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Chapter 26 27 Review Assessment Answer Key

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (C) (E) (B) (E) (E) (C) (D) (C) 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

(D) (B) (C) (D) (D) (D) (B) (D) (E) (A) (A) (A) (A) (E) (C) (E) (A) (B) (E)

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(D) (C) (C)

Solutions
1. C Awareness of this circumstance is key to understanding the move of the West toward the core of a new global economy in the period 1450 1750. E Multiple factors came into play for this most important non decision in world history. B Although both countries entered into a period of isolation, Japan maintained some contact with Western ways through trade with the Dutch. In the 1580s, Japan persecuted Christian missionaries while China gave them some acceptance (A). China retained two ports for foreigners, whereas Japan kept only the port of Nagasaki open to trade with the Dutch and the Chinese (C). Western philosophy was not embraced by either country, but there was interest in Western technology, particularly firearms in Japan and clocks in China (D). Both countries were more interested in regional than in long-distance trade (E) E All of the choices are specific contributing factors to the important power vacuum that existed circa 1450. E Inherent in mercantile philosophy was the need for colonies, a necessity that provoked international rivalries. Answer (A) is incorrect because the Ottoman Empire suffered from the inflationary trend in the Eastern Hemisphere caused by Spains acquisition of wealth from its colonies. Spains wealth caused a European depression rather than long-term prosperity (B). Mercantilism

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encouraged exports rather than imports (C) and government participation in economic matters rather than free trade (D). 6. C The Congolese King Afonsos appeals to the Portuguese for the cessation of the slave trade in his territory were rebuffed. Middle Eastern, South Asian, and particularly East Asian civilizations were in a strong position to dictate terms of trade with the West in the period 1450 1750. D Being the first to round the Cape of Good Hope and reach the Indian Ocean with the voyages of Vasco da Gama in 1495, the Portuguese followed up by seizing strategic positions at shipping choke points around the Indian Ocean basin thereafter. C Dutch control of spice production in Java was a huge accomplishment for the Dutch. D The shift from the Ming to the Qing is also important because the Ming were the last dynasty to effectively control interaction with the foreign world, particularly the West, and maintain terms advantageous to ruling Chinese elites. B Mongol expansion touched major civilization across the Eurasian landmass, and its collapse opened space for the emergence of new powers, particularly in the Muslim world. Additionally, new Russian and Chinese ruling dynasties emerged in the period following Mongol rule. C Safavid Persia had become Iran and is still the center of the Shia branch of Islam today D The original Islamic caliphates reached Spain while the Ottoman Empire did not. D Mughal art and architecture reflected Christian themes and Persian and Indian architectural structures. Under Akbar,

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cooperation between the Muslim and Hindus was encouraged (A). The Mughals controlled the northern and central portions of India (B). Their rule ended in the return of traditional regional government in India (C). Under the Mughal rulers, sati was forbidden and widows were encouraged to remarry (E). 14. D - Ottoman military forces invading Central Europe laid siege to Vienna (in present-day Austria) twice but failed both times to take the city. B Akbar made efforts to reduce the hostility of the Hindu majority of the subcontinent to Muslim rule. D Akbars rule is also known as a time when the status of women was rising. Special market days for women were declared as well, presumably so that women might speak, act, and conduct business freely without the presence of men. E Confucian influence has spread to Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia but never into the subcontinent. Western missionaries had been met with limited success by 1750 in some Indian coastal areas. A New World silver washed across the globe, upsetting regional economies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. A By 1750 each of the Muslim empires confronted a world situation where access to foreign trade involved well-armed Western intermediaries. A Muclim, Chinese, Japanese, West Africans political leasers in each region tended to ignore threats posed by rising Western power until it was too late and they had been forced into unfavorable trade relations.

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A The Ottoman decline was hastened because of Ottoman reluctance to embrace Western technology of the time period. Both the Ottomans and Mughals were gunpowder empires (B). The Ottomans gained control of Hungary and some parts of the Balkans (C), but was in decline by 1750 (D). The devshirme system enslaved the Janissaries (E). E Lack of clear succession rules have destabilized Muslim communities since the death of Muhammad. C The Safavid Empire made determined efforts to expel or convert Sunni and Sufi followers of Islam: the Spanish and Holy Roman Empires ruled territories racked by religious wars coming out of Protestant Reformation. The Ottoman Empire ruled Palestine, which has been a land of religious diversity since the classical era. The Mughal dynasty was a Muslim minority grafted onto a largely Hindu society in India. E Perhaps this choice is true for the Ottoman Empire, but not for the other two. A Isolation was shown by the 1433 withdrawal of the treasure ships. Following Mongol rule in the Yuan dynasty the Ming reinstated Confucian values, and demographic expansion was caused by availability of New World crops. B The voyages were too much of a break from tradition with too few tangible benefits for Confucian bureaucrats steeped in tradition to embrace. E Regional lords (daimyo) converted and led Christianized populations in warfare against each other and uprisings against the imperial center. Christianity had become a mobilizing factor in an ongoing situation of feudal conflict and was targeted as a threat to internal order by the Tokugawa Shogunate.

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D This situation symbolized Eastern control over Western influence, adding a touch of historical irony to its devastation in World War II C The Jesuit order was the leading force in spreading the Catholic Faith worldwide as a counteroffensive against the headway Protestant faiths were making in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. C The Philippines were claimed by Magellan for Spain in 1521 and were a key base in the Pacific routes between China and Mexico. Spain held onto the Philippines well after it lost its Latin American holdings in the nineteenth century.

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