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MAHAYANA MAHAPARINIRVANA SUTRA

Translated By Kosho Yamamoto From Dharmakshema's h!nese Vers!on The "orld's #en$!nely F!rst%&'er "e( &d!t!on o) Th!s om*lete S+r!*t$re

Thus have I heard. At one time, the Buddha was staying at Kusinagara in the land of the Mallas, close to the river Ajitavati, where the twin sal trees stood. At that time, the great bhiksus as many as ! billion hundred thousand were with the "orld#$onoured %ne. They surrounded him front and back. %n the &'th of the second month, as the Buddha was about to enter (irvana, he, with his divine )ower, s)oke in a great voice, which filled the whole world and reached the highest of the heavens. It said to all beings in a way each could understand* +Today, the Tathagata ,i.e. Buddha- the Alms#deserving and All#.nlightened %ne, )ities, )rotects and, with an undivided mind, sees beings as he does his ,son- /ahula. 0o, he is the refuge and house of the world. The greatly .nlightened "orld#$onoured %ne is about to enter (irvana. The beings who have doubts may now all ask 1uestions of him.+ At that time, early in the morning, the "orld#$onoured %ne emitted from his mouth rays of light of various hues, namely* blue, yellow, red, white, crystal, and agate. The rays of light shone all over the 2,!!! great#thousand Buddha lands. Also, the ten directions were alike shone u)on. All the sins and worries of beings of the si3 realms, as they were illuminated, were e3)iated. 4eo)le saw and heard this, and worry greatly beset them. They all sorrowfully cried and we)t* +%h, the kindest father5 %h, woe is the day5 %h, the sorrow5+ They raised their hands, beat their heads and breasts, and cried aloud. %f them, some trembled, we)t, and sobbed. At that time, the great earth, the mountains, and great seas all shook. Then, all of them said to one another* +6et us for the )resent su))ress our feelings, let us not be greatly smitten by sorrow5 6et us s)eed to Kusinagara, call at the land of the Mallas, touch the feet of the Tathagata, )ay homage and beg* +% Tathagata5 4lease do not enter 4arinirvana, but stay one more kal)a ,aeon- or less than a kal)a.+ They )ressed their )alms together and said again* +The world is em)ty5 7ortune has de)arted from us beings8 evil things will increase in the world. % you5 $urry u), go 1uickly5 0oon the Tathagata ,i.e. Buddha- will surely enter (irvana.+ They also said* +The world is em)ty, em)ty5 7rom now on, no one )rotects us, and we have none to )ay homage to. 4overty#stricken and alone5 If we once )art from the "orld#$onoured %ne, and if doubts arise, whom are we to ask9+ At that time, there were many of the Buddha:s disci)les there, such as ;enerable Mahakatyayana, ;akkula, and <)ananda. All such great bhiksus, when they saw the light, shook and were greatly stirred, so much so that they could not hold themselves well. Their minds became muddled, and chaos ruled. They cried aloud and dis)layed variegated grief. There were )resent, at that time, million bhiksus. All were arhats ,saints-. They were unmolested ,unlimited- in mind and could act as they willed. They were segregated from all illusions, and all their sense#organs were subdued. 6ike great naga ,ser)ent- kings, they were )erfect in great virtue. They were accom)lished in the wisdom of the All#;oid and )erfect in the attainments of their own ,in inner attainments-. They were like the sandalwood forest with sandalwood all around, or like a lion king surrounded by lions. They were )erfect in all such virtues. They were the true sons of the Buddha. .arly in the morning, when the sun had just risen, they were u) from their beds in the )laces where they lived and were about to use their toothbrushes, when they encountered the light that arose from the Buddha:s )erson. And they said to one another* +$urry u) with bathing and gargling, and be clean.+ 0o did they say, and their hair stood on end all over their body, and their blood so ran that they looked like )alasa flowers. Tears filled their eyes, which e3)ressed great )ain. To benefit and give )eace to beings, to establish the Transcendent Truth of the All#;oid of Mahayana, to reveal what the Tathagata had by e3)ediency latently taught so that all his sermons would not come to an end, and to subjugate the minds of all beings, they s)ed to where the Buddha was. They fell down at the Buddha:s feet, touched them with their heads,

walked around him a &!! thousand times, folded their hands, )aid homage, ste))ed back and sat on one side. At that time, there were )resent such women as Kuddara and such bhiksunis ,nuns- as 0ubhadra, <)ananda, 0agaramati, and = million bhiksunis. They were all great arhats. All +:asravas+: ,inner defilements- having been done away with, they were unmolested in mind and could act as they willed. They were )arted from all illusion and all their sense#organs were subdued. 6ike great nagas, they were )erfect in virtue. They were accom)lished in the "isdom of the All#;oid. Also, early in the morning, after the sun had just risen, their hair stood on end all over their body and their blood so ran through their vessels that they looked like )alasa flowers. Tears filled their eyes, which bes)oke great sorrow. They desired to benefit beings, to give )eace and bliss, and establish the Transcendent Truth of the All#;oid of Mahayana. They meant to manifest what the Tathagata had by e3)ediency latently taught, so that all his sermons would not disa))ear. In order to subjugate the minds of all beings, they s)ed to where the Buddha was, touched his feet, walked around him a &!! thousand times, folded their hands, )aid homage, ste))ed back and sat on one side. %f the bhiksunis, there were again those who were the nagas of Bodhisattvas and humans. They had attained the ten stages ,of Bodhisattvic develo)ment-, where they abided unmoved. They were born as females so as to teach beings. They always )ractised the four limitless minds ,of loving#kindness, com)assion, sym)athetic joy, and e1uanimity-, thereby attaining unlimited )ower and acting well in )lace of the Buddha. At that time there were also Bodhisattva#mahasattvas ,great Bodhisattvas- who were as )lentiful as the sands of the river >anges and who were all nagas of men, attaining the level of the ten stages and abiding there unmoved. As an e3)edient, they had gained life as men and were called Bodhisattvvas 0agaraguna and Aksayamati. 0uch Bodhisattva# mahasattvas as these headed the number. They all )ri?ed Mahayana, abided in it, dee)ly understood, loved and )rotected it, and well res)onded to the call of the world. They took vows and each said* +I shall )ass those who have not yet attained the "ay to the other shore ,i.e. of salvation-. Already over innumerable )ast kal)as, I have u)held the )ure )rece)ts ,of morality- and acted as I should have acted. I made the unreleased gain the "ay so that they could carry over the seed of the Three Treasures ,i.e. Buddha, @harma, 0angha-. And in the days to come, I shall turn the wheel of @harma ,i.e. teach Buddhism-, greatly adorn myself, accom)lish all innumerable virtues, and see beings as one views one:s only son.+ They likewise, early in the morning, encountered the light of the Buddha. All their hair stood on end, and all over their body their blood so ran that they looked like )alasa flowers. Tears filled their eyes, which s)oke of great )ain. Also to benefit beings, to give bliss, to manifest what the Tathagata had out of e3)ediency latently taught, and to )revent the sermons from dying out, and to subjugate all beings, they s)ed to where the Buddha was, walked around him &!! thousand times, folded their hands, )aid homage, ste))ed back and took their seats on one side. At that time, there were )resent u)asakas ,lay followers of Buddha- who were as many as the sands of two >anges. They had accorded with the five )rece)ts, and their de)ortment was )erfect. These were such u)asakas as <ntainted#;irtue#King, $ighly# ;irtuous and others, who headed their number. They dee)ly cherished the thought of combating such o))osites as* sorrow versus bliss, eternal versus non#eternal, )ure versus non#)ure, self versus non#self, real versus not#real, taking refuge versus not taking refuge, beings versus non#beings, always versus not#always, )eace versus non# )eace, created versus non#created, disru)tion versus non#disru)tion, (irvana versus non#(irvana, augmentation versus non#augmentation, and they always thought of combating such o))osites of the @harma elements as stated above.

They also always loved to listen to the unsur)assed Mahayana, acted u)on what they had heard and desired to teach others. They u)held well the untainted moral )rece)ts and )ri?ed Mahayana. Already they were well contented within themselves and they made others feel well contented who )ri?ed Mahayana. They imbibed the unsur)assed "isdom very well, loved and )rotected Mahayana. They accorded well with the ways of the world, )assed those who had not yet gained the "ay to the other shore of life, emanci)ated those not yet emanci)ated, and )rotected the seed of the Three Treasures so that it would not die out and so that, in days to come, they could turn the wheel of @harma, adorn themselves greatly, dee)ly taste the )ure moral )rece)ts, attain accom)lishment in all such virtues, have a great com)assionate heart towards all beings, being im)artial and not#two, and see all beings just as one views one:s own only son. Also, early in the morning when the sun had just risen, in order to cremate the Tathagata:s body, )eo)le each held in their hands tens of thousands of bundles of such fragrant wood as sandalwood, aloes, goirsa sandalwood, and heavenly wood, which had annual rings and heart and which all shone out in the wonderful hues of the seven treasures. 7or e3am)le, the various hues were like )ainted colours, all of which wonders having arisen out of the )ower of the Buddha, and which were blue, yellow, red, and white. These were )leasing to beings: eyes. All the wood was thickly smeared with such various incense as saffron, alo wood, sarjarasa, etc. 7lowers were strewn as adornments, such as the ut)ala ,blue lotus-, kumuda, )adma ,red lotus- and )undarika ,white lotus-. Above all the fragrant wood were hung banners of five colours. They were soft and delicate, like such heavenly veils as kauseya cloth, ksuma, and silken twill. All these fragrant woods were laden onto bejewelled wagons, which shone in such various colours as blue, yellow, red, and white. The thills and s)okes were all inlaid with the seven treasures. .ach of these wagons was drawn by four horses, which ran like the wind. In front of each wagon stood 'A hanging ensign )lants, over which were s)read thin nets of true gold. .ach wagon had '! wonderful bejewelled )arasols, each having on it the garlands of ut)ala, kumuda, )adma, and )undarika. The )etals of these flowers were of )ure gold, and the caly3es were of diamond. In the flowers was many a black bee, which gathered there, )layed and amused themselves, sending forth wonderful music. These s)oke of non#eternal, sorrow, All#;oid, and non#0elf. Also, this sound s)oke of what the Bodhisattva originally does. @ances, singing, and mask dances went on, and such musical instruments were )layed as the +:cheng+:, the flute, har), +:hsiao+: and +:shB. +:And from the music arose a voice, which said* +%h, woe is the day, woe the day5 The world is em)ty5+ In front of each wagon stood u)asakas who were holding bejewelled tables, which were laden with various flowers such as the ut)ala, kumuda, )adma, )undarika, and such various incense as kunkuma and others, and fumigating incense, which were all wonderful. They carried in various utensils, to )re)are meals for the Buddha and the 0angha. The cooking was done with sandalwood and aloe wood as fuel, done u) with the water of eight virtues. The dishes were sweet and beautiful in si3 tastes* bitter, sour, sweet, hot, salty, and )lain. Also the virtues were three* &C light and soft, DC )ure, and 2C true to cuisine. .1ui))ed with such things, they s)ed to the land of the Mallas, to the sal forest. They also strew sand all over the ground, s)reading kalinga and kambala cloths and silken cloths on it. 0uch covered all about, for a s)ace of &D yojanas ,yojanaE &'#D! kilometres-. 7or the Buddha and the 0angha, they erected simhasana seats ,lions: seats-, which were inlaid with the seven treasures. The seats were as high and large as Mount 0umeru. Above these seats were hung bejewelled screens. >arlands of all kinds hung down, and from all the sal trees also hung down wonderful banners and )arasols. "onderful scents were dis)ersed amongst the trees and various wonderful flowers were set in between. The u)asakas all said to one another* +%

all beings5 If you feel the need, meals, clothing, heads, eyes, limbs and everything awaits you8 all will be yours.+ "hile giving, greed, anger, defilement, and )oisonous ,states of- mind fled8 no other wish, no thought of any other blessing or )leasure was entertained. Their minds were bent solely u)on the unsur)assed, )ure Bodhi#mind ,.nlightenment mind-. All these u)asakas were well established in the Bodhisattvic state. They also said to themselves* +The Tathagata will now take our dishes and enter (irvana.+ As they thought this, all their hair stood on end8 all over their body their blood so ran that their bodies looked like )alasa flower. Tears filled their eyes, e3)ressing great )ain. .ach carefully carried in the utensils of the meals on bejewelled wagons. The incense wood, banners, bejewelled )arasols, and meals were all s)ed to where the Buddha was. They touched the feet of the Buddha, made offerings to the Buddha on these, walking around him &!! thousand times. They cried aloud. The earth and heaven melted in sym)athy and shook. They beat their breasts and cried. Their tears ran like rain. And they said to one another* +% you5 "oe is the day5 The world is em)ty, is em)ty5+ They threw their bodies to the ground before the Tathagata and said to him* +% Tathagata5 4lease have )ity and acce)t our offerings5+ The "orld#$onoured#%ne, aware of the occasion, was silent, and did not take ,their offerings-. Thrice they beseeched him, but their su))lications went unheard. 7ailing in their )ur)ose, the u)asakas were sad and sat silently. This was as in the case of a com)assionate father who has but an only son. This son, of a sudden, becomes ill and dies. The cremation over, the father goes back home and is sunk in great grief. The same was the case with all the u)asakas, who we)t and were grief#stricken. "ith all their utensils )ositioned in a safe )lace, the u)asakas ste))ed back and sat silently on one side. At that time, there were u)asikas ,female lay followers- )resent, as many as the sands of three >anges, who were )erfect in the five )rece)ts and in de)ortment. They included such as Ayusguna, >unamalya, and ;isakha who headed the F,!!! and could well )rotect the True @harma. In order to carry over innumerable &!! thousand beings to the other shore, they were born as females. They severely checked their own selves in the light of household laws and meditated on their own )ersons. 6ike the four vi)ers ,the four great elements of earth, air, fire and water-, this carnal body is ever )ecked at and su))ed by innumerable vermin. It smells ill and is defiled. >reed binds. This body is hateful, like the carcass of a dog. This body is im)ure, from which nine holes leak out defilements. It is like a castle, the blood, flesh, s)ine, bone and skin forming the outer walls and the hands and legs serving as bastions, the eyes as gunholes, and the head as donjon. The mind#king ,citta#raja- is seated within. 0uch a carnal castle is what the All# Buddha#"orld#$onoured %ne abandons and what common mortals and the ignorant always love and cling to. 0uch rakshasas ,flesh#eating demons- as greed, anger and ignorance sit within. This body is as frail as reed, eranda ,foul#smelling +recinus communis+ )lant-, foam, and )lantain. This body is non#eternal and does not stay stable even for a second. It is like lightning, madding water, and a mirage. %r it is like drawing a )icture on water, which no sooner done than disa))ears. This body breaks just as easily as a big tree hanging over a river )reci)ice. It does not last long. It is )ecked at and devoured by fo3es, wolves, owls, eagles, crows, mag)ies and hungry dogs. "ho with a good mind finds joy in such a carnal self9 %ne might sooner fill a cow:s foot)rint with water than fully e3)lain the non#eternal, the non#)ure, the ill#smell and defilement of this body8 or one could sooner s)lit the great earth and crush it into the si?e of a )ick)urse ,weed- seed or even the si?e of a dust#mote, but never could one fully e3)lain the wrongs and ills of this body. This being so, one ought to discard it like tears or s)ittle. Because of this, all u)asikas train their mind in such dharmas as the ;oid,

formlessness and desirelessness. Thus they very much desire to in1uire into and abide in the teaching of the Mahayana sutras. $aving listened, they e3)ound them to others. They guard and u)hold their vows and de)recate the female form. It is much to be detested and is by nature not unbreakable. Their mind thus ever rightly sees things and crushes the endless wheel of birth and death. They look to Mahayana and are themselves well nourished by it. They feed the minds of those who )ri?e it. They greatly cherish, defend and )rotect it. Though female in form, they are, truth to tell, none but Bodhisattvas. They accord well with the ways of the world and hel) those who have not yet gained the other shore and emanci)ate those not yet emanci)ated. They u)hold the heritage of the Three Treasures, so that it will not die out and so that they can turn the wheel of @harma in the days to come. They greatly adorn their own )ersons, living ever true to the )rohibitions and accom)lishing such virtues. Their com)assionate heart e3tends towards all beings. They are im)artial and not#two, just as one would regard one:s only son. They also, early in the morning when the sun had just risen, said to one another* +6et us hasten today to the forest of the twin trees5+ The u)asikas: utensils were twice as many. They took these to where the Buddha was, touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times and said* +% "orld#honoured %ne5 "e have with us here meals for the Buddha and the 0angha. % Tathagata5 4lease have )ity and acce)t our offerings5+ The Tathagata was silent and did not take ,the offerings-. Their su))lication not met, all the u)asikas were sad. They ste))ed back and sat down on one side. At that time, the 6icchavis of ;aisali Gastle were )resent and others as numerous as the sands of four >anges, who were males, females, big and small, wives and children, relatives, and those of the kings of Hambudvi)a ,India-. 0eeing the "ay, they were true to the )rohibitions and )erfect in de)ortment. They crushed out the )eo)le of other teachings who acted against the "onderful @harma. They always said to one another* +"e shall have stores of gold and silver for the service of u)holding the sweet and endless de)ths of the "onderful @harma, so that it will flourish. 6et us ho)e always to learn @harma. "e shall draw out the tongues of those who slander the Buddha:s "onderful @harma.+ They also )rayed* +0hould there be any bhiksu who transgresses against the )rohibitions, we shall turn him back to secular life and have him for labour8 if anyone abides in the "onderful @harma, we shall esteem and serve him as we do our )arents. If )riests well )ractise the "onderful @harma, we shall )artici)ate in their joy and su))ort them, so that they will increase.+ They were always glad to lend an ear to the Mahayana sutras. $aving listened, they widely e3)ounded to others what they had heard. All were accom)lished in such virtues. They included such 6icchavis as ,the following )ersons-* 4ure#and#<ntainted#0tore, 4ure#and#(on#Indulgent, >anges#"ater# of#4ure#and#<ntainted#;irtue. All of these said to themselves* +6et us now s)eed to where the Buddha is5+ ;arious were their utensils of offerings. .ach 6icchavi had F,!!! ele)hants all decorated, along with F,!!! four#horse wagons of treasures, F,!!! bright moon gems. There were also bundles of fuel such as heavenly wood, sandalwood, and aloes, all to the number of F,!!!. In front of each ele)hant hung bejewelled hanging ensigns, banners and )arasols. .ven the smallest of )arasols was as wide as one yojana crosswise and lengthwise. .ven the shortest of the banners measured 2D yojanas. And the lowest of the bejewelled hanging#ensigns was &!! yojanas high. "ith these objects of offerings, they went to where the Buddha was, touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "e are now here with offerings for you, the Buddha, and the 0angha. 4lease have )ity and acce)t ours5+ The Tathagata was silent and did not acce)t ,the offerings-. (ot having

gained what they desired, the 6icchavis were all sad. By the Buddha:s )ower, they were raised u) into the sky seven talas high, where they remained in silence. At that time, there were, further, ministers and rich laymen as numerous as the sands of five >anges. They )ri?ed Mahayana. If there were any of other teachings slandering the "onderful @harma, they would crush such down just as hail and rain do grass and )lants. They were 0unlight, "orld#4rotecting, and @harma#4rotecting. These headed their number. 7ive times as many were their utensils as those who had )receded them. They carried these to the forest of the twin sal trees, touched the Buddha:s feet, walked around the Buddha &!! thousand times, and said* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "e have brought you and the 0angha utensils of offerings. 4lease have )ity and acce)t our ,gifts-5+ The Tathagata was silent and did not acce)t ,them-. Their wish not granted, the rich elders were sad. By the Buddha:s divine )ower, they were raised u) seven talas from the ground into the sky, where they remained in silence. At that time, there were )resent the King of ;aisali and his consort, the )eo)le of the harem, and all the kings of Hambudvi)a, e3ce)ting Ajatasatru and those of the castle town and villages of his kingdom. They included such as King Taintless#as#the#Moon and others. They took along with them the four military forces ,of ele)hants, horses, infantry and chariots- and desired to go to where the Buddha was. .ach king had )eo)le and relatives as many as & ! million billion. The chariots and soldiers were drawn by ele)hants and horses. The ele)hants were si3#tusked and the horses ran like the wind. Their adornments and utensils of offerings were si3 times as many as those which had )receded them. %f all the bejewelled )arasols, even the smallest filled a diameter of yojanas. The smallest of the banners measured &= yojanas. All these kings abided )eacefully in the "onderful @harma and detested twisted laws ,teachings-. They esteemed Mahayana and felt dee) joy in it. They loved beings as one loves an only son. The fragrance of the meals and drinks which they were holding filled the air for four yojanas all around. They too, early in the morning when the sun had just risen, carried forth all these sweet dishes and went to the forest of twin sal trees where the Tathagata was and said* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "e wish to offer these to the Buddha and 0angha. 4lease have )ity, % Tathagata5 and acce)t our final offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, would not take ,the offerings-. Their wishes unanswered, all these kings were sad. They ste))ed back and took their seats on one side. At that time, there were the consorts of the kings as numerous as the sands of seven >anges, e3ce)ting those of King Ajatasatru. 0o as to save beings, they manifested as females. They always were mindful of their bodily actions and )erfumed their minds with the dharmas of the ;oid, formlessness and desirelessness. They included such as the ladies "onderful#Three#"orlds and ;irtue#6oving. All consorts such as these abided )eacefully in the "onderful @harma and observed the )rohibitions and were )erfect in their de)ortment. They behaved towards beings as one does to one:s only son. They all said* +6et us all s)eed to where the "orld#$onoured %ne is.+ The offerings of these royal consorts were seven times as many as those that had )receded them, and these were* incense, flowers, bejewelled hanging#ensigns, silken cloths, banners, )arasols, and the best meals and drinks. .ven the smallest of the bejewelled )arasols measured &= yojanas. The lowest of the bejewelled hanging#ensigns measured = yojanas. The fragrance of the meals and drinks filled an area of eight yojanas all around. Bearing all these offerings, they went to where the Tathagata was. They touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times, and said to the Buddha* +% "orld# $onoured %ne5 "e have with us offerings for the Buddha and the bhiksus. 4lease have )ity and acce)t our final offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,the offerings-. Their re1uests ungranted, all the consorts were sad.

They )ulled out their hair, beat their breasts and wailed as though a com)assionate mother had newly lost her only son. They ste))ed back, and sat silently to one side.+ +At that time, there were also devis ,goddesses- as numerous as the sands of eight >anges. ;iru)aksa headed their number and said* +% sisters5 0ee clearly, see clearly5 The best offerings of all these beings are for the Tathagata and the bhiksus. "e ought to be serious and make offerings to the Tathagata with all such wonderful utensils as these. $e will )artake of our offerings and enter (irvana. % sisters5 It is hard to encounter the a))earance into the world of the All#Buddha#Tathagata. It is also difficult to make the last offerings. 0hould the Buddha enter (irvana, the world will become em)ty.+ All these heavenly females loved Mahayana and desired to hear it. $aving heart it, they e3)ounded it widely to ,other- )eo)le. Much )ri?ing Mahayana, they also satisfied those who were dying for it. They )rotected Mahayana very well. If there were any of other teachings who o))osed or were jealous of Mahayana, they severely crushed them out, just as hail does grass. They were observant of the )rohibitions and their de)ortment was )erfect. They accorded well with the world, )assed across those who had not yet gained the other shore, and turned the wheel of @harma. They u)held the heritage of the Three Treasures so that it would not die out. They studied Mahayana and greatly adorned themselves. 4erfect in all these virtues, they loved beings e1ually, just as one would love one:s only son. They also, early in the morning when the sun had just risen, all took u) incense of heavenly wood twice as great in number as those of the human world. The fragrance of all this incense blew away all bad human smells. Their wagons had white roofs and were )ulled by four horses. .ach wagon had curtains, and on each of the four corners were hung golden bells. %f diverse kind were the incense, flowers, the hanging#ensigns, banners, )arasols, wonderful dishes, and mask dances. There were simhasanas ,lion thrones-, the four legs of which were of )ure blue beryl. Behind the simhasanas were couches inlaid with the seven treasures. In front of each couch was an arm#rest of gold. The tree of light was of the seven treasures, and various gems served as lam)s. "onderful flowers were s)read on the ground. And having made their offerings, all these devis were sad at heart. Tears welled u) and great was their sorrow. In order to benefit beings and make them ha))y, they had accom)lished the unsur)assed )ractice of the All#;oid of Mahayana and they )ur)osed to reveal the Tathagata:s undisclosed teaching of e3)ediency. And in order to )revent the various sermons from dying out, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times, and said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 4lease acce)t our final offerings.+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. All these devis, their wishes unanswered, were sad. They ste))ed back, took their seat on one side, and sat ,there- silently. At that time, there lived various naga kings in the four 1uarters, as many of them as sands of nine >anges. They were ;asuki, (anda, and <)ananda, who headed u) their number. All these naga kings too, early in the morning when the sun had just risen, took u) their utensils of offerings, as numerous as those of man and heaven. Garrying these to where the Buddha was, they touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times, and said to him* +% Tathagata5 4lease acce)t our final offerings.+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. All the naga kings, their wishes not met, were sad. They ste))ed back and sat to one side. At that time, there were demon kings as numerous as the sands of ten >anges. ;aisravana headed their number. They said to one another* +6et us all hasten to where the Buddha is5+ Garrying with them various things of offering, twice as many as those of the naga kings, they went to where the Buddha was, touched his feet, walked around him &!! thousand times, and said to him* +% Tathagata5 4lease have )ity and acce)t the

last of our offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t. Their wishes unfulfilled, they felt sad, ste))ed back, and sat on one side. At that time, there were also garuda ,mythical bird- kings, as numerous as the sands of D! >anges. King ;ictor#over#/esentment headed their number. Also, there were gandharva ,demigod musician- kings, who were as numerous as the sands of 2! >anges. King (arada headed their number. Also, there were kimnara ,celestial singer and dancer- kings there, as numerous as the sands of F! >anges. King 0udarsana headed their number. Also, there were mahoraga ,snaked#headed beings- kings, who were as numerous as the sands of '! >anges. King Mahasudarsana headed their number. Also, there were asura ,contentious, titanic demon- kings, who were as numerous as the sands of =! >anges. King Gam)alu headed their number. Also, there were danavat ,abounding in gifts- kings, who were as numerous as the sands of A! >anges. King "ater#of#the#<ntainted#/iver and Bhadradatta headed u) their number. Also, there were rakshasa ,carnivorous demon- kings, who were as numerous as the sands of ! >anges. King 7earful headed their number. Abandoning evil, he did not devour men8 even amidst resentment, he showed com)assion. $is form was ugly to look at, and yet looked right and austere, due to the )ower of the Buddha. Also, there were forest kings there, who were as numerous as the sands of I! >anges. King Music#and# %dour headed their number. Also, there were dharani ,magic s)ell-#)ossessing kings, who were as numerous as the sands of &,!!! >anges. King >reat#;ision#of#@harani#<)holding headed their number. Also, there were lustful )retas ,ghosts- there, who were as numerous as the sands of &!! thousand >anges. King 0udarsana headed their number. Also, there were lustful devis, who were as numerous as the sands of &! million >anges. $eavenly#Blue#"et, 0ad#"et#Gor)se, Im)erial#"ay#"et and ;isakha headed u) their number. Also, there were the )reta kings of the earth there, who were as numerous as the sands of a billion >anges. King "hitely#"et headed there number. Also, there were )rinces, heavenly guardians, and the four guardian angels of the earth, as numerous as the sands of &! million#billion >anges. Also, there were the vayus of the four 1uarters, as numerous as the sands of &! million# billion >anges. These called forth seasonal and unseasonal flowers u)on the trees and strewed them between the twin sal trees. Also, there were as many )rinci)al gods of cloud and rain )resent as the sands of &! million#billion >anges, who said to themselves* +"hen the Tathagata enters (irvana, we shall call forth rain at the time of the cremation and e3tinguish the fire. 0hould there by anyone who feels hot and moans, we shall make the air cool.+ Also, there were greatly fragrant ele)hant kings there, as numerous as the sands of D! >anges. They included /ahuhastin, 0uvarnavarnahastin, Amrtahastin, Blue#.ye .le)hant, 7ragrance#desiring .le)hant, who headed u) their number. They res)ected and loved Mahayana. As the Buddha was about to enter (irvana, each took u) innumerable, boundless, beautiful lotus flowers and came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, ste))ed back, and sat down to one side. Also there were lion kings there, as numerous as the sands of D! >anges. King 6ion:s /oar headed their number. To all beings they gave fearlessness. Bearing various flowers and fruits, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, ste))ed back, and sat on one side.

Also, there were the kings of flying birds there, as numerous as the sands of D! >anges. They included la)wings, wild geese, mandarin ducks, )eacocks, and all such birds, and gandharvas, karandas, mynahs, )arrots, kokilas, wagtails, kalavinkas, jivamjivakas, and all such birds, bearing flowers and fruit, came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, ste))ed back, and sat to one side. Also, there were buffaloes, cows, and shee) )resent, who were as numerous as the sands of D! >anges, who all came to the Buddha and gave forth wonderfully fragrant milk. All this milk filled the ditches and )its of Kusinagara Gastle. The colour, fragrance and taste ,of this milk- was all )erfect. This done, they ste))ed back and sat down to one side. Also, there were )resent rishis ,sages- from the four lands, who were as numerous as the sands of D! >anges. Ksantirsi headed their number. Garrying flowers, incense and fruit, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, walked around him three times, and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 4lease have )ity and acce)t our final offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. At this, their wish unanswered, all the rishis were sad. They ste))ed back and sat on one side. There were ,also- )resent all the kings of the bees of Hambudvi)a ,India-. "onderful# 0ound, the King of bees, headed their number. They brought in many flowers, came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, walked around him once, ste))ed back, and sat down to one side. At that time, the bhiksus ,monks- and bhiksunis ,nuns- of Hambudvi)a were all gathered together, e3ce)ting the two venerable ones, Mahakasya)a and Ananda. Also, there were ,stretches of- s)ace in between the worlds as numerous as the sands of innumerable asamkhyas ,infinitudes- of >anges, as well as all the mountains of Hambudvi)a, of which King Mount 0umeru headed their number. >rand were the adornments of the mountains. %ld and lu3uriant were the bushes and forests, and the branches and leaves were fully grown, so that they hid the sun. ;arious were the wonderful flowers which bloomed all around and were beautiful. The grand s)rings and streams were )ure, fragrant, and trans)arent. @evas, nagas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, rishis, charmers, actors, dancers and musicians filled the )lace. All these heavenly ones of the mountains and others came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, ste))ed back, and sat on one side. Also, there were )resent the gods of the four great seas and of the rivers, who were as numerous as the sands of asamkhyas of >anges and who all had great virtues and heavenly feet. Their offerings were twice as many as those who had )receded them. The lights that emanated from the bodies of these gods and those of the mask dancers so ecli)sed the light of the sun and the moon that they were hidden and could not be seen any more. Gam)aka flowers were strewn u)on the waters of /iver $iranyavati. They came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, ste))ed back, and sat down on one side. At this time, the forest of sal trees of Kusinagara changed colour and looked like white cranes. In the sky, a hall of seven treasures s)ontaneously a))eared. @etailed decorations were engraved ,u)on it-. There were balustrades all round, with gems studded into them. @own ,round- the buildings were streams and the bathing )laces of )onds, where wonderful lotuses floated. It looked as if one were in <ttarakuru, in the )leasance of Trayastrimsa $eaven. That is how things were in the sal forest, the adornments all lovely and wonderful. The devas, asuras and others all witnessed the scene of the Tathagata:s entering (irvana, and were sunk in sorrow, sad and woebegone.+

+Then the four guardian angels of the earth and 0akrodevendra said to one another* +0ee5 All devas, human beings, and asuras are making )re)arations and intend to make their final offerings to the Tathagata. "e, too, shall do the same. If we can make our final offerings, it will not be hard to be )erfect in dana)aramita ,)erfected giving-.+ At that time, the offerings of the four guardian angels of the earth were twice as many as those that had )receded them. They carried in their hands all such flowers as mandara, mahamandara, kakiruka, makakakiruka, manjusaka, mahamanjusaka, santanika, makasantanika, loving, greatly#loving, samantabhadra, mahasamantabhadra, time, great time, fragrant castle, greatly#fragrant castle, joy, great joy, desire#calling, great desire# calling, fragrant#into3icating, greatly#fragrant#into3icating, all#fragrant, greatly#all# fragrant, heavenly#golden leaves, naga)us)a, )aricitra, kovidara, and also, carrying wonderful dishes, they came to where the Buddha was and touched his feet with their heads. All the light of these devas outshone the light of the sun and moon, so that these could not be seen. "ith these utensils, they intended to make offerings to the Buddha. The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. Their wishes not granted, the devas were sad and worried, and they ste))ed back, and sat to one side. At that time, 0akrodevendra and the beings of Trayastrimsa $eaven carried u) the vessels of their offerings, which were twice as many as those that had )receded them. The flowers which they carried were e1ually as many. "onderful was the fragrance, very lovely to smell. They carried the victory hall, ;aijayanta ,)alace of 0akrodevendra-, and many small halls and came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "e greatly love and )rotect Mahayana. % Tathagata5 4lease acce)t our dishes.+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their dishes-. 0hakra ,Indra, chief of the godsand all the devas, their wishes not fulfilled, were sad. They ste))ed back and sat on one side. The offerings of those u) to the si3th heaven increased in si?e one after the other. There were bejewelled hanging#ensigns, banners, and )arasols. .ven the smallest of the bejewelled )arasols covered the four lands8 the smallest of the banners covered the four seas8 even the shortest of the hanging#ensigns reached Mahesvara:s heaven. 0oft bree?es blew and sweet sounds arose. Garrying u) the sweetest of dishes, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 4ray, % Tathagata5 have )ity and acce)t our last offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent, and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. Their wishes not answered, all the devas were sad. They ste))ed back, and sat to one side.+ :All the devas u) to the highest heaven were gathered there. At that time, >reat Brahma and other devas )ut forth light which shone over the four lands. To the men and devas of the world of desire, the lights of the sun and moon were all hidden. They had bejewelled hanging#ensigns, banners and )arasols of coloured silk. .ven the smallest banner which hung on Brahma:s )alace came down to where the sal trees stood. They came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 4ray, % Tathagata5 have )ity and acce)t our last offerings.+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. At this, the devas, their wishes unfulfilled, were sad. They ste))ed back and sat on one side. At that time, ;emacitra, the king of asuras, was )resent with innumerable great relatives. The light that shone ,here- was brighter than that of Brahma. $e had bejewelled hanging#ensigns, banners, and )arasols. .ven the smallest banner covered a thousand worlds. Garrying the sweetest dishes, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, and said to him* +4ray, % Tathagata5 have )ity and

acce)t our last offerings5+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. Their wishes were not answered, so all the asuras were sad. They ste))ed back and sat on one side. At that time, Mara)a)iyas ,the @evil- of the world of desire with all his kindred demons and domestic females, and with his innumerable )eo)le, o)ened the gates of hell, s)rinkled about )ure water, and said* +Jou now have nothing to do. %nly think of the Tathagata, the Alms#deserving, and the All#.nlightened %ne, take )art in joy, and offer your last offerings. Jou now shall have a long night of )eace.+ Then, Mara)a)iyas made away with all the big and small swords and the )oison and )ain of hell. $e had rain fall and e3tinguish the burning fire. Through the Buddha:s )ower, he gained this state of mind. $e made all his kindred demons throw away their big and small swords, bows, crossbows, armour, arms, halberds, shields, long hooks, metal hammers, a3es, war chariots, and lassoos. "hat offerings they had were twice as many as those of man and heaven. .ven the smallest of the )arasols covered the middle#thousand world. They came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, and said to him* +"e now love and )rotect Mahayana. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 Men and women in the world may, for the )ur)ose of making offerings, out of fear, for reasons of cheating others, for )rofit, and for following others, acce)t this Mahayana, whether all of it is true or not true. "e shall, then, in order to make away with the fear of such ones, enunciate the following dharani ,s)ell-* +Taki, tatarataki, rokarei, makarokarei, ara, shara, tara, shaka+.... "e chant this dharani, for the sake of those who have lost their courage, who may be entertaining fear, who )reach for others, who )ray that the @harma shall not die out, who desire to crush out the tirthikas ,deluded believers, non# Buddhists-, for )rotecting one:s own self, for )rotecting the "onderful @harma, and for )rotecting Mahayana. Armed with this dharani, one ,need- have no fear of a mad ele)hant, or when crossing wildernesses, marshy lands, or any )reci)itous )laces8 there can be no fear of water, fire, lions, tigers, wolves, robbers, or kings. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 Armed with such a dharani, none will have fear. "e shall )rotect the )erson who has such a dharani, and he will be like a tortoise who guards his si3 limbs inside his shell. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 "e do not say this just to flatter. In truth, we will make things such that one armed with such a dharani will augment his )ower. %nly we )ray, % Tathagata5 have )ity and acce)t our last offerings.+ Then, the Buddha said to Mara)a)iyas* +I do not acce)t your offerings8 I already have your dharani. This is to make all beings and the four classes of )eo)le of the 0angha rest in )eace.+ 0o saying, the Buddha fell into silence and did not acce)t Mara)a)iyas: offerings. Thrice Mara)a)iyas asked the Buddha to acce)t them, but the Buddha would not. At this, his wishes unanswered, Mara)a)iyas was sad, and ste))ed back, and sat on one side. At that time, there was )resent Mahesvararaja with his innumerable kindred and other devas. They carried in their vessels of offerings, which were far more than those of Brahma and Indra, and those of the guardian angels of the earth, men and devas, the eight beings, and non#humans. The )re)arations which 0akrodevendra had made looked like black against white as when the white of horse#shoe shell is taken u) for com)arison, and all glory disa))ears. .ven the smallest of the bejewelled )arasols covered the 2,!!! great#thousand worlds. Garrying such vessels of offerings, they came to where the Buddha was, touched his feet with their heads, walked around him innumerable times, and said to him* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "hat )altry things we now have with us may ,be- e1ual to offerings made us by mos1uitoes and sawflies, to a man throwing a scoo) of water into the great ocean, or to trying to assist with a small light that of &!! thousand suns, or trying, in s)ring and summer when there are so many flowers, with just a single flower to add to the glories of all the flowers, or to the

s)lendour of Mount 0umeru with just a )ick)ocket seed. $ow could there be any augmenting of the great ocean, of the brightness of the sun, of all the flowers, and of 0umeru9 % "orld#$onoured %ne5 "hat little we carry in ,to you- here may well be likened to this. "e could indeed offer you incense, flowers, mask dances, banners, and )arasols of the 2,!!! great#thousand worlds, but these are still not worthy of mention. "hy not9 Because you always undergo )ains in the unfortunate realms of hell, hungry )retas, and animals. Because of this, % "orld#$onoured %ne5 4lease have )ity and likewise acce)t our offerings.+ (ow, in the east, there is a Buddha#land, as many lands far out as the sands of uncountable, innumerable asamkhyas of >anges, one called .asy#in#Mind#and# Beautiful#in#0ound, and the Buddha ,there- is called .1ual#to#the#;oid, the Tathagata, Alms#deserving, the All#.nlightened %ne, the All#accom)lished %ne, the "ell#gone, the All#knower, the <nsur)assed %ne, the Best Trainer, the Teacher#of#$eaven#and# .arth, and the Buddha#"orld#$onoured#%ne. At that time, the Buddha s)oke to his foremost great disci)le* +>o now to the land in the west, called +:saha+: ,.ndurance # i.e. our world of hardshi)5- There is a Buddha in that land called Tathagata 0hakyamuni, who is the Alms#deserving, the All#.nlightened %ne, the All#accom)lished %ne, the "ell#gone, the All#knower, the <nsur)assed %ne, the Best Trainer, the Teacher#of# $eaven#and#.arth, and the Buddha#"orld#$onoured#%ne. $e will enter 4arinirvana before long. % good man5 Garry to him the fragrant dishes of this world, the ones fragrant and beautiful, which give )eace. %ffer this to him. $aving taken this, he will enter 4arinirvana. % good man5 Also, bow before the Buddha, )ut 1uestions to him, and do away with whatever doubt you have.+ Then, the Bodhisattva#mahasattva of boundless body, at that, stood u) from his seat, touched the Buddha:s feet with his head, walked around the Buddha three times, took with him innumerable asamkhyas of Bodhisattvas, left that country and came to this land of 0aha ,endurance-. At this, the 2,!!! great#thousand worlds shook in si3 ways, the hair of those congregated there # Brahma, Indra, the four guardian angels of the earth, Mara)a)iyas, and Mahesvara # at this great shaking of the great earth stood u) on end, and their throats and tongues dried u) in fear. They were so frightened that they shook and wanted to flee in all directions. As they looked at their own bodies, their light was lost, and gone was all their divine a))earance. Then, @harmaraja)utra Manjushri stood u) and s)oke to those congregated there* +>ood )eo)le5 @o not fear, do not be afraid5 "hy not9 To the east, as many as the sands of innumerable, uncountable asamkhyas of >anges away, there is a land called .asy#in#Mind#and#Beautiful#in#0ound. The Buddha:s name in that land is Tathagata#.1ual#to#the#;oid, the Alms#deserving, the All .nlightened %ne. $e )ossesses the ten e)ithets of the Buddha. There is a Bodhisattva there, of boundless body. Accom)anied by innumerable Bodhisattvas, he desires to come here and make offerings to the Tathagata. By the )ower of that Buddha, your body now does not shine out. 0o, gladden yourselves8 do not fear5+ Then, those congregated saw far off a great number of )eo)le from that Buddha whom they saw as though they were their own forms reflected in a mirror. Then, Manjushri said to those congregated there* +Jou now see the )eo)le of that Buddha just as you see the Buddha himself. By the Buddha:s )ower, you can clearly see all the innumerable Buddhas of the nine other Buddha countries.+ At that, the )eo)le congregated there said to one another* +%h, woe is the day, woe the day5 The world is em)ty. The Tathagata will before long enter 4arinirvana.+ +(ow, all the )eo)le saw the Bodhisattva of boundless body and his retinue. And they saw that from each )ore of the skin of this Bodhisattva there s)rung a great lotus, each

containing A castle towns. Grosswise and lengthwise, each castle was ;aisali Gastle. The castle walls and moats were studded with the seven treasures. There were bejewelled avenues of seven rows of tala trees. The )eo)le ,there- were active, )eaceful, rich, and it was comfortable to live in that land. .ach castle was of Hambunadasuvarna. .ach had in it the trees of the seven treasures. The growths were lu3uriant, and rich were the flowers and fruits. 0oft bree?es blew, emitting sweet sounds, as of heavenly music. The )eo)le of the castle, hearing these sounds, felt great )leasure. The moats were filled with wonderful water. It was )ure and fragrant and looked like true beryl. %n the water, boats of the seven treasures could be seen. 4eo)le were riding on these. They bathed and enjoyed themselves. Thus there was no end of )leasure. Also, there were lotuses of various colours, such as the ut)ala, kumuda, )adma and )undarika. These looked like great wheels seen crosswise and lengthwise. Above the moats were many gardens. In each were five )onds, in which there were again such flowers as the ut)ala, kumuda, )adma, and )undarika, which resembled great wheels, seen crosswise and lengthwise. They were fragrant and )leasing. The water was )ure and soft to the touch. %n this could be seen la)wings, wild geese, and mandarin ducks floating. >arden houses of gems were there, each of which was rightly s1uare crosswise and lengthwise, filling an area seven yojanas s1uare. All the walls were made of four treasures* gold, silver, beryl, and crystal. All around were windows, lattice#windows, and handrails of true gold. The ground was of turkistan dwarf and covered in golden sand. In this )alace were many streams, s)rings, and bathing )onds of the seven treasures. .ach side#wall had & ladder#ste)s of gold. The )lantain was the Hambunadasuvarna and resembled the )leasance of Trayastrimsa $eaven. .ach of these castles accommodated ! thousand kings and each king had with him innumerable consorts and female attendants. All were amusing themselves and were )leased and ha))y. The same a))lied to the )eo)le who were amusing themselves where they lived. The )eo)le ,there- heard no teachings other than unsur)assed Mahayana. %n each flower was a simhasana, each leg made of beryl. %n each seat was s)read a white soft silken cloth. The cloth was wonderful, unsur)assed in all the three worlds. %n each seat was sat a king, )reaching Mahayana to his )eo)le. 0ome were holding books in their hands, reciting, and )ractising the "ay. Thus Mahayana sutras became )u)ularised. The Bodhisattva of boundless body allowed innumerable )eo)le to walk thereabouts, )leased with themselves and abandoning worldly )leasures. All said* +"oe is the day, woe the day5 The world is em)ty. The Tathagata will soon enter 4arinirvana.+ Then, the Bodhisattva of boundlesss body, followed by innumerable Bodhisattvas and with wonderful divine )ower, carried out innumerable and various containers of offerings filled with wonderfully fragrant sweet dishes. %n encountering the fragrance of these meals, all the taints of illusion died out. Because of the Bodhisattva:s divine )ower, the )eo)le saw all such transformations. The si?e of this Bodhisattva of boundless body was limitless and like s)ace. .3ce)ting the Buddha, none indeed could see the bodily si?e of this Bodhisattva. The offerings of this Bodhisattva of boundless body were double those that had )receded them and they came to where the Buddha was. They touched the Buddha:s feet, folded their hands, )aid him homage, and said* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 4lease have )ity and acce)t our offerings.+ The Tathagata, aware of the occasion, was silent and did not acce)t ,their offerings-. Three times they asked, but he would not acce)t. 0o the Bodhisattva of boundless body and his retinue ste))ed back and sat on one side. The same was the case with the Bodhisattvas of boundless body of all the Buddha#lands to the south, west and north. They carried in offerings twice as many as those which had )receded them. They came to where the Buddha was, ste))ed back, and sat on one side. All )roceeded in this manner.

Then, there did not remain a s)ace left in the aus)icious ground of weal between the sal trees and within 2D yojanas s1uare which was not full of )eo)le. At that time, all the s)ace around the )ersons of the Bodhisattva of boundless body and his retinue who were gathered there from the four 1uarters looked ,merely- like the )oint#si?e of a mote, or awl or needle. All the great Bodhisattvas of all the innumerable Buddha lands of the ten directions were gathered together there. In addition, all the )eo)le of Hambudvi)a were assembled there, e3ce)t for the )air, Mahakasya)a and Ananda, and also Ajatasatru and his retinue, and the )oisonous ser)ents that harm )eo)le, the dung# beetles, haly#vi)ers, scor)ions, and the doers of evil of si3teen kinds. The danavats and asuras had all forsaken their evil designs and had become com)assionate#minded. 6ike fathers, mothers, older and younger sisters, all the )eo)le of the 2,!!! great#thousand worlds came together and s)oke to one another with the same com)assionate heart, e3ce)t for the icchantikas ,those most s)iritually alienated from @harma-. Then, by the )ower of the Buddha, the 2,!!! worlds became soft to the touch. There were ,no longer- any hills, sand, gravel, thistles or )oisonous )lants there, but all was ,instead- adorned with various treasures as in the case of the "estern 4aradise of )eace and ha))iness of Buddha Amitayus. At that time, all those congregated there saw the innumerable number of Buddha lands as though seeing their forms reflected in a mirror. The same was the case when they saw the lands of all the Buddhas. The light that issued from the TathKgataLs face was fivefold in colour, and it shone and covered the entire great congregation, so that it blotted out the light that came out of the body. $aving done this, it again turned back to the Buddha, back to him through his mouth. Then, the heavenly beings and all those congregated there, asuras and others, became greatly afraid, as they saw the Buddha:s light entering him through his mouth. Their hair stood on end. And they said* +The light of the TathKgata, having a))eared, goes back and enters ,him again-. This is not without reason. This indicates that the Buddha has done what he intended to do in the ten directions and now will enter (irvana as his last act. This must be what it means to indicate to us. "oe is the world, woe the world5 "hy is it that the "orld#$onoured %ne so forsakes the four limitless minds and does not acce)t the offerings of man and heaven9 The light of "isdom is now going out eternally. The unsur)assed boat of @harma is now sinking. Ah, the )ain5 "oe is the world5+ They held u) their hands, beat their breasts, and sorrowfully cried out and we)t. Their limbs shook, and they did not know how to su))ort themselves. Blood came from their bodies and ran over the ground.+ HAPT&R T",- ,N UNDA MAt that time there was )resent among the congregation an u)asaka who was the son of an artisan of this fortress town of Kusinagara. Gunda was his name. $e was there with his comrades, fifteen in number. In order that the world should generate good fruit, he abandoned all bodily adornments ,to indicate his res)ect and modesty-, stood u), bared his right shoulder, )laced his right knee on the ground and, folding his hands, looked u) at the Buddha. 0orrowfully and tearfully, he touched the Buddha:s feet with his head ,i.e. in sign of res)ect- and said* +% "orld#$onoured %ne and bhiksus5 4lease have )ity and acce)t our last offerings and succour innumerable beings. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 7rom now on, we have no master, no )arents, no salvation, no )rotection, no )lace wherein to take refuge, and no )lace to go. we shall be )oor and hunger#ridden. 7ollowing the Tathagata, we desire to gain food for the days to come. 4lease have )ity and acce)t our )etty offerings, and, then, enter (irvana. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 This is as in the case of a Kshatriya, Brahmin, ;aishya or 0udra, who, being )oor, goes to a

far#off country. $e works at farming and indeed gains a trained cow. The land is good, flat and s1uare. There is no )oor, sandy soil, no harmful weeds, no barrenness and no defilements ,there-. "hat is needful is awaiting the rain from heaven. "e say +trained cow+. This may be likened to the seven actions of the body and mouth, and the good field flat and s1uare to "isdom. @oing away with the )oor soil, harmful weeds, barrenness and defilements refers to Illusion, which we must do away with. % "orld# $onoured %ne5 I now have with me the trained cow and good soil, and I have tilled the land and done away with all the weeds. I am now only awaiting the Tathagata:s sweet rain of @harma to visit me. The four castes of )overty are none but the carnal body that I )ossess. I am )oor, as I do not )ossess the su)erb treasure of @harma. 4ray have )ity and cut away our )overty and hardshi)s and rid us innumerable beings of our sorrow and worries. "hat offerings I make are )altry. But what I may think is that they will satisfy the Tathagata and 0angha. I now have no master, no )arents, and no refuge. 4lease have )ity on us, as you have on /ahula ,the Buddha:s son-.+ Then the "orld#$onoured %ne, the All#Knowledge ,MsarvajnanaN-, the <nsur)assed Trainer, said to Gunda* +This is good, good indeed5 I shall now cut off the roots of your )overty and let fall on your field of carnal life the unsur)assed rain of @harma and call forth the bud of @harma. Jou now desire to have from me life, body, )ower, )eace, and unhindered s)eech. And I shall give to you undying life, body, )ower, )eace, and unhindered s)eech. "hy9 % Gunda5 In offerings of meals there are two fruits that know of no distinction. "hat are the two9 7irstly, one attains ManuttarasamyaksambodhiN ,unsur)assed, com)lete .nlightenment- when one receives it ,a meal#offering-8 secondly, one enters (irvana after receiving it. I will now receive your last offering and let you accom)lish dana)aramita ,)erfected giving-.+ At that, Gunda said to the Buddha* +Jou say that there is no difference between the results of these two offerings. But this is not so. "hy not9 Because in the former case of receiving dana ,a charitable gift-, illusion is not yet done away with ,in the reci)ientand he is not yet )erfect in all#knowledge. And he cannot yet cause beings to enjoy dana)aramita. As to the latter category of receiving dana, illusion has gone and he is accom)lished in all#knowledge and can let all beings be blessed e1ually with dana)aramita. The former man who receives offerings is still a common being, but the latter the heaven of heavens. %ne that receives dana in the former category is one with &C a body su))orted by various kinds of food, DC a body of illusion, 2C a body where there yet remains the result of illusion, and FC a non#eternal body. A )erson who receives dana in the second category has &C the body of no illusion, DC the adamantine body, 2C the @harma body FC the eternal body, and 'C the boundless body. $ow can one say that the results of the dana )erformed in the two categories are one and do not differ9 The )erson who receives dana in the former category is one not yet accom)lished in dana)aramita ,and other )aramitas- u) to )rajna)aramita ,)erfected "isdom-. $e only has the fleshly eye, but not the Buddha#eye, nor the eye of "isdom. The case of the )erson receiving dana in the latter category is that of one )erfect in dana)aramita u) to )rajna)aramita, and also in the fleshly eye u) to the eye of "isdom. $ow can we say that the results of the two danas are the same and that there is no difference9 % "orld#honoured %ne5 In the case of the former, one who receives dana takes meals which get into his abdomen and get digested, and he gains life, carnal body, )ower, ease, and unhindered s)eech. In the case of the latter, the )erson does not eat, digest, and there are no results of the five things. $ow can we say that the results of the two danas are one and the same and not different9+ The Buddha said* +% good man5 The Tathagata, already, since innumerable, boundless asamkhyas of kal)as ,aeons- ago, has had no body su))orted by food and illusion, and

he has no body where there yet remains the result of illusion. $e is the .ternal, the @harma Body, and the Adamantine Body. % good man5 %ne who has not yet seen MBuddhata M,Buddha#(ature, Buddha#.ssence, Buddha#ness- is called the illusion# body, the body su))orted by various kinds of food, and the body where there yet remains the result of illusion. The Bodhisattva, as he )artakes of the food ,offered to him just before .nlightenment- enters the adamantine samadhi ,dee)est meditative state-. "hen that food is digested, he sees MBuddhataN and attains unsur)assed Bodhi ,.nlightenment-. That is why I say that the results of the two danas are e1ual and that they are not different. The Bodhisattva, at that time, crushes the four Maras ,Illusion, skandhas, death, and the heavenly Mara-. (ow, entering (irvana, he crushes the four Maras. That is why I say that the results of the two danas are e1ual and that they are not different. The Bodhisattva, at that time, does not widely s)eak about the twelve ty)es of Buddhist sutras ,categorisation of the Buddhist scri)tures into &D ty)es-, but he is versed in these already. (ow, u)on entering (irvana, he s)eaks e3)ansively of them for beings: sake. That is why I say that the results of the two danas are e1ual and that they are not different. % good man5 The body of the Tathagata has not )artaken of food and drink for innumerable asamkhyas of kal)as )ast. But for all sravakas: ,+listeners+ to the Buddha:s teachings- sake, I say that I took the milk#cooked )orridge offered by (anda and (andabala, the two she)herd women, and that, thereafter, I attained unsur)assed Bodhi. But, in truth, I did not take it. (ow, for the sake of the )eo)le congregated here, I shall acce)t your offerings. But, in truth, I do not )artake of it.+ Then, hearing that the Buddha#"orld#$onoured %ne, for the sake of the )eo)le congregated there, would take Gunda:s last offerings, they were glad and overjoyed, and said in )raise* +$ow wonderful, how wonderful5 It is rare, % Gunda5 Jou now have a name8 your name is not for nothing. Gunda means +understanding wonderful significations+5 Jou have now established such great signification. Jou build u) what is true, you accord with the signification, and gain your name. That is why you are Gunda. Jou, now, in this life, will gain great name, )rofit, virtue, and vows. It is rare, % Gunda, to be born as a man and attain the unsur)assed )rofit which is the most difficult to achieve. It is good, % Gunda5 Jou are the udumbara ,)lant-, which is said to )ut out flowers only on very rare occasions. It is very rare that the Buddha a))ears in the world. It is also hard to meet with the Buddha, gain faith, and hear ,his- sermons. It is harder still to be able to make the final offerings to him at the time of his entering (irvana and well attain all this. "ell done, well done, % Gunda5 Jou are now )erfect in dana)aramita. This is as on the &'th of the autumnal month, when the moon is )ure and full, when there is not a s)eck of cloud in the heavens, and all beings look u) and ,utter)raise. The same is the case with you, whom we look u) to and )raise. The Buddha now takes your last offerings and makes you )erfect in dana)aramita. %h, well done, % Gunda5 "e say that you are like the full moon, which all )eo)le look u) to. "ell done, % Gunda5 Though a man, your mind is of the Buddha. % Gunda5 Jou truly are like the Buddha:s son, /ahula. There is no difference.+ Then those congregated there said in a gatha ,verses-* +Though born a man, you now stand above the si3th heaven. I and all others, therefore, )raise you and )ray. The holiest of men now enters (irvana. 4ity us and, with s)eed, Beseech the Buddha to stay a long time yet in life, To benefit innumerable beings, to im)art to them The unsur)assed manna of @harma that "isdom )raises. If you do not beseech the Buddha, our life will not be )erfect. Because of this, fall to the ground,

4ay homage to the Best Trainer.+ At this, Gunda was overjoyed5 It was as in the case of a man whose )arents have of a sudden )assed away and who suddenly come back again. That is how Gunda felt. $e stood u) again, bowed before the Buddha, and said in a gatha* +I am glad that I have gained my "ay8 it is good I have been born a man. I have done away with greed and anger8 I am )arted forever 7rom the three unfortunate realms. I am glad that I have gained benefit, And meet with the golden ball of treasure, That I now meet with the Trainer And that I do not fear, even if I gain life in the animal realm. The Buddha is an udumbara, so to s)eak, one hard to encounter, And it is hard to gain faith. $aving once encountered And )ractised the "ay, we do away "ith the sorrows of the hungry )retas. Also, he thoroughly crushes the asuras and others. "e could sooner balance a mustard seed on the )oint of a needle Than encounter the Buddha:s a))earance in the world. The Buddha is not tainted by worldly ways. $e is like a water lily in water. I am thoroughly cut off 7rom all the roots of the relative world And have crossed the waters of birth and death. It is hard to be born as a man8 harder still is it To encounter the Buddha when he a))ears in the world. It is as in the case of a blind turtle who, in the midst of the ocean, may chance to hit the hole In a )iece of floating wood. I now offer food And )ray that I will attain the unsur)assed reward, That I will destroy the bond of illusion, And that it will be strong no more. I do not seek here To gain a heavenly body. .ven having gained that, %ne:s mind is not so sweet. The Tathagata acce)ts This offering of mine. (othing could ever )lease me more. This is like the case of a bad#smelling weed "hich emits a sandalwood fragrance. I am that weed. The Tathagata acce)ts my offerings. This is like the fragrance that issues from the sandalwood. That is why I am glad. I now in this life Am blessed with the highest reward. 0hakra, Brahma and all the others come And make offerings to me. All worlds are >reatly worried as they now know That the Buddha will enter (irvana. They loudly say* +(ow there is no Trainer in the world8 @o not discard all beings8 view them as one views oneLs only son5+ The Tathagata, in the midst of the )riests, s)eaks of the su)erb @harma. This may well be com)ared to Mt. 0umeru, That sits unmolested amidst a great ocean. The Buddha#"isdom thoroughly dis)els the gloom of man. It is as when the sun rises, all the clouds dis)erse And light shines all over.

The Tathagata thoroughly does away with all illusions. This is like the coolness that reigns "hen clouds a))ear in the sky. All beings love you and wail. All are floundering on the bitter waters of birth and death. Because of this, )ray, % "orld#$onoured %ne5 0tay long in life and increase the faith of all beings, Gut off the suffering of birth and death5+ The Buddha said to Gunda* +It is thus, it is thus5 All is as you say. It is rare that the Buddha a))ears in the world. It is as in the case of the udumbara. It is, again, hard to meet with the Buddha and gain faith. To be )resent at the moment of the Buddha:s entering (irvana, to offer him food and thus accom)lish dana)aramita is as difficult. % Gunda5 @o not be sorry now. Be glad that you now give the final offerings to the Tathagata and accom)lish well dana)aramita. @o not ask the Buddha to remain long in life. Jou now should meditate on the world of all Buddhas. All is non#eternal. It is the same with all created things and their natures and characteristics.+ 7or the sake of Gunda, he said in a gatha* +In all the world, whatever is born must die. 6ife looks long, but by nature an end there must be. "hatever flourishes always wanes8 met, one must )art. The )rime of manhood is not long8 6u3uriance meets with illness. 6ife is swallowed by death8 nothing e3ists eternally. Kings are all unmolested8 none can com)ete. Jet all of them must )erish8 so is it with life. 0uffering knows no end8 unendingly the wheel turns and turns. (one of the three worlds ,of @esire, 7orm, and 7ormlessness- is eternal8 all that e3ists Is not ha))y. "hat e3ists has a nature and characteristics. And all is ;oid. "hat is destructible comes and goes8 A))rehensions and illnesses follow u)on ,one:s- ste)s. The fears of all the wrongs and evils done, Age, illness, death and decline cause worry. All these things do not e3ist forever. And they easily break u). /esentment attacks one8 All are lined with illusion, as in the case of the silkworm and the cocoon. (one who has wisdom finds joy in a )lace like this. This carnal body is where suffering forgathers. All is im)ure, like unto strains, carbuncles, boils, and other such. (o reason is at bottom. The same a))lies .ven to the heavenly ones who sit above. All desires do not last. 0o I do not cling. %ne casts off desires, meditates well, Attains the wonderful @harma, and one who definitely Guts off +is+ ,samsaric e3istence- can today gain (irvana. I )ass over to the other shore of +is+ And stand above all sorrows. Thus I harvest this su)erb Bliss.+ Then Gunda said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 It is so, it is so. All is as you, $oly %ne, say. "hat wisdom I )ossess is )altry and of low grade. I am like a mos1uito or sawfly. $ow can I contem)late the dee)est ground of the Tathagata:s

(irvana9 % "orld#$onoured %ne5 I am now like any great naga or ele)hant of a Bodhisattva#mahsattva who has cut off the bond of illusion. I am like @harmaraja)utra Manjushri. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 It is like one who enters the %rder at a young age. Though u)holding the )rece)ts, that )erson is still just of the class of ordinary monks. I, too, am one such. @ue to the )ower of the Buddha and the Bodhisattvas, I am now one of the number of such great Bodhisattvas. That is why I beseech the Tathagata to stay long in life and not enter (irvana. This is similar to a hunger#stricken man who has nothing more to )ut out. I only )ray that the same will be the case with the "orld# $onoured %ne and that he will stay long in life and not enter (irvana.+ Then @harmaraja)utra Manjushri said to Gunda* +% Gunda5 (ow, do not s)eak in this way and beseech the Tathagata to stay long in life and not to enter 4arinirvana, as in the case of one hungry who now has nothing more to )ut out. This cannot be. Jou should now see the nature and characteristics of all things. 0eeing things thus, you will gain the All#;oid samadhi. If you desire to attain "onderful @harma, act thus5+ Gunda asked* +% Manjushri5 The Tathagata is the $oliest %ne and the highest of all heavens and earth. Gould the Tathagata who is such be one who is made9 If he is one made, he cannot be other than samsaric e3istence. 7oam, for e3am)le, 1uickly rises u) and swiftly dies away8 the comings and goings ,of all things- are like the turning of a wheel. All that is made is like this. I hear that the devas have the longest life. The "orld#$onoured %ne is the heaven of heavens. $ow could he have a life so short as not to reach &!! years9 The headman of a village is unmolested ,unlimited, unconstrainedin )ower, through which he can su))ress )eo)le. But when virtue deserts him, he becomes )oor and mean. $e is looked down u)on and whi))ed and made to work for others. "hy9 Because his )ower is gone. The same is the case with the "orld# $onoured %ne. $e is like all things made. If he is the same as all things, he cannot be the heaven of heavens. "hy not9 Because all things are e3istences that must suffer birth and death. Therefore, % Manjushri5 @o not )ut the Tathagata on the same level as that of all things made. Also, ne3t, % Manjushri5 @o you know this ,for a fact- and s)eak thus9 %r is it that you do not know, and say that the Tathagata is on the same level as all things made9 If the Tathagata is on the same level as all things made, we cannot call him the heaven of heavens or the unmolested ,unlimited- @harma#King of the three worlds. 7or e3am)le, a king may be a man of great strength. $is )ower is e1ual to that of a thousand )ersons and none can beat him. 0o this )erson is called one )ossessing the )ower of a thousand )ersons. The king loves such a one. 0o, courtly rank is given him, along with a fief. 7iefs and rewards flow towards him bountifully. This )erson is called one whose )ower is e1ual to that of a thousand )ersons. $e is not 1uite e1ual to a thousand )ersons. But what he does is worth much. 0o we say that he is e1ual to a thousand )ersons. The same is the case with the Tathagata. $e subdues the Mara of illusion, the Mara of the five skandhas, the Mara of heaven, and the Mara of death. That is why we call him the most honoured one of the three worlds. This is as in the case of a man whose )ower e1uals that of a thousand )ersons. Thus he is accom)lished in various, innumerable true virtues. That is why we call him the Tathagata, the Alms# deserving and the All#.nlightened %ne. % Manjushri5 Jou should not )resume u)on, imagine, s)eak about what )ertains to the world of the Tathagata as being e1ual to that which is created. 7or e3am)le, a very rich man begets a son8 and the augur )redicts that this child will not live. The )arents hear this and know that the child will not be able to inherit the family estate, and they look on this child as though it were grass. (ow, a short#lived )erson is not made much of ,res)ected- by sramanas ,ascetics-, Brahmins, males, females, or )eo)le big or small. If the Tathagata is )laced on the same level as that which is created, he cannot be res)ected by all the world, man or heaven. "hat the

Tathagata s)eaks about is that which does not change and is not different. It is the true @harma. There is none who receives. $ence, % Manjushri5 @o not say that the Tathagata is the same as any created thing. +Also, ne3t, % Manjushri5 It is as in the case of a )oor woman who has no house to live in and nobody to take care of her. Added to this, she is very ill and hungry. 0o she roams about, begs for food, stays in another:s house, and gives birth to a child. The owner of the house drives her away. 0he holds this child and decides to go abroad. %n the way, she meets with a bad storm and rain8 cold )resses down u)on her. Mos1uitoes, gadflies, bees and )oisonous insects noisily attack her. 0he carries her child and means to cross the >anges. The water moves 1uickly, but she holds the child and does not let go her gri) on him. The mother and child both drown. This woman, because of her com)assionate deed, is born after her death in Brahma:s heaven. % Manjushri5 Any good man who desires to guard "onderful @harma should not say* +The Tathagata is like all things+or +he is not so.+ %ne should only re)roach one:s own self and think* +I am but ignorant8 I do not have the eye of "isdom.+ The Tathagata:s "onderful @harma cannot at all be conceived. Because of this, it is not fitting for us to say that the Tathagata is truly a thing definitely made, or a thing which is not made. "hat it is right to say is* +The Tathagata is definitely an <ncreate ,that which was not made-. Because ,of this- good arises for us beings and out of the com)assionate heart. This is as in the case of the )oor woman who, out of love for her child, sacrificed her own self. % good man5 "ith the Bodhisattva who guards @harma, it is thus. %ne might well sacrifice one:s own self, but one cannot say that the Tathagata is e1ual to the created. %ne must say that the Tathagata is an <ncreate. By saying that the Tathagata is an <ncreate, one gains unsur)assed .nlightenment. This is as in the case of the woman born in Brahma:s heaven. "hy9 Through )rotecting @harma. "hat do we mean by )rotecting @harma9 That is, saying that the Tathagata is an <ncreate. % good man5 0uch a one does not seek emanci)ation, yet it comes of itself. It is as in the case of the )oor woman who does not seek to be born in Brahma:s heaven, and yet Brahma res)onds. It is like this. % Manjushri5 A )erson may be going on a long journey. %n the way, he becomes very tired and )uts u) at another )erson:s house. "hile he is aslee), a great fire breaks out. At once he gets u) and thinks* +I shall now surely die.+ As he re)ents, he )uts on his clothing. $e dies and gets reborn in Trayastrimsa $eaven. Then, after ! lives, he becomes >reat Brahma. After &!! thousand lives, he gets reborn as a man and becomes a chakravartin ,world:s greatest monarch-. This )erson does not gain life in the three unfortunate realms. 6ife is re)eated, and he is born in )laces where )eace always reigns. This is how things go. Because of this, one )ossessing re)entance should, % Manjushri, meditate on the Buddha, but not regard him as the same as that which is created. % Manjushri5 The tirthikas and those of bent mind may say that the Tathagata is the same as the created. The bhiksu who u)holds the )rece)ts should not think that the Tathagata is a created e3istence. 0hould one say that the Tathagata is one created, this is nothing but a false statement. After death, such a )erson will fall into hell, as surely as one is in one:s own house. % Manjushri5 The Tathagata is truly an <ncreate. %ne must not say that he is a created being. Jou should henceforth in this life of birth and death abandon ignorance and take to right "isdom. Know well that the Tathagata is an <ncreate. %ne who meditates well on the Tathagata will be )erfect in the 2D signs of )erfection and will attain unsur)assed .nlightenment.+ Then @harmaraja)utra Manjushri )raised Gunda and said* +"ell s)oken, well s)oken, % good man5 Jou have already done what will beget you an endless life. Jou well know that the Tathagata is one eternal and unchanging, and is an <ncreate. Jou now well shield the Tathagata:s created#form e3istence. %ne who encounters fire covers his

body with clothing because of re)entance. This good mind gains him birth in Trayastrimsa $eaven. $e becomes Brahma and a chakravartin, and he does not get born into the unfortunate realms and thus will always enjoy )eace. That is how things will go with you. As you well shield the created form of the Tathagata, you will in the days to come gain the 2D signs of )erfection, the ! minor marks of e3cellence, and the & characteristics )eculiar solely to the Buddha. Jour life will become endless, with no more bonds of samsara. There will always be an eternal flow of )eace and ha))iness, and before long a day will come when you will awaken in the light of the Alms# deserving and the All#.nlightened %ne. % Gunda5 The Tathagata himself will s)eak more e3)ansively later on. And you and I shall shield the created body of the Tathagata. 0et aside, for the )resent, 1uestions of the created and the non#created. +Jou should, as you see )ro)er, 1uickly offer meals. To offer thus is the best of all offerings. The bhiksus, bhiksunis, u)asakas and u)asikas may have undergone a long journey8 they may be e3tremely tired. >ive the )urest things as re1uired. Thus s)eedily giving is the fundamental thing, to be )erfect in dana)aramita. % Gunda5 >ive the final offerings to the Buddha and 0angha, more or less, full or not full, 1uick as the occasion re1uires. The Tathagata will rightly be entering 4arinirvana+ Gunda said* +% Manjushri5 "hy is it that you so greedily care about the meal and make me give more or less, full or not full, in answer to the re1uirement of the occasion9 % Manjushri5 The Tathagata in the )ast )ractised )enance for si3 years and su))orted himself. "hy could he not now when it is just a matter of a moment9 % Manjushri5 @o you say that the Tathagata, the /ight#.nlightened %ne, truly means to acce)t this meal9 But I definitely know that the Tathagata is the @harma#Body and that he is no carnal body that )artakes of food.+ Then the Buddha said to Manjushri* +It is thus, it is thus. It is as Gunda says. "ell said, % Gunda5 Jou have already attained the delicate )oint of great "isdom and you now master the Mahayana sutras.+ Manjushri said to Gunda* +Jou say that the Tathagata is an <ncreate8 the Tathagata:s body is of long life. If this is said, the Tathagata will be )leased.+ Gunda answered* +The Tathagata is not )leased with me alone8 he is also )leased with all beings.+ Manjushri said* +The Tathagata will be )leased with you and with all of us beings.+ Gunda answered* +@o not say that the Tathagata is )leased. (ow, to get )leased is an inverted mind. An inverted mind is birth and death. Birth and death are of created e3istence. 0o, % Manjushri5 @o not say that the Tathagata is a created e3istence. If you say that the Tathagata is a created e3istence, I and you commit an inversion ,of truth-. % Manjushri5 The Tathagata has no thought of love ,attachment-. (ow, love is like the case of a milking cow which, loving her own child, feels hunger and thirst, goes and seeks water#grass, and whether satisfied or not, suddenly turns back. The All#Buddha#"orld#$onoured %ne does not have such a mind. $e sees all as e1ually as he sees /ahula. To think thus is what a))lies in the world of "isdom of the All#.nlightened %ne. % Manjushri5 7or e3am)le, a carriage drawn by a donkey cannot stand com)arison with one drawn by the four trained horses of a king. The case with me and you is also like this. It is im)ossible to fathom the minute and hidden de)ths of what is with the Tathagata, even if we try. % Manjushri5 The garuda flies innumerable yojanas in the sky. $e looks down on the great sea and sees such things of the water as fish, soft#shelled turtles, sna))ing turtles, crocodiles, tortoises, and nagas, and also his own shadow reflected in the water. $e sees all these just as one sees all visible forms in a mirror. The )etty wisdom of the common mortal cannot well weigh what comes to his eye. The same is the case with me and you too. "e cannot weigh the Tathagata:s "isdom.+ Manjushri said to Gunda* +It is thus, it is thus. It is as you say. It is not that I do not see this. I only meant to test you regarding what belongs to the world of a Bodhisattva.+

Then, the "orld#$onoured %ne shot forth from his moth a light of various colours. The light shone brightly on Manjushri:s body. 0hone u)on by this light, Manjushri fathomed this out. Then he said to Gunda* +The Tathagata now shows this wonderful scene. $e will enter (irvana before long. The last offerings that you carried in some time ago will best be offered to the Buddha and then given to all those who are congregated here. % Gunda5 Know that it is not without reason that the Tathagata lets shine this light of various colours.+ %n hearing this, Gunda was silent and sad. The Buddha said to Gunda* +It is now time for you to give offerings to the Buddha and congregation. The Tathagata will rightly enter 4arinirvana.+ $e then said this a second and a third time. Then, at these words of the Buddha, Gunda cried and wailed, sorrowfully sobbed and said* +"oe is the day, woe is the day5 The world is em)ty.+ Also, he said to the great assembly* +6et us all cast down our whole body to the ground and beseech the Buddha not to enter 4arinirvana.+ Then the Buddha said to Gunda* +@o not cry and unsettle your mind. Think that this body is like a )lantain, a mirage in the hot season, watery foam, a )hantom, a transformed body, the castle of a gandharva, an unfired brick, lightning, a )icture drawn on water, a )risoner facing death, ri)e fruit, a )iece of meat, the war) on a loom which is about to end, and the u)s and downs of a mortar. Jou should think that all created things are like )oisonous food and that anything made is )ossessed of all worries.+ At this, Gunda said again to the Buddha* +The Tathagata does not wish to stay long in life. $ow can we not wee)9 "oe is the world, woe is the world5 The world is em)ty. I only )ray that you Tathagata will )ity all us beings. 4lease stay long and do not enter (irvana.+ The Buddha said to Gunda* +@o not say such as +6ove us and stay long in life. +As I )ity you and all beings, I today enter (irvana. "hy9 This is what is true of all Buddhas. This is so with what is created. That is why all Buddhas say in a gatha* +The law of what is created Is by nature non#eternal. 6ife ended, we leave the world8 .3tinction is bliss.+ % Gunda5 (ow, meditate u)on all that is made, that is com)osite. Think that all things are not#0elf and are non#eternal, and that nothing endures. This carnal body has innumerable wrongs. All is like watery foam. 0o, do not wee).+ Then Gunda again said to the Buddha* +It is thus, it is thus5 All is as you kindly teach me. The Tathagata enters (irvana for e3)ediency:s sake. But I cannot hel) being sad. Be this as it may, I bethink me and feel glad.+ The Buddha )raised Gunda and said* +"ell said, well said5 Jou well know that the Tathagata, following the way of all beings, enters (irvana for e3)ediency:s sake. $ear me well5 It is as in the case in which sarasa ,eastern bean goose- birds all gather at 6ake Anavata)ta ,Manasarwar- in the s)ring months. The same is the case with all Buddhas. All gather here. % Gunda5 Think not long or short regarding the life of all Buddhas. All things are like )hantoms. The Tathagata lives in between. "hat he has is e3)ediency8 he does not cling. "hy not9 It is thus with the @harma of all Buddhas. % Gunda5 I now take what you offer. This is to allow you to cross the river of birth and death. Man or heaven who make offerings ,to Buddha- for the last time, all gain an unshakable recom)ense and will be blessed with ha))iness. "hy9 Because I am the best field of weal for all beings. If you desire to become a field of weal for all beings, take whatever is given you. @o not tarry long.+ Then Gunda, for the sake of the emanci)ation of all beings, hung his head and su))ressed his tears, and said to the Buddha* +;ery well, % "orld#$onoured %ne5 "hen I am worthy of becoming a field of weal, I shall be able to fathom the (irvana or non#(irvana of the Tathagata. (ow we and all sravakas and )ratyekabuddhas are like

mos1uitoes or sawflies, and cannot well weigh the (irvana or non#(irvana of the Tathagata.+ Then Gunda and his relatives all we)t sorrowfully and walked around the body of the Tathagata, burnt incense, strew flowers, and most sincerely )aid homage to the Buddha, and then stood u) together with Manjushri, and brought forward the utensils of offerings.+ HAPT&R THR&&- ,N #RI&F +(ot long after Gunda had left that )lace, the great earth shook in si3 ways. Thus went things in Brahma:s heaven. %f shaking, there are two kinds* one is a shaking and the other a great shaking. The little shaking is a ,mere- shaking and the one that shakes greatly is a great shaking. The one that generates a small sound is a shaking, and the one that generates a great sound is a great shaking. The shaking where only the earth shakes is a shaking, and that where the mountains, forests, rivers, seas and everything else shakes is a great shaking. That which shakes in one direction is a shaking, and that which shakes round and round is a great shaking. The ty)e that moves is a shaking, and the ty)e where beings: minds get shaken is a great shaking. The shaking which occurs when the Bodhisattva comes down from Tushita $eaven to Hambudvi)a is a great shaking. The shakings when the Bodhisattva takes birth on this earth, when he leaves home, attains unsur)assed .nlightenment, turns the wheel of @harma, and enters 4arinirvana are great shakings. Today the Tathagata was about to enter (irvana. That is why the earth shook. Then, all the heavens, nagas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, humans, and non#humans heard this and their hair stood on end and, in one voice, they cried out and wailed. They said in a gatha* +% Trainer of men5 "e now bow and beseech you5 "e are )arting from the /ishi of men. "e have no ho)e of being saved. "e now see you the Buddha enter (irvana And we are in the sea of suffering. "e are sad and worried, like a calf )arting from its mother cow. 4overty#stricken and with none to save us are we. "e are like one stricken with illness who, having no doctor, Must attend to himself and )artake of food not suitable for illness. Beings are caught in Illusion. They are always hindered by views of life. They are )arted from the healing @harma#King And they take drugs that are )oisonous. Because of this, the "orld#$onoured %ne Abandons us. This is as when, without a king, The )eo)le in the land get attacked by hunger. The same is the case with us. "e have no shade of any tree, no taste of @harma. (ow, hearing that the Buddha will enter (irvana, our mind sna)s, Hust as a great shaking destroys all )laces. The great /ishi enters (irvana and the sun %f the Buddha sinks down to the ground. The waters of @harma are all dried u).

It is certain that we will die. Beings are e3tremely worried as the Tathagata now enters 4arinirvana. This is like the son of a rich man who has just lost his )arents. The Tathagata enters (irvana, and if he is nevermore to return, "e and all beings shall have no one to )rotect us. As the Tathagata enters (irvana, the animals and all others are sad and in fear8 Their minds burn in worry. $ow should we not be worried today9 The Tathagata abandons us just as we cast off tears and s)ittle. 7or e3am)le, when the sun first shows itself, its light burns brightly. It turns round and shines by itself, removing all darkness. The divine light of the Tathagata well does away with our worries. $e is amidst us beings like a Mount 0umeru. +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 7or e3am)le, a king brings u) many sons. They look right and )ro)er, and he always loves them in his heart. $e first teaches them arts, which they all master. Then he gives them over to the hands of candalas. The same is the case here, % "orld#honoured %ne5 Today we have become the sons of the @harma#King. "e are taught and we abide in right view. "e beseech you not to abandon us. If discarded, we shall be like the sons of the king. 4lease stay long and do not enter (irvana. % "orld# $onoured %ne5 7or e3am)le, the same is the case with one versed in all )hases of learning. The same with the Tathagata. 6earned in all )hases of @harma, fear yet arises in all )henomena. If the Tathagata lives long in the world, bestowing on us the manna of @harma and satisfying us, all of us will have no fear of falling into hell. +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 There may be a man who first learns his work. $e is taken by government officials and is im)risoned. 4eo)le come and ask him* +$ow are you being treated9+ +(ow, I am in great sorrow and worried. If I were only out of )rison, I should feel easy and be at )eace.+ 0o it is. Is is thus with the "orld#$onoured %ne5 7or our sake, you underwent )enance. And yet we are not out of birth and death and worry. $ow could the Tathagata attain )eace9 +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 It is like a great doctor who is versed in )rescri)tion and medicine. $e teaches his son the secrets of medicinal )re)aration, but does not teach such to other students. It is thus with the Tathagata. Jou im)art all these secrets to Manjushri alone and e3clude us, without looking back. 4lease, % Tathagata5 @o not be stingy8 do not e3clude us from the secrets of @harma, as in the case of the great doctor who im)arts ,his knowledge- solely to his son and e3cludes other students. The reason why the doctor begrudges sharing his knowledge with the other students lies in the difference in his love. The heart of the Tathagata is always im)artial. "hy is it that you do not teach us9 4lease stay long and do not enter 4arinirvana. +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 It is like one who is old or young, ill or in )ain, and is not on a flat road, but is taking a stee) )ath and may suffer hardshi). A )erson sees this, has )ity and )oints out the way that is flat and good. The same with us, % "orld#$onoured %ne5 +Joung+ alludes to one not yet high in the stature of the @harma#Body. +%ld+ alludes to one greatly burdened with illusion. +Illness and )ain+refers to one who has not yet done away with birth and death. +0tee) )ath+ alludes to the D' e3istences ,the ty)es of e3istence into which we can transmigrate-. % Tathagata5 0how us the sweet right )ath. 4lease stay long and do not enter (irvana.+ Then, the "orld#$onoured %ne said to all the bhiksus* +% you bhiksus5 @o not, like all common mortals and devas, be sad8 do not wail5 Make effort, be mindful, and abide in right thought.+ Then, all the devas and asuras, having heard what the Buddha said, sto))ed wailing, like one who has lost a son and, after the funeral service, su))resses his sorrow and wails no more.

Then the "orld#$onoured %ne s)oke in a gatha for the entire congregation* +All of you5 %)en your mind, do not greatly distress yourselves. The teachings of all Buddhas are thus. 0o, kee) silence. Try not to be indolent, >uard your mind, abide in right thought, 0egregate your own selves from unlawful. HAPT&R F,UR- ,N .,N# .IF& MThe Buddha said to all the bhiksus* +If you have any doubt about the moral )rece)ts, you are free to ask 1uestions. I shall now e3)lain and fully satisfy you. I have already )ractised the "ay and clearly attained the true nature of the All#;oid of all things. % Bhiksus5 %nly the Tathagata has )ractised the true nature of the All#;oid of all things.+ $e also said to the bhiksus* +If you have any doubts, ask me, all of you5+ Then the bhiksus said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 "ith the wisdom that we have, we can )ut no 1uestions to the Tathagata, the Alms#deserving and All#.nlightened %ne. "hy not9 The world of the Tathagata cannot be known by us. All samadhis cannot be thought of. "hatever is said is not within the com)ass of our com)rehension. 0o, with what wisdom we have, there can be no )osing of 1uestions to the Tathagata. % "orld# $onoured %ne5 There is a man, for e3am)le, who is &D! years old. 0uffering from a long illness, he is in bed and cannot get u). $is vitality has gone, so that he cannot live long. There is a rich man there who is on his way to far#off )laces on business. $e gives this man a hundred )ounds of gold and says* +I intend to go on a journey and entrust this treasure to you. After &! or D! years, I shall come back, when my business is concluded. "hen I am home again, give this back to me.+ The sick old man receives it. And he has none to succeed him. After some time, the illness develo)s and he dies, and what was entrusted to him cannot be found. The )erson who entrusted the treasure to him comes back from his journey, looks around, but cannot find the man. %ne like this, being ignorant, cannot think and weigh the good and bad of entrusting a thing to the hands of another )erson. 0o, on coming back, he does not know where to look. Thus the treasure gets lost. % "orld#honoured %ne5 It is the same with us sravakas. "e hear the kind admonition of the Tathagata, but we cannot hold it long. It is as with the old man who is entrusted with treasure. "e are ignorant now and do not know what to ask regarding the )rece)ts.+ The Buddha said to the bhiksus* +If you 1uestion me now, it will benefit all beings. That is why I say that you should ask about any doubts you may have.+ Then, all the bhiksus said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 Imagine, for e3am)le* there is a man here of D', full of vitality and right and )ro)er. $e has many treasures, such as gold, silver, beryl, etc. $e has his )arents, wife, children, relatives, and all his family. Then a man comes and hands over a treasure to him, saying* +I have things to do and am about to go on a long journey. My business concluded, I shall be back. "hen I am back home, return this to me.+ After this, the young man guards the treasure well, as though it were his own. The ,young- man falls ill and says* +All this gold was entrusted to my care. "hen the man gets back home, give this to him. + %ne who is wise knows how to act and weigh things. $is business concluded, the man returns, and what he had entrusted ,to the other- is all safe, with nothing lost. The same with the "orld#$onoured %ne. If the treasure is entrusted to Ananda and the bhiksus, it cannot survive long. "hy not9 Because all sravakas and Mahakasya)a must )ass away and the situation will inevitably be like that of the old man who receives the entrusted goods of the other )erson. Because of this, all the unsur)assed Buddhist teachings must

be entrusted to the hands of all Bodhisattvas. They discuss well and the treasure will live long and flourish for infinite thousands of ages and benefit all beings enormously. This is like the case of the man in the )rime of his life who receives the entrusted goods of the other )erson. Because of this, all Bodhisattvas can well )ose 1uestions. "hat wealth we have may be likened to a mos1uito or sawfly. $ow can we 1uestion the Tathagata on the de)ths of the teaching9+ At this, all the sravakas sank into silence. Then, the Buddha, )raised all the bhiksus and said* +It is good, it is good that you have all attained the unleakable ,undefiled, asrava#free- mind of the arhat. I also thought of this once myself. Because of these two circumstances ,i.e. that the sravakas cannot and the Bodhisattvas can )ose 1uestions-, I entrust the Mahayana to all the Bodhisattvas and allow this "onderful @harma to live long+. Then the Buddha said to all the congregation* +% all good men and women5 Jou cannot calculate the length of my life. (o unhindered s)eech of a Bodhisattva can fully e3)ress this. Jou may, if you will, ask me about the )rece)ts or how to take refuge. Jou may do this a second or third time.+ At that time, among those congregated, there was a Bodhisattva#mahasattva of the stage of the boyhood abode ,ie. on the Ith of the &! Bodhisattva levels-. $e had been born into a Brahmin family in a hamlet called Tara. $is family name was Mahakasya)a. By the divine )ower of the Buddha, he rose from his seat, bared his right elbow ,shoulderand walked around the Buddha &!! thousand times, and )lacing his right knee on the ground and folding his hands, said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 I would now like to ask something of the Buddha. If you will allow me, I desire to s)eak.+ The Buddha said to Kasya)a* +The Tathagata, the Alms#deserving and All#.nlightened %ne allows you to say anything. I shall e3)ound for you, clarify your doubt, and gladden you.+ Then Bodhisattva Kasya)a again said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 The Tathagata, )itying me, gives me )ermission. I now shall ask. But the wisdom that I have is )etty, like that of a mos1uito or sawfly. Jou, Tathagata#"orld#$onoured %ne, are e3alted in )ersonal virtue and are surrounded by a retinue as fragrant as sandalwood and as difficult to subdue and as invincible as a lion. The Tathagata:s )erson is like a true diamond. Jou shine like beryl. All ,about you- is true and difficult to break and is surrounded by a great sea of "isdom. All the Bodhisattva#mahasattvas congregated here are )erfect in infinite and boundless de)ths of virtue. They are like gandhahastins. $ow can I )ut 1uestions before such a congregation9 %nly now, guarded by the Buddha:s divine )ower and by dint of the great dignity of moral virtue of the )eo)le congregated here, shall I )ut some 1uestions to you.+ $e s)oke in a gatha* +$ow do we gain long life, the Adamantine and Invincible body9 $ow do we gain great strength9 $ow by this sutra do we ultimately attain the other shore9 "e beseech you to o)en the undisclosed door and, 7or the sake of beings, teach us widely. $ow can we, for the sake of the masses, Become an e3)ansive refuge and, although not arhats, be e1ual to arhats9 $ow can we, for the sake of beings, 7oresee 4a)iyas: ,i.e. Mara, the @evil:s- disturbances9 $ow can one clearly distinguish Between what the Tathagata says and what the 4a)iyas says9 $ow does the All#Best#Trainer become )leased in heart And s)eak about M4aramartha#satyaN ,the Truth of the 0u)reme /eality-, Become full in right good, and s)eak about the four inversions9 $ow do you do good9 % >reat /ishi5 4lease tell us now. $ow do Bodhisattvas fathom the unfathomable nature9

$ow do they understand the significations of the full letter and the half letter ,i.e. the word as a com)osite, made from joining the 0anskrit al)habets and )ossessing meaning, and the al)habetical letters and )honetic symbols in the case of 0anskrit-9 $ow can we simultaneously )ractise two holy actions 0uch as the sarasa and karanda that go together9 $ow can one be like the sun and moon, 6ike the evening star and Hu)iter9 $ow can one, not yet as)iring, be called a Bodhisattva9 $ow can all beings gain fearlessness, 6ike Hambunada gold, in which no flaw can ever be detected9 $ow can one, though living in a defiled land, (ot be defiled like the lotus flower9 $ow do we live amidst illusions and (ot get tainted and not attacked by diseases, As in the case of a doctor who, curing all diseases, @oes not himself get stricken by disease9 $ow can one be a sea#ca)tain, 7oundering yet ,still- amidst the sea of birth and death9 $ow can one abandon birth and death, as the ser)ent does its old skin9 $ow can one meditate on the Three Treasures And be like the tree in the heavens that answers well one:s wishes9 $ow can one s)eak about the three ;ehicles ,of sravaka, )ratyekabuddha, and Bodhisattva- and the (atureless9 $ow can one talk of Bliss, being not yet blessed with Bliss9 $ow can all Bodhisattvas be indestructible ones9 $ow can one be the eyes and guide for a )erson born blind9 $ow can one gain a multifarious head ,mind rich in knowledge"e beseech you, % >reat /ishi5 4lease e3)lain ,this- to us5 $ow can you who turn the wheel of @harma .3)and like the moon at the beginning of the month9 $ow do you show yourself again and gain (irvana at the end9 $ow can you, the brave, ste) forward And show to man, heaven and Mara the "ay9 $ow does one know M@harmataN ,essence of /ealityAnd become blessed with @harma9 $ow do all Bodhisattvas make away with all illnesses9 $ow do they e3)ound to all beings the undisclosed teachings9 $ow do they e3)ound the <ltimate and the non#<ltimate9 If doubts ,can be- done away with, why not definitely e3)lain9 $ow can one attain the highest and unsur)assed "ay9 I now beseech the Tathagata, for the sake of the Bodhisattvas, To e3)ound the dee)est and most wonderful teachings. .verything has the nature of )eace and bliss. .3)ound in detail for us, )lease, % >reat /ishi "orld#$onoured %ne5 % >reat /efuge5 % Two#7ooted#$onoured %ne, The "onderful#%ne#of#All#Medicines5 I now desire to en1uire all about things, But I lack "isdom8 even all the Bodhisattvas "ho make utmost effort may not know 0uch de)ths as of the world of all Buddhas.+

Then, )raising Bodhisattva Kasya)a, the Buddha said* +"ell said, well said, % good man5 Jou have not yet arrived at All#Knowledge, but I am he who has attained it. Jou now ask about the dee)est de)ths of the undisclosed doctrine. (ow, % good man5 I, sitting under the Bodhi Tree, first attained right .nlightenment. At that time, in all Buddha#lands as numerous as the sands of countless asamkhyas of >anges, there were Bodhisattvas. They too asked of me the meaning of this dee)est doctrine. And what they said and the virtue thereof were thus, the same, not different. Asking thus, great benefits accrue to all beings.+ Then Bodhisattva Kasya)a said to the Buddha* +% "orld# $onoured %ne5 The )ower of my wisdom does not e3tend thus far as to )ut such dee) 1uestions to the Tathagata. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 This is like a mos1uito or sawfly that cannot fly over a great sea or fly round in the high heavens. The same with me. I have no )ower to ask the Tathagata about this great sea of "isdom or the meaning of the great de)ths of s)ace#like e3tension of M@harmataN. % "orld#$onoured %ne5 This is like a king who hands over to the hands of the officer in charge of treasures a bright gem that was housed in the knot of his hair, and the officer, on receiving it, increases the guard. The same is the case with me. $aving received the de)ths of the Tathagata:s Mahayana teaching, I shall guard it all the more carefully. "hy9 This is but to make me attain the great de)ths of "isdom.+ Then the Buddha said to Kasya)a* +% good man5 6isten clearly, listen clearly5 I shall now tell you the cause of the Tathagata:s longevity of life. The Bodhisattva, through this action, gains long life. 7or this reason, listen with your best attention. $aving listened, s)eak of it to others. % good man5 $aving thus )ractised, I attained unsur)assed Bodhi. I, for all beings: sake, now s)eak of this. % good man5 As an e3am)le* a )rince transgresses against state law and is chained u) in )rison. The king )ities him and, riding on a )alan1uin, goes himself to the )rison because he loves the )rince. The same with the Bodhisattva. If he desires to have a long life, he should guard and )rotect beings and view them as one would one:s only son, and abide in great loving#kindness, great com)assion, great joy, and great e1uanimity. Also, he should im)art the )rece)t of non#harming to them and teach them to )ractise all good things. Also, he must let all beings abide )eacefully in the five moral )rece)ts and the ten good deeds. 7urthermore, he will get into such realms as hell, hungry )reta, animal, and asura, and free all these beings from where they are suffering, emanci)ate those not yet emanci)ated, )ass over those who have not yet gained the other shore, give (irvana to those who have not yet attained it, and console all who live in fear. Acting thus, the Bodhisattva gains longevity of life and unmolested ,unlimited- freedom in knowing. And when the end comes, he gains life in the high heavens.+ Then Bodhisattva Kasya)a said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 Jou say that the Bodhisattva#mahasattva regards all beings just as one views one:s only son. The thought is too dee), and I cannot fathom it. % "orld# $onoured %ne5 Jou say that the Bodhisattva views beings with an all#e1ual mind and views them as he would look u)on his only son. But things are not so. "hy not9 Amongst the Buddhists, there are those who break the moral )rece)ts, those who commit deadly sins, and those who transgress against "onderful @harma. $ow can it be that he ,the Buddha- can have the same ,attitude of- mind towards them as towards his only son9+ The Buddha said to Kasya)a* +It is so, it is so5 I view all beings as I view my own /ahula.+ Bodhisattva Kasya)a said to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 %nce, on the &'th of the month, on the day of )osadha, among the congregated who were strict and )ure in the moral )rece)ts, there was a boy who did not 1uite seriously observe the three actions of body, mouth and mind. $e hid himself in a dark )lace and secretly listened to what was said. >uhya)ada, receiving the divine )ower of the Buddha, crushed this boy into

dust with a vajra ,shar)ened bar, a double#headed wea)on, or a diamond-. % "orld# $onoured %ne5 >uhya)ada acted so badly that the boy:s life was taken. $ow could you look u)on all beings as you do your own /ahula9+ The Buddha said to Kasya)a* +@o not s)eak thus5 This boy was none but a transformed ,illusory, )rojected- one, not a true one. This was but to re)ress breaking of the )rece)ts and transgression against Buddha# @harma, and to remould beings. .ven the vajra and also >uhya)ada were transformed e3istences. % Kasya)a5 There are in the world those who slander "onderful @harma, icchantikas, those who harm others, those who abide in twisted views, those who )ur)osely act contrary to the moral )rece)ts. I )ity all and have loving thought, just as one has towards one:s only son, as in the case of /ahula. % good man5 To illustrate* when the officers of the royal court break state law, the king )unishes according to the rules relating to the sins committed and does not leave the officers un)unished. The Tathagata does not act thus. $e makes those who violate the )rece)ts undergo such )rocedures as being driven out, re)rimanded, )ut under surveillance, im)eached or banished for non#confirming of the sins committed, for non#re)entance, and for non# forsaking of twisted views. The reason, % good man, why the Tathagata im)oses the su))ressive moral )rece)ts on those who slander @harma arises from the fact that he desires to show those who transgress that karmic conse1uences ensue for what one has done. % good man5 Know that the Tathagata desires to bestow on evil beings what need not be feared. $e emits one, two, or five beams, so that those who encounter this light will be rid of all evil acts. (ow, the Tathagata has so many uncountable means of such )ower. % good man5 If you desire to see @harma which cannot be seen, I will now e3)lain to you all about what you can see. "hen I have entered (irvana, a bhiksu who is )erfect in the de)ortment of a bhiksu and who observes "onderful @harma may come across one who transgresses. If this bhiksu drives away, re)roaches, im)eaches, or remoulds such an evil#doer, he will be blessed with weal which one cannot measure or tell of. % good man5 To illustrate* there is a tyrant king who does evil things and ha))ens to suffer very seriously from illness. The king of a neighbouring state, hearing of this, mobilises the army to overthrow the state. At this, the king, having no )ower to resist the attack, re)ents and tries to do good. And the weal of the king of this neighbouring state will be uncountable. The same with the )rece)t#observing, bhiksu. If he drives away or re)roaches those who act against @harma and makes them do good, an incalculable ,amount of- weal will be his. % good man5 As an illustration* in the fields and around the houses where a rich man dwells grow many )oisonous trees. 0eeing this, he fells all of them and there is no more of them. %r white hair a))ears on the head of a young man. $e feels ashamed of it, cuts it off and does not allow his hair to grow long. The same is the case with a )rece)t#u)holding bhiksu. If he sees any )erson who breaks the )rece)ts and transgresses against "onderful @harma, he should drive away, re)roach or im)each such a )erson. If a good bhiksu, seeing one who transgresses against @harma, does not drive away, re)roach or im)each such a )erson, know that this bhiksu is the enemy of the Buddhist teaching. If he drives away, re)roaches or im)eaches such a one, he is my disci)le, a true disci)le.+ Bodhisattva Kasya)a said again to the Buddha8 +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 Jou may say that you look u)on all beings e1ually and treat them as you would an only son such as /ahula. This is not so. % "orld#honoured %ne5 A )erson may try to harm you with a sword. %r there may be someone who tries to )aint the Buddha:s body with sandalwood )aste. If it is is the case that you view both )ersons with the same eye, how could you cure moral offences9 If it is the case that this cures moral offences, this does not make sense.+ The Buddha said to Kasya)a* +An illustration, % good man5 The king, minister and )rime minister may desire to bring u) their sons who are right#set in countenance

and shar) in intellect. %ne of those fathers takes one, two, three, four such sons and hands them over to a strict teacher and says to him* +4lease teach my sons de)ortment, good behaviour, the arts, writing and reckoning. These my four sons will study under your guidance. .ven if three of my sons die of goading, teach the last with whatever means you may think fit. I may lose the three, but I shall not be ve3ed.+ % Kasya)a5 Are the father and the teacher res)onsible for killing9+ +(o, % "orld#$onoured %ne5 "hy not9 Because a loving mind was at the bottom ,of their actions-. "hat there is ,here- is accom)lishment, but not an evil mind. 0uch teaching will be met with good, to a limitless e3tent.+ +% good man5 The same is the case with the Tathagata. $e views those who transgress @harma as he views his only son. The Tathagata now entrusts unsur)assed "onderful @harma to the hands of kings, ministers, )rime ministers, bhiksus, bhiksunis, u)asakas and u)asikas. All of these kings and the four classes of the Buddhist 0angha will encourage those who )ractise the Buddhist teaching and enable them increasingly to observe the moral )rece)ts, )ractise meditation and wisdom. If there are any who miscarry these three )hases ,as)ects- of @harma and if there are those who are indolent and who break the moral )rece)ts, the kings, ministers, and the four classes of the Buddhist 0angha will work hard and remould such )eo)le. % good man5 0hould all these kings and the four classes of the Buddhist 0angha be blamed or not9+ +(o, indeed, % "orld#$onoured %ne5+ +% good man5 These kings and the four classes of the Buddhist 0angha are not to be blamed. $ow could it be that the Tathagata is to be blamed9 % good man5 The Tathagata well observes such im)artiality, looking u)on all )eo)le as one would one:s only son. 0uch a one who )ractises the "ay is called one who )ractises the all#e1ual mind of a Bodhisattva and one who )ossesses a mind that loves an only son. % good man5 The Bodhisattva, )ractising thus, gains a long life and is now able to see what took )lace in the )ast.+ Bodhisattva Kasya)a said again to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 Jou say that a Bodhisattva, )ractising im)artiality, can well view beings just as one view one:s only son and that such a )erson gains a long life. But you should not say this. "hy not9 %ne who knows @harma indeed s)eaks well of filial duty. But back home, he beats his )arents with tiles and gravel, ,in defiance ofthe fact that one:s )arents are the best field of weal, where much weal comes about, such as is the most difficult of difficult to encounter. "here the )erson should be making offerings, he )erforms evil. There is a distinction between what this )erson knows and what he does. "hat the Tathagata says is also like this. The Bodhisattva )ractises im)artiality and views beings as an only son, and he gains a long life, can look into the )ast, and live eternally and there cannot be any change. (ow, why is it that the "orld# $onoured %ne is like a )erson with the shortest life in the world9 @oes not the Tathagata entertain hatred against all beings9 % "orld#$onoured %ne5 "hat evil acts did you )erform in the )ast9 $ow many evil acts did you commit, so as to gain the shortest life, which does not even e3tend to &!! years9+ The Buddha said to Kasya)a* +% good man5 <nder what circumstances do you bring across your li)s all such rough# hewn words against the Tathagata9 The life of the Tathagata is the longest and most su)erior of longest lives. $is eternal @harma is the unsur)assed of all eternal things.+ Bodhisattva Kasya)a said again to the Buddha* +% "orld#$onoured %ne5 $ow did you, the Tathagata, gain eternal life9+ The Buddha said to Bodhisattva Kasya)a* +% good man5 There are eight great rivers, which are &C >anges, DC Jamuna, 2C 0arabhu, FC Ajitavati, 'C Mahi, =C Indus, AC 4asu, and C 0ita. All these eight rivers and other small rivers drain into the great ocean. % Kasya)a5 All the great rivers of life of all )eo)le, heaven, earth and sky drain into the Tathagata:s sea of life. $ence, the length of life of the Tathagata is incalculable. Also, ne3t, % Kasya)a5 As an illustration* it is like the case of 6ake Anavata)ta, which carries forth four rivers. The same with the

Tathagata. $e carries forth all lives. % Kasya)a5 As an e3am)le* of all eternal things, that of s)ace is the foremost. The same is the case with the Tathagata. $e is the foremost of all eternal things. % Kasya)a5 This is as in the case of sar)irmanda ,most delicious and efficacious medicine-, the first of all medicines. The same is the case with the Tathagata. $e is the one )ossessed of the longest life.+ Bodhisattva Kasya)a said again to the Buddha* +If the life of the Tathagata is thus, you mast live for a kal)a or ,just- less than a kal)a and be delivering sermons in the way the great rain falls.+ +% Kasya)a5 @o not entertain the thought of e3tinction regarding the Tathagata. % Kasya)a5 There may be amongst the bhiksus, bhiksunis, u)asakas, u)asikas, or even among the tirthikas a )erson who )ossesses the five divine )owers or the unmolested ,unlimited- )ower of a rishi. $e may live a kal)a or less than a kal)a8 he may be able to fly through the air, and be unmolested ,unconstrained- whether he is reclining or sitting. $e emits fire from the left side of his body or water from his right side. $is body emits smoke and flames like a fire ball. If he desires to live long, he can do as he wills. $e can freely lengthen or shorten his life. "ith such divine )ower, he has such freedom of )ower. And how could this not be )ossible with the Tathagata, who )ossesses unmolested ,unlimited- )ower in all things9 $ow could it not be that he can live for half a kal)a, a kal)a, &!! kal)as, &!! thousand kal)as, or innumerable kal)as9 %n account of this, know that Mthe Tathagata is an eternal and unchanging e3istenceN. The Tathagata:s body is a transformed body and not one su))orted by various kinds of food. In order to )ass beings to the other shore, he manifests himself amidst )oisonous trees. $ence he manifests himself discarding his carnal body and entering (irvana. Know, % Kasya)a, that the Buddha is an eternal and unchanging e3istence. % all of you5 4ractise the "ay in this 4aramartha#satya ,Truth of the Transcendent /eality-, make effort, and )ractise the "ay with one mind8 having )ractised the "ay, e3)ound it widely to others.+