Sei sulla pagina 1di 3

Criminal Sociology

Criminal sociology - investigates the social causes of criminal behavior in an effort to ultimately end them.Criminal sociologist identify the sources outside of a person in society that influence and even as some theorists believe,compel criminal action.

Criminology Theories 1. Strain Theory - people has aspirations like wealth and education. There goals are blocked along the way. They resort to illegal activities what they can not achieved through legitimate means. People may reduce their aspirations or increase opportunities. 2. Learning Theories - follow the lead of Sutherland's theory of differential association. Criminals learn from their peers. 3. Control Theories - focuses on the relationship of a person to their parents, teachers, officers of the law and other agents of socialization. Effective bonding with such authority figure help keep people out of trouble from the law. 4. Labelling Theory - People who are branded as criminals will eventually criminal. 5. Conflict Theory - society is based on conflict between competing interests group. 6. Radical Theory - crime is seen as a reflection of class struggle. 7. Left Realism - people of the working class prey upon one another.Poor people victimize other poor people of their own race and kind. 8. Peacemaking Theory - making "war on crime" will not work. Making peace is the solution to crime. 9. Feminism - crime can not be understood without considering gender. Crime is shaped by the different social experiences and

power is exercise by men and women. Men may use crime to exert control over women and to demonstrate masculinity. 10.Critical Theory - Inequality in power and material well being create conditions that lead to street crime and corporate crime. Capitalism and its market economy are especially criminogenic because they create vast inequalities that impoverishes many and provides opportunities for exploitation for the powerful. 11.Social Disorganization - disorganized communities cause crime because informal social controls breakdown and criminal cultures emerge. They lack collective efficacy to fight crime and disorder. 12. Classical - crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs,when people pursue self interest in the absence of effective punishments. Crime is a free willed choice. 13. Positivist - Crime is caused or determined.Placed more emphasis on biological deficiencies, while later scholars would emphasize psychological and sociological factors.Use science to determine the factors associated with crime. 14. Individual Trait - criminals differ from non criminals on a number of biological and sociological traits.These traits cause crime in interaction with the social environment. 15. Differential Association - crime is learned through associations with criminal definitions.These definitions might be generally approving of criminal conduct or be neutralization that justify crime only under certain circumstances.Interacting with anti social peers is a major cause of crime.Criminal behavior will be repeated and become chronic if reinforced.When criminal subculture exist then many individuals can learn to commit crime in one location and crime rates, including violence may become very high. 16. Anomie - the gap between a persons goal or economic success and the opportunity to obtain this goal creates structural strain.Norms weakens and anomie ensues,thus creating high crime rates.When other social institutions such as family are

weak to begin with or also weakened by a persons goal, the economic institution is dominant.When such an institutional imbalance exists,then crime rates are very high. 17. Rational Choice - Building on classical theory,crime is seen as a choice that is influenced by its costs and benefits,that is, by its rationality.Crime will be more likely to be deterred if its costs are raised especially if the costs are certain and immediate. Information about the costs and benefits of crime can be obtained by direct experiences with punishment and punishment avoidance and indirectly by observing whether others who offend are punished or avoid punishment. 18. Routine Activities - crime occurs when their is an intersection in time and space of a motivated offender,an attractive target, and a lack of capable guardianship.Peoples daily routine activities affect the likelihood they will be an attractive target who encounters an offender in a situation where no effective guardianship is present.Change in activities in society can affect crime rates. 19. Developmental Life Course - crime causation is a developmental process that starts before birth and continues throughout the life course. Individual factors interact with social factors to determine the onset,length, and end of criminal careers.The key theoretical issues involve continuity and change in crime.Some theories predict continuity across the life course,others predict continuity for some offenders and change for other offenders, and some predict continuity and change for the same offender. 20. Integrated - these theories use components from other theories,usually strain,control, and social learning to create a new theory that explains crime.They are often are life course theories,arguing that causes of crime occur in a sequence across time.