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Education Policy 1959

The 1959 Education Policy commenced with a harangue on the undesirable attitudes of the people towards public duty, government, nation-building, manual work and education. It called upon the people to revise their concept of government and their relationship to it, for a corresponding transformation ... Within government and among its officials, for a revision of attitudes on the part of the professional educator, for the traditional views toward education ... held by people ... to be altered, and so on. It lamented that less than 50 percent of the children of primary school age were enrolled in schools and recommended eight years compulsory education to make the child functionally literate. Regarding adult education, the Report admitted that during the last 30 years a number of campaigns have been launched to eradicate illiteracy, but only very limited results were achieved Defining the objectives of the educational system, it stated that the reorientation and reorganization of education in Pakistan which we have suggested will ... provide us with the trained manpower, educated citizenry, and competent leadership we require. Stating the objectives of adult education, it said: "the aim of adult education cannot be anything other than the general aim of all education, i.e., the development of the individual to his full capacity in his personal and social life so that he may be a happy, healthy and useful citizen and able to make his optimum contribution to the community in which he lives ... Starting with the pressing needs and problems of the community concerned, it may, in the long run, include skills of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and

calculation; vocational skills; domestic skills; skills of self-expression in arts and crafts; personal and community hygiene; simple and practical science; civics; economics; spiritual and moral development; and training in reasoning and scientific thinking." The lofty aims were, however, qualified thus: "Before these broader aims can be achieved, the population must be made literate, and therefore the development of a literate population must be the immediate primary objective of adult education in Pakistan." It further stated that: We are well aware that ours is not the first set of proposals for reform of our educational system. Our hope is that it may be the first to be translated into both prompt and long-term action. A target of achieving compulsory universal enrolment in 15 years, i.e., by 1975, was also specified. It called for curriculum reform to develop the basic skills in reading, writing and arithmetic, a liking for working with ones own hands, and a high sense of patriotism, for religious education to be made compulsory, and for teaching in national languages. It also called for improved facilities in school buildings and furniture and for involving the local community in the opening, upkeep, and operation of primary schools. To achieve mass literacy, it recommended somewhat unique, if not fanciful, strategies for eradication of illiteracy. It proposed: (i) (ii) (iii) use of school children as teachers to make their parents literate, use of undergraduate college students as adult literacy teachers, use of one literate adult to teach another under the "each one teach one" approach. No target for the literacy rate was specified.