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Giuliana Bernardi Fici Nicholas Brownlees Susan Burns Anna Maria Rosco

Travel Pass
English for Tourism

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In conformit alla norma UNI EN ISO 9001:2008 per lattivit di Progettazione e realizzazione di prodotti per leditoria scolastica (certificato n. 02.565)

Redattore responsabile: Redazione: Tecnico responsabile: Progetto grafico Copertina: Realizzazione: Ricerca iconografica: Art Direction:

Anna Moretta Gaia Graziano Riccardo Massaro Nadia Maestri, Daniele Pagliari Nadia Maestri, Daniela Maieron Quadri folio Rosangela Berghelli Nadia Maestri

Propriet letteraria riservata 2010 De Agostini Scuola SpA Novara 1 edizione: gennaio 2010 Printed in Italy

Si ringraziano le prof.sse Paola Cecchi, Beatrice Furini, Maddalena Trotta per i preziosi suggerimenti.

Foto di copertina: Icp; Nina Frenkel/Gettyimages; iStockphoto

Le fotografie di questo volume sono state fornite da: DeA Picture Library

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Stampa: Stamperia Artistica Nazionale Trofarello (TO)


Ristampa: 0 Anno:

10

11

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Index

MODULE 1

Tourism through the ages


th

Unit 1 Tourism yesterday and today


The development of tourism before the 20 century Tourism in the 20th century Travelling in the 21 century For and against tourism Respecting the local environment and customs PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT
st

2 2 4 6 10 12 14

Unit 2 Organisation of tourism


Tour operators and travel agencies WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT Formal letters present simple, past simple, wh- questions

16 16 24 28 31

MODULE 2 Unit 1 Manners

Communication
34 34 36 38 39 40 41 44

The impression you make USEFUL PHRASES Dealing with British people Foreign currency Phones Basic telephone etiquette PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

Unit 2 Forms of written communication


Communication through written signs

46 46 III

Index

Taking a message Faxing etiquette E-mail etiquette WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT the imperative form, should, the present passive, reported speech Enquiries

48 50 51 52 55 56 59

MODULE 3 Unit 1 Air travel

Transport
62 62 62 64 65 66 67 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

Tourism and air travel 21st century doubts terrorism Main types of flight The role of IATA Tickets Air fares Electronic tickets Travel insurance Flight timetables Airports Security measures Arrival area services Wheres my suitcase? Customs rules PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

Unit 2 Water and land transport


Water transport Travelling by land Travelling by coach Rail travel The Euro Tunnel High-speed trains Some great train journeys Some famous stations At the railway station Sleepers and couchettes Railpasses in Italy and the UK Around Scotland with a BritRail Pass WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE IV Replies

78 78 84 86 88 89 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 97

Index

USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT the comparative, the superlative

100 101 103

MODULE 4

Accommodation
106 106 111 112 112 114 116 118 119 120 122 123 124 124 125 126 128

Unit 1 Serviced accommodation


Kinds of accommodation Hotel symbols Bed & Breakfasts in the UK Inns in the UK Accommodation in the United States Booking a hotel room Hotel duties Vouchers Helping the guest Dealing with complaints and problems Checking out Additional facilities provided by hotels Conferences and functions Preparing the conference facilities for use The duties of the hotel staff during a conference PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

Unit 2 Self-catering accommodation


Different types of self-catering accommodation Contracts and dissatisfaction Camping, caravans, trailers and motor homes Youth hostels Hostels in Italy WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT relative pronouns, linkers Bookings and confirmations

130 130 132 134 138 139 140 144 145 147

MODULE 5
Marketing

Destination Italy
150 150 V

Unit 1 Promoting destinations, offers and events

Index

Tourist organisations Best of Sicily: Erice Promoting destinations and places Lecce The Corsa dei Ceri in Gubbio The Palio horse race in Siena PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

152 152 154 155 160 160 162

Unit 2 Incoming tourism


Around Italy Italian cuisine Trentino Alto Adige Turin Venice Florence An itinerary in Tuscany Rome Naples The Sassi of Matera Palermo Popular seaside resorts WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT verbs with direct and indirect object, verbs suggest, arrive + in / at, reach Modifications and cancellations

164 164 166 168 170 174 178 182 186 190 193 194 197 199 202 203 205

MODULE 6

Destinations the UK and the USA


208 208 215 220 222 224 228 230

Unit 1 Destination UK
About London London landmarks Two great tours of England Wales Scotland Ireland PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

Unit 2 Destination USA


About New York VI

232 232

Index

The Top Ten sights in New York On the West coast California Florida the Sunshine State The Grand Canyon Yellowstone National Park WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT the future, first conditional and similar constructions, how + adjectives Complaints and adjustments

238 242 246 248 250 251 254 255 257

MODULE 7

Trends in tourism
260 260 260 264 266 268 270 272 274

Unit 1 Outgoing tourism


Favourite destinations Fashionable places Egypt Short breaks to European capitals Paris Some other great European cities Short haul destinations in the Mediterranean PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

Unit 2 The criteria for choosing a holiday


A careful choice Responsible tourism Target tourism WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT must / have to, present perfect, words relating to nationality Circulars

276 276 278 280 284 287 288 291

MODULE 8

Working in tourism
294 294 294 VII

Unit 1 Jobs in tourism


Perspectives of work in tourism Sectors

Index

Jobs Environments Prospects Tourism researchers Resort work Holiday representatives Working in a travel agency Key figures in a hotel Guides Tourist Information Centres PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT

294 295 295 296 296 297 298 300 302 303 304

Unit 2 Looking for a job


Getting ready for work Choosing a career Where to look for jobs Applying for work in the UK and Ireland Writing a Curriculum Vit Going for an interview WRITTEN CORRESPONDENCE USEFUL PHRASES GRAMMAR REVISION PRE-TEST ASSESSMENT duration form, present perfect and present continuous in an interview Letters of application

306 306 307 308 310 312 315 317 319 320 321

CULTURE AND TOURISM


Eating and drinking in the UK Eating and drinking in the USA Shopping in the UK Shopping in the USA Sporting events Multicultural events Arts and music festivals The contribution of native inhabitants to tourism From literature to tourism Two aspects of Victorian London: Dickens and Wilde Dublins most famous author: James Joyce Differences between British and American English

323 324 326 328 329 330 332 335 336 338 340 342 343

VIII

Index

ESAME DI STATO
Esame di Stato Seconda prova Esame di Stato Terza prova

345 346 354

GLOSSARY

357

Travel Pass on-line www.scuola.com/Valmartina - risorse didattiche aggiuntive Sono previsti i seguenti approfondimenti e aggiornamenti on-line: - schede per la comprensione video - pagine sulla storia dellarte - approfondimenti di letteratura in preparazione allEsame di Stato - esercizi e suggerimenti propedeutici allesame PET.

IX

Tourism through the ages

Module

Theory
Tourism Testo in the past The future of tourism Different kinds of tourism Positive and negative aspects of tourism Respecting local environment and customs Different kinds of tour operators Functions of travel agencies Jobs in tourism

Practical aims
Speaking Testo about tourism The role of the Internet Using the Internet

Correspondence
The Testo layout of a formal letter Introduction to written correspondence

formal and informal style

Grammar
present Testo simple past simple wh- questions

Unit

1 Tourism yesterday and today


The development of tourism before the 20th century
During the 18th century, members of the British upper classes began going on what they called the Grand Tour when they visited the most important cultural centres in Europe, particularly France and Italy. The Grand Tour therefore introduced a cultural dimension to tourism. But still the journey itself from one place to another was long, uncomfortable and often dangerous. It was also very expensive so only the richer people moved. Poor people moved around the countryside looking for work, usually on farms and often staying in one place for only a short time. This situation changed with the Industrial Revolution. People moved to the cities and stayed there. During this period one of the most significant developments was that of transport. At first boats and trains were used to transport materials and goods to and from factories but gradually people started using them, too, especially trains. People could now travel further, more quickly and more comfortably. Industrialisation led to a new class of wealthy people and in a short time the phenomenon of tourism went from being the privilege of the rich minority to an important part of life for a large majority.

Tourism can be defined as a temporary visit, usually for pleasure, to a place where you do not usually live, creating the need for transport, information and catering services, accommodation and entertainment. While today people make temporary trips for many reasons to visit friends or family, work, study, do sport, have a holiday, or for cultural interest up until the 16th century people travelled mainly for commercial and religious reasons. The Greeks and the Romans travelled in the Mediterranean and also to other more distant parts to buy and sell their goods and also to expand their empires. In the Middle Ages people started making trips to places of religious importance and later people began to travel for health reasons. While the Romans were in Britain they discovered the benefits of the water at a place that we now call Bath. This town has the only hot springs in Britain. The Romans built baths there, giving the town its name. During what we call the Georgian period (c 1714-1830), it was fashionable for middle-class people to go there to take the waters. They needed entertainment, so magnificent ballrooms were built and soon there was a second reason for going to Bath it was a great place to find a husband! So families with young girls made the long journey there hoping for success! This was the beginning of tourism as we know it today.

1. Answer the questions.


1. How can tourism be defined? 2. Following this definition, why is migration different from tourism? 3. Why do people stay for a short period in another place? 4. Why did the Greeks and the Romans travel? 5. Why did people go to Bath during the Georgian period? 2 What was the Grand Tour? What dimension did it add to tourism? Why did poor people move around? Which aspect of the Industrial Revolution influenced tourism? 10. Why was this development significant for the development of tourism? 6. 7. 8. 9.

Tourism through the ages Module

2. Complete the summary of the passage on page 2 using the words given.
visit development France transport entertainment trips religious cultural Grand accessible temporary information different Bath Tourism can be defined as a 1....................................................... stay in a place which is not your usual home. This means that you will need 2 ....................................................... to get there and back, you will have to eat, sleep and ask for 3................................................ You will probably want some kind of 4....................................................................... while you are there 5 ............................................................................... interesting places and go out in the evening. People make 6....................................................................... for various reasons but in the past these reasons were 7........................................................... from today. Before the 16th century, when people started travelling for 8................................................................ reasons, the main reason was commerce. Then people started travelling for health reasons, 9................................................................ being an example, but they also needed entertainment. A 10................................................................ element was brought to tourism in the 18th century when rich people started going on the 11................................................................ Tour, visiting places mainly in 12......................................................... and Italy for cultural purposes. The Industrial Revolution brought the 13 ............................................... of transport, making it easier and more comfortable to move around and so travelling became 14 ......................................................... to most people.

Vocabulary

3. Arrange the words or expressions in the grid.


tourist food holidaymaker accommodation help entertainment information visitor sightseeing buying souvenirs nightlife, tours and excursions
Person Needs Activities

4. a. Make notes about the development


of tourism.
Definition: ................................................................................................. This creates the need for: .............................................................
.............................................................................................................................

Reasons for travelling: today: ............................................................................................................ 16th century: ............................................................................................ Georgian times: .................................................................................... 18th century: ............................................................................................ during the Industrial Revolution: poor people: ....................................................................................... development of: ..............................................................................

b. Now use your notes to speak about the history of tourism. Remember to use the past simple. Dont make your sentences too long. Dont forget to include the most important facts.

Unit

1 Tourism yesterday and today

Tourism in the 20th century


to sunny places like Spain, while others saw the opportunity of quickly getting to exotic places all over the world. They could now think of going further in the past, a two-week holiday abroad had been impossible if your destination took ten days or longer to reach by ship. Mass global tourism had begun.

4. In recent years there has been an enormous increase


in the number of tourists and in many countries the economy is based on the tourism industry. The choice of holiday is vast: seaside holidays, mountain holidays, study holidays, working holidays, safaris, holidays for young people, old people, students, sports holidays, adventure holidays and many more. For those who want to get away there is no limit to what you can do.

5. A spin-off of this is the huge number of magazines 1. As the 20th century developed, more and more people
travelled abroad, mainly to emigrate to countries like the USA or to work in business and administration posts in European colonies. This, however, cannot be called tourism as we know it today because they did not travel for the particular purpose of leisure. on the subject giving you all kinds of ideas for every season, taste and pocket. Another source of information and ideas is of course the Internet. Only a few minutes browsing will produce hundreds of ideas, places and packages and can put you in touch with others who are willing to chat about their holiday experiences with you.

2. Tourism for leisure or cultural purposes in the UK did


not really start on a large scale until the 1930s, when people started taking a one or two-week break to have a summer holiday, usually at a domestic seaside resort or holiday camp which provided accommodation, food and organised activities. Another phenomenon of the domestic holiday in the UK was the caravan park. In the sixties caravan parks had social clubs, bars, swimming pools and entertainment.

3. International tourism began with the invention of


the jet in the 1950s and the jumbo jet in the 70s. The possibilities of international air travel were quickly exploited by tour operators who started offering international package holidays at low prices. For the first time all sectors of society in the western world could think about a holiday abroad. Because of the bad weather in Britain many people started going

Tourism through the ages Module

5. Link the summary sentences to the


paragraphs on page 4.
Nowadays you can find hundreds of different types of holiday. When the jet was invented tour operators introduced the package holiday. You can find information about holidays through specialist magazines and the Internet. People started taking a summer holiday but they didnt usually go abroad. People travelled abroad to work or to start a new life.

6. Answer the questions.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Why can immigration not be considered tourism? When did tourism become a common phenomenon? Where did people spend their holidays in the 30s? How long did the holiday usually last? What did the holiday camp provide? What were caravan parks like in the 60s? Were the first package holidays expensive? Why are hot countries so attractive to British people? Name a few different kinds of holiday available today. How can you use the Internet when planning your holiday?

Vocabulary

7. Match the underlined words in the passage on page 4 to the following definitions.
1. A kind of holiday which includes all expenses (food, transport, accommodation, trips etc.). ............................................................. 2. Free time. ....................................................................... 3. An organised place where people spend their holidays and which provides accommodation, food and entertainment. ....................................................................... 4. The place where you go for your holiday. ....................................................................... 5. Professional people who organise holidays. ....................................................................... 6. A side effect. ....................................................................... 7. The phenomenon whereby people all over the world go abroad on holiday in large numbers.
.......................................................................

8. A kind of holiday when you also learn a foreign language. .......................................................................

Say it right
8. Study the passage on page 4 and, using the sentences in
exercise 5 as headings to organise your talk, speak about tourism in the 20th century. Think carefully about the tenses you need to use.

Trip, travel, journey


The word trip means a period of time when you are away from home for business or leisure and includes accommodation and activities during that time, e.g. a business trip; a ten-day trip to Africa. The word travel is usually a verb except in expressions like travel agency or during his travels. The word journey means the movement from one place to another, e.g. a train journey.

9. Listen to a person talking about Butlins


Holiday Camps and choose the correct alternative.
1. Billy Butlin had a hotel / fairground* before he opened his first camp. 2. Visitors to the fairground could / couldnt return to their guesthouses during the day if it was raining. 3. He had stayed in a camp in Canada / Australia. 4. He opened his first camp in 1936 / 1946. 5. His camps were very small / big. 6. Redcoats / Bluecoats were people who helped the campers to enjoy their holiday.
* lunapark

Listening

Unit

1 Tourism yesterday and today

Travelling in the 21st century


At the moment tourism is an industry which produces billions of euros a year and is responsible for providing millions of jobs. Although its evolution in the last few years has been irregular, the number of international journeys reveals an overall increase in the sector and experience shows that periods of slow growth always alternate with periods of faster growth. The WTO (World Tourism Organisation), the leading international organisation in travel and tourism, has announced optimistic forecasts for the growth of this sector in the 21st century. Tourists will be travelling further with a substantially increasing percentage of long haul journeys. China is predicted to be the worlds number one destination of the future. Other destinations which will probably make significant progress in the tourism industry are Russia, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia and South Africa. And who knows perhaps even outer space!

Space travel
Several companies are looking at space tourism as a development for the future. On April 28, 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist when he visited the International Space Station for seven days. Many people would like to copy Titos adventure and spend a holiday in space. However, there are several problems. One is the price: a standard trip to a space station costs about $35-45 million. For an extra $10 million you have the chance to be the first private citizen to walk in space! Not everybody can afford that. The second problem is that you must be selected for the trip and if you are accepted you must complete a very rigorous training programme. This is because travelling in a spaceship is not like any other means of transport and the crew of the spaceship must be sure that you will not be a danger to them! Besides, atmospheric conditions in space are very different and weightlessness can damage your body if you havent had proper training.

11. Read the passage about space travel and say


if the sentences are true or false.

10. Read the passage about travelling in the 21


century and answer the questions.

st

1. What can we say about the evolution of tourism in the last few years? 2. What is the WTO? 3. What are its forecasts for the 21st century? 4. Will tourists of the future prefer short or long haul destinations? 5. Which countries will attract tourism in the following years? 6

1. At the moment there is no interest in space tourism. 2. Dennis Tito went on the first space tourism adventure in 2001. 3. These trips are very expensive. 4. It is easy to buy a ticket as a space tourist. 5. Space travel is very similar to other means of transport. 6. Space tourists must do a lot of serious preparation for the trip.

T T T T T T

F F F F F F

Tourism through the ages Module

Tourism and the Net


There is no doubt that the Internet has an increasingly important role in tourism. The Net is used by almost all tour operators and travel agents to check facts, statistics, trends, offers and prices. Tourists use the Net, too. On-line they can already book hotels, scheduled flights and car hire. Many important hotel chains, airlines and car-hire companies have websites where you can check the price, look for the right dates and times, type in your particular requirements as well as your credit card details, and confirm your booking or check in for your flight from home.

12. Answer the questions.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who uses the Net for tourism purposes? How can it be used by people who work in tourism? What can tourists do on-line? Have you ever used it personally? If so, what did you do? What do you think the main drawbacks of using the Internet are?
www.hotelcheck-in.co m

13. Look at this web page and decide where to


click or write if you want to do the following things.
1. Use Italian. ................................................................................................ 2. Know the price in euros.
................................................................................................

HOTEL CHECK-IN.COM
ON-LINE HOTEL RESER VATIONS

3. Look for a hotel near a particular monument in a particular city. ................................................................................................ 4. Get help because you dont understand.
................................................................................................

5. Look for a bed and breakfast.


................................................................................................

SELECT LANGUAGE SELECT CURRENCY

6. Specify when you want to stay at the hotel.


................................................................................................

7. Get the results for your specifications.


................................................................................................

14. Do a research on the Internet. Find a


holiday that you would like to go on. Make a short report on the offer saying:

DESTINATION: ? city, region, country, lan dmark, hotel


CATEGORY ARRIVAL day month day

SEARCH FOR THE BE ST HOTEL

which tour operator offers it; where the destination is; what kind of holiday it is; what the price is; what is offered in terms of accommodation, excursions/activities and other services; why you are attracted by this holiday.

DEPARTURE month

SEARCH

Unit

1 Tourism yesterday and today

A holiday to suit your needs


Jane and Jim havent got much money. They want to go on holiday abroad but they cant afford to spend much on accommodation. They prefer to spend their money on visiting an interesting city. Jim has got food allergy problems and so they want to be able to buy and cook their own food. Helen and Martin are quite young but they have jobs so they can take only a 2-3 week holiday. They want to stay in Europe but they are looking for something a little different. They want to have some time at the beach but they also want to visit some interesting cities and see some great landscapes. Basically they want to have fun but they think that a beach holiday is boring after a few days. Money isnt a problem for them. Mr and Mrs Hart have two kids aged 8 and 15. This year they want to go abroad. They want activities that will be enjoyed by the whole family together. They believe that holidays can be fun but that they can also be a moment of real learning. Their kids protest when their parents suggest going to a museum.

Jeff is planning to take a year off his studies because he wants to have fun but also see the world, including places where life can be difficult. He is thinking about what to do during the year. He wants to see as much of the world as possible but he would also like to stop in a few places and do work, for a short period, maybe even do voluntary work if it is possible to find a place which also provides accommodation and board.

15. Answer the questions.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 8 Which person or people have got a tight budget? Which particular problem has Jim got? Why cant Helen and Martin take a long holiday? What kind of place are Helen and Martin looking for? How long does Jeff want to travel for? What do Jane and Jim want to be able to do? How many people are there in the Hart family? Who wants to take a gap year? Why dont Helen and Martin want to spend the whole holiday on the beach? Which people dont like museums?

Tourism through the ages Module

16. Look at the websites and say which trip or trips


(write one or more letters a, b, c or d):
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. include meals: ............................................... are suitable for young adults: ............................................... are suitable for children: ............................................... are suitable for families: ............................................... provide contact with the local population: ............................................... 6. are suitable for people who havent got much money: ............................................... 7. provide a varied holiday in one country: ...............................................

c
r ething different during you Do you want to do som e som e further... we hav gap year? Then look no itineraries for you. With d orl -W exciting Round-the and combination of our personalised service , we will create the knowledge and experience d-the-World itinerary for perfect tailor-made Roun se overseas working you. We can also organi we ging included). In short, holidays (board and lod ed ne you n atio rm the info can provide you with all tary or working holiday. un vol r, yea gap r for you For an experience of a lifetime visit Overseas Working Holidays. Call our experts now on 0800 491 5799 to start planning your trip!

Round Taking a gap year? Go ,000! the World for under 1

a
Global Families specialises in overseas adventure holidays for families. Our African safaris are child-friendly and for every holiday booked we make a donation to help a school in Africa. Kids and adults cannot only watch wildlife but they can learn local crafts and visit the school that their booking has helped. Here they can join in lessons, learn a few words of the local language, and play football with the kids at the break. Comfortable chalet accommodation only. No hotels. Full board provided.

d
Are you bored with the classic beach holiday format? Do you want more than just sunbathing by the pool or on the sand? Are you interested in exploring your holiday destination, enjoying its cuisine and culture, but at the same time having time to spend on the beach when you choose? Well, now, all this is available in one place. Fabulous beaches, great weather and a vast, rich heritage: come to Turkey. Holidays to Turkey offer everything you would want in a destination: the fact that the country is divided between Europe and Asia guarantees a diverse cultural experience. From the cosmopolitan Istanbul to Antalya on the Mediterranean coast, youll find the perfect Turkey holiday for you!

b
Do you want to go on holiday this year but you havent got much money? Or perhaps you dont want to stay in a hotel because youve got young kids? Perhaps you want to live in another city as if you were a real resident? Why not try a house sw ap? What does that mean? It means what it says you swap your house with somebody in another cou ntry for the duration of your holiday. Small houses, big houses, luxury houses, fla ts, family homes... it doesnt matter. Choose your cou ntry and start looking.

Listening 18. Listen to two people speaking about their holiday


plans and say if the sentences are true or false.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They want to go abroad. They havent got much money. They want to do some sports. They want to fly. The woman wants to spend a lot of time on the beach. 6. They have got friends in Tuscany. T T T T T T F F F F F F 9

17. Link each person on page 8 to the


website that best suits their needs.

Unit

1 Tourism yesterday and today

For and against tourism


The tourism industry has grown a lot in the last few years. In general, we can say that there are more benefits than drawbacks, and that the negative features must be brought under strict control. If tourism is to bring advantages both to tourists and local communities, it must be based on a policy of sustainability which ensures that benefits dont damage the environment and the local culture and that is renewable for generations of the future. The first step to achieve is to understand the needs and desires of both the host community and the tourists. Tourism can play an important part in the sustainable development of many local communities, provided that they are actively involved in it, that the economic benefits are equally shared, and that it does not undermine the local culture and the already existing local economic activities.

Positive aspects of tourism


Tourists who visit a foreign country improve the economic situation of the host nation. They directly or indirectly provide work and profit to people involved in the tourism industry. In addition, governments are provided every year with enormous sums of money through accommodation, restaurants and airport taxes. A lot of people around the world work in the field of tourism. The majority of them run small or medium-sized family businesses. Research shows that more jobs are being created in tourism than in any other sector. Jobs related to tourism are more frequently created in underdeveloped countries because tourists often want to visit and explore exotic places they have never been to before. So, providing work for the inhabitants of such areas can be an incentive for them to remain there rather than move to find job opportunities somewhere else. Tourism can accelerate infrastructure investment. Governments and companies are obviously prepared to invest in new infrastructures and improve the conditions of local residents as well as tourists. Development projects usually include roads, sewage systems, railways, airports and restoration of monuments and works of art.

Negative aspects of tourism


Inhabitants do not always benefit from tourism. For example in all-inclusive packages, tourists pay for everything before leaving for their destination. It is therefore unlikely that they will spend money outside the resort and local residents have little opportunity to make money by selling goods or providing services. International tour operators in charge of large holiday complexes in poor areas of the world often employ staff from their own country rather than local inhabitants. In-

stead of using local produce, large hotel chain restaurants often import food to satisfy foreign visitors. Another serious problem is connected with sex tourism. Prostitution, especially child prostitution, is unfortunately very common in underdeveloped areas of the world. Infrastructure investment doesnt always bring advantages to the local population. Roads, railways and airports near tourist areas arent normally used by native inhabitants who would benefit more from infrastructures built near their local industries and activities. Tourism often grows into mass tourism, which leads to over consumption, pollution, and lack of resources. It can have destructive effects on biodiversity and original environments, and can result in the misuse of natural resources such as freshwater, forests and coral reefs. For example, in a number of areas, the development of tourism has caused serious water shortages affecting local communities, forests have been destroyed through wood collection for fuel, and coral reefs have been damaged by sewage, sedimentation, divers, snorkelers and boats. In order to avoid such impacts, tourism should be planned, managed and carried out in a way that is environmentally sustainable, socially beneficial, and economically viable.

10