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Homework 6 Solutions

Question 14.45 What is the dielectric constant of a dielectric material? What is the relationship among capacitance, dielectric constant, and the area and distance of separation between the plates of the capacitor? Answer 14.45 The dielectric constant represents the ratio of the capacitances achieved when a capacitor’s plates are separated by a dielectric as compared to a vacuum.

A capacitor’s capacitance, dielectric constant, plate area, and plate separation distance are

related as C = κε 0 A d

.

Question 14.46 What is the dielectric strength of a dielectric material? What units are used for dielectric strength? What is electric breakdown? Answer 14.46 The dielectric strength is the maximum electric field that a dielectric material can

maintain without experiencing an electrical breakdown. This type of breakdown, referred

to as a dielectric breakdown, causes the passage of current to occur. The units used to

measure dielectric strength are volts per mil in the U.S. Customary System and kilovolts per millimeter in the SI system.

Question 14.53 What is believed to be the mechanism for electrical conduction in Fe 3 O 4 ? Answer 14.53

In Fe 3 O 4 , the mechanism responsible for electrical conduction is believed to be the

random location of the Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions in the octahedral sites; the structure allows for electron transfer between the Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions while maintaining electrical neutrality of the compound.

Question 14.81 Calculate the intrinsic electrical conductivity of GaAs at 125°C. Answer 14.81

of the compound. Question 14.81 Calculate the intrinsic electrical conductivity of GaAs at 125°C. Answer 14.81

Question 14.87 A simple plate capacitor stores 6.5 × 10 -5 C at a potential of 12,000V. If the area of the plates is 3.0 × 10 -5 m 2 and the distance between the plates is 0.18 mm, what must be the dielectric constant of the material between the plates? Answer 14.87

constant of the material between the plates? Answer 14.87 Question 14.91 What change occurs in the

Question 14.91 What change occurs in the unit cell of BaTiO 3 when it is cooled below 120°C? What is this transformation temperature called? Answer 14.91 When BaTiO 3 is cooled to 120°C, the central Ti 4+ cation and the surrounding O 2- anions shift slightly in opposite directions and thereby create a small electric dipole moment. At the critical temperature of 120°C, the shifting is accompanied by a crystalline structural change from cubic to tetragonal. This transformation temperature is called Curie Temperature.

Question 6.9 Define (a) engineering stress and strain and (b) true stress and strain. (c) What are the U.S. customary and SI units for stress and strain? (d) Distinguish between tensile/compressive stress and shear stress. (e) Distinguish between tensile/compressive strain and shear strain. Answer 6.9

Question 6.15 (a) What are the principal slip planes and slip directions for FCC metals?

Question 6.15 (a) What are the principal slip planes and slip directions for FCC metals? (b) What are the principal slip planes and slip directions for BCC metals? (c) What are the principal slip planes and slip directions for HCP metals? Answer 6.15

slip planes and slip directions for HCP metals? Answer 6.15 Question 6.18 Describe the deformation twinning

Question 6.18 Describe the deformation twinning process that occurs in some metals when they are plastically deformed. Answer 6.18 In the deformation twinning process, a part of the atomic lattice is deformed such that it forms a mirror image of the adjacent undeformed lattice.

Question 6.46 & 6.48 See Wittig for answers. Credit given for completion.

Question 6.50 A 20 cm long rod with a diameter of 0.250 cm is loaded with a 5000 N weight. If the diameter decreases to 0.210 cm, determine (a) the engineering stress and strain at this load and (b) the true stress and strain at this load. Answer 6.50

Question 6.53 Answer 6.53

Question 6.53

Question 6.53 Answer 6.53

Answer 6.53

Question 10.60 What deformation mechanisms are involved during the elastic and plastic deformation of thermoplastics?

Question 10.60 What deformation mechanisms are involved during the elastic and plastic deformation of thermoplastics? Answer 10.60 During elastic deformation, the covalent bonds of the molecular chains stretch. Subsequently, the chains uncoil in a process that involves both elastic and plastic deformation. Finally, plastic deformation occurs, as secondary dipole bonds are broken, allowing the chains to slide relative to each other and establish new dipole bonding forces.

Question 11.86 What causes the lack of plasticity in crystalline ceramics? Answer 11.86 The lack of plasticity in crystalline ceramics is attributed to their ionic and covalent chemical bonds. In covalent crystals and covalently bonded ceramics, atoms bond through the exchange of electron charge between pairs of electrons, in a specific and directional manner. Consequently, if the ceramic is sufficiently stressed, electron-pair bonds undergo irreparable separation, causing material to experience brittle fracture.