be recalculated from the equilibrium equation and the strain diagram as follows:

x =

f

st

A

s

f

sc

A

s

0.402 f

cu

b

f E

st

=

s

ε 0.0035

st

=

E

s

f E

sc

=

s

ε 0.0035

sc

=

E

s

d

x

d

x

x

x

15

(13)

(14)

(15)

Once the neutral axis depth x is obtained, the ultimate moment M of the section can be obtained by taking moment about the centroid of the tension reinforcement as

M

M

=

=

(d

F

0.402 f

cc

cu

0.45x)

bx(d

+

F

sc

(d

0.45x)

+

d )

f

s

A (d

s

d )

(16)

In a doubly reinforced section, tension or compression failure may occur. In tension failures, the tension reinforcement yields, while in compression failures, the tension reinforcement remains elastic. In both types of failure, the compression reinforcement may or may not yield when the section fails.

In the normal design process, the coefficient K is checked to see whether compression reinforcement is required. If K exceeds 0.156, it means that the concrete section alone is insufficient to resist the compression. Compression reinforcement is provided such that the neutral axis depth x remains at the maximum permitted value of 0.5d.

Summary

(

of

f

cu

45

N/mm 2 )

procedures

for

flexural

design

of

reinforced

concrete

beams

1. Classification of section Let the required ultimate moment be M.

Work out K where

If K 0.156 , no compression reinforcement is needed and the section may be designed as a singly-reinforced section.

If K > 0.156 , compression reinforcement is needed and the section must be designed as a doubly-reinforced section.

K

section must be designed as a doubly-reinforced section. K = M f cu bd 2 2.

= M

f

cu

bd

2

2. Singly-reinforced section

M z = 0.402 f = F cc bxz cu d − z  =
M
z
= 0.402 f
=
F
cc
bxz
cu
d
− z
= 0.402
f
b
 
z
cu
0.45 
= 0.9
f
b(d
z)z
cu
M
f
bd 2 =
0.9 1
(
− z
/
d
)(z
/
d )
cu
2
Substituting K
=
M
f
bd
,
cu
2
(
z
/
d
)
(
z
/
d
)
+ K
/0.9
=
0
z / d = 0.5 +
(0.25 − K / 0.9)
z = d[0.5 +
(0.25 − K / 0.9)]

Having solved for z, the steel area A s may be determined from

M

A

s

=

=

F z

st

= 0.87

M

f

y

0.87 f

y

z

A z

s

16

3.

Doubly-reinforced section

M

=

=

0.402 f bx(d

F

cc

(d

0.45x)

+

cu

(d

0.45x)

F

sc

+

d )

f

sc

A (d

s

d )

Assume that x = d / 2

Assume that the compression steel has yielded, i.e.

0.402 f bx(d

cu

0.45x)

=

0.156 f bd

cu

2

f

sc

= 0.87 f

y

Therefore

M

=

A ′ =

s

0.156

M

f bd

cu

2

cu

+

f bd

0.87

2

0.156

f A

y

s

(

d

0.87

f

y

(

d

d

)

d

)

Check whether the compression steel has yielded or not. If

ε

sc

=

0.0035

x

d ′   =

0.0035

d

/ 2

d ′   ≥

0.87 f

y

 

x

d / 2

E

s

,

then the compression steel has yielded, i.e.

To compute the required tension steel, note the equilibrium condition

f

sc

= 0.87 f

y

.

F

st

= F

cc

+ F

sc

0.87 f A = 0.402 f

y

s

cu

bx + 0.87 f A

y

s

A

s

=

0.201

f

cu

bd

+ 0.87

f A