Chapter
7
Timber Design and General Analysis
The timber design and general analysis modules can be used to design timber members, calculate section properties, wind pressures on buildings and evaluate drainage systems of building roofs.
Timber Design and General Analysis
71
Quick Reference
General PROKON Analysis Tools 
73 
Timber Member Design 
75 
Section Properties Calculation 
719 
Wind Pressure Analysis 
729 
Gutter Design 
735 
72
Timber Design and General Analysis
General PROKON Analysis Tools
The PROKON suite includes a number of simple analysis tools to simplify your life. These include:

Timber Member Design: A module that designs timber members for combined axial and bending stresses by postprocessing Plane Frame Analysis results 

Section Properties Calculation: For the calculation of bending and torsional properties of any generalised section. 
Wind Pressure Analysis: For determining the free stream velocity pressure on a building.
Gutter Design: Use this module to design a drainage system for a roof by sizing a gutter, outlet and downpipe.
General PROKON Analysis Tools
73
74
General PROKON Analysis Tools
Timber Member Design
The Timber Member Design module, Timsec is used for designing timber members subjected to a combination of axial and bending stresses. It acts as a postprocessor for the Plane Frame Analysis module.
Timber Member Design
75
Theory and application
A brief background is given below regarding the application of the design principles.
Design scope
The program can design rectangular timber members subjected to axial force and uniaxial bending moment. The output from the Plane Frame Analysis module can be read and members sizes evaluated and optimised. Members can also be designed interactively without a prior frame analysis.
Design codes
Timsec designs timber uses the allowable stress design procedures given in SABS 0163  1980.
Symbols
Where possible, the same symbols are used as in the design codes:
Geometry and design parameters
B 
: Section width (mm). 
D 
: Section depth (mm). 
k 
_{2} : Stress modification factor for load sharing. 
k 
_{3} : Stress modification factor for the type of structure. 
k 
_{4} : Stress modification factor for quality of fabrication. 
k 
_{5} : Stress modification factor for moisture content. 
L _{e}_{x} factor : Effective length factor for buckling about the xx axis of the member.
L _{e}_{y} factor : Effective length factor for buckling about the yy axis of the member.
L _{e} factor : Effective length factor for lateral torsional buckling.
^{L} / _{r} : Slenderness ratio of the element, given by the highest ratio of effective length divided by the radius of gyration, for the xx and yy axes.
Note: The program has been developed for fast design of fully triangulated or braced trusses. The effective lengths for buckling about the xx axis and lateral torsional buckling is therefore automatically calculated using the relevant individual member length, i.e. the length between neighbouring nodes. In contrast with this, the effective length for buckling about the yy axis is based on the laterally unsupported length.
76
Timber Member Design
Forces and stresses
F : Axial force (kN).
f _{c} : Axial stress in member (MPa).
f _{b} : Bending stress in member (MPa).
M : Bending moment about the xx axis (kNm).
p _{c} : Allowable axial stress (MPa).
p _{b} : Allowable bending stress (MPa).
Design parameters
Different design parameters can be set for each group of elements designed:
Effective length factors
The effective length factors depend on the type of restraint to be expected at each end of compression members. Guidelines are given in the code:

Effective lengths for compression members: See clause 6.4.3. 

Effective lateral torsional lengths for members in bending: Refer to clause 6.2.3.2 b. 
Considering a truss, the equivalent length L _{x}_{x} relates to inplane buckling. For struts where rotational fixety is provided by the connection, e.g. two or more fasteners or a welded connection, a value between 0.70 and 0.85 is usually appropriate. Where rotation at the joints are possible, e.g. single bolted connection, a value of 1.0 would often be acceptable.
The L _{y}_{y} factor relates to buckling in the vertical plane. This phenomenon can often govern the design of the top and bottom flanges of a truss that can buckle in a snakelike 'S' pattern, giving an effective length equal to unrestrained length. Lateral restraints are normally provided to reduce this effective length. For example, with braced purlins connected to the top flange of the truss, the effective length could be taken equal to the purlin spacing.
The L _{e} factor relates to lateral torsional buckling about the weak axis. Where a beam has lateral supports that prevent rotation and lateral movement at its ends and at intermediate points, the effective laterally unsupported length can be taken as the distance between successive lateral supports.
Slenderness limits
When launching the program, the slenderness limits defaults to the value given by the design code, i.e. 180. You may however change the maximum slenderness ratio for each individual load case or combination. For example, in the case where wind load is dominant, the maximum slenderness ratio may be increased to 250 (clause 6.4.4).
For tensile forces, the program always uses a maximum allowable slenderness ratio of 250.
Timber Member Design
77
Member design
You can use the program to postprocess the results of the Plane Frame Analysis module. Alternatively, you can do an independent interactive design of one or more members.
Postprocessing frame analysis results
On entering the program, the frame last analysed by the Plane Frame Analysis is loaded automatically. The frame design procedure can be broken up into the following steps:
Selecting members to be designed.
Setting the design parameters.
Choosing a design approach.
Selecting load cases and slenderness limits.
Evaluating the design results.
Reanalysis of the frame.
Selecting members for design
Use
manageable group of members to be designed:
F2 (Select all elements): All elements of the frame are selected and a lateral support taken at each node.
of
elements): The list of elements
Frame
Analysis is displayed. Use Up and Down arrow keys to move between groups and press Enter to select a group. Lateral supports are assumed at each node.
F4 (Laterally unsupported ele ments): In the case where some intermediate nodes are not laterally supported, you can specify the support conditions. Use the same convention for entering the elements as in
a
F2,
F3
or
F4
to
select
F3
(Select
in
a
group
defined
Plane
78
Timber Member Design
Plane Frame Analysis. The first and last nodes entered are taken as supported while the intermediate nodes are assumed to be unsupported. If you enter '1–2– –7', for example, the element '1–2–3–4–5–6–7' is considered with only nodes 1 and 7 laterally supported.
Note: If you use F4 to indicate nodes with lateral support, L _{y}_{y} is based on the cumulative length between supported nodes. However, L _{x}_{x} and L _{v}_{v} remain a function of the individual element lengths between adjacent nodes.
Setting the design parameters
Press F6 to select the grade of timber to design and use F7 to change the design parameters as required.
Refer to the clause 5.3 of the code for guidance on values to be used for the permissible stress modification factors.
After designing a group of members, you can select another group of members and then use a different set of parameters.
Choosing a design approach
Depending on what you would like to achieve, e.g. preliminary sizing or final design checks, you can choose between the following design approaches:

Optimising sections: Elements are optimised if you one or both the section dimensions, B and D, to 'Auto'. 

Evaluate specific sections: Select values for the section dimensions of you want to evaluate a specific section size. 
Selecting load cases and slenderness limits
When loading the last frame analysis results, the program automatically displays a list of all load cases and combinations that can be designed and also the default slenderness limit for struts. You can manipulate the load case information as follows:
If you would like to exclude a particular load case or combination from the design, merely delete the relevant line in the table by pressing D.
Tip: The frame analysis modules allow you to analyse load combination only. The analysis output will then be more compact due to the omission of individual load case results.
You are free to modify the slenderness limit for each individual load case or combination as required. In the case where uplift due to wind is dominant, for example, for example, you may be able to set a higher slenderness limit.
Note: The entered slenderness limits apply to struts only. For elements with tensile forces, the slenderness ratio is automatically limited to 250.
Timber Member Design
79
Evaluating the design results
Press F9 to design the selected members. All specified load cases and combinations are considered for each member designed. Unless a very large number of elements and load cases are involved, the design procedure will normally by completed almost instantaneously.
The following criteria are used in the design:
The sum of the ratios of the axial and bending stress to the respective allowable stresses may not exceed unity. In calculating the allowable stress, the program takes account of the member slenderness.
The slenderness ratio may not exceed the maximum allowable slenderness ratio. Different limits are set for compression and tension members.
Press AltL to list the design results on the screen. The results of each new design are appended to the bottom of the existing output.
Tip: To display the results for the last design, press CtrlPgDn to jump to the bottom of the output.
Reanalysis of the frame
Having evaluated the various member sizes, you may find it necessary to return to the original frame analysis and make some changes to section sizes. After reanalysing the frame, you should be in a position to do a final evaluation of the chosen sections.
Tip: In the frame analysis modules it may be easiest to use densities to model the selfweight of members. That way, the selfweight of the frame is updated automatically when changing section sizes.
Interactive design of members
As an alternative to the above procedure, individual members can be designed without the need of a complete frame analysis. You can safely ignore any visible frame analysis output during interactive element design.
The design procedure can be broken up into the following steps:

Setting the design parameters. 

Choosing a design approach. 

Setting a slenderness limit. 

Entering member lengths and forces. 

Evaluating the design results. 
Press F5 to enable the interactive design mode.
710
Timber Member Design
Setting the design parameters
You may change the design parameters for the group of members, e.g. effective length factors, as required. After designing a group of members, you can use a different set of parameters for another group of members.
Choosing a design approach
Depending on what you would like to achieve, e.g. preliminary sizing or final design checks, you can choose between the following design approaches:

Optimising sections: Elements are optimised if you one or both the section dimensions, B and D, to 'Auto'. 

Evaluate specific sections: Select values for the section dimensions of you want to evaluate a specific section size. 
Setting a slenderness limit
Press F8 and enter an appropriate maximum allowable slenderness ratio on the first line. If the results of an earlier frame analysis are displayed, merely edit the slenderness ratio for the first load case or combination. All other slenderness ratio values will be ignored.
Note: The slenderness limits apply to struts only. For elements with tensile forces, the program limits the slenderness ratio to 250.
Timber Member Design
711
Entering member lengths and forces
Press F5 to open the interactive member design window. Use as many lines as necessary to enter member lengths, axial forces and bending moments.
Evaluating the design results
The design results are displayed immediately as you enter member data, facilitating interactive member design. Press F9 to add the displayed results to the output file.
The following criteria are used in the design:

The total of the ratios of the axial and bending stress to the respective allowable stresses may not exceed unity. 

The slenderness ratio may not exceed the maximum allowable slenderness ratio. 
Press AltL to list the design results on the screen. The results of each new interactive design procedure are appended to the bottom of the output.
Tip: To display the results for the last design, press CtrlPgDn to jump to the bottom of the output.
712
Timber Member Design
Output
The design results are saved in an output file called TEMP. The results of each consecutive design are appended to the end of the output.
Note: On exiting and reentering the program, the design output is cleared automatically.
Viewing output
Press AltL to view the output file in the PROKON Text Editor. You can page through the output tables, delete unwanted information and even add your own comments. Press Esc to exit the editor. Refer to Chapter 2 for detail on using the editor functions.
Tip: Design results are always appended to the bottom of the output file. To display the results for the last design, press CtrlPgDn to jump to the bottom of the output.
Printing output
Press AltP to print the design output file. In the Print Manager, you can press F5 to view or edit the output file before printing.
Timber Member Design
713
Customising
You can edit the default section sizes and add new grades of timber by editing the Timsec configuration file. The configuration is saved in the PROKON program directory in a file called TIMSEC.CFG. Use any text editor to edit the grades and sections tables:
Adding a new grade of timber
Up to twenty timber grades can be defined. To add a new grade by entering its name and properties in a new row of the first table:

Using the PROKON Text Editor, you can position the cursor on the last line, i.e. 'Stocklam' and the press AltL to mark the line. 

Press AltC to copy the line and AltU to remove the highlight. 

Finally replace the information on the new line with the appropriate values. 

In the Sizes column, enter the section range number defined in the next table. 
GRADE
Compression Emodulus Sizes
Bending
Tension
SA Pine Grade 4 







SA Pine Grade 5 







SA Pine Grade 6 







SA Pine Grade 7 







SA Pine Grade 8 



10500 



SA Pine Grade 10 10.5 

10.8 
12000 



SA Pine Grade 12 12.4 

12.7 
14250 



SA Pine Grade 14 14.6 

14.2 
16000 



SA Pine D2/A Lam 






SA Pine D2/A1 Lam 

10.0 




SA Pine D1/A Lam 

10.0 




SA Pine D1/A1 Lam 10.1 

11.0 
10000 



Saligna Lam 


12.4 
13100 











New Timber Grade 

12.0 
15000 


Adding a new grade of timber
By default, the sections listed for the first three size ranges are based on the nominal roughsawn dimension given on Appendix C of SABS 0163  1980. You may change these sizes as required and also add a fourth range of sizes. A maximum of fifty sections per range can be entered.
To enter new section sizes:
Using the PROKON Text Editor, you can ensure that blank spaces are overwritten without the table lines being moved. Press Ins to toggle between insert and overwrite mode.
714
Timber Member Design

If more rows are required in the table, copy an existing row as many times as required using AltL and AltC. 

Enter the section dimensions for the relevant range. 
Standard Sizes (mm)
B
1
x
D
B
2
x
D
B
3
x
D
B
4
x
D


195 





228 
152 
100 



195 
198 
150 


111 
228 

100 


149 
261 

150 


225 
295 

150 



328 
198 




361 
231 



111 
395 
297 



149 
261 
152 



225 
295 
198 




328 
231 



111 
361 
264 



149 
395 
297 



225 
428 
396 




461 102 
198 




495 102 
297 




295 102 
396 




328 102 
495 




361 127 
297 




395 127 
396 




428 127 
495 




461 127 
594 




495 142 
297 




528 142 
396 




561 142 
495 




595 142 
594 

Timber Member Design
715
Example
In the preceding text, images are shown pertaining to the design of a timber truss. A sample analysis input and design output file is given below:
TITLE: Timber Truss Example
X
Y
Unit: m
No
NODES
Noof Inc
Xinc
Yinc
























ELEMENTS
Element Definition
SUPPORTS
No
SecNo Fcode Noof Inc
1
1
2
2
2
11
11
11
1
1
1
1
127
189127
283
104
4115
XYR
Prescr.Displacements(m)
Spring Constants(kN/m)
XDisp YDisp RDisp Xsprng Ysprng Rsprng Noof Inc






















SECTION PROPERTIES
No Designation
8.10E3 34.2E6 10.5E6
1.30E3 0.14E6 10.5E6 NODAL LOADS
Unit: kN/m
L
Exp.Coef
(kN/m3)
A(m2)
I(m4)
E(kPa)
Density ÎT(¯C)
6.5
6.5
Noof Inc
4
4
4
1
1
1
36x225
1
2
1
2
3
36x36
C
C
Node
8
8
8
Px(kN)
Py(kN)
0.3
1.5
1.2
M(kNm)
ELEMENT LOADS
L
Element Definition
Direc Wbegin Wend
Noof Inc
716
Timber Member Design
LOAD COMBINATIONS
No
OPTIONS Second order analysis Analyse load combinations only
C2
C1
Load Case ULS Factor SLS Factor
1
2
1
3
1.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
N
Y
Design output:
INPUT FILE: Timber Truss Example Design Code: SABS 0163  1980
Comment: Initial check of main members for 36x225. óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó Design parameters: Grade=SA Pine Grade 4
11 12 7 12
1.044
1.044
C1
C1
12.10
12.34
0.63
0.63
100
100
36x225
36x225
0.61
0.63
0.46
0.46
1.08
1.09
Comment: Second check of main for 48x225. óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó Design parameters: Grade=SA Pine Grade 4
Timber Member Design
717
Comment: Check of bottom chords with lateral supports at middle only. óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó Laterally supported elements Design parameters: Grade=SA Pine Grade 4
Comment: Interactive design on secondary members. óóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóóó Design parameters: Grade=SA Pine Grade 4
718
Timber Member Design
Section Properties Calculation
The Section Properties Calculation module, Prosec, is used to calculate the bending and torsional properties of any arbitrary section. The section can be solid or have openings.
Section Properties Calculation
719
Theory and application
An overview is given below regarding the theories used to calculate section properties.
Scope
Prosec can be used to calculate the properties of any arbitrary section. The section can be solid
or have openings. For bending property calculation, the program uses a simple technique of
division into subsections. The Prandtl membrane analogy is used to determine the torsional section properties, including the shear centre, St. Venant torsional constant and torsional warping constant.
Sign convention
A 
simple Cartesian sign convention applies: 

X coordinates are taken positive to the right and negative to the left. 

Y coordinates are taken positive upward and negative downward. 
List of symbols
Below is a list of symbols used for the bending and torsional section properties:
Bending properties
A : Area of the cross section.
I _{x}_{x} , I _{y}_{y} : Second moment of inertia about X and Yaxis.
I _{x}_{y} : Deviation moment of inertia.
I _{u}_{u} , I _{v}_{v} : Second moment of inertia about major axis and minor axis.
Ang : Anticlockwise angle from the Xaxis to the Uaxis.
Z _{x}_{x} : Elastic section modulus in relation to the top or bottom edge.
Z _{y}_{y} : Elastic section modulus in relation to the left or right edge.
Z _{u}_{u} : Minimum section modulus in relation to the Uaxis.
Z _{v}_{v} : Minimum section modulus in relation to the Vaxis.
Z _{p}_{l}_{x} , Z _{p}_{l}_{y} : Plastic modulus about X and Yaxis.
X _{c} : Horizontal centroid position measured from the leftmost extremity of the section.
720
Section Properties Calculation
Y _{c} : Vertical centroid position measured from the bottom most extremity of the section.
r _{x} , r _{y} : Radius of gyration about the X or Yaxis.
r _{u} , r _{v} : Radius of gyration about the U or Vaxis.
X _{p}_{l} : Horizontal distance from leftmost extremity to centre of mass.
Y _{p}_{l} : Horizontal distance from topmost extremity to centre of mass.
Torsional properties
t : Shear stress.
X : Horizontal position of shear centre from the leftmost extremity of the section.
Y : Vertical position of shear centre from the bottom of the section.
J : St. Venant torsional constant.
Z _{t} : Torsional modules.
C _{w} : Warping torsional constant.
Units of measurement
All input and output values are used without a unit of measurement. Whether you define a section using sizes for millimetres, metres, inches or feet, the output will effectively be given in the same unit of measurement.
Section Properties Calculation
721
Input
A section is defined by entering one or more shapes in the input table. A shape may comprise straight lines and arcs or may be a circle. When more than one shape is entered, the shapes will accumulate and form one section. You can create openings by entering negative shapes that are subtracted from the section.
Note: If preferred, section input can be done graphically. Use Padds to draw a polygon to scale or import a DXF drawing from another CAD system. Then generate an input file for Prosec.
Entering a section
The Code column is used for categorise the data that follows in the next columns:
'+' 
: The start of a new polygon or circle. An absolute reference coordinate must be entered in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 
'–' 
: Start of an opening. An absolute reference coordinate must be entered in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 
'R' : Indicates a line drawn with relative coordinates.
'L' : Indicates a line drawn with absolute coordinates.
'A' : An arc that continues from the last line or arc. The arc radius and angle are entered in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns respectively. The angle is measured clockwise from the previous line or arc end point.
'C' : A circle with the radius entered in the X/Radius column.
Note: If the Code column is left blank, relative coordinates are used.
The X/Radius and Y/Angle columns are used for entering coordinates, radii and angles:
X : Absolute or relative X coordinate. Values are taken positive to the right and negative to the left.
Radius : Radius of a circle or an arc.
Y : Absolute or relative Y coordinate. Values are taken positive upward and negative downward.
Angle : Angle than an arc is extending through.
Note: If the X/Radius or Y/Angle column is left blank, a zero value is used.
722
Section Properties Calculation
Entering a shape
A shape has two basic components:

A reference coordinate which gives the starting point of a polygon or the centre of a circle. 

One or more entries defining the polygon’s coordinates of lines and arcs or a circle’s radius. 
After entering each coordinate, the image of the polygon updated.
Note: The starting point of a polygon is also used as the ending point and the polygon is closed automatically. It is therefore not necessary to reenter the starting coordinate to close a polygon.
The reference coordinate
Every polygon has a start point and every circle has a centre point. These points are called reference points and are entered as absolute coordinates:
In the Code column, enter either a '+' or '–' to indicate the start of a new shape. Entering a '+' means that the shape will be added to the section. Likewise, a '–' means that the shape will
be subtracted, e.g. an opening.
Enter the absolute values of the reference coordinate in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns.
Coordinates defining the polygon
Given a reference coordinate, two or more additional coordinates are required to define the shape of a polygon. In the case of a circle, only a reference coordinate and radius is required. A coordinate may be entered using absolute or relative values:
If the Code column is left blank, the coordinate is taken relative from the last point entered.
An absolute coordinate is entered by setting the Code to 'L'.
The coordinate values are entered in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. A negative X or
Y coordinate must be preceded by a minus sign. The plus sign before a positive X or Y
coordinate is optional.

A circular arc is defined by setting the Code to 'A' and entering the radius in the X/Radius column. The arc is then taken to extend from the end point of the last line or arc, starting at the angle that the previous line or arc ended and extending through the angle specified in the Y/Angle column. 

Define a circle by setting the Code to 'C' and entering the coordinate for the centre point. On the next line, enter the radius in the X/Radius column. 
Note: You can rotate the section by pressing F6.
Section Properties Calculation
723
Procedures for entering shapes
Stepbystep procedures for entering typical section Codes are given below:
Entering a polygon comprising straight lines
A polygon is defined by entering a start point followed by a few lines of additional coordinates.
The polygon can be defined using relative or absolute coordinates or both.
Using relative coordinates:
Define the start position of the polygon by setting the Code to + and entering the absolute coordinate in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns.
Next, leaving the Code column blank, enter the consecutive corner points of the polygon in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. By leaving the Code column blank, the entered coordinates are set to relative coordinates.
Using absolute coordinates:

Define the start position of the polygon by setting the Code to + and entering the absolute coordinate in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 

For each following coordinate, enter an L in the Code column and enter the absolute coordinate values in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 
Entering a polygon comprising lines and arcs
A 
polygon with one or more arcs is defined in a similar way as a normal polygon: 

Define the start position of the polygon by setting the Code to + and entering the absolute coordinate in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 

Define straight lines by entering the consecutive corner points using relative or absolute coordinates. 
For an arc, set the Code to A and enter its radius and angle in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. The arc will be taken to extend from the previous line/arc through the specified angle. A positive angle is taken as a clockwise rotation and a negative angle as an anti clockwise rotation.
Tip: If an arc is to start at a certain angle, simply precede it with a short line at that angle.
Entering a circle
A 
circle is defined by entering the centre point followed by its radius in the next line: 

Define the centre point of the circle by setting the Code to + and entering the absolute X and Y coordinates. If you leave either of the coordinates blank, a value of zero is used. 

On the next line, set the Code to C and enter the radius of the circle in the X/Radius column. 
724
Section Properties Calculation
Note: A circle should be considered as a complete shape. If a circle has to be incorporated in another shape, a polygon with arcs should be used.
Entering an opening
An opening is defined exactly like any other shape, with the exception that it is entered as a negative shape:

Define the start position of the polygon by setting the Code to – and entering the absolute coordinate in the X/Radius and Y/Angle columns. 

Define lines, arcs or a circle by entering the relevant points as described in the examples above. 
Section Properties Calculation
725
Analysis
Two separate analysis procedures are used to calculate the bending and torsional section properties. The bending analysis is completed almost instantaneously. However, the torsional analysis procedure uses a sophisticated finite difference analysis technique and therefore takes longer to complete.
Analysis settings
Press F8 to adjust the analysis settings applicable to the torsional analysis:
Poisson ratio: This value influences the shear stress distributions during torsional analysis. It therefore also has an effect on the position of the shear centre and warping torsion constant. Typical values given in the table alongside.
Number of equations: For determination of the torsional section properties, the finite difference mesh is sized to yield approximately the specified number of equations. More equations will take longer to solve, but may yield better accuracy, especially when analysing thinwalled sections.
Material 
Poisson ratio 
Aluminium 
0.16 
Concrete 
0.20 
Steel 
0.30 
Calculating bending section properties
Press F4 to calculate the section's bending properties. The section properties are calculated using a simple method of division into subsections:
Circles and arcs are first converted to polygons with approximately the same shapes. The program uses lines at 30° angle increments for this purpose.

The section 
is 
then sub 

divided 
into 
a 
series 
of 
trapeziums and the properties
are
each
trapezium.
The global section properties are finally calculated through summation of the values obtained for each trapezium.
calculated
for
726
Section Properties Calculation
Calculating torsional section properties
To calculate the torsional section properties, press F5. A sophisticated finite different analysis method is used for calculating the torsional section properties.
The Prandtl membrane analogy is used for determining the Y and X shear stresses and J, the St. Venant torsional constant. The membrane is modelled using a finite difference mesh.
The shear stress distributions in the Y and X directions are determined for a unit load applied in the Y direction. The shear centre is then calculated by considering the moment of shear stresses about the centre of mass.
The torsional constant, J, is taken as twice the volume below the membrane. The maximum slope of the membrane then gives the torsional modulus. The maximum torsional shear stress can be obtained by dividing the torsional moment with the torsional modulus Z _{t} .
Warping torsion is evaluated by using the relationship between shear and axial deformation from classical elastic theory. The shear deformation is obtained from the pure torsion analysis. The warping constant, Cw, is then determined from the longitudinal displacements.
Note: Press Prtsc to send a screen image to the printer. When using the program through the Windows version of PROKON, pressing Prtsc will send the screen image to Calcpad instead.
Section Properties Calculation
727
Example
Below is the complete input for the concrete bridge deck example shown in the preceding text:
TITLE: Bridge Deck
Code X/Rad.
2.9 1.0 9.0 1.0 2.9 0.86 0.5 0.5 2.34 0.5 1.0 2.0 0.86 0.5 0.5 2.34 0.5 1.0 2.0
Y/Angle
0
0.23
0.35
3.0
3.0
0.35
0.23
0.58
2.6
0.2
0.2
2.6
0.35
0.58
2.6
0.2
0.2
2.6
0.35
+
0

3.5
13.3

Settings Poisson's ratio 0.20 No of equations 1000 Rotation angle 0.00
728
Section Properties Calculation
Wind Pressure Analysis
The Wind Pressure Analysis module is a simple utility for the calculation free stream velocity pressure on a building.
Wind Pressure Analysis
729
Theory and Application
A brief summary is given below with respect to the supported design codes and symbols used.
Design codes
The following codes of practice are supported:

CP3  1972. 

SABS 0160  1989. 
List of symbols
The code symbols are used as far as possible:
k : Pressure coefficient that depends on altitude.
Q _{z} : Free stream velocity pressure (kPa).
V : Regional wind speed (m/s).
v _{z} : Characteristic wind speed at a height z (m/s)
z _{g} : Gradient height that depends on the terrain category and class of structure (m).
a : Height exponent that depends on the terrain category and class of structure.
730
Wind Pressure Analysis
Input
Use the input table to define the structural and environmental parameters:

Height of building: The total structural height over which the wind pressure should be evaluated. 


Height above sea level: Altitude to use for calculating the design wind speed. 


Wind speed: Regional design wind speed for a fifty year return period. Refer to the relevant design code for regional values. 


Terrain category: This value indicates the likely exposure of the structure to wind loading. A higher value denotes increased shielding and lower wind pressures: 

Terrain Category 
Description 

1 
Open terrain 

2 
Outskirts of towns 

3 
Builtup and residential areas 

4 
City centres 


Class: The class of structure quantifies the importance of the analysis: 
Class 
Description 
A 
Structural component 
B 
Structure as a whole 
C 
For checking structural stability 
Wind Pressure Analysis
731
Return period: Enter a return period to indicate the importance of the structure:
Return Period 
Description 
100 
High risk buildings, e.g. hospitals and communication centres 
25 
Low risk structures, e.g. farm outbuildings 
5 
Temporary structures 
50 
Most other structures 
732
Wind Pressure Analysis
Analysis
Press AltA to calculate the wind pressure distribution. The program displays the pressure distribution for the specified building height. The peak pressure value at the top of the building is also listed.
Note: 
Press 
Prtsc 
to 

the analysis results. When 
using 
the 
program through 

the Windows 
version 
of PROKON, pressing Prtsc 
will 
send 
the 
screen image 
to 
Calcpad instead.
Wind Pressure Analysis
733
734
Wind Pressure Analysis
Gutter Design
The Gutter Design Module is used to design gutters and down pipes to drain roofs of typical building structures.
Gutter Design
735
Theory and application
Below is a brief summary of the application of the theory.
Scope
The program can evaluate roof drainage systems subjected to intense short duration rains. It takes into account the shape of the gutter, the outlet into which the gutter discharges and the pipework that conveys the flow to below.
Design code
The program is based on the requirements of BS 6367  1983.
Assumptions
The same assumptions used in the code are applicable. These include:

The gutter slope does not exceed 1:350. 

The gutter has a uniform crosssectional shape. 
Reference should be made to the code for guidance on the positioning and sizing of gutter outlets and other requirements.
736
Gutter Design
Input
Use the input table to define the drainage system and storm to be drained.
Storm characteristics
The following parameters should be entered to define the storm:
Return period (years): This parameter is used as a measure of the security of an acceptable degree of damage. A return period of between five and fifty years is normally used for typical situations. For higher risk scenarios, a value of one and a half times the expected life of the building and higher should be used. Refer to the code for detail.
Two minute M5 rainfall (mm): This quantity is defined as the expected rainfall in a two minute period during a one in five year storm. Press F4 to display regional data for the United Kingdom and South Africa. Refer to the code or other relevant hydrological data for regions not listed.

Design duration (1 to 10 minutes): Adjust the default two minute design duration if necessary. The M5 rainfall is then adjusted in accordance with Table 10 of the code. 

Effective drainage area: Roof area to be drained, taking into account any adverse effect of wind on sloping roofs and vertical surfaces and other factors. 
Note: Gutters and downpipes may normally be omitted for roofs with area of 6 m ^{2} or less.
Gutter geometry
Rectangular and trapezium shaped gutters can be defined:

Top width (mm): Width at the top of the gutter. 

Base width (mm): The bottom width of the gutter. Set the base width equal to the top width for rectangular gutters. 

Sloping depth (mm): For a trapezium shaped gutter, enter the depth in which the gutter slopes outward from the base. 
Note: You are not required to enter the total depth of the gutter. The program calculates the depth required for proper draining.
Gutter Design
737
Outlet and downpipe parameters
The type of outlet influences the flow collected from the gutter. The following types of outlets can be specified:

Type 1: Outlet with sharp corners. 

Type 2: Outlet with rounded corners. 

Type 3: Outlet with tapered edges not exceeding 45° with the vertical. 
The downpipe dimensions are defined using the following values:

Aspect ratio: The ratio of the larger to smaller downpipe dimensions. Use a unity value for square and circular downpipes. 

Larger dimension: Enter the larger dimension of the downpipe. Use the diameter in the case of a circular downpipe. 
738
Gutter Design
Analysis
Press AltA to analyse the gutter system. The program evaluates the following three components of the drainage system:

The gutter or channel that collects the flow from the roof. 

The outlet into which the flow from the gutter discharges. 

The pipework that conveys the flow from the outlet to a lower drainage system. 
The three parts of the system can be designed separately if the outlet and downpipe is made large enough for flow to freely discharge from the gutter. The actual downpipe and outlet may however be smaller than that required for this method, prompting the program to perform a more detailed analysis.
Freeflow design
In the phase of the analysis, the gutter and downpipe sizes for free flow are determined:

Flow in the gutter is evaluated to establish whether free flow is possible. 

The upstream and downstream free flow depths are determined and the required gutter depth calculated. 

The flow through the outlet is check to see if orifice or weirtype flow is present. 

The required freeflow sizes are determined for circular and rectangular downpipes. 
Gutter Design
739
Evaluation of the entered system
The second phase of the analysis involves the evaluation of the entered downpipe and gutter sizes:

The specified downpipe and outlet is evaluated to determine its flow capacity. 

If the downpipe is smaller than that required for free flow in the gutter, the restricted flow characteristics of the gutter is determined and a gutter depth suggested. 

The checking procedure is performed for both rectangular and circular downpipes. 

Finally the design flow volume is calculated. 
Note: 
Press 
Prtsc 
to 

the analysis results. When 
using 
the 
program through 

the Windows 
version 
of PROKON, pressing Prtsc 
will 
send 
the 
screen image 
to 
Calcpad instead
740
Gutter Design
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