Sei sulla pagina 1di 32

FRANCESCA AVEZZANO COMES

PAOLA GHERARDELLI
MIRELLA FRANCALANCI

NEW

Working On-Site

Technical English for Surveyors

THIRD EDITION

HOEPLI

FRANCESCA AVEZZANO COMES


PAOLA GHERARDELLI
MIRELLA FRANCALANCI

New
Working On-Site
Technical English for Surveyors
Third Edition

EDITORE ULRICO HOEPLI MILANO

UN TESTO PI RICCO E SEMPRE AGGIORNATO


Nel sito www.hoepliscuola.it sono disponibili:
materialididatticiintegrativi;
eventualiaggiornamentideicontenutideltesto.

Copyright Ulrico Hoepli Editore S.p.A. 2012


ViaHoepli5,20121Milano(Italy)
tel.+3902864871fax+39028052886
e-mailhoepli@hoepli.it

www.hoepli.it

Tuttiidirittisonoriservatianormadilegge
eanormadelleconvenzioniinternazionali

Prefazione
New Working On-Site, dedicato agli studenti degli Istituti Tecnici Tecnologici, indirizzo Costruzioni,
ambiente e territorio, propone argomenti e contenuti di carattere tecnico-professionale con specifici
riferimenti ai programmi delle materie dindirizzo e in conformit con le nuove linee guida ministeriali.
Si propone di sviluppare lo studio e lutilizzo della lingua inglese nel settore cui dedicato e contemporaneamente di consolidarne la conoscenza generale.
Le 18 unit che compongono il nuovo testo presentano letture brevi, su argomenti attuali gi oggetto di studio, con chiara indicazione dellambito professionale cui si riferiscono.
Gli esercizi, strutturati in progressione e mirati allo sviluppo delle quattro abilit, permettono di
condurre lo studente a un livello di autonomia sempre maggiore.
Novit principale della nuova edizione una sezione posta allinizio di ogni unit dedicata a
unattivit pratica da svolgere in gruppo. Tali attivit (come, per esempio, la realizzazione di un progetto) sono strettamente correlate con lindirizzo di studio e con il futuro mondo del lavoro e richiedono agli studenti sia di manifestare le proprie capacit sia di utilizzare il testo in modo nuovo,
ovvero come fonte di informazioni e di termini utili.
Questa sezione utile anche come preparazione al progetto che gli studenti devono presentare allesame di Stato.
Le attivit di ascolto, completamente rinnovate, propongono brani ed esercizi stimolanti e coinvolgenti.
Ogni unit didattica contiene una sezione, corredata di esercizi, dedicata alla revisione e allapprofondimento delle pi importanti strutture grammaticali.
Una sezione, posta alla fine del volume, si propone di aiutare lo studente a sviluppare abilit di utilit pratica (come scrivere una lettera per chiedere informazioni, come scrivere un CV ecc.) con
relativi esercizi.
Chiude il volume un glossario con i termini tecnici utilizzati nel testo.
In allegato fornito un CD-Audio con la registrazione di tutti i brani dascolto.
Il Teachers Book fornisce al docente le soluzioni di tutti gli esercizi proposti nel volume e i testi
delle listening comprehension registrati nel CD-Audio.
Lopera unedizione mista che mette a disposizione degli studenti ulteriori materiali didattici, tra
cui letture aggiuntive con esercizi e relative soluzioni.

FRANCESCA AVEZZANO COMES


PAOLA GHERARDELLI
MIRELLA FRANCALANCI

Table of contents
UNIT TITLE

UNIT
1

Nature, Man
and the Environment
1 Environment, Ecology and Ecosystems
2 The Role of Man
3 Youth for Environmental Sanity

Listening
2

1 What is Pollution?
2 Water
3 Water Pollution

17
20
22
26

Building Materials

Listening
4

New Methods
and New Materials
1 Modern Methods of Construction
2 Modern Building Materials
3 Case Study: Building Green

Listening
5

Cement
1 A History of Cement
2 Frequently Asked Questions
3 Concrete Masonry

Listening
6

Building Elements
1 Walls
2 Staircase Design
3 Doors and Windows

Listening
7

3
6
8
12

15-28

1 Bricks
2 Colours Brick Bonds
3 Stone

Restoration
and Remodelling
1 Restoration
2 Remodelling
3 A Home Renovation

Listening

SUBJECT

1-14

Pollution, Water
and Water Pollution

Listening
3

PAGES

Suggestions
and advice ............... 13

Ambiente

Possibilities
in the present

Making
comparisons

Ways
of comparing

..........

64

Costruzioni

Costruzioni

79-90
81
83
86
89

42

Costruzioni

65-78
67
70
73
76

............

Espressions
of quantity ............... 52

53-64
55
58
60
63

27

Costruzioni

43-52
45
47
49
51

........

Ambiente

29-42
31
34
37
41

GRAMMAR STOP

Verbs followed
by the infinitive
or by the -ing
form .............................. 77

Talking
about ability

Progettazione

............

90

UNIT TITLE

UNIT
8

The British House

Listening
Surveying

105-116

1 Topographic Surveys
2 Surveying Methods and Instruments
3 GPS Total Station

Listening
10

11

Planning a House:
Electrical and Plumbing Systems

Technologies
Listening

125
129

Listening
Bio-Ecological
Architecture
1 General Considerations
2 The Use of Materials
3 Feng Shui

Listening
13

History and Development


of City Planning
1 City Planning during the Renaissance
2 Modern City Planning
3 My Ideal City

Listening
14

Building Types
1 School Design
2 Railway Stations
3 Olympic Stadium, Montreal Quebec
Canada

Listening

Progettazione

Frequency
expressions

Impianti

Passive
form .......................... 146

Impianti

-ed and -ing


adjectives .............. 159

Territorio

161-172
163
165
168
171

Territorio

173-186
175
178
181
184

115

Direct
and reported
speech ..................... 130

147-160
149
152
155
158

...........

Topografia

131-146
133
137
141
144

GRAMMAR STOP
Present obbligation
and necessity ...... 103

117-130
119
122

1 Heating Systems
2 Air Conditioning Systems
3 Energy-efficient Home Design

12

107
109
111
114

1 Electrical Systems
2 House Plumbing
3 Smart House and Home Automation

Planning a House:
Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

SUBJECT

91-104
93
95
98
102

1 The Tudor House


2 The Typical British House
3 How about a Home Exchange?

PAGES

Countable
and uncountable
nouns ....................... 172

Order
of adjectives

Progettazione

........

185

UNIT TITLE

UNIT
15

A Short History
of Architecture

Listening
Buildings Today

Listening
Safety in the Workplace
1 Making Europe a safer, healthier
and more productive place to work
2 PPE Personal Protective Equipment
3 Case Study: Accidents at Work

Listening
18

189
192

Careers

Progettazione

195
198
Similarities and
differences ............ 213

203
206
209
212

Progettazione

215-228
217
220
223
226

If clauses

Listening

231
234
237
239

...............

227

Sicurezza

229-240

1 What is Surveying?
2 Job Ads
3 What is it like to Work in Surveying?

GRAMMAR STOP
Reporting
verbs ......................... 199

201-214

1 National Aquatics Centre


2 Dynamic Architecture The Rotating
Tower
3 Modern Architecture in Britain

17

SUBJECT

187-200

1 From the Beginning to the 18th Century


2 Modern Developments
3 Architects of Our Time: Frank Gehry and
Renzo Piano

16

PAGES

Lavoro

Requests,
permissions
and offers .............. 240

APPENDIX
SKILLS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 242
GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 262

COLORE

ARGOMENTO

MATERIA

Ambiente

Geopedologia, economia ed estimo


Geologia e geologia applicata

Territorio

Progettazione, costruzioni e impianti


Topografia e costruzioni, Tecnologie per la gestione del territorio e dellambiente

Costruzioni

Progettazione, costruzioni e impianti


Topografia e costruzioni, Tecnologie per la gestione del territorio e dellambiente

Progettazione

Progettazione, costruzioni e impianti


Topografia e costruzioni, Tecnologie per la gestione del territorio e dellambiente

Topografia

Topografia Topografia e costruzioni

Impianti

Progettazione, costruzioni e impianti

Sicurezza
Lavoro

Gestione del cantiere e sicurezza dellambiente di lavoro


Gestione del cantiere e sicurezza dellambiente di lavoro

CD-Audio tracks
UNIT 1

UNIT 10

Nature, Man and the Environment

Planning a House: Electrical


and Plumbing Systems

Exercise 15
Exercise 16

page 12
page 12

track 02
track 03

Exercises 19-20 page 129

UNIT 2

UNIT 11

Pollution, Water and Water


Pollution

Planning a House: Heating


and Air Conditioning

Exercise 16
Exercise 17

page 26
page 26

track 04
track 05

UNIT 3
track 06

UNIT 4
page 51

track 07

UNIT 5
page 63
page 63

track 08
track 09

Exercise 17

track 18

History and Development of City Planning


Exercises 16-17 page 171

track 19

Building Types
Exercise 17

page 184

track 20

A Short History of Architecture

Building Elements
Exercises 14-15 page 76

track 10

Exercise 13

page 198

track 21

Exercises 16-17 page 212

track 22

UNIT 16

UNIT 7

Buildings Today

Restoration and Remodelling


Exercises 14-15 page 89

track 11

UNIT 17

UNIT 8

Safety in the Workplace

The British House


page 102

track 12

Exercise 16
Exercise 17

UNIT 9

UNIT 18

Surveying

Careers

Exercise 13

page 158

UNIT 15

UNIT 6

Exercise 17

Bio-Ecological Architecture

UNIT 14

Cement
Exercise 16
Exercise 17

track 15
track 16
track 17

UNIT 13

New Methods and New Materials


Exercise 14

page 144
page 145
page 145

UNIT 12

Building Materials
Exercises 16-17 page 41

Exercise 18
Exercise 19
Exercise 20

track 14

page 114

track 13

Exercise 15

page 226
page 226

track 23
track 24

page 239

track 25

AM
BI
EN
TE

UNIT 1

Nature, Man
and the Environment
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
1 Environment, Ecology and Ecosystems
2 The Role of Man
3 Youth for Environmental Safety

1 Look at this images and complete the following


sentences.

2 Today, there is a lot of talk concerning environmental problems.

1 The images represent

1 Can you mention some of them? (e.g. air pollution) .............................................................................................

........................................................

..............................................................................................................

2 All living organisms are ...................................................


and form a kind of community called ................
..............................................................................................................

3 Unfortunately, natural habitats and their ecosystems are in ..........................................................................


because of the environmental effects caused
by growing human populations.

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

2 Which role has man played in the creation of


these problems?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

P
R
E
R
E
A
D
I
N
G

UNIT 1

H
A
N
D
S
O
N
A
C
T
I
V
I
T
Y

Nature, Man and the Environment

GROUP WORK

Prepare a questionnaire.

The school board has decided to promote an environmental project designed by students. The
project will be published on the school website.
The project has to be based on two key areas.
1 Why young people should care about the earth?
2 How they can play a role in solving environmental problems?

QUESTIONNAIRE
The first two questions have been done as an example.
1.

Is your life affected by environmental problems?


Yes
No
Sometimes
Never

2.

What can I do?


Talk about it
Raise funds
Create promotional material
Set up a website
Organise meetings on the subject
Nothing
Other: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

...........................................................................

When you have finished, summarize your classmates thoughts and present your findings to a committee that will evaluate the work done.

AM
BI
EN
TE

TEXT 1
Environment, Ecology and Ecosystems

The environment is the sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development
of organisms. An individual plant or animal cannot exist as an isolated entity; it is dependent upon its environment, including other organisms to which it relates; it must convert some source of energy (food or
light), ingest water and minerals, dispose of wastes and maintain a favourable temperature.
The study of the interactions between organisms (plants and animals) and their environment is called ecology, and the term ecosystem is used to describe any unit that involves the interactions, in a given area, of organisms with their physical environment. Scientists who study the various relationships among the different
components of an ecosystem are called ecologists.
Plants and animals, plus that part of their physical environment with which they interact, constitute an
ecosystem. An ecosystem is defined as nearly self-contained, the matter which flows in and out is small
compared to the quantities which are internally recycled in a continuous exchange of the essentials of
life. The dynamics of the flow of energy and materials in a given geological environment, with the adaptation made by the individual species to find a place within the environment constitute the subject matter of the ecology of natural systems. Ecosystems can be of any size, from a goldfish bowl to the
Amazon rain forest or the world as a whole. They also differ widely with respect to location, weather patterns, and the types of animals and plants within. Nevertheless, common to them all is a set of

UNIT 1

Nature, Man and the Environment

processes. In each there are plants which use energy from the sun to convert simple chemicals from
the environment into complex, energy-rich tissues. Each system houses various forms of planteaters, predators who eat the plant-eaters, predators who eat the predators, and organisms that
cause decay, constituting a circular process which
is usually called the food chain.

GLOSSARY

flow: to move
within: internally
location: the place where something is located
tissue: an aggregate of cells that form one of the structural
materials of a plant or an animal
tributary: a stream or a river flowing into a larger one
creek: a small stream
mouth of the river: the part of a river or stream where it
merges with another body of water

Ecosystems are of course interconnected: for example, the life around a large river depends on the water balance of the tributaries of the river; the water balance is controlled by the forest system. Thus, the overall state
of the forests on the banks of a small creek has a direct effect on the life cycles of organisms at the mouth
of the river. Therefore, the study of ecosystems involves an investigation of the relationship between organisms and their environments.

EXERCISE 1

ANSWER

Answer the following questions.


1

What is the subject matter of the ecology of natural systems?

In what sense is an ecosystem self-contained?

What is common to all ecosystems?

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is a food chain?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Give an example of an interconnection among ecosystems.


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

EXERCISE 2

TRANSLATE

Translate the following expressions with the help of your dictionary.

affect the life of

convert some sources of energy

ingest water and minerals

depend upon the environment

dispose of waste

involve the interactions

convert chemicals

constitute a circular process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................................................................................

AM
BI
EN
TE
LABEL

EXERCISE 3

Six pictures of six different ecosystems are reproduced below. Can you label them correctly?
1 desert: a dry, barren, sandy region incapable of supporting almost any plant or animal life
2 rain forest: dense evergreen forest occupying a tropical region having abundant rainfall throughout the year
3 pampas: the extensive treeless plains of Argentina and some other parts of South America
4 savanna: plain or grassland characterized by scattered trees, located in tropical or subtropical
regions having seasonal rains
5 tundra: any of the vast, nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic regions (Lapland)
6 steppe: any of the great plains of Southeast Europe and Asia, having few trees

UNIT 1

Nature, Man and the Environment

TEXT 2

The Role of Man


Man has affected the world around him in many ways; he is an important factor in the environment as
he both modifies it through his actions and has his actions modified by the environment. His industry
and inventiveness has often resulted in the unwise use of natural resources, the fouling of water, land
and air and the wholesale disruption of certain ecosystems.
In addition, man has been so successful in reproducing, that in some parts of the world his very numbers
constitute a major obstacle to his own welfare. Man has been so successful at reducing competition from
other species that his numbers have risen precipitously in a very short time span. Today people have
unprecedented power at their disposal, and with it the ability to increase its productivity or to destroy the
ecosystems of the Earth. However, it is completely unreasonable to believe that man will choose to return
to the ways of the nomadic hunter or the Stone Age farmer. The problem for us is not to try to recapture the past but to make decisions for the future. Many people believe that our present system, controlled
by man, provides people with greater physical security and comfort than they have ever known.
The major question of environmental policy is: what types of systems are viable and will continue to provide security and comfort far into the future? If our environment is to be stable and hospitable to man for
a long time, our decisions must be based on sound scientific reasoning by people whose goals go
beyond personal gain or power, and whose interests extend beyond their own lifetime. Public opinion on
any given environmental problem, such as radioactive waste pollution, ranges from: It doesnt present a
problem to It is an annoyance but well worth the benefits gained, to Its a debatable trade-off to Its
an imminent threat to the existence of man. Of these, all statements must be given consideration except
the first, for man-made pollution does represent a problem.
Perhaps the main reason for the wide range of opinions from lay people as well as specialists is that the
data can be interpreted in many different ways,
depending on the individuals choice of priorities.
The direct alteration of natural ecosystems is at
stake. Ultimately, a decision must be made: to what
degree should man try to be the controller of his
planet? Are humans wise enough to control the Earth
for their and its ultimate benefit or just powerful
enough to change it for their own immediate gain?

FIND

GLOSSARY

fouling: contamination
wholesale: extensive and indiscriminate
welfare: physical and mental health and happiness
time span: an interval of time
viable: able to work as intended
sound: based on truth or valid reasoning
trade-off: a giving up of one benefit or advantage in order
to gain another more desirable one
lay people: nonprofessional people
at stake: at risk

EXERCISE 4

Read Text 2 and find the following information.


1

In which ways has man affected the world around him?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What are the negative consequences of mans unwise use of natural resources?
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

AM
BI
EN
TE
3

What do people have at their disposal today?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is the major question of any environmental policy?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is at stake?
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

COMPLETE

EXERCISE 5

Complete the following sentences. Your answers should be related to the ideas contained in
Text 2.
1

Mans actions ........................................................................................... his environment.

Mans success at .............................................................................. has provoked a serious increase in the worlds population.

Today people have in their hands the power to ............................................................................................

It is impossible to believe that man could return ............................................................................................

For many people, our style of living is ............................................................................................

The range of public opinion about environmental questions is ............................................................................................

It is undeniable that ........................................................................................... represents a problem.

Natural ecosystems are in great ............................................................................................

One may wonder, whether man is ............................................................................................

PAIR WORK

EXERCISE 6

In pairs prepare a short oral presentation about the role of man in respect to the environment.
The main goal of your presentation is to inform your public about the environmental problems created by man, to raise awareness about them and propose some viable solutions.
Use the lexicon given.
Good morning we are...

We have found that...

Today we will talk about...

Lets move on to the following point...

The main points well be talking about are...


first... secondly... next... finally...

It certain that...

Lets start with...

To conclude with...

You will find some other useful sentences in the Appendix at page 249.

FIND

EXERCISE 7

Can you find six verbs in the text related to impact of man on the environment? The first has
been done as an example.
1

affect

................................................................................................

................................................................................................

................................................................................................

................................................................................................

................................................................................................

UNIT 1

Nature, Man and the Environment

CHOOSE

EXERCISE 8

Replace each of the terms in bold with the correct synonym. Choose among those given.
injudicious key reliable final exceptional possible
1

Man is an important / ................................................... factor in the environment.

His industry and inventiveness have often resulted in the unwise /


resources.

Today people have unprecedented / ................................................... power at their disposal.

The major question of environmental policy is. What types of systems are viable / ...................................................?

Our decisions must be based on sound / ................................................... scientific reasoning.

Are humans wise enough to control the Earth for their ultimate / ................................................... benefit?

...................................................

use of natural

TEXT 3

Youth for Environmental Sanity


Today there are many organizations started by young people which aim at the protection of the environment. One of them is Youth for Environmental Sanity (www.yesworld.org).
YES! was founded in 1990 by 16 year-old Ocean Robbins and 19 year-old Ryan Eliason to educate,
inspire, and empower youth to join forces for social justice and environmental sanity.
Here are two extracts from the YES! webpage, one is their mission statement and the other a letter from
the blog of the website.

Our Mission

YES! connects, inspires and collaborates with young


change-makers to build thriving, just and sustainable
ways of life for all.
Thriving: We believe that life is precious and magnificent, and that we were put on this Earth for more than
mere survival. We all have the birthright to love, to
prosper, to grow, and to learn ever more what it means
to be who we are.
Just: We believe that people everywhere deserve to be
free and respected as they are, to have their basic
human needs met, and to have their gifts recognized and called forth. Recognizing ever widening gaps
of wealth, safety and freedom, we value sustained attention and commitment to equitability, diversity, partnership across differences, and shared decision-making.
Sustainable: We believe personal and planetary ecology are inseparable, and that everything we do sends
out ripples not only to the whole Earth community, but to all future generations. We seek to walk
consciously upon the Earth, bringing purposeful intentionality to every choice we make and its impact
upon all of life.

AM
BI
EN
TE

Letter from Staff

Dear friends,
When we started YES! in the spring of 1990, we didnt know that we would reach hundreds of thousands of
people with a call to action for a better world, or play a part in mobilizing our generation for positive change.
What we knew was that people and our planet were in a crisis, that many youth were losing hope, and that we
had to do what we could to turn things around.
In our first 20 years, YES! spoke in person to more than 675,000 students in schools nationwide. We facilitated hundreds of day-long youth empowerment workshops. And we organized and facilitated 100+ weeklong gatherings in seven countries, reaching
young leaders from 65+ nations.
I started YES! with a friend named Ryan. Now we
thriving: prosperous, flourishing
have a diverse staff of five, a global network of partjust: fair, morally correct
sustainable: causing little or no damage to the environment
ners on every inhabited continent, and hundreds of
and therefore able to continue for a long time
supporters who literally make our work possible. Like
birthright: something you believe it is your right as a human
many organizations, we are struggling with an
being
increasing demand for our work, and limited fundgap: a difference between two things
wealth: a large amount of money or valuable possessions
ing to meet that demand. But we are incredibly
that someone has
grateful for 20 years of service, and for all the peosustained: continued for a long time
ple who have stepped forward to make our work poscommitment: engagement, involvement
sible. And we are looking forward to the next 20
equitability: the making of things just and impartial
ripple: a small wave
years with enthusiasm.
seek: to try to find
With appreciation and commitment,
empowerment: the giving of power or authority
Ocean Robbins, Founder/Co-Director, with support of
gathering: meeting
the whole YES! Staff: Tiffany, Lorin, Nga, Romy,
funding: money given by a government or organization for an
Julie, and Emma.
event or activity

GLOSSARY

UNIT 1

Nature, Man and the Environment

COMPLETE

EXERCISE 9

Complete the following sentences. Your answers must be related to the concepts contained in
the text.
1

YES stands for ...............................................................................................................................

YES was founded in ...................................................... by ............................................................................................. and ...............................................................................................

Their main objective is to ...............................................................................................................................................

Started by two young people, today YES has .............................................................................................................................................................................................................

CHOOSE

EXERCISE 10

Choose the right meaning.


1
a
b
c

2
a
b
c

3
a
b
c

4
a
b
c

We were put on this Earth for more than mere survival.


Our main goal should be to survive as long as possible.
Man has a greater purpose that just surviving.
Survival is the greatest objective of humanity.
Personal and planetary ecology are inseparable.
Our well being is connected to that of the planet we live on.
We are somehow connected to the environment.
Man and the environment are two separate entities.
We had to do what we could to turn things around.
We wanted to keep things as they were.
We had to help young people accept the current situation.
We felt obliged to do our best to improve the situation.
We are struggling with an increasing demand for our work.
We are nowadays working a lot.
We are having problems because our work is very much in demand.
Our work is receiving worldwide recognition.

COMPLETE

EXERCISE 11

Complete the following sentences using the lexicon given.


needs choice action part demand funding

10

Many countries dont have enough food to meet their ........................................................

Now that you know all the facts, you can make a ........................................................

We are trying to get ....................................................... for our future projects.

We must take ....................................................... to deal with the problem.

Our work is in great ........................................................

My thanks to everyone who has played a ....................................................... in the success of this project.

AM
BI
EN
TE
PAIR WORK

EXERCISE 12

Improvise an interview between a journalist and Ocean Robbins, founder of YES. The journalist asks:
when and why was YES founded;
what has happened during these 20 years;
what is their mission;
what are their plans for the future.
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PAIR WORK

EXERCISE 13

In the YES website there is a space for your comments. Fill in the form with the information
requested and write a short comment about YES and their mission.
Use the lexicon given.
In my view/From my point of view/I believe that...
I agree/disagree with...
That is to say/To be more precise...
Your name: (optional)
Subject:
Email:
Comment

11

UNIT 1

L
I
S
T
E
N
I
N
G

Nature, Man and the Environment

Become an Eco-Hero! Shimon Schwarzschild, the founder of Action for Nature, presents the
20th international Young Eco-Hero Award to a group of students.
EXERCISE 14

TRANSLATE

Before listening translate the following expressions with the help of your dictionary.
1

take action

better the environment .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

foster love and respect for nature

protect wildlife .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

organize environmental activities

raise money for conservation causes

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................

EXERCISE 15

CHOOSE

Listen to the first part of the presentation and choose the right answer.
1
a
b
c

2
a
b
c

3
a
b
c

Action for nature is


a commercial organisation
a government department
an international non-profit organization
AFN is aimed at
people on the job
young people
the elderly
Their main goals include
better the environment and foster love and respect for nature
raise funds for the publication of informative materials
carry out scientific research on environmental issues

CHOOSE

EXERCISE 16

Listen to the second part of the presentation and complete this invitation with the correct information.
Action for Nature
Invites you to a 1 ....................................... of the 20th International Young Eco-Hero Awards
Learn how 2 ........................................... are making an environmental difference in the world today through
3..........................................., planting trees, working on water issues, educating others about global warming, organizing 4 ........................................... and raising money for conservation causes.
Thursday, 5

from 6 ......................... pm to 7
121 Spear Street, 8 ................................................

...............................................

We hope you can join us mail@actionfornature.org or 1 415 9

12

........................

pm

..................................................

AM
BI
EN
TE

Hi and welcome to this Grammar Stop.


Today we are going to talk about suggestions and advice.
Why dont we do something to protect the environment? this is a suggestion.
I think we should all take action for the protection of our environment is giving advice.
A suggestion is an idea, plan or action that is suggested. An advice is an opinion which someone offers
you about what you should do or how you should act in a particular situation.
Also imperatives are frequently used to give advice, especially when you are sure the advice is right.
Dont buy over-wrapped products. But lets see the various forms more in detail.
Asking for suggestions

Making suggestion

Answering to suggestions and


advice

What shall I/we do?


Has anybody got any suggestion?

What/How about reducing your


purchases of new goods?
Lets go to the conference.
Why dont you walk instead of
using the car?

Thats a good idea.


That sounds like a good idea.
Yes, Ill do that.
Yes, I could/should.

Asking for advice

Offering advice

What shall I do?


What do you think I should do?
What would you do if you were
me?

I think you should/ought to go by


bus.
You ought to turn the faucet off.
If I we were you, Id eat less meat.

COMPLETE

Good idea, but I cant do that.


I think I prefer to stay at home.
Couldnt we go there another
day?

EXERCISE 17

Complete the following sentences using the correct terms.


1

................................................................

dont you have a look at the Internet?

................................................................

about buying used products?

................................................................

switch from disposable to reusable products!

................................................................

do you think we should do?

................................................................

you should share used things with your friends.

................................................................

sounds like a good idea!

CHOOSE

G
R
A
M
M
A
R
S
T
O
P

EXERCISE 18

Read these sentences and provide the appropriate suggestion or advice for each of them. Use
the expressions in parentheses. The first has been done as an example.
1

I am going to throw away my old clothes.


Why dont you take them to a charity shop instead? / I think you could take them to a charity shop.

13

UNIT 1

G
R
A
M
M
A
R
S
T
O
P

14

Nature, Man and the Environment

I am going shopping. (carry your own plastic bags)


........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I carry my lunch to school everyday. (use recyclable containers)


........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Im going to take a long hot shower. (take shorter showers)


........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I usually leave the lights on, even when Im out. (turn off the lights)
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Lets go to the park by car! (use public transportation)


........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PAIR WORK

EXERCISE 19

Read the following dialogue and improvise a similar one.


A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

Hi, why dont we go to the Eco Hero celebration tomorrow?


Thats a good idea, but I have an exam the following day.
You could leave the party early.
Yes, I could. What time shall we meet?
How about 5.30 pm at your place?
That sounds like a good idea. See you tomorrow.

A:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

B:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

B:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

B:

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

AM
BI
EN
TE

UNIT 2

Pollution, Water
and Water Pollution
WHAT THIS UNIT IS ABOUT
1 Pollution
2 Water
3 Water Pollution

1 This image represents a global pollution map.


Red areas are highest pollution centres.
1 What colour is your country?
...............................................................................................................

2 Why is it called map of world happiness?

2 Three percent of the worlds water is


a salt water.
b ice.
c fresh water.
d unreachable.

...............................................................................................................

2 Take a quiz on pollution:


1 Pollution
a is only man-made.
b is a natural phenomenon.
c both of the above.

3 Today there are many problems related to


water. Name two of them.
a

................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................

P
R
E
R
E
A
D
I
N
G

UNIT 2

H
A
N
D
S
O
N
A
C
T
I
V
I
T
Y

Pollution, Water and Water Pollution

GROUP WORK

If we are such watery creatures living in a watery world, why do we need to use water wisely? It
sounds like there is a lot of water. There is, but that same amount was here millions of years ago,
and there are millions more people using it. By doing our part to use less water conserve it, keep
it clean, protect it and the water we have available will go further.
You have been asked to create a poster that will be placed on the school premises. The purpose of
the poster is to raise awareness among students of the importance of water and list things to do to
use water more wisely (for example, take shorter showers).

You will find some useful information in Text 2, Water. Draw a sketch of the poster indicating:
the size;
location of the text;
location and kind of images;
colours used.

Dont forget to add something that will attract the viewers attention, such as a provocative image
or a bright colour.

!
When you have finished, present your work to your classmates. A committee will evaluate the work
done and grade each of the following aspects from 1 to 5.

16

Draw a bar chart using the given data.

5
3
6
1
2
4
7
9

Quality of the content: ........................................................................


Content presentation: ..........................................................................
General appeal: ........................................................................................
Clarity of oral presentation: ................................................................

TOTAL:

.........................................................................

AM
BI
EN
TE

TEXT 1

What is Pollution?
What is pollution? Anything added to air, water, soil or food in such a concentration that it threatens the
health, survival capabilities, or activities of humans or other living organisms. Most pollutants are solid,
liquid or gaseous by-products or wastes produced when a resource is extracted, processed, made into
products or used. Pollution can also take the form of unwanted or harmful energy emissions, such as excessive heat, noise or radiation. Pollutants can enter the environment naturally (for example, from volcanic
eruptions) or as the result of human activities. Most natural pollution is dispersed over a large area and
is diluted or broken down to harmless levels by
natural processes. By contrast, most serious pollution from human activities occurs in or near urban by-product: secondary or incidental product or result
and industrial areas, where pollutants are concen- waste: useless, superfluous or discarded material
trated in small volumes of air, water and soil. Some pollutant: any harmful chemical or waste material that
contaminates the environment
pollutants contaminate the areas in which they are wildlife: wild animals, esp. mammals, birds and fishes
produced, others are carried by winds or flowing
water to other areas.
The most serious effects of pollution are:
disruption of life support systems for humans and other species;
damage to wildlife;
damage to human health;
damage to property;
nuisance effects such as noise and unpleasant smells, tastes and sights.

GLOSSARY

COMPLETE

EXERCISE 1

Complete the mind map below.

Definition:
Forms of pollutants:

........................

.............................................................................

................................................

.............................................................................
.............................................................................

.............................................................................
.............................................................................

How do pollutants enter


the environment:
.........................................................................

POLLUTION

.........................................................................
.........................................................................

Where does pollution occur:

.........................................................................

...........................................................................
...........................................................................

Effects of pollution:

...........................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...........................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...........................................................

17

UNIT 2

Pollution, Water and Water Pollution

FIND

EXERCISE 2

Find in the text adjectives that are associated with the following. The first has been done as
an example.
1
2
3

living
................................................
................................................

ANSWER

organisms
heat
eruptions

4
5
6

................................................
................................................
................................................

pollution
areas
health

EXERCISE 3

Answer the following questions using the expressions from the previous exercise.
1

Does pollution harm only humans?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is one form of harmful energy emissions?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

How does pollution enter the environment naturally?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What kind of pollution is harmless?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Where are pollutants concentrated?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is one of the most serious effects of pollution?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

18

AM
BI
EN
TE

EXERCISE 4

DESCRIBE

Describe the picture using the lexicon given.


industrial area chemicals air human health represent release cause

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MATCH

EXERCISE 5

Can you match each of the following air pollutants with its English equivalent?
1

idrocarburi

carbon oxides (CO and CO2)

ossidi di azoto

sulphur oxides (SO2 and SO3)

anidride solforosa e anidride solforica

hydrocarbons

composti organici volatili

nitrogen oxides (NOx)

particelle solide in sospensione e gocce


di liquido

volatile organic compounds

suspended particles and droplets (particulates)

ossido di carbonio e anidride carbonica

19

UNIT 2

Pollution, Water and Water Pollution

TEXT 2
Water

We live on the water planet. A precious film of water most of it salt water covers about 71% of the
Earths surface. Earths organisms are made up mostly of water. For example, a tree is about 60% water
by weight and you and most animals are about 65% water.
Fresh water is a vital resource for agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and countless other human
activities. Water also plays a key role in sculpting the Earths surface, moderating climate, and diluting pollutants. But, despite its importance, water is one of the Earths most poorly managed resources as we waste
and pollute it.
Only a tiny fraction of the planets abundant water is available to us as fresh water. About 97% is found
in the oceans and is too salty for drinking, irrigation, or industry (except as a coolant). The remaining 3%
is fresh water. Of this percentage, 2.997% is locked up in ice caps or glaciers, or is buried so deep that it
costs too much to extract. Therefore, only about 0.003% of the Earths total volume of water is easily available to us as soil moisture, exploitable groundwater, water vapour, and lakes and streams. If the worlds
water supply were only 100 litres, our usable supply of fresh water would be only about 0.003 litre.
Fortunately, the available fresh water amounts to a generous supply that is continuously collected, purified, and recycled in the hydrologic cycle.
As Earths population and industrialization increase, water shortage in already water-short regions is
expected to intensify. Rainfall patterns have
begun to change and this could cause a disruption
in fresh water supplies all over the world. Water available: which can be used
locked up: hard to access
resources can be divided into ocean, inland sur- hydrologic cycle: the continual ex change of water
face and groundwaters. In the past these resources between the Earth and the atmosphere
have been managed separately; nowadays, the need water shortage: scarcity of water
to manage them all collectively is becoming rainfall patterns: amounts of water falling in the form of
rain in a given area in a given period of time
increasingly evident.

GLOSSARY

20

AM
BI
EN
TE

EXERCISE 6

TRASLATE

Translate the following terms and expressions with the help of your dictionary.
1

manufacturing

...........................................................................................................

water supply

ice cap

.....................................................................................................................................

hydrologic cycle

soil moisture

................................................................................................................

water shortage

.........................................................................................................

groundwater

................................................................................................................

rainfall patterns

.......................................................................................................

................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................

EXERCISE 7

ANSWER

Answer the following questions.


1

Why can the Earth be defined as the water planet?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What is the percentage of water in plants and animals?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Why is fresh water such a vital resource?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What role does water play on the Earths surface?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Where can fresh water be found?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

How is the supply of fresh water continually renewed?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Why are water shortages expected to intensify?


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What will the consequences of global warming be?

How can we divide water resources?

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

EXERCISE 8

WRITE

Write next to each expression the correct percentage of water.


1

salt water:

fresh water:

locked up water:

available water:

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

21

UNIT 2

Pollution, Water and Water Pollution

TEXT 3

Water Pollution
a) ............................................................................................................................
Water pollution is an undesirable change in the state of
water. It defines water contaminated with harmful substances. It is the second most important environmental
issue next to air pollution. Any change in the physical,
chemical, or biological properties of water that has a harmful effect on living things is defined as water pollution. It
affects all the major bodies of water of the world such as
lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater.
b) ............................................................................................................................
Pollution of all bodies of water disturbs the ecosystem as a
whole. Polluted water is not only unfit for drinking and
other domestic purposes, but it is also unsuitable for agricultural and industrial uses. The effects of water pollution
are detrimental to human beings, plants, animals, fish, and
birds. Polluted water also contains viruses, bacteria, intestinal parasites, and other pathogenic microorganisms. Using polluted water for drinking purposes is the prime cause for waterborne diseases such
as diarrhea, dysentery, and typhoid.
c) ............................................................................................................................
The important sources of water pollution are domestic wastes, industrial effluents, and agricultural
wastes. Other sources include oil spills, atmospheric deposition, marine dumping, radioactive waste
and eutrophication. Among these, domestic waste (domestic sewage) and industrial waste generate
the maximum amount of all water pollutants, which make their way in to groundwater and surface bodies of water.
d) .............................................................................................................................
Much research has been done on water purification systems in order to sustain safe drinking water.
e) ............................................................................................................................
Effective ways to prevent water pollution include
using eco-friendly household products such as
low-phosphate detergents and other toiletries,
turning off the water tap when not needed, disposing the household wastes in proper sites, far
away from water sources. Last but not least,
planting more trees can also prevent water pollution by reducing soil erosion and water runoff.
Educating people about water pollution is an
important approach to reduce water contamination.

22

GLOSSARY

issue: a matter that is discussed


groundwater: the water beneath the surface of the ground
disease: illness, sickness
waste: unwanted matter
oil spill: an accidental release of oil into a body of water
marine dumping: deliberate disposal of hazardous
wastes at sea
eutrophication: a process whereby bodies of water, such
as lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving streams receive
excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth
household: related to a domestic unit
water runoff: rainfall not absorbed by over saturated soil
approach: a method used to accomplish something