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Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) - An Introduction Topics Covered Background Types of CVD rocesses !

o" Does CVD #ork$ Coating Characteristics CVD Apparatus %nergy &ources recursors Typical recursor 'aterials 'aterials That Can (e roduced (y CVD rocesses CVD )as roducts Applications Background Chemical vapour deposition or CVD is a generic name for a group of processes that involve depositing a solid material from a gaseous phase and is similar in some respects to physical vapour deposition ( VD)* VD differs in that the precursors are solid+ "ith the material to (e deposited (eing vaporised from a solid target and deposited onto the su(strate* Types of CVD rocesses CVD covers processes such as, Atmospheric ressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (A CVD) .o" ressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (. CVD) 'etal-/rganic Chemical Vapour Deposition ('/CVD)

lasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition ( ACVD) or lasma %nhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition ( %CVD) .aser Chemical Vapour Deposition (.CVD) hotochemical Vapour Deposition ( CVD) Chemical Vapour Infiltration (CVI) Chemical Beam %pita0y (CB%)

!o" Does CVD #ork$ recursor gases (often diluted in carrier gases) are delivered into the reaction cham(er at appro0imately am(ient temperatures* As they pass over or come into contact "ith a heated su(strate+ they react or decompose forming a solid phase "hich and are deposited onto the su(strate* The su(strate temperature is critical and can influence "hat reactions "ill take place* Coating Characteristics CVD coatings are typically, 1ine grained Impervious !igh purity

!arder than similar materials produced using conventional ceramic fa(rication processes CVD coatings are usually only a fe" microns thick and are generally deposited at fairly slo" rates+ usually of the order of a fe" hundred microns per hour* CVD Apparatus A CVD apparatus "ill consist of several (asic components, )as delivery system 2 1or the supply of precursors to the reactor cham(er 3eactor cham(er 2 Cham(er "ithin "hich deposition takes place

&u(strate loading mechanism 2 A system for introducing and removing su(strates+ mandrels etc

%nergy source 2 rovide the energy4heat that is re5uired to get the precursors to react4decompose* Vacuum system 2 A system for removal of all other gaseous species other than those re5uired for the reaction4deposition* %0haust system 2 &ystem for removal of volatile (y-products from the reaction cham(er* %0haust treatment systems 2 In some instances+ e0haust gases may not (e suita(le for release into the atmosphere and may re5uire treatment or conversion to safe4harmless compounds* rocess control e5uipment 2 )auges+ controls etc to monitor process parameters such as pressure+ temperature and time* Alarms and safety devices "ould also (e included in this category* %nergy &ources There are several suita(le sources of heat for CVD processes* These include, 3esistive !eating e*g* tu(e furnaces 3adiant !eating e*g* halogen lamps 3adio 1re5uency !eating e*g* induction heating .asers

/ther energy sources may include 6V-visi(le light or lasers as a source of photo energy* recursors 'aterials are deposited from the gaseous state during CVD* Thus precursors for CVD processes must (e volatile+ (ut at the same time sta(le enough to (e a(le to (e delivered to the reactor* )enerally precursor compounds "ill only provide a single element to the deposited material+ "ith others (eing volatilised during the CVD process* !o"ever sometimes precursors may provide more than one* &uch materials simplify the delivery system+ as they reduce the num(er of reactants re5uired to produce a given compound* Typical recursor 'aterials CVD precursor materials fall into a num(er of categories such as,

!alides - TiCl7+ TaCl8+ #19+ etc !ydrides - &i!7+ )e!7+ Al!:(;'e:)<+ ;!:+ etc 'etal /rganic Compounds 2 'etal Alkyls - Al'e:+ Ti(C!<tBu)7+ etc 'etal Alko0ides - Ti(/i r)7+ etc 'etal Dialylamides - Ti(;'e<)7+ etc 'etal Diketonates - Cu(acac)<+ etc 'etal Car(onyls - ;i(C/)7+ etc

/thers 2 include a range of other metal organic compounds+ comple0es and ligands* 'aterials That Can (e roduced (y CVD rocesses CVD is an e0tremely versatile process that can (e used to process almost any metallic or ceramic compound* &ome of these include, %lements 'etals and alloys Car(ides ;itrides Borides /0ides Intermetallic compounds

CVD )as roducts An often neglected (y-product of the CVD process are volatile gases* !o"ever+ these gases may (e to0ic+ flamma(le or corrosive so must (e treated appropriately* Analysis of the off-gases can also lead to a (etter understanding of the CVD reaction mechanisms and the information used to refine the process*

Applications CVD has applications across a "ide range of industries such as, Coatings 2 Coatings for a variety of applications such as "ear resistance+ corrosion resistance+ high temperature protection+ erosion protection and com(inations thereof* &emiconductors and related devices 2 Integrated circuits+ sensors and optoelectronic devices Dense structural parts 2 CVD can (e used to produce components that are difficult or uneconomical to produce using conventional fa(rication techni5ues* Dense parts produced via CVD are generally thin "alled and may(e deposited onto a mandrel or former* /ptical 1i(res 2 1or telecommunications*

Composites 2 reforms can (e infiltrated using CVD techni5ues to produce ceramic matri0 composites such as car(on-car(on+ car(on-silicon car(ide and silicon car(ide-silicon car(ide composites* This process is sometimes called chemical vapour infiltration or CVI* o"der production 2 roduction of novel po"ders and fi(res Catalysts ;anomachines